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Cardioprotection by exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134574/correction-to-potential-signaling-pathways-of-acute-endurance-exercise-induced-cardiac-autophagy-and-mitophagy-and-its-possible-role-in-cardioprotection
#1
Youngil Lee, Insu Kwon, Yongchul Jang, Wankeun Song, Ludmila M Cosio-Lima, Mark H Roltsch
The article Potential signaling pathways of acute endurance exercise-induced cardiac autophagy and mitophagy and its possible role in cardioprotection, written by Youngil Lee.
November 13, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098619/the-positive-effects-of-exercise-in-chemotherapy-related-cardiomyopathy
#2
Cavarretta Elena, Mastroiacovo Giorgio, Lupieri Annik, Frati Giacomo, Peruzzi Mariangela
Anthracyclines such as doxorubicin, daunorubicin, epirubicin, mitoxantrone and idarubicin, are powerful chemotherapeutic drugs used both in children and adult populations. Their properties made them particularly suitable for a large variety of neoplasms including breast adenocarcinoma, small cell lung cancer and acute leukemia. Early and late anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity is a well-known phenomenon, and the incidence of heart failure in patients receiving doxorubicin is 2.2%, with a mortality rate over 60% at 2 years...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095874/effects-of-ampd1-common-mutation-on-the-metabolic-chronotropic-relationship-insights-from-patients-with-myoadenylate-deaminase-deficiency
#3
Fabrice Rannou, Virginie Scotet, Pascale Marcorelles, Roxane Monnoyer, Cédric Le Maréchal
PURPOSE: Current evidence indicates that the common AMPD1 gene variant is associated with improved survival in patients with advanced heart failure. Whilst adenosine has been recognized to mediate the cardioprotective effect of C34T AMPD1, the precise pathophysiologic mechanism involved remains undefined to date. To address this issue, we used cardio-pulmonary exercise testing data (CPX) from subjects with myoadenylate deaminase (MAD) defects. METHODS: From 2009 to 2013, all the patients referred in our laboratory to perform a metabolic exercise testing, i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055403/ancient-roots-modern-applications-mindfulness-as-a-novel-intervention-for-cardiovascular-disease
#4
Gabriel Zieff
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been associated with chronic psychological stress. Unremittent psychological stress causes dysregulation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis, which collectively promotes inflammation, atherosclerosis, and subsequent CVD risk. Stress reduction techniques, such as mindfulness meditation, have been shown to improve some markers of HPA and SNS function at rest and in response to acute stressors, suggesting that such techniques, over time, may be cardioprotective...
October 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027349/aerobic-exercise-training-lowers-platelet-reactivity-and-improves-platelet-sensitivity-to-prostacyclin-in-pre-and-postmenopausal-women
#5
M H Lundberg Slingsby, M Nyberg, J Egelund, C M Mandrup, R Frikke-Schmidt, N S Kirkby, Y Hellsten
Essentials It is unknown how regular exercise affects platelet function after menopause. We studied the effect of 3-months of high-intensity exercise in pre- and postmenopausal women. Platelet sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of arterially infused prostacyclin was increased. Reduced basal platelet reactivity was seen in the premenopausal women only. SUMMARY: Background The risk of atherothrombotic events increases after the menopause. Regular physical activity has been shown to reduce platelet reactivity in younger women, but it is unknown how regular exercise affects platelet function after the menopause...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022263/cardiac-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-the-beneficial-effects-of-exercise
#6
Juliana Pereira Borges, Karine da Silva Verdoorn
Cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) occurs when the myocardium is revascularized after an episode of limited or absent blood supply. Many changes, including free radical production, calcium overload, protease activation, altered membrane lipids and leukocyte activation, contribute to IRI-induced myocardium damage. Aerobic exercise is the only countermeasure against IRI that can be sustained on a regular basis in clinical practice. Interestingly, both short-term (3-5 days) and long-term (several weeks) exercise increase myocardial tolerance, reduce infarct size area and arrhythmias induced by IRI...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819266/amalaki-rasayana-a-traditional-indian-drug-enhances-cardiac-mitochondrial-and-contractile-functions-and-improves-cardiac-function-in-rats-with-hypertrophy
#7
Vikas Kumar, Kumar A Aneesh, K Kshemada, Kumar G S Ajith, Raj S S Binil, Neha Deora, G Sanjay, A Jaleel, T S Muraleedharan, E M Anandan, R S Mony, M S Valiathan, Kumar T R Santhosh, C C Kartha
We evaluated the cardioprotective effect of Amalaki Rasayana (AR), a rejuvenating Ayurvedic drug prepared from Phyllanthus emblica fruits in the reversal of remodeling changes in pressure overload left ventricular cardiac hypertrophy (LVH) and age-associated cardiac dysfunction in male Wistar rats. Six groups (aging groups) of 3 months old animals were given either AR or ghee and honey (GH) orally; seventh group was untreated. Ascending aorta was constricted using titanium clips in 3 months old rats (N = 24; AC groups) and after 6 months, AR or GH was given for further 12 months to two groups; one group was untreated...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801525/exercise-of-obese-mice-induces-cardioprotection-and-oxygen-sparing-in-hearts-exposed-to-high-fat-load
#8
Neoma T Boardman, Anne D Hafstad, Jim Lund, Line Rossvoll, Ellen Aasum
Exercise training is a potent therapeutic approach in obesity and diabetes that exerts protective effects against the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy and ischemic injury. Acute increases in circulating fatty acids (FAs) during an ischemic insult can challenge the heart, since high FA load is considered to have adverse cardiac effects. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that exercise-induced cardiac effects in diet-induced obese mice are abrogated by an acute high FA load. Diet-induced obese mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 20 wk...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770230/effects-of-exercise-training-and-weight-loss-on-plasma-fetuin-a-levels-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-overweight-older-men
#9
Jacob B Blumenthal, Anna Gitterman, Alice S Ryan, Steven J Prior
Aerobic exercise training and weight loss (AEX+WL) improves insulin sensitivity in overweight adults; however, the underlying pathways are incompletely understood. Fetuin-A, a hepatokine that inhibits insulin signaling, may be involved in the salutary effects of AEX+WL. Therefore, we examined the effects of 6-month AEX+WL on plasma fetuin-A levels (36-48 hours after the last bout of exercise), aerobic capacity (VO2max), body composition, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity (M) in 16 sedentary, overweight-obese older men (age = 60 ± 2 years, BMI = 31 ± 1 kg/m(2)) with no history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758593/physical-exercise-and-ace2-angiotensin-1-7-mas-receptor-axis-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system
#10
Albena Nunes-Silva, Guilherme Carvalho Rocha, Lucas Neves Vaz, Marcelo Henrique Faria, Ana Cristina Simões e Silva
Many physiological responses of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) are associated with two opposite pathways: (1) a classical one formed by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), Angiotensin II (Ang II) and Angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor, which is associated to vasoconstriction, cell proliferation, organ hypertrophy, sodium retention and aldosterone release and (2) a counter-regulatory or vasodilator pathway comprising angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] and Mas receptor, which is involved in vasodilation, anti-proliferation, anti-hypertrophy, cardioprotective and renoprotective actions...
July 28, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698769/high-intensity-exercise-reduces-cardiac-fibrosis-and-hypertrophy-but-does-not-restore-the-nitroso-redox-imbalance-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#11
Ulises Novoa, Diego Arauna, Marisol Moran, Madelaine Nuñez, Sebastián Zagmutt, Sergio Saldivia, Cristian Valdes, Jorge Villaseñor, Carmen Gloria Zambrano, Daniel R Gonzalez
Diabetic cardiomyopathy refers to the manifestations in the heart as a result of altered glucose homeostasis, reflected as fibrosis, cellular hypertrophy, increased oxidative stress, and apoptosis, leading to ventricular dysfunction. Since physical exercise has been indicated as cardioprotective, we tested the hypothesis that high-intensity exercise training could reverse the cardiac maladaptations produced by diabetes. For this, diabetes was induced in rats by a single dose of alloxan. Diabetic rats were randomly assigned to a sedentary group or submitted to a program of exercise on a treadmill for 4 weeks at 80% of maximal performance...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684598/reduced-collagen-accumulation-and-augmented-mmp-2-activity-in-left-ventricle-of-old-rats-submitted-to-high-intensity-resistance-training
#12
Vinicius Guzzoni, Rita C Marqueti, João Luiz Quagliotti Durigan, Hernandes F Carvalho, Rafael Lino, Marcelo S Mekaro, Tayná Dos Santos, Andre Souza Mecawi, Jose Antunes-Rodrigues, Jeffrey M Hord, Jonh M Lawler, Ana Paula Davel, Heloísa Sobreiro Selistre-de-Araujo
Progressive fibrosis is a hallmark of the aging heart. Age-related fibrosis is modulated by endurance exercise training; however, little is known concerning the influence of resistance training (RT). Therefore, we investigated the chronic effects of high-intensity RT on age-associated alterations of left ventricle (LV) structure, collagen content, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and extracellular matrix-related gene expression, including transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Young adult (3 mo.) and aged (21 mo...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683208/short-term-consumption-of-ilex-paraguariensis-extracts-protects-isolated-hearts-from-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-contradicts-exercise-mediated-cardioprotection
#13
Fábio Cahuê, Simone Souza, Camilli Fernanda Martins Dos Santos, Victor Machado, José H M Nascimento, Luciane Barcellos, Verônica P Salerno
Perfusion of hearts with extracts of Ilex paraguariensis (IP/mate) appears to reduce ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. To determine if oral consumption of IP/mate can provide similar cardioprotection, short-term consumption was investigated alone or in association with exercise in rats. Animals were grouped into control (C), IP/mate consumption (M), exercise (E), and exercise with mate (E+M). M and E+M groups consumed IP/mate (1 g·kg(-1) body weight in 1 mL water) by gavage. E and E+M groups swam 7× per week for 30 min carrying an additional 5% of body weight...
July 6, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631503/exercise-induced-cardioprotection-and-the-therapeutic-potential-of-ripc
#14
John C Quindry
In the search for innovative solutions to treat ischemic heart disease, recent basic science and clinical approaches have focused on remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC). Remote ischemic preconditioning involves short intervals of limb blood flow occlusion by the application of a blood pressure cuff inflated to a suprasystolic pressure. The promise of RIPC in the development of new cardioprotective therapies is founded on the premise that it is cost-effective, technically simple, and overcomes many logistical and biochemical hurdles associated with other ischemic preconditioning approaches...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622359/aerobic-exercise-protects-against-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-dysfunction-and-hypertrophy-via-%C3%AE-3-ar-nnos-no-activation
#15
Bin Wang, Ming Xu, Wenju Li, Xiaoli Li, Qiangsun Zheng, Xiaolin Niu
Aerobic exercise confers sustainable protection against cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (HF). Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and nitric oxide (NO) are known to play an important role in exercise-mediated cardioprotection, but the mechanism of NOS/NO stimulation during exercise remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the role of β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs), NOS activation, and NO metabolites (nitrite and nitrosothiols) in the sustained cardioprotective effects of aerobic exercise. An HF model was constructed by transverse aortic constriction (TAC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534118/exercise-induced-circulating-extracellular-vesicles-protect-against-cardiac-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#16
Yihua Bei, Tianzhao Xu, Dongchao Lv, Pujiao Yu, Jiahong Xu, Lin Che, Avash Das, John Tigges, Vassilios Toxavidis, Ionita Ghiran, Ravi Shah, Yongqin Li, Yuhui Zhang, Saumya Das, Junjie Xiao
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) serve an important function as mediators of intercellular communication. Exercise is protective for the heart, although the signaling mechanisms that mediate this cardioprotection have not been fully elucidated. Here using nano-flow cytometry, we found a rapid increase in plasma EVs in human subjects undergoing exercise stress testing. We subsequently identified that serum EVs were increased by ~1.85-fold in mice after 3-week swimming. Intramyocardial injection of equivalent quantities of EVs from exercised mice and non-exercised controls provided similar protective effects against acute ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice...
July 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480026/exercise-training-provides-cardioprotection-by-activating-and-coupling-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-via-a-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-amp-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-pathway
#17
Larry A Barr, Jonathan P Lambert, Yuuki Shimizu, Lili A Barouch, Nawazish Naqvi, John W Calvert
Exercise training confers sustainable protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the mechanism by which this process occurs is not fully understood. Previously, it was shown that β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs) play a critical role in regulating the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in response to exercise and play a critical role in exercise-mediated cardioprotection. Intriguingly, a deficiency in β3-ARs led to increased myocardial injury following exercise training. The purpose of the current study was to determine mechanisms by which β3-ARs are linked to eNOS activation and to determine the mechanism responsible for the exacerbated ischemia/reperfusion injury displayed by β3-AR deficient (β3-AR KO) mice after exercise training...
January 2017: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301473/%C3%AE%C2%BA-opioid-receptor-is-involved-in-the-cardioprotection-induced-by-exercise-training
#18
Xiao Geng, Honglin Zhao, Shumiao Zhang, Juan Li, Fei Tian, Na Feng, Rong Fan, Min Jia, Haitao Guo, Liang Cheng, Jincheng Liu, Wensheng Chen, Jianming Pei
The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that exercise training elicited a cardioprotective effect against ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) via the κ-opioid receptor (κ-OR)-mediated signaling pathway. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: the control group, the moderate intensity exercise (ME) group, the high intensity exercise (HE) group, and the acute exercise (AE) group. For the exercise training protocols, the rats were subjected to one week of adaptive treadmill training, while from the second week, the ME and HE groups were subjected to eight weeks of exercise training, and the AE group was subjected to three days of adaptive treadmill training and one day of vigorous exercise...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249782/aldh2-restores-exhaustive-exercise-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-skeletal-muscle
#19
Qiuping Zhang, Jianheng Zheng, Jun Qiu, Xiahong Wu, Yangshuo Xu, Weili Shen, Mengwei Sun
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is highly expressed in heart and skeletal muscles, and is the major enzyme that metabolizes acetaldehyde and toxic aldehydes. The cardioprotective effects of ALDH2 during cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury have been recognized. However, less is known about the function of ALDH2 in skeletal muscle. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of ALDH2 on exhaustive exercise-induced skeletal muscle injury. METHODS: We created transgenic mice expressing ALDH2 in skeletal muscles...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222576/may-a-unitary-autonomic-index-help-assess-autonomic-cardiac-regulation-in-elite-athletes-preliminary-observations-on-the-national-italian-olympic-committee-team
#20
Roberto Sala, Mara Malacarne, Fabio Tosi, Manuela Benzi, Nadia Solaro, Stefano Tamorri, Antonio Spataro, Massimo Pagani, Daniela Lucini
BACKGROUND: Long term endurance training, as occurring in elite athletes, is associated to cardiac neural remodeling in favor of cardioprotective vagal mechanisms, resulting in resting bradycardia and augmented contribution of cardiac parasympathetic nerve activity. Autonomic assessment can be performed by way of heart rate variability. This technique however provides multiple indices, and there is not yet complete agreement on their specific significance. Purpose of the study was to assess whether a rank transformation and radar plot could provide a unitary autonomic index, capable to show a correlation between intensity of individual work and quality of autonomic regulation...
December 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
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