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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722305/young-blood-products-emerging-treatment-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Rita Khoury, Elias Ghossoub
Alzheimer's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and no disease-modifying treatment is currently available. Research has shown that while brain neurogenesis continues in adult life, it declines with age. Using parabiosis, plasma transfusions and direct administration of neural growth factors, animal studies have demonstrated the positive impact of exposure to young blood products on neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity in an aging brain. The hippocampus and the sub-ventricular zones were identified as the main regions affected...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720573/parabiosis-and-single-cell-rna-sequencing-reveal-a-limited-contribution-of-monocytes-to-myofibroblasts-in-kidney-fibrosis
#2
Rafael Kramann, Flavia Machado, Haojia Wu, Tetsuro Kusaba, Konrad Hoeft, Rebekka K Schneider, Benjamin D Humphreys
Fibrosis is the common final pathway of virtually all chronic injury to the kidney. While it is well accepted that myofibroblasts are the scar-producing cells in the kidney, their cellular origin is still hotly debated. The relative contribution of proximal tubular epithelium and circulating cells, including mesenchymal stem cells, macrophages, and fibrocytes, to the myofibroblast pool remains highly controversial. Using inducible genetic fate tracing of proximal tubular epithelium, we confirm that the proximal tubule does not contribute to the myofibroblast pool...
May 3, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694646/impairment-of-chondrocyte-proliferation-after-exposure-of-young-murine-cartilage-to-an-aged-systemic-environment-in-a-heterochronic-parabiosis-model
#3
Lu Li, Xiaochun Wei, Xiang Geng, Zhiqing Duan, Xiaohu Wang, Pengcui Li, Chunfang Wang, Lei Wei
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate whether an aged systemic environment could impair young cartilage tissue in mice. METHODS: Mice differing in age were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 was the experimental group (Y/O group) consisting of the heterochronic parabiosis model (2-month-old/12-month-old, young/old). Group 2 was the surgical control group (Y/Y group) with the isochronic parabiosis model (2-month-old/2-month-old, young/young). Group 3 consisted of the ageing control mice (2-month-old alone, Y group)...
April 25, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679380/a-non-myeloablative-chimeric-mouse-model-accurately-defines-microglia-and-macrophage-contribution-in-glioma
#4
Kenny Yu, A Saam Youshani, Fiona L Wilkinson, Claire O'Leary, Peter Cook, Liisi Laaniste, Aiyin Liao, Dominic Mosses, Christopher Waugh, Hannah Shorrock, Omar Pathmanaban, Andrew Macdonald, Ian Kamaly-Asl, Federico Roncaroli, Brian W Bigger
AIMS: Resident and peripherally-derived glioma associated microglia/macrophages (GAMM) play a key role in driving tumour progression, angiogenesis, invasion, and attenuating host immune responses. Differentiating these cells' origins is challenging and current pre-clinical models such as irradiation-based adoptive transfer, parabiosis and transgenic mice have limitations. We aimed to develop a novel non-myeloablative transplantation (NMT) mouse model that permits high levels of peripheral chimerism without blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage or brain infiltration prior to tumour implantation...
April 20, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593463/young-blood-rejuvenates-old-bodies-a-call-for-reflection-when-moving-from-mice-to-men
#5
Bjørn Hofmann
Connecting the circulatory system of old and young mice (parabiosis) is documented to have rejuvenating effects on cells, tissues, organs, and functions. A wide range of benefits are envisioned. Blood-based rejuvenation can come to totally change population health and aging. The first blood rejuvenation studies on humans with Alzheimer's disease have started. It puts blood at the center of therapy and revitalizes the historical line of humoral pathology from Hippocrates and Harvey, creating a new type of 'bloodletting...
January 2018: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553500/a-mouse-model-of-orthopedic-surgery-to-study-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-and-tissue-regeneration
#6
Chao Xiong, Zhiquan Zhang, Gurpreet S Baht, Niccolo Terrando
Surgery is commonly used to improve and maintain quality of life. Unfortunately, in vulnerable patients such as the elderly, complications may occur and significantly diminish the outcome. Indeed, after routine orthopedic surgery to repair a fracture, as many as 50% of elderly patients suffer from neurologic complications like delirium. Also, the capacity to heal and regenerate tissue after surgery decreases with age, and can impact the quality of fracture repair and even osseous integration of implants. Thus, a better understanding of mechanisms that drive these age-dependent changes could provide strategic targets to minimize risk for such complications and optimize outcomes...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535294/addendum-application-of-bio-orthogonal-proteome-labeling-to-cell-transplantation-and-heterochronic-parabiosis
#7
Yan Liu, Michael J Conboy, Melod Mehdipour, Yutong Liu, Thanhtra P Tran, Aaron Blotnick, Prasanna Rajan, Thalie Cavalcante Santos, Irina M Conboy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474906/a-hematogenous-route-for-medulloblastoma-leptomeningeal-metastases
#8
Livia Garzia, Noriyuki Kijima, A Sorana Morrissy, Pasqualino De Antonellis, Ana Guerreiro-Stucklin, Borja L Holgado, Xiaochong Wu, Xin Wang, Michael Parsons, Kory Zayne, Alex Manno, Claudia Kuzan-Fischer, Carolina Nor, Laura K Donovan, Jessica Liu, Lei Qin, Alexandra Garancher, Kun-Wei Liu, Sheila Mansouri, Betty Luu, Yuan Yao Thompson, Vijay Ramaswamy, John Peacock, Hamza Farooq, Patryk Skowron, David J H Shih, Angela Li, Sherine Ensan, Clinton S Robbins, Myron Cybulsky, Siddhartha Mitra, Yussanne Ma, Richard Moore, Andy Mungall, Yoon-Jae Cho, William A Weiss, Jennifer A Chan, Cynthia E Hawkins, Maura Massimino, Nada Jabado, Michal Zapotocky, David Sumerauer, Eric Bouffet, Peter Dirks, Uri Tabori, Poul H B Sorensen, Priscilla K Brastianos, Kenneth Aldape, Steven J M Jones, Marco A Marra, James R Woodgett, Robert J Wechsler-Reya, Daniel W Fults, Michael D Taylor
While the preponderance of morbidity and mortality in medulloblastoma patients are due to metastatic disease, most research focuses on the primary tumor due to a dearth of metastatic tissue samples and model systems. Medulloblastoma metastases are found almost exclusively on the leptomeningeal surface of the brain and spinal cord; dissemination is therefore thought to occur through shedding of primary tumor cells into the cerebrospinal fluid followed by distal re-implantation on the leptomeninges. We present evidence for medulloblastoma circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in therapy-naive patients and demonstrate in vivo, through flank xenografting and parabiosis, that medulloblastoma CTCs can spread through the blood to the leptomeningeal space to form leptomeningeal metastases...
February 22, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472620/repopulated-microglia-are-solely-derived-from-the-proliferation-of-residual-microglia-after-acute-depletion
#9
Yubin Huang, Zhen Xu, Shanshan Xiong, Fangfang Sun, Guangrong Qin, Guanglei Hu, Jingjing Wang, Lei Zhao, Yu-Xiang Liang, Tianzhun Wu, Zhonghua Lu, Mark S Humayun, Kwok-Fai So, Yihang Pan, Ningning Li, Ti-Fei Yuan, Yanxia Rao, Bo Peng
Newborn microglia rapidly replenish the whole brain after selective elimination of most microglia (>99%) in adult mice. Previous studies reported that repopulated microglia were largely derived from microglial progenitor cells expressing nestin in the brain. However, the origin of these repopulated microglia has been hotly debated. In this study, we investigated the origin of repopulated microglia by a series of fate-mapping approaches. We first excluded the blood origin of repopulated microglia via parabiosis...
April 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466758/t-cells-in-nonlymphoid-tissues-give-rise-to-lymph-node-resident-memory-t-cells
#10
Lalit K Beura, Sathi Wijeyesinghe, Emily A Thompson, Marissa G Macchietto, Pamela C Rosato, Mark J Pierson, Jason M Schenkel, Jason S Mitchell, Vaiva Vezys, Brian T Fife, Steven Shen, David Masopust
Immunosurveillance of secondary lymphoid organs (SLO) is performed by central memory T cells that recirculate through blood. Resident memory T (Trm) cells remain parked in nonlymphoid tissues and often stably express CD69. We recently identified Trm cells within SLO, but the origin and phenotype of these cells remains unclear. Using parabiosis of "dirty" mice, we found that CD69 expression is insufficient to infer stable residence of SLO Trm cells. Restimulation of nonlymphoid memory CD8+ T cells within the skin or mucosa resulted in a substantial increase in bona fide Trm cells specifically within draining lymph nodes...
February 20, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466726/tet2-rescues-age-related-regenerative-decline-and-enhances-cognitive-function-in-the-adult-mouse-brain
#11
Geraldine Gontier, Manasi Iyer, Jeremy M Shea, Gregor Bieri, Elizabeth G Wheatley, Miguel Ramalho-Santos, Saul A Villeda
Restoring adult stem cell function provides an exciting approach for rejuvenating the aging brain. However, molecular mechanisms mediating neurogenic rejuvenation remain elusive. Here we report that the enzyme ten eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (Tet2), which catalyzes the production of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), rescues age-related decline in adult neurogenesis and enhances cognition in mice. We detected a decrease in Tet2 expression and 5hmC levels in the aged hippocampus associated with adult neurogenesis...
February 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251733/parabiosis-reveals-leukocyte-dynamics-in-the-kidney
#12
Jeremie M Lever, Zhengqin Yang, Ravindra Boddu, Oreoluwa O Adedoyin, Lingling Guo, Reny Joseph, Amie M Traylor, Anupam Agarwal, James F George
The immune cellular compartment of the kidney is involved in organ development and homeostasis, as well as in many pathological conditions. Little is known about the mechanisms that drive intrarenal immune responses in the presence of renal tubular and interstitial cell death. However, it is known that tissue-resident leukocytes have the potential to have distinct roles compared with circulating cells. We used a parabiosis model in C57BL/6 CD45 congenic and green fluorescent protein transgenic mice to better understand the dynamics of immune cells in the kidney...
March 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249965/the-aging-factor-eotaxin-1-ccl11-is-detectable-in-transfusion-blood-products-and-increases-with-the-donor-s-age
#13
Julia Hoefer, Markus Luger, Christian Dal-Pont, Zoran Culig, Harald Schennach, Stefan Jochberger
Background : High blood levels of the chemokine eotaxin-1 (CCL11) have recently been associated with aging and dementia, as well as impaired memory and learning in humans. Importantly, eotaxin-1 was shown to pass the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and has been identified as crucial mediator of decreased neurogenesis and cognitive impairment in young mice after being surgically connected to the vessel system of old animals in a parabiosis model. It thus has to be assumed that differences in eotaxin-1 levels between blood donors and recipients might influence cognitive functions also in humans...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222107/il-33-promotes-the-egress-of-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-from-the-bone-marrow
#14
Matthew T Stier, Jian Zhang, Kasia Goleniewska, Jacqueline Y Cephus, Mark Rusznak, Lan Wu, Luc Van Kaer, Baohua Zhou, Dawn C Newcomb, R Stokes Peebles
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are effector cells within the mucosa and key participants in type 2 immune responses in the context of allergic inflammation and infection. ILC2s develop in the bone marrow from common lymphoid progenitor cells, but little is known about how ILC2s egress from the bone marrow for hematogenous trafficking. In this study, we identified a critical role for IL-33, a hallmark peripheral ILC2-activating cytokine, in promoting the egress of ILC2 lineage cells from the bone marrow...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184141/development-and-growth-of-organs-in-living-whole-embryo-and-larval-grafts-in-zebrafish
#15
Toshihiro Kawasaki, Akiteru Maeno, Toshihiko Shiroishi, Noriyoshi Sakai
Age-related systemic environments influence neurogenesis and organ regeneration of heterochronic parabiotic partners; however, the difficulty of manipulating small embryos prevents the effects of aged systemic environments on primitive organs at the developmental stage from being analysed. Here, we describe a novel transplantation system to support whole living embryos/larvae as grafts in immunodeficient zebrafish by the intrusion of host blood vessels into the grafts, allowing bodies similar to those of heterochronic parabiosis to be generated by subcutaneous grafting...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124393/the-systemic-environment-at-the-interface-of-aging-and-adult-neurogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Lucas K Smith, Charles W White, Saul A Villeda
Aging results in impaired neurogenesis in the two neurogenic niches of the adult mammalian brain, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle. While significant work has characterized intrinsic cellular changes that contribute to this decline, it is increasingly apparent that the systemic environment also represents a critical driver of brain aging. Indeed, emerging studies utilizing the model of heterochronic parabiosis have revealed that immune-related molecular and cellular changes in the aging systemic environment negatively regulate adult neurogenesis...
January 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104943/the-fountain-of-youth-a-tale-of-parabiosis-stem-cells-and-rejuvenation
#17
Massimo Conese, Annalucia Carbone, Elisa Beccia, Antonella Angiolillo
Transfusion (or drinking) of blood or of its components has been thought as a rejuvenation method since ancient times. Parabiosis, the procedure of joining two animals so that they share each others blood circulation, has revitalized the concept of blood as a putative drug. Since 2005, a number of papers have reported the anti-ageing effect of heterochronic parabiosis, which is joining an aged mouse to a young partner. The hallmark of aging is the decline of regenerative properties in most tissues, partially attributed to impaired function of stem and progenitor cells...
2017: Open Medicine (Warsaw, Poland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040401/a-young-blood-environment-decreases-aging-of-senile-mice-kidneys
#18
Qi Huang, Yichun Ning, Dong Liu, Ying Zhang, Diangeng Li, Yinping Zhang, Zhong Yin, Bo Fu, Guangyan Cai, Xuefeng Sun, Xiangmei Chen
Whether changes in internal body environment affect kidney aging remains unclear. Specifically, it is unknown whether transplanted kidneys from older donors recover from tissue damage after placement in younger recipients. In this study, a parabiosis animal model was established to investigate the effects of a young internal body environment on aged kidneys. The animals were divided into six groups: young (Ycon) and old (Ocon) control groups, isochronic youth-youth group (Y-IP), elderly-elderly group (O-IP) and heterochronic youth (Y-HP) elderly (O-HP) group...
October 13, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982599/muscle-derived-extracellular-superoxide-dismutase-inhibits-endothelial-activation-and-protects-against-multiple-organ-dysfunction-syndrome-in-mice
#19
Jarrod A Call, Jean Donet, Kyle S Martin, Ashish K Sharma, Xiaobin Chen, Jiuzhi Zhang, Jie Cai, Carolina A Galarreta, Mitsuharu Okutsu, Zhongmin Du, Vitor A Lira, Mei Zhang, Borna Mehrad, Brian H Annex, Alexander L Klibanov, Russell P Bowler, Victor E Laubach, Shayn M Peirce, Zhen Yan
Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is a detrimental clinical complication in critically ill patients with high mortality. Emerging evidence suggests that oxidative stress and endothelial activation (induced expression of adhesion molecules) of vital organ vasculatures are key, early steps in the pathogenesis. We aimed to ascertain the role and mechanism(s) of enhanced extracellular superoxide dismutase (EcSOD) expression in skeletal muscle in protection against MODS induced by endotoxemia. We showed that EcSOD overexpressed in skeletal muscle-specific transgenic mice (TG) redistributes to other peripheral organs through the circulation and enriches at the endothelium of the vasculatures...
December 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942919/organism-level-analysis-of-vaccination-reveals-networks-of-protection-across-tissues
#20
Motohiko Kadoki, Ashwini Patil, Cornelius C Thaiss, Donald J Brooks, Surya Pandey, Deeksha Deep, David Alvarez, Ulrich H von Andrian, Amy J Wagers, Kenta Nakai, Tarjei S Mikkelsen, Magali Soumillon, Nicolas Chevrier
A fundamental challenge in immunology is to decipher the principles governing immune responses at the whole-organism scale. Here, using a comparative infection model, we observe immune signal propagation within and between organs to obtain a dynamic map of immune processes at the organism level. We uncover two inter-organ mechanisms of protective immunity mediated by soluble and cellular factors. First, analyzing ligand-receptor connectivity across tissues reveals that type I IFNs trigger a whole-body antiviral state, protecting the host within hours after skin vaccination...
October 5, 2017: Cell
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