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Cardioprotection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451687/gpcrs-in-context-sexual-dimorphism-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#1
REVIEW
Margaret A Mouat, James L J Coleman, Nicola J Smith
Cardiovascular disease remains the largest cause of mortality worldwide and there is a clear gender gap in disease occurrence: men are predisposed to earlier onset of cardiovascular disease, including atherosclerosis and hypertension, than are women. Oestrogen may be a driving factor for female-specific cardioprotection, though androgens and sex chromosomes are also likely to contribute to sexual dimorphism in the cardiovascular system. Many G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated processes are involved in cardiovascular homeostasis and some exhibit clear sex-divergence...
February 16, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449707/modulation-of-cardiac-stem-cell-characteristics-by-metoprolol-in-hypertensive-heart-disease
#2
Sherin Saheera, Ajay Godwin Potnuri, Renuka R Nair
Cardiac stem cells (CSCs) play a vital role in cardiac remodeling. Uncontrolled hypertension leads to cardiac hypertrophy, followed by cardiac failure. Pathological remodeling is associated with enhanced oxidative stress. Decreased cardiac stem cell efficiency is speculated in heart diseases. Maintaining a healthy stem cell population is essential for preventing progressive cardiac remodeling. Some anti-hypertensive drugs are cardioprotective. However, the effect of these drugs on CSCs has not been investigated...
February 15, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447958/serelaxin-as-a-novel-therapeutic-opposing-fibrosis-and-contraction-in-lung-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Maggie Lam, Simon G Royce, Chrishan S Samuel, Jane E Bourke
The most common therapies for asthma and other chronic lung diseases are anti-inflammatory agents and bronchodilators. While these drugs oppose disease symptoms, they do not reverse established structural changes in the airways and their therapeutic efficacy is reduced with increasing disease severity. The peptide hormone, relaxin, is a Relaxin Family Peptide Receptor 1 (RXFP1) receptor agonist with unique combined effects in the lung that differentiates it from these existing therapies. Relaxin has previously been reported to have cardioprotective effects in acute heart failure as well anti-fibrotic actions in several organs...
February 12, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447430/aucubin-protects-against-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-remodelling-via-%C3%AE-3-ar-nnos-cascades
#4
Qing-Qing Wu, Yang- Xiao, Ming-Xia Duan, Yuan Yuan, Xiao-Han Jiang, Zheng Yang, Hai-Han Liao, Wei Deng, Qi-Zhu Tang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Aucubin, the predominant component of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., plays an indispensable role in regulating oxidative stress. Considering that oxidative stress has previously been demonstrated to contribute to acute and chronic myocardial injury, we tested the effects of aucubin on cardiac remodelling and heart failure. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: In the first set of experiments, H9c2 cardiomyocytes and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes pre-treated with aucubin (1, 3 10, 25, 50 μM) were challenged with phenylephrine...
February 15, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447379/acute-exercise-is-not-cardioprotective-and-may-induce-apoptotic-signalling-in-heart-surgery-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Benedikte T Smenes, Fredrik H Bækkerud, Katrine H Slagsvold, Erlend Hassel, Martin Wohlwend, Maria Pinho, Morten Høydal, Ulrik Wisløff, Øivind Rognmo, Alexander Wahba
OBJECTIVES: During open-heart surgery, the myocardium experiences ischaemia-reperfusion injury. A single bout of moderate, 30-min exercise induces preconditioning and protects the heart from ischaemia-reperfusion injury in rats, but this has never been investigated in humans. We aimed to investigate whether 1 bout of moderate exercise 24 h prior to surgery protects against mitochondrial and cardiac damage. METHODS: Patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass were eligible for this pilot study...
February 13, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447000/ghrelin-prevents-cardiac-cell-apoptosis-during-cardiac-remodelling-post-experimentally-induced-myocardial-infarction-in-rats-via-activation-of-raf-mek1-2-erk1-2-signalling
#6
Refaat A Eid, Mahmoud A Alkhateeb, Mubarak Al-Shraim, Samy M Eleawa, Abdullah S Shatoor, Attalla Farag El-Kott, Mohamed Samir Ahmed Zaki, Khalid A Shatoor, Ismaeel Bin-Jaliah, Fahaid H Al-Hashem
CONTEXT: Mechanisms by which ghrelin affords its cardioprotection in mammals remained unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine if ghrelin confers cardio-protection during cardiac remodelling post-MI by modulating the RAF-1-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signalling pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into control, sham, sham + ghrelin, myocardial infarction (MI), and MI + ghrelin groups. Ghrelin (100 µg/kg) was administered for 21 days, starting one-day post-MI...
February 15, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446730/salvaging-the-ischemic-heart-gi-coupled-receptors-in-mast-cells-activate-a-pkc%C3%AF-aldh2-pathway-providing-anti-ras-cardioprotection
#7
Alice Marino, Roberto Levi
BACKGROUND: Excessive norepinephrine (NE) release in the ischemic heart elicits severe and often lethal arrhythmias. Resident cardiac mast cells synthesize and store active renin, which is released upon degranulation, causing the activation of a local cardiac renin-angiotensin system (RAS) responsible for NE release and consequent arrhythmias. Toxic aldehydes, known to be formed by lipid peroxidation in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), have been shown to degranulate mast cells and activate a local RAS...
February 13, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446717/activators-of-sirtuin-1-and-their-involvement-in-cardioprotection
#8
Carlotta Granchi, Filippo Minutolo
SIRT1 is a nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylase, which removes acetyl groups from many target proteins, such as histone proteins, transcription factors and cofactors. SIRT1-catalyzed deacetylation of these factors modulates the activity of downstream proteins, thus influencing many biological processes. SIRT1 is involved in the regulation of metabolism, inflammation, and tumor growth. The activity of this enzyme is related to the beneficial health effects of calorie restriction, such as lifespan extension and, in particular, the activation of SIRT1 has a positive impact on the cardiovascular system...
February 13, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446045/effects-of-extracellular-orotic-acid-on-acute-contraction-induced-adaptation-patterns-in-c2c12-cells
#9
Thomas Beiter, Jens Hudemann, Christof Burgstahler, Andreas M Nieß, Barbara Munz
Dietary administration of orotic acid (OA), an intermediate in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway, is considered to provide a wide range of beneficial effects, including cardioprotection and exercise adaptation. Its mechanisms of action, when applied extracellularly, however, are barely understood. In this study, we evaluated potential effects of OA on skeletal muscle using an in vitro contraction model of electrically pulse-stimulated (EPS) C2C12 myotubes. By analyzing a subset of genes representing inflammatory, metabolic, and structural adaptation pathways, we could show that OA supplementation diminishes the EPS-provoked expression of inflammatory transcripts (interleukin 6, Il6; chemokine (C-X-C Motif) ligand 5, Cxcl5), and attenuated transcript levels of nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3 (Nr4A3), early growth response 1 (Egr1), activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3), and fast-oxidative MyHC-IIA isoform (Myh2)...
February 14, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445896/glp-1-receptor-agonists-and-cardiovascular-disease-a-meta-analysis-of-recent-cardiac-outcome-trials
#10
Xiaoming Jia, Mahboob Alam, Yumei Ye, Mandeep Bajaj, Yochai Birnbaum
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to examine the cardioprotective properties of Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, a class of antihyperglycemic therapy, via meta-analysis of four recently published cardiovascular outcomes trials. METHODS: Meta-analysis was performed pooling data from the ELIXA, LEADER, SUSTAIN-6 and EXSCEL trials. A random effects model was used to generate risk ratio with 95% confidence interval for cardiovascular and safety outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 33,457 patients were included in the meta-analysis...
February 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442529/signaling-mediators-modulated-by-cardioprotective-interventions-in-healthy-and-diabetic-myocardium-with-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury
#11
Feyzizadeh Saeid, Javadi Aniseh, Badalzadeh Reza, Vafaee S Manouchehr
Ischaemic heart diseases are one of the major causes of death in the world. In most patients, ischaemic heart disease is coincident with other risk factors such as diabetes. Patients with diabetes are more prone to cardiac ischaemic dysfunctions including ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Ischaemic preconditioning, postconditioning and remote conditionings are reliable interventions to protect the myocardium against ischaemia-reperfusion injuries through activating various signaling pathways and intracellular mediators...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438868/investigation-of-the-reverse-effect-of-danhong-injection-on-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity-in-h9c2-cells-insight-by-lc-ms-based-non-targeted-metabolomic-analysis
#12
Xiaojiao Yi, Junfeng Zhu, Jinghui Zhang, Yun Gao, Zhongjian Chen, Shihai Lu, Zongwei Cai, Yanjun Hong, Yongjiang Wu
Although Danhong injection (DHI) has been clearly shown to attenuate ischemic myocardial injury and improve heart function, there is no research regarding its role in doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the reverse effect of DHI on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in H9c2 cells. The results of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay demonstrated that DHI had no cytotoxicity towards the relevant cell line unless the concentration was as high as 50 μL/mL...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438664/fat10-attenuates-hypoxia-induced-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis-by-stabilizing-caveolin-3
#13
Qiongqiong Zhou, Xiaogang Peng, Xiao Liu, Leifeng Chen, Qinmei Xiong, Yang Shen, Jinyan Xie, Zhenyan Xu, Lin Huang, Jinzhu Hu, Rong Wan, Kui Hong
FAT10, a member of the ubiquitin-like-modifier family of proteins, plays a cardioprotective role in response to hypoxic/ischemic injury. Caveolin-3 (Cav-3), a muscle-specific caveolin family member, is involved in cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, the link between FAT10 and Cav-3 in ischemic cardiomyocytes is unclear. In the present study, we found that both FAT10 and Cav-3 were upregulated in ischemic myocardial tissues and in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that FAT10 inhibits hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by increasing Cav-3 expression...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438488/cardioprotection-by-ischemic-postconditioning-and-cgmp-elevating-agents-involves-cardiomyocyte-nitric-oxide-sensitive-guanylyl-cyclase
#14
Sandra Frankenreiter, Dieter Groneberg, Anna Kuret, Thomas Krieg, Peter Ruth, Andreas Friebe, Robert Lukowski
Aims: It has been suggested that the nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NO-GC)/cGMP-dependent signaling pathway affords protection against cardiac damage during acute myocardial infarction (AMI). It is, however, not clear whether the NO-GC/cGMP system confers its favorable effects through a mechanism located in cardiomyocytes (CMs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the infarct-limiting effects of the endogenous NO-GC in CMs in vivo. Methods and Results: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury was evaluated in mice with a cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of NO-GC (CM NO-GC KO) and in control siblings (CM NO-GC CTR) subjected to an in vivo model of AMI...
February 9, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437117/the-cardioprotective-role-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-in-heart-failure
#15
Ling Zhou, Kun Miao, Bingjiao Yin, Huaping Li, Jiahui Fan, Yazhen Zhu, Hongping Ba, Zunyue Zhang, Fang Chen, Jing Wang, Chunxia Zhao, Zhuoya Li, Dao Wen Wang
Background -Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of cells that expand in cancer, inflammation, and infection and negatively regulate inflammation and the immune response. Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome, wherein inflammation induction and incomplete resolution can potentially contribute to HF development and progression. However, the role of MDSCs in HF remains unclear. Methods -The percentage of MDSCs in HF patients and in mice with pressure overload-induced HF using isoproterenol (ISO) infusion or transverse aortic constriction (TAC), was detected by flow cytometry...
February 1, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436990/the-role-of-hydrogen-sulfide-and-h2s-donors-in-myocardial-protection-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#16
Valentina Citi, Eugenia Piragine, Lara Tastai, Maria Cristina Breschi, Vincenzo Calderone, Alma Martelli
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), previously known only as a toxic agent, in the last decades has been recognized as an important endogenous gasotransmitter, playing a key role in the homeostasis of the cardiovascular system. In the last years, the growing evidence about a protective role exhibited by H2S against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), led to an increasing interest for the possible mechanism of action accounting for the H2S cardioprotective effect, and to the discovery of the involvement of several targets...
February 12, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435928/mining-exosomal-micrornas-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-derived-cardiomyocytes-for-cardiac-regeneration
#17
Sang-Ging Ong, Won Hee Lee, Yang Zhou, Joseph C Wu
Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent advances in cardiac regenerative therapy have allowed for novel modalities in replenishing the damaged myocardium. However, poor long-term engraftment and survival of transplanted cells have largely precluded effective cell replacement. As an alternative to direct cell replacement, the release of paracrine protective factors may be a more plausible effector for cardioprotection which may partially be mediated through secretion of microvesicles, or exosomes, that contribute to cell-cell communication...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434760/gambogic-acid-exerts-cardioprotective-effects-in-a-rat-model-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-through-inhibition-of-inflammation-inos-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p38-pathway
#18
Duan Na, Hou Aijie, Luan Bo, Miao Zhilin, Yuan Long
Gamboge, the dried resin secreted by Garcinia maingayii (gambogic tree), was previously demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory effects. The present study examined the effects of gambogic acid, the major active constituent of gamboge, on myocardial infarction (MI) and inflammation in a rat model and explored the possible underlying mechanisms. The results demonstrated that gambogic acid inhibited the ratio of heart weight to body weight and myocardial damage (via lactate dehydrogenase and cardiac troponin T) in rats with MI...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434549/protective-mechanism-of-hydrogen-sulfide-against-chemotherapy-induced-cardiotoxicity
#19
REVIEW
Shuxu Du, Yaqian Huang, Hongfang Jin, Tianyou Wang
Over the past few decades, the number of long term survivors of childhood cancers has been increased exponentially. However, among these survivors, treatment-related toxicity, especially cardiotoxicity, is becoming the essential cause of morbidity and mortality. Thus, preventing the treatment-related adverse effects is important to increase the event free survival during the treatment of cancer in children and adolescents. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exerts a protective role on cardiomyocytes through a variety of mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434214/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-inhibit-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-a-model-of-coxsackievirus-b3-induced-inflammatory-cardiomyopathy
#20
Kapka Miteva, Kathleen Pappritz, Marzena Sosnowski, Muhammad El-Shafeey, Irene Müller, Fengquan Dong, Konstantinos Savvatis, Jochen Ringe, Carsten Tschöpe, Sophie Van Linthout
Inflammation in myocarditis induces cardiac injury and triggers disease progression to heart failure. NLRP3 inflammasome activation is a newly identified amplifying step in the pathogenesis of myocarditis. We previously have demonstrated that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are cardioprotective in Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis. In this study, MSC markedly inhibited left ventricular (LV) NOD2, NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 mRNA expression in CVB3-infected mice. ASC protein expression, essential for NLRP3 inflammasome assembly, increased upon CVB3 infection and was abrogated in MSC-treated mice...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
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