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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774760/safety-of-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-copperhead-snakebite-patients
#1
Hoang X Pham, Michael E Mullins
INTRODUCTION: Current management guidelines for pit viper envenomations recommend against the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for pain control due to concern for platelet dysfunction and resulting coagulopathy. However, prior research suggests that copperhead snakes generally do not cause coagulopathy and they are responsible for most of the venomous snakebites in the USA. Thus, we compared the occurrences of clinically apparent bleeding and most abnormal laboratory values of coagulation between copperhead envenomation patients who received NSAIDs and those who did not...
May 18, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774650/outcomes-of-hyperglycemia-in-patients-with-and-without-diabetes-mellitus-hospitalized-for-infectious-diseases
#2
Amit Akirov, Talia Diker-Cohen, Hiba Masri-Iraqi, Hadar Duskin-Bitan, Ilan Shimon, Alexander Gorshtein
OBJECTIVE: Examine the prognostic implications of diabetes mellitus (DM) and the importance of glycemic control during hospitalization for infectious diseases. METHODS: Historical prospectively collected data of patients hospitalized between 2011-2013.Infection-related hospitalizations were classified according to site of infection. Median follow-up was 4.5 years. Outcome measures included in-hospital and end-of-follow-up mortality. RESULTS: The cohort included 8,051 patients (50% female, mean age ± SD, 68±20 years) with a primary diagnosis of an infectious disease...
May 17, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773743/genomic-insights-into-the-emergence-and-spread-of-antimicrobial-resistant-bacterial-pathogens
#3
REVIEW
Stephen Baker, Nicholas Thomson, François-Xavier Weill, Kathryn E Holt
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has been vital for revealing the rapid temporal and spatial evolution of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacterial pathogens. Some antimicrobial-resistant pathogens have outpaced us, with untreatable infections appearing in hospitals and the community. However, WGS has additionally provided us with enough knowledge to initiate countermeasures. Although we cannot stop bacterial adaptation, the predictability of many evolutionary processes in AMR bacteria offers us an opportunity to channel them using new control strategies...
May 18, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773638/draft-genome-sequence-of-new-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-sequence-type-1421
#4
Kelvin W C Leong, Louise A Cooley, Ronan F O'Toole
The spread of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) has become a challenge to health care infection control worldwide. In 2015, a marked increase in VREfm isolation was detected in acute public hospitals in Tasmania. We report here the draft whole-genome sequence of a newly designated VREfm sequence type, sequence type 1421 (ST1421).
May 17, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772262/an-international-survey-of-cleaning-and-disinfection-practices-in-the-healthcare-environment
#5
Nikki Kenters, Thomas Gottlieb, Joost Hopman, Shaheen Mehtar, Marin L Schweizer, Ermira Tartari, E G W Huijskens, Andreas Voss
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance has become an urgent global health priority. Basic hygiene practices and cleaning and disinfection of the hospital environment are key in preventing pathogen cross-transmission. AIM: To our knowledge no studies have assessed the worldwide differences in cleaning and disinfection practices in healthcare facilities. The electronic survey described here was developed in order to evaluate differences in healthcare facility cleaning practices around the world...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771787/point-of-care-cryptococcal-antigen-screening-pipetting-finger-prick-blood-improves-performance-of-immuno-mycologics-lateral-flow-assay
#6
Rachel M Wake, Joseph N Jarvis, Thomas S Harrison, Nelesh P Govender
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening at point of care could improve cryptococcal meningitis prevention where laboratory resources are limited. We evaluated the accuracy of Immuno-Mycologics (IMMY, Norman, OK) CrAg lateral flow assay (LFA) using different techniques at point of care. SETTING: Two tertiary-level hospitals in Johannesburg and a community health clinic in Soweto, South Africa. METHODS: A case-control diagnostic validation study, and a prospective clinic-based implementation study using the IMMY CrAg LFA on finger-prick blood...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771574/is-adding-maternal-vaccination-to-prevent-whooping-cough-cost-effective-in-australia
#7
Laure-Anne Van Bellinghen, Alex Dimitroff, Michael Haberl, Xiao Li, Andrew Manton, Karen Moeremans, Nadia Demarteau
Pertussis or whooping cough, a highly infectious respiratory infection, causes significant morbidity and mortality in infants. In adolescents and adults, pertussis presents with atypical symptoms often resulting in under-diagnosis and under-reporting, increasing the risk of transmission to more vulnerable groups. Maternal vaccination against pertussis protects mothers and newborns. This evaluation assessed the cost-effectiveness of adding maternal dTpa (reduced antigen diphtheria, Tetanus, acellular pertussis) vaccination to the 2016 nationally-funded pertussis program (DTPa [Diphtheria, Tetanus, acellular Pertussis] at 2, 4, 6, 18 months, 4 years and dTpa at 12-13 years) in Australia...
May 17, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771477/serious-infections-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-offspring-exposed-to-tumour-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-inhibitors-cohort-study
#8
Évelyne Vinet, Cristiano De Moura, Christian A Pineau, Michal Abrahamowicz, Jeffrey R Curtis, Sasha Bernatsky
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of serious infections in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) offspring exposed to tumour necrosis factor α inhibitors (TNFi) in the gestational period compared to unexposed RA offspring, as well as to children from the general population. METHODS: We used US claim data (2011-2015) to identify 2 989 RA offspring and a randomly selected group of 14 596 control children, matched ≥4:1 for maternal age, year of delivery, and state of residence...
May 17, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770431/outcome-in-lacunar-stroke-a-cohort-study
#9
V Mantero, C Scaccabarozzi, E Botto, G Giussani, A Aliprandi, A Lunghi, E Ciusani, G Brenna, A Salmaggi
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated a prospective cohort of 150 patients under observation in our centre for lacunar strokes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome at time of discharge and 6 months after lacunar stroke, as well as the correlation with cardiovascular risk factors and selected biochemical parameters already evaluated on admission. Focus was to identify possible prognostic factors, which might be targeted through appropriate intervention concentrating on reduction in the incidence and impact of early clinical deterioration...
May 16, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770082/first-reported-case-of-multidrug-resistant-candida-auris-in-canada
#10
I S Schwartz, G W Hammond
Candida auris is a fungal pathogen that has recently emerged as a global threat to public health. It was first described in Japan in 2009 and has since been reported in 17 countries on five continents. This case report describes the first reported case of multidrug-resistant C. auris in Canada. In May 2017, a 64-year-old individual was evaluated for chronic otitis externa. Past medical history included a recent hospitalization in India for elective oral surgery that was complicated by an odontogenic brain abscess...
July 6, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769275/-point-counterpoint-active-surveillance-for-carriers-of-toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-should-be-performed-to-guide-prevention-efforts
#11
L Clifford McDonald, Daniel J Diekema
In 2017, we published a point-counterpoint on laboratory diagnosis of C. difficile infection (CDI). At that time, Drs Ferric Fang, Christopher Polage, and Mark Wilcox discussed the strategies for diagnosing Clostridium difficile colitis in symptomatic patients. Since that manuscript new guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of American and the Society for Health Care Epidemiology have been published (1) and healthcare systems have begun to explore screening asymptomatic patients for C. difficile colonization...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769151/real-time-automated-detection-of-ventilator-associated-events-avoiding-missed-detections-misclassifications-and-false-detections-due-to-human-error
#12
Erica S Shenoy, Eric S Rosenthal, Yu-Ping Shao, Siddharth Biswal, Manohar Ghanta, Erin E Ryan, Dolores Suslak, Nancy Swanson, Valdery Moura Junior, David C Hooper, M Brandon Westover
OBJECTIVETo validate a system to detect ventilator associated events (VAEs) autonomously and in real time.DESIGNRetrospective review of ventilated patients using a secure informatics platform to identify VAEs (ie, automated surveillance) compared to surveillance by infection control (IC) staff (ie, manual surveillance), including development and validation cohorts.SETTINGThe Massachusetts General Hospital, a tertiary-care academic health center, during January-March 2015 (development cohort) and January-March 2016 (validation cohort)...
May 17, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769140/local-infiltration-anesthesia-versus-epidural-analgesia-for-postoperative-pain-control-in-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Chen Li, Ji Qu, Su Pan, Yang Qu
BACKGROUND: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of local infiltration anesthesia (LIA) versus epidural analgesia (EPA) for postoperative pain control in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: In December 2017, a systematic computer-based search was conducted in Pubmed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. RCTs of patients prepared for spine surgery that compared LIA versus EPA for postoperative pain control in TKA were retrieved...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768662/immersion-in-water-during-labour-and-birth
#14
REVIEW
Elizabeth R Cluett, Ethel Burns, Anna Cuthbert
BACKGROUND: Water immersion during labour and birth is increasingly popular and is becoming widely accepted across many countries, and particularly in midwifery-led care settings. However, there are concerns around neonatal water inhalation, increased requirement for admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), maternal and/or neonatal infection, and obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS). This is an update of a review last published in 2011. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of water immersion during labour and/or birth (first, second and third stage of labour) on women and their infants...
May 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768324/intravenous-glucocorticoid-for-pain-control-after-spinal-fusion-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#15
Feng Wang, Keqin Shi, Yu Jiang, Zhengjie Yang, Gang Chen, Kerong Song
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative pain was a common symptom after spinal surgery. This meta-analysis aimed to assess whether intravenous glucocorticoids has a beneficial role in reducing pain in patients following spinal fusion. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and Google databases, from inception to March 2, 2018. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that comparing intravenous glucocorticoids with control treatment for spinal fusion were included...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767683/large-outbreak-of-hepatitis-c-virus-associated-with-drug-diversion-by-a-healthcare-technician
#16
Sharon Alroy-Preis, Elizabeth R Daly, Christine Adamski, Jodie Dionne-Odom, Elizabeth A Talbot, Fengxiang Gao, Steffany J Cavallo, Katrina Hansen, Jennifer C Mahoney, Erin Metcalf, Carol Loring, Christine Bean, Jan Drobeniuc, Guo-Liang Xia, Saleem Kamili, José T Montero
Background: In May 2012, the New Hampshire (NH) Division of Public Health Services (DPHS) was notified of 4 persons with newly diagnosed hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection at hospital X. Initial investigation suggested a common link to the hospital cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) because the infected persons included 3 CCL patients and a CCL technician. NH DPHS initiated an investigation to determine the source and control the outbreak. Methods: NH DPHS conducted site visits, case patient and employee interviews, medical record and medication use review, and employee and patient HCV testing using enzyme immunoassay for anti-HCV, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for HCV RNA, nonstructural 5B (NS5B) and hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) sequencing, and quasispecies analysis...
May 14, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764876/integrated-versus-non-integrated-peripheral-intravenous-catheter-which-is-the-most-effective-system-for-peripheral-intravenous-catheter-management-the-optimum-study-a-randomised-controlled-trial-protocol
#17
Maria Isabel Castillo, Emily Larsen, Marie Cooke, Nicole M Marsh, Marianne C Wallis, Julie Finucane, Peter Brown, Gabor Mihala, Peter J Carr, Joshua Byrnes, Rachel Walker, Prudence Cable, Li Zhang, Candi Sear, Gavin Jackson, Anna Rowsome, Alison Ryan, Julie C Humphries, Susan Sivyer, Kathy Flanigan, Claire M Rickard
INTRODUCTION: Peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVCs) are frequently used in hospitals. However, PIVC complications are common, with failures leading to treatment delays, additional procedures, patient pain and discomfort, increased clinician workload and substantially increased healthcare costs. Recent evidence suggests integrated PIVC systems may be more effective than traditional non-integrated PIVC systems in reducing phlebitis, infiltration and costs and increasing functional dwell time...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764875/efficacy-and-safety-of-ghx02-in-the-treatment-of-acute-bronchitis-protocol-of-a-phase-ii-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#18
Yee Ran Lyu, Won-Kyung Yang, So Jung Park, Seung-Hyeong Kim, Wee-Chang Kang, In Chul Jung, Yang Chun Park
INTRODUCTION: Acute bronchitis is a self-limiting infection of the large airways; cough is the primary symptom, usually lasting for about 3 weeks. Annually, approximately 5% of adults develop acute bronchitis, and its economic burden is substantial. There are also problems of antibiotic abuse in public health systems and symptomatic therapies are commonly prescribed, for which there is insufficient supporting evidence. GHX02 contains four herbs originating from gwaruhaengryeon-hwan, which has been used in the treatment of patients with acute bronchitis in Korea...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764030/-neuroendoscopy-assisted-microneurosurgery-for-posterior-cranial-fossa-lesion
#19
J Li, D Zhong, D Lü, H Y Huang, W Du, J Yang, Y T Wu, H J Xia, W Y Tang, X C Sun
Objective: To study the value of neuroendoscopy assisted microneurosurgery technique in the treatment of posterior cranial fossa lesion. Methods: Clinical data of 36 patients with posterior fossa lesions who accepted neuroendoscopy assisted microneurosurgery (NEAM group) in the department of neurosurgery of the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, from January 2014 to December 2016, were retrospectively enrolled. A total of 113 cases diagnosed with the same lesions and accepted conventional microneurosurgery (non-NEAM group) in the same period were analyzed as control group...
May 8, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763434/ibuprofen-versus-pivmecillinam-for-uncomplicated-urinary-tract-infection-in-women-a-double-blind-randomized-non-inferiority-trial
#20
Ingvild Vik, Marianne Bollestad, Nils Grude, Anders Bærheim, Eivind Damsgaard, Thomas Neumark, Lars Bjerrum, Gloria Cordoba, Inge Christoffer Olsen, Morten Lindbæk
BACKGROUND: Although uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) are often self-limiting, most patients will be prescribed antibiotic treatment. We assessed whether treatment with ibuprofen was non-inferior to pivmecillinam in achieving symptomatic resolution by day 4, with a non-inferiority margin of 10%. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a randomized, controlled, double-blind non-inferiority trial. We recruited patients from 16 sites in a general practice setting in Norway, Sweden, and Denmark...
May 2018: PLoS Medicine
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