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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225541/perceived-barriers-to-adherence-to-tuberculosis-infection-control-measures-among-health-care-workers-in-the-dominican-republic
#1
Helena J Chapman, Bienvenido A Veras-Estévez, Jamie L Pomeranz, Eddy N Pérez-Then, Belkys Marcelino, Michael Lauzardo
INTRODUCTION Health care workers have an increased risk of infection due to occupational Mycobacterium tuberculosis exposure, including multidrug-resistant strains. Health care workers' risk of developing tuberculosis is greater than that of the general population, whether in low-, intermediate- or high-incidence countries. Adherence to infection control measures (administrative controls, environmental controls, and personal respiratory protection) is essential to reduce risk of disease transmission between suspected tuberculosis patients and health care workers, but for different reasons, both objective and subjective, adherence is low...
January 2017: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225343/infection-control-and-tuberculosis-in-health-care-workers-an-assessment-of-28-hospitals-in-south-africa
#2
L M O'Hara, A Yassi, E A Bryce, A Janse van Rensburg, M C Engelbrecht, M Zungu, L E Nophale, J M FitzGerald
SETTING: Twenty-eight public hospitals in the Free State Province, South Africa. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between tuberculosis (TB) infection control (IC) scores in Free State hospitals and the incidence of TB disease among health care workers (HCWs) in 2012. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey and mixed-methods analysis of TB IC policies, practices and infrastructure using a comprehensive, 83-item IC audit and observation tool. RESULTS: As the total IC score increased, the probability of TB in an HCW at that hospital decreased...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224191/predicting-the-post-operative-length-of-stay-for-the-orthopaedic-trauma-patient
#3
Deepak Chona, Nikita Lakomkin, Catherine Bulka, Idine Mousavi, Parth Kothari, Ashley C Dodd, Michelle S Shen, William T Obremskey, Manish K Sethi
PURPOSE: Length of stay (LOS) is a major driver of cost and quality of care. A bundled payment system makes it essential for orthopaedic surgeons to understand factors that increase a patient's LOS. Yet, minimal data regarding predictors of LOS currently exist. Using the ACS-NSQIP database, this is the first study to identify risk factors for increased LOS for orthopaedic trauma patients and create a personalized LOS calculator. METHODS: All orthopaedic trauma surgery between 2006 and 2013 were identified from the ACS-NSQIP database using CPT codes...
February 21, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224111/attributable-cost-of-a-nosocomial-infection-in-the-intensive-care-unit-a-prospective-cohort-study
#4
Binila Chacko, Kurien Thomas, Thambu David, Hema Paul, Lakshmanan Jeyaseelan, John Victor Peter
AIM: To study the impact of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) on cost and outcome from intensive care units (ICU) in India. METHODS: Adult patients (> 18 years) admitted over 1-year, to a 24-bed medical critical care unit in India, were enrolled prospectively. Treatment cost and outcome data were collected. This cost data was merged with HAI data collected prospectively by the Hospital Infection Control Committee. Only infections occurring during ICU stay were included...
February 4, 2017: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224108/implementation-of-enteral-feeding-protocol-in-an-intensive-care-unit-before-and-after-study
#5
Martin Padar, Gerli Uusvel, Liis Starkopf, Joel Starkopf, Annika Reintam Blaser
AIM: To determine the effects of implementing an enteral feeding protocol on the nutritional delivery and outcomes of intensive care patients. METHODS: An uncontrolled, observational before-and-after study was performed in a tertiary mixed medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU). In 2013, a nurse-driven enteral feeding protocol was developed and implemented in the ICU. Nutrition and outcome-related data from patients who were treated in the study unit from 2011-2012 (the Before group) and 2014-2015 (the After group) were obtained from a local electronic database, the national Population Registry and the hospital's Infection Control Service...
February 4, 2017: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224107/risk-factors-for-mortality-in-postoperative-peritonitis-in-critically-ill-patients
#6
Yoann Launey, Benjamin Duteurtre, Raphaëlle Larmet, Nicolas Nesseler, Audrey Tawa, Yannick Mallédant, Philippe Seguin
AIM: To identify the risk factors for mortality in intensive care patients with postoperative peritonitis (POP). METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis using a prospective database that includes all patients hospitalized in a surgical intensive care unit for POP from September 2006 to August 2011. The data collected included demographics, comorbidities, postoperative severity parameters, bacteriological findings, adequacy of antimicrobial therapy and surgical treatments...
February 4, 2017: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224100/early-infant-male-circumcision-systematic-review-risk-benefit-analysis-and-progress-in-policy
#7
Brian J Morris, Sean E Kennedy, Alex D Wodak, Adrian Mindel, David Golovsky, Leslie Schrieber, Eugenie R Lumbers, David J Handelsman, John B Ziegler
AIM: To determine whether recent evidence-based United States policies on male circumcision (MC) apply to comparable Anglophone countries, Australia and New Zealand. METHODS: Articles in 2005 through 2015 were retrieved from PubMed using the keyword "circumcision" together with 36 relevant subtopics. A further PubMed search was performed for articles published in 2016. Searches of the EMBASE and Cochrane databases did not yield additional citable articles. Articles were assessed for quality and those rated 2+ and above according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Grading System were studied further...
February 8, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221950/multistate-outbreak-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-infections-associated-with-consumption-of-fresh-spinach-united-states-2006
#8
Umid M Sharapov, Arthur M Wendel, Jeffrey P Davis, William E Keene, Jeffrey Farrar, Samir Sodha, Eija Hyytia-Trees, Molly Leeper, Peter Gerner-Smidt, Patricia M Griffin, Chris Braden
During September to October, 2006, state and local health departments and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated a large, multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections. Case patients were interviewed regarding specific foods consumed and other possible exposures. E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from human and food specimens were subtyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analyses (MLVA). Two hundred twenty-five cases (191 confirmed and 34 probable) were identified in 27 states; 116 (56%) case patients were hospitalized, 39 (19%) developed hemolytic uremic syndrome, and 5 (2%) died...
December 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221665/totally-percutaneous-versus-surgical-cut-down-femoral-artery-access-for-elective-bifurcated-abdominal-endovascular-aneurysm-repair
#9
REVIEW
Madelaine Gimzewska, Alexander Ir Jackson, Su Ern Yeoh, Mike Clarke
BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a vascular condition with significant risk attached, particularly if they rupture. It is, therefore, critical to identify and repair these as an elective procedure before they rupture and require emergency surgery. Repair has traditionally been an open surgical technique that required a large incision across the abdomen. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs (EVARs) are now a common alternative. In this procedure, the common femoral artery is exposed via a cut-down approach and a graft introduced to the aneurysm in this way...
February 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221185/antipyretic-therapy-in-critically-ill-septic-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Anne M Drewry, Enyo A Ablordeppey, Ellen T Murray, Carolyn R T Stoll, Sonya R Izadi, Catherine M Dalton, Angela C Hardi, Susan A Fowler, Brian M Fuller, Graham A Colditz
OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis aimed to examine the impact of antipyretic therapy on mortality in critically ill septic adults. DATA SOURCES: Literature searches were implemented in Ovid Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, and ClinicalTrials.gov through February 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Inclusion criteria were observational or randomized studies of septic patients, evaluation of antipyretic treatment, mortality reported, and English-language version available...
February 17, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220792/immunologic-treatment-failure-among-hiv-infected-adult-patients-in-jiangsu-province-china
#11
Tao Qiu, Ping Ding, Gengfeng Fu, Xiping Huan, Xiaoqin Xu, Zhi Zhang, Xiaoyan Liu, Haitao Yang, Jeff Mandel, Chongyi Wei, Willi McFarland, Hongjing Yan
The National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program was implemented in Jiangsu Province, China in 2005. We conducted a retrospective, open cohort study to determine treatment failure rates and associated risk factors. Data were obtained from the national web-based antiretroviral treatment database. WHO criteria were used to define immunologic treatment failure. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to determine treatment failure rates and Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to identify risk factors. A total of 5,083 (87...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220740/the-spectrum-and-outcome-of-surgical-sepsis-in-pietermaritzburg-south-africa
#12
S Green, V Y Kong, D L Clarke, B Sartorius, J Odendaal, J L Bruce, G L Laing, P Brysiewicz, W Bekker, E Harknett
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and the incidence appears to be increasing. In the resource-limited environment in low- and middle-income countries, the management of surgical sepsis (SS) continues to represent a significant portion of the workload for most general surgeons. OBJECTIVE: To describe the spectrum of SS seen at a busy emergency department, and categorise the outcomes. METHODS: The Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service (PMTS) and Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Surgical Service (PMSS) in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa (SA), maintain a prospective electronic registry...
January 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220735/sustained-reduction-in-antibiotic-consumption-in-a-south-african-public-sector-hospital-four-year-outcomes-from-the-groote-schuur-hospital-antibiotic-stewardship-program
#13
T H Boyles, V Naicker, N Rawoot, P J Raubenheimer, B Eick, M Mendelson
BACKGROUND: Overuse of antibiotics has driven global bacterial resistance to the extent that we have entered a post-antibiotic era, where infections that were once easily treatable are now becoming untreatable. Efforts to control consumption have focused on antibiotic stewardship programmes (ASPs), aimed at optimising use. OBJECTIVE: To report antibiotic consumption and cost over 4 years from a public hospital ASP in South Africa (SA). METHODS: A comprehensive ASP comprising online education, a dedicated antibiotic prescription chart and weekly dedicated ward rounds was introduced at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, in 2012...
January 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219462/the-use-of-a-computerized-provider-order-entry-alert-to-decrease-rates-of-clostridium-difficile-testing-in-young-pediatric-patients
#14
Maribeth R Nicholson, Peter N Freswick, M Cecilia Di Pentima, Li Wang, Kathryn M Edwards, Gregory J Wilson, Thomas R Talbot
BACKGROUND Infants and young children are frequently colonized with C. difficile but rarely have symptomatic disease. However, C. difficile testing remains prevalent in this age group. OBJECTIVE To design a computerized provider order entry (CPOE) alert to decrease testing for C. difficile in young children and infants. DESIGN An interventional age-targeted before-after trial with comparison group SETTING Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. PATIENTS All children seen in the inpatient or emergency room settings from July 2012 through July 2013 (pre-CPOE alert) and September 2013 through September 2014 (post-CPOE alert) INTERVENTION In August of 2013, we implemented a CPOE alert advising against testing in infants and young children based on the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations with an optional override...
February 21, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219190/-efficacy-and-safety-of-procalcitonin-guidance-in-reducing-the-duration-of-antibiotic-treatment-of-sepsis-patients
#15
X L Xu, F D Yan, J Q Yu, Q H Chen, H Lin, R Q Zheng
Objective: To assesse the efficacy and safety of procalcitonin-guided antibiotic treatment of sepsis patients in intensive care units (ICU). Methods: A prospective, randomised, controlled trial was gone in ICU of Northern Jiangsu People's Hospital.Between January 2013 and December 2015.One hundred and fifty-six patients assessed for eligibility were randomly assigned to the procalcitonin-guided group (PCT group, 79) or to regular antibiotic group (RAT group, 77). Patients who received antibiotics for presumed infection according to principle of antimicrobial usage...
February 7, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219141/-significance-of-bacteria-detection-with-filter-paper-method-on-diagnosis-of-diabetic-foot-wound-infection
#16
X H Zou, Y P Zhu, G Q Ren, G C Li, J Zhang, L J Zou, Z B Feng, B H Li
Objective: To evaluate the significance of bacteria detection with filter paper method on diagnosis of diabetic foot wound infection. Methods: Eighteen patients with diabetic foot ulcer conforming to the study criteria were hospitalized in Liyuan Hospital Affiliated to Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology from July 2014 to July 2015. Diabetic foot ulcer wounds were classified according to the University of Texas diabetic foot classification (hereinafter referred to as Texas grade) system, and general condition of patients with wounds in different Texas grade was compared...
February 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217115/comparison-between-flow-cytometry-and-traditional-culture-methods-for-efficacy-assessment-of-six-disinfectant-agents-against-nosocomial-bacterial-species
#17
Richard Massicotte, Akier A Mafu, Darakhshan Ahmad, Francis Deshaies, Gilbert Pichette, Pierre Belhumeur
The present study was undertaken to compare the use of flow cytometry (FCM) and traditional culture methods for efficacy assessment of six disinfectants used in Quebec hospitals including: two quaternary ammonium-based, two activated hydrogen peroxide-based, one phenol-based, and one sodium hypochlorite-based. Four nosocomial bacterial species, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci faecalis, were exposed to minimum lethal concentrations (MLCs) and sublethal concentrations (1/2 MLCs) of disinfectants under study...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216248/delayed-tuberculosis-diagnosis-and-costs-of-contact-investigations-for-hospital-exposure-new-york-city-2010-2014
#18
Ana M Kelly, John F D'Agostino, Lilibeth V Andrada, Jianfang Liu, Elaine Larson
BACKGROUND: A delayed diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in the hospital may lead to nosocomial exposure, placing employees and other patients at risk. A lack of prompt infection control measures for suspected cases at the time of admission may require complicated and expensive contact investigations. The purpose of this study was to estimate the person-hour costs required by infection control staff to investigate a single hospital-based TB exposure. METHODS: Electronic data were extracted from 2 tertiary hospitals and 1 community hospital in a large health care system in metropolitan New York City to identify pulmonary TB cases unsuspected at admission...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216179/the-17th-international-congress-on-infectious-diseases-workshop-on-developing-infection-prevention-and-control-resources-for-low-to-middle-income-countries
#19
Sangeeta Sastry, Nadia Masroor, Gonzalo Bearman, Rana Hajjeh, Alison Holmes, Ziad Memish, Britta Lassmann, Didier Pittet, Fiona Macnab, Rachel Kamau, Evelyn Wesangula, Paras Pokharel, Paul Brown, Frances Daily, Fatma Amer, Jaime Torres, Miguel O'Ryan, Revathi Gunturu, Andre Bulabula, Shaheen Mehtar
Hospital acquired infections (HAIs) are a major concern to healthcare systems around the world. They are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, in addition to increased hospitalization costs. Recent outbreaks including MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) coronavirus and Ebola have highlighted the importance of infection control. Further, HAIs especially with multi-drug resistant gram negative rods (MDRO-GNRs) have become a top global priority. Though adequate approaches and guidelines have been in existence for many years and have sometimes proven effective in some countries, the implementation of such approaches in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is often restricted due to limited resources and underdeveloped infrastructure...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216021/prevalence-antibiotic-susceptibility-and-characterization-of-antibiotic-resistant-genes-among-carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-and-yeast-in-intestinal-flora-of-cancer-patients-in-north-lebanon
#20
Rima Christophy, Marwan Osman, Hassan Mallat, Marcel Achkar, Azzam Ziedeh, Walid Moukaddem, Fouad Dabboussi, Monzer Hamze
The emergence and spread of carbapenem-resistant bacteria are a significant clinical and public health concern. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of intestinal carriage of carbapenem-resistant bacteria and yeasts in cancer patients under chemotherapy. 41 stool samples collected from cancer patients in Nini hospital in Tripoli, North Lebanon have been analyzed. After isolating yeasts and carbapenem-resistant bacteria, a biochemical identification and antimicrobial susceptibility profile were determined...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
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