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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384033/young-blood-plasma-administration-to-fight-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Giorgio Aicardi
Despite decades of intensive research, no drugs can cure or even stabilize Alzheimer's disease (AD). Current pharmacological treatments only partially mask the symptoms while the disease progresses within the brain. Finding a preventive measure or a cure for people with AD is indeed a worldwide urgent priority. A recent interesting study by T. Wyss-Coray's research group provides the first evidence that exposure to young blood or plasma can reverse some AD-related molecular and behavioral alterations. Heterochronic parabiosis (shared blood circulation) of AD transgenic mice with young healthy mice did not reduce amyloidosis and microglial activation in AD mice, but reversed the loss of synaptophysin and calbindin (critical synaptic proteins, indicators of cognitive decline in AD) in the dentate gyrus, and the abnormal expression, in the hippocampus, of many genes involved in key neuronal signaling pathways...
April 6, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259125/molecular-and-cellular-interactions-between-mother-and-fetus-pregnancy-as-a-rejuvenating-factor
#2
REVIEW
V A Popkov, D N Silachev, S S Jankauskas, L D Zorova, I B Pevzner, V A Babenko, E Y Plotnikov, D B Zorov
Aging is associated with a decline of various body functions, including ability to regenerate. Over recent decades, it has been demonstrated that some of these changes could be reversed in response to factors originating from a young organism, for example, fetal stem cells or "young blood" in models of heterochronic parabiosis. Pregnancy might be considered as parabiotic model of the interaction between two organisms of different age. In this work, we analyzed and summarized data on the effects of pregnancy on the maternal organism that confirm the hypothesis that pregnancy rejuvenates the mother's organism or slows its aging...
December 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196601/cholinergic-signals-from-the-cns-regulate-g-csf-mediated-hsc-mobilization-from-bone-marrow-via-a-glucocorticoid-signaling-relay
#3
Halley Pierce, Dachuan Zhang, Claire Magnon, Daniel Lucas, John R Christin, Matthew Huggins, Gary J Schwartz, Paul S Frenette
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are mobilized from niches in the bone marrow (BM) to the blood circulation by the cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) through complex mechanisms. Among these, signals from the sympathetic nervous system regulate HSC egress via its niche, but how the brain communicates with the BM remains largely unknown. Here we show that muscarinic receptor type-1 (Chrm1) signaling in the hypothalamus promotes G-CSF-elicited HSC mobilization via hormonal priming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
February 4, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191756/aberrant-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-activation-recruits-mesenchymal-stem-cells-during-prostatic-hyperplasia
#4
Long Wang, Liang Xie, Francis Tintani, Hui Xie, Changjun Li, Zhuang Cui, Mei Wan, Xiongbing Zu, Lin Qi, Xu Cao
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the overgrowth of prostate tissues with high prevalence in older men. BPH pathogenesis is not completely understood, but it is believed to be a result of de novo overgrowth of prostatic stroma. In this study, we show that aberrant activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) mobilizes mesenchymal/stromal stem cells (MSCs) in circulating blood, which are recruited for the prostatic stromal hyperplasia. Elevated levels of active TGF-β were observed in both a phenylephrine-induced prostatic hyperplasia mouse model and human BPH tissues...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035684/homeostatic-migration-and-distribution-of-innate-immune-cells-in-primary-and-secondary-lymphoid-organs-with-ageing
#5
REVIEW
J Nikolich-Žugich, J S Davies
Ageing of the innate and adaptive immune system, collectively termed immune senescence, is a complex process. One method to understand the components of ageing involves dissociating the effects of ageing on the cells of the immune system, on the microenvironment in lymphoid organs and tissues where immune cells reside and on the circulating factors that interact with both immune cells and their microenvironment. Heterochronic parabiosis, a surgical union of two organisms of disparate ages, is ideal for this type of study, as it has the power to dissociate the age of the cell and the age of the microenvironment into which the cell resides or is migrating...
March 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986908/a20-ameliorates-intracerebral-hemorrhage-induced-inflammatory-injury-by-regulating-traf6-polyubiquitination
#6
Zhaoyou Meng, Ting Zhao, Kai Zhou, Qi Zhong, Yanchun Wang, Xiaoyi Xiong, Faxiang Wang, Yuanrui Yang, Wenyao Zhu, Juan Liu, Maofan Liao, Lirong Wu, Chunmei Duan, Jie Li, Qiuwen Gong, Liang Liu, Ao Xiong, Meihua Yang, Jian Wang, Qingwu Yang
Reducing excessive inflammation is beneficial for the recovery from intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Here, the roles and mechanisms of A20 (TNFAIP3), an important endogenous anti-inflammatory factor, are examined in ICH. A20 expression in the PBMCs of ICH patients and an ICH mouse model was detected, and the correlation between A20 expression and neurologic deficits was analyzed. A20 expression was increased in PBMCs and was negatively related to the modified Rankin Scale score. A20 expression was also increased in mouse perihematomal tissues...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921031/amniotic-epithelial-cells-a-new-tool-to-combat-aging-and-age-related-diseases
#7
Clara Di Germanio, Michel Bernier, Rafael de Cabo, Barbara Barboni
The number of elderly people is growing at an unprecedented rate and this increase of the aging population is expected to have a direct impact on the incidence of age-related diseases and healthcare-associated costs. Thus, it is imperative that new tools are developed to fight and slow age-related diseases. Regenerative medicine is a promising strategy for the maintenance of health and function late in life; however, stem cell-based therapies face several challenges including rejection and tumor transformation...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874859/a-single-heterochronic-blood-exchange-reveals-rapid-inhibition-of-multiple-tissues-by-old-blood
#8
Justin Rebo, Melod Mehdipour, Ranveer Gathwala, Keith Causey, Yan Liu, Michael J Conboy, Irina M Conboy
Heterochronic parabiosis rejuvenates the performance of old tissue stem cells at some expense to the young, but whether this is through shared circulation or shared organs is unclear. Here we show that heterochronic blood exchange between young and old mice without sharing other organs, affects tissues within a few days, and leads to different outcomes than heterochronic parabiosis. Investigating muscle, liver and brain hippocampus, in the presence or absence of muscle injury, we find that, in many cases, the inhibitory effects of old blood are more pronounced than the benefits of young, and that peripheral tissue injury compounds the negative effects...
November 22, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670791/the-contributions-of-lung-macrophage-and-monocyte-heterogeneity-to-influenza-pathogenesis
#9
REVIEW
Mubing Duan, Margaret L Hibbs, Weisan Chen
The lung myeloid cell microenvironment comprises airway, alveolar and interstitial macrophages, peripheral blood recruited lung monocytes as well as residential and migratory dendritic cell subsets. Findings from fate mapping, parabiosis, transcriptome and epigenome profiling studies now indicate that tissue macrophage and monocyte subsets possess specialized functions which differentially impact homoeostatic tolerance, pathogen detection and pathogen killing. In the lungs, residential alveolar macrophages are catabolic and immunosuppressive in contrast to the classically pro-inflammatory repertoire of lung monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells recruited during acute inflammation...
March 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604218/aberrant-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-activation-recruits-mesenchymal-stem-cells-during-prostatic-hyperplasia
#10
Long Wang, Liang Xie, Francis Tintani, Hui Xie, Changjun Li, Zhuang Cui, Mei Wan, Xiongbing Zu, Lin Qi, Xu Cao
: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the overgrowth of prostate tissues with high prevalence in older men. BPH pathogenesis is not completely understood, but it is believed to be a result of de novo overgrowth of prostatic stroma. In this study, we show that aberrant activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) mobilizes mesenchymal/stromal stem cells (MSCs) in circulating blood, which are recruited for the prostatic stromal hyperplasia. Elevated levels of active TGF-β were observed in both a phenylephrine-induced prostatic hyperplasia mouse model and human BPH tissues...
September 7, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598869/preclinical-assessment-of-young-blood-plasma-for-alzheimer-disease
#11
Jinte Middeldorp, Benoit Lehallier, Saul A Villeda, Suzanne S M Miedema, Emily Evans, Eva Czirr, Hui Zhang, Jian Luo, Trisha Stan, Kira I Mosher, Eliezer Masliah, Tony Wyss-Coray
Importance: Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology starts long before clinical symptoms manifest, and there is no therapy to treat, delay, or prevent the disease. A shared blood circulation between 2 mice (aka parabiosis) or repeated injections of young blood plasma (plasma from 2- to 3-month-old mice) into old mice has revealed benefits of young plasma on synaptic function and behavior. However, to our knowledge, the potential benefit of young blood has not been tested in preclinical models of neurodegeneration or AD...
November 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576776/toll-like-receptor-4-myd88-mediated-signaling-of-hepcidin-expression-causing-brain-iron-accumulation-oxidative-injury-and-cognitive-impairment-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#12
Xiao-Yi Xiong, Liang Liu, Fa-Xiang Wang, Yuan-Rui Yang, Jun-Wei Hao, Peng-Fei Wang, Qi Zhong, Kai Zhou, Ao Xiong, Wen-Yao Zhu, Ting Zhao, Zhao-You Meng, Yan-Chun Wang, Qiu-Wen Gong, Mao-Fan Liao, Jian Wang, Qing-Wu Yang
BACKGROUND: Disturbance of brain iron metabolism after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) results in oxidative brain injury and cognition impairment. Hepcidin plays an important role in regulating iron metabolism, and we have reported that serum hepcidin is positively correlated with poor outcomes in patients with ICH. However, the roles of hepcidin in brain iron metabolism after ICH remain largely unknown. METHODS: Parabiosis and ICH models combined with in vivo and in vitro experiments were used to investigate the roles of hepcidin in brain iron metabolism after ICH...
October 4, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526034/the-vitamin-d-receptor-regulates-tissue-resident-macrophage-response-to-injury
#13
Lige Song, Garyfallia Papaioannou, Hengguang Zhao, Hilary F Luderer, Christine Miller, Claudia Dall'Osso, Rosalynn M Nazarian, Amy J Wagers, Marie B Demay
Ligand-dependent actions of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) play a pleiotropic role in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. The liganded VDR is required for recruitment of macrophages during the inflammatory phase of cutaneous wound healing. Although the number of macrophages in the granulation tissue 2 days after wounding is markedly reduced in VDR knockout (KO) compared with wild-type mice, VDR ablation does not alter macrophage polarization. Parabiosis studies demonstrate that circulatory chimerism with wild-type mice is unable to rescue the macrophage defect in the wounds of VDR KO mice and reveal that wound macrophages are of local origin, regardless of VDR status...
October 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479876/regulatory-t-cells-and-skeletal-muscle-regeneration
#14
REVIEW
Stefano Schiaffino, Marcelo G Pereira, Stefano Ciciliot, Patrizia Rovere-Querini
Skeletal muscle regeneration results from the activation and differentiation of myogenic stem cells, called satellite cells, located beneath the basal lamina of the muscle fibers. Inflammatory and immune cells have a crucial role in the regeneration process. Acute muscle injury causes an immediate transient wave of neutrophils followed by a more persistent infiltration of M1 (proinflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory/proregenerative) macrophages. New studies show that injured muscle is also infiltrated by a specialized population of regulatory T (Treg) cells, which control both the inflammatory response, by promoting the M1-to-M2 switch, and the activation of satellite cells...
February 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451012/impaired-regeneration-in-aged-nerves-clearing-out-the-old-to-make-way-for-the-new
#15
Jami Scheib, Ahmet Höke
Although many observational studies have shown that peripheral nerve regeneration is impaired with aging, underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms have remained obscure until recently. A series of recent genetic, live imaging and heterochronic parabiosis experiments are providing new insights into the underlying mechanisms of reduced regenerative capacity with aging. These studies show that Schwann cells in the aged animal pose a primary impediment to axon regeneration in older animals as they fail to support regenerating axons, while the contribution from macrophages remains an unresolved issue...
July 20, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441205/determining-leukocyte-origins-using-parabiosis-in-the-pymt-breast-tumor-model
#16
Ruth A Franklin, Ming O Li
Tumors develop in a complex microenvironment alongside numerous cell types that impact their survival. Immune cells make up a large proportion of these accessory cells and many are known to promote tumor progression. Macrophages, in particular, are associated with poor patient prognosis and are therefore potential candidates for therapeutic targeting in cancer. However, to develop successful strategies to target macrophages, it is important to clarify whether these cells are derived from blood-borne precursors or a tissue-resident population...
August 20, 2015: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27364522/in-vivo-assessment-of-behavioral-recovery-and-circulatory-exchange-in-the-peritoneal-parabiosis-model
#17
Joseph M Castellano, Mikael Palner, Shi-Bin Li, G Mark Freeman, Andy Nguyen, Bin Shen, Trisha Stan, Kira I Mosher, Frederick T Chin, Luis de Lecea, Jian Luo, Tony Wyss-Coray
The sharing of circulation between two animals using a surgical procedure known as parabiosis has created a wealth of information towards our understanding of physiology, most recently in the neuroscience arena. The systemic milieu is a complex reservoir of tissues, immune cells, and circulating molecules that is surprisingly not well understood in terms of its communication across organ systems. While the model has been used to probe complex physiological questions for many years, critical parameters of recovery and exchange kinetics remain incompletely characterized, limiting the ability to design experiments and interpret results for complex questions...
July 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27341538/generation-of-parabiotic-zebrafish-embryos-by-surgical-fusion-of-developing-blastulae
#18
Elliott J Hagedorn, Jennifer L Cillis, Caitlyn R Curley, Taylor C Patch, Brian Li, Bradley W Blaser, Raquel Riquelme, Leonard I Zon, Dhvanit I Shah
Surgical parabiosis of two animals of different genetic backgrounds creates a unique scenario to study cell-intrinsic versus cell-extrinsic roles for candidate genes of interest, migratory behaviors of cells, and secreted signals in distinct genetic settings. Because parabiotic animals share a common circulation, any blood or blood-borne factor from one animal will be exchanged with its partner and vice versa. Thus, cells and molecular factors derived from one genetic background can be studied in the context of a second genetic background...
June 11, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27298756/serum-levels-of-growth-differentiation-factor-11-are-independently-associated-with-low-hemoglobin-values-in-hemodialysis-patients
#19
Sho-Ichi Yamagishi, Takanori Matsui, Yuka Kurokawa, Kei Fukami
Circulating levels of growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) have been shown to decrease with age in several mammalian species, and supplementation of GDF11 by heterochronic parabiosis or systemic administration reverses age-related organ damage. However, there is some controversy about the pathophysiological role of GDF11 in aging-associated organ damage. Since aging process is accelerated in uremia, we compared serum levels of GDF11 in hemodialysis (HD) patients with those in age-matched healthy controls, and then determined the independent clinical correlates of GDF11 in HD subjects...
2016: BioResearch Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27135602/origin-fate-and-dynamics-of-macrophages-at-central-nervous-system-interfaces
#20
Tobias Goldmann, Peter Wieghofer, Marta Joana Costa Jordão, Fabiola Prutek, Nora Hagemeyer, Kathrin Frenzel, Lukas Amann, Ori Staszewski, Katrin Kierdorf, Martin Krueger, Giuseppe Locatelli, Hannah Hochgerner, Robert Zeiser, Slava Epelman, Frederic Geissmann, Josef Priller, Fabio M V Rossi, Ingo Bechmann, Martin Kerschensteiner, Sten Linnarsson, Steffen Jung, Marco Prinz
Perivascular, subdural meningeal and choroid plexus macrophages are non-parenchymal macrophages that mediate immune responses at brain boundaries. Although the origin of parenchymal microglia has recently been elucidated, much less is known about the precursors, the underlying transcriptional program and the dynamics of the other macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS). It was assumed that they have a high turnover from blood-borne monocytes. However, using parabiosis and fate-mapping approaches in mice, we found that CNS macrophages arose from hematopoietic precursors during embryonic development and established stable populations, with the notable exception of choroid plexus macrophages, which had dual origins and a shorter life span...
July 2016: Nature Immunology
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