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allometry lung body

Aaron R Casha, Liberato Camilleri, Marilyn Gauci, Ruben Gatt, David Sladden, Stanley Chetcuti, Joseph N Grima
We introduce a mathematical model that describes the allometry of physical characteristics of hollow organs behaving as pressure vessels based on the physics of ideal pressure vessels. The model was validated by studying parameters such as body and organ mass, systolic and diastolic pressures, internal and external dimensions, pressurization energy and organ energy output measurements of pressure-based organs in a wide range of mammals and birds. Seven rules were derived that govern amongst others, lack of size efficiency on scaling to larger organ sizes, matching organ size in the same species, equal relative efficiency in pressurization energy across species and direct size matching between organ mass and mass of contents...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
M A Velazquez, C G C Smith, N R Smyth, C Osmond, T P Fleming
STUDY QUESTION: Does advanced maternal age (AMA) in mice affect cardiometabolic health during post-natal life in offspring derived from an assisted reproduction technology (ART) procedure? SUMMARY ANSWER: Offspring derived from blastocysts collected from aged female mice displayed impaired body weight gain, blood pressure, glucose metabolism and organ allometry during post-natal life compared with offspring derived from blastocysts from young females; since all blastocysts were transferred to normalized young mothers, this effect is independent of maternal pregnancy conditions...
September 2016: Human Reproduction
Peter G Tickle, Heather Paxton, Jeffery W Rankin, John R Hutchinson, Jonathan R Codd
Genetic selection for improved meat yields, digestive efficiency and growth rates have transformed the biology of broiler chickens. Modern birds undergo a 50-fold multiplication in body mass in just six weeks, from hatching to slaughter weight. However, this selection for rapid growth and improvements in broiler productivity is also widely thought to be associated with increased welfare problems as many birds suffer from leg, circulatory and respiratory diseases. To understand growth-related changes in musculoskeletal and organ morphology and respiratory skeletal development over the standard six-week rearing period, we present data from post-hatch cadaveric commercial broiler chickens aged 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks...
2014: PeerJ
Donald M Henderson
Three-dimensional digital models of 16 different sauropods were used to examine the scaling relationship between metabolism and surface areas of the whole body, the neck, and the tail in an attempt to see if the necks could have functioned as radiators for the elimination of excess body heat. The sauropod taxa sample ranged in body mass from a 639 kg juvenile Camarasaurus to a 25 t adult Brachiosaurus. Metabolism was assumed to be directly proportional to body mass raised to the ¾ power, and estimates of body mass accounted for the presence of lungs and systems of air sacs in the trunk and neck...
2013: PloS One
A Szabó, M Mézes, Hedvig Fébel
In nine mammalian species (mouse - cattle: 21.5 g-503 kg) lung total phospholipids (PL), alveolar surfactant phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM) fatty acyl (FA) chain composition was tested relating to body mass (BM) and resting respiratory rate (RRR) associated adaptations. In PL, PC and SM oleic acid (C18:1 n9) provided negative correlations with RRR. Palmitic acid (C16:0) was strongly, positively correlated with RRR in the pulmonary PLs, and myristic (C14:0) acid correlated positively with RRR in the surfactant PCs...
September 2013: Acta Biologica Hungarica
A Szabó, M Mézes, K Balogh, R Romvári, P Horn, Hedvig Fébel
In a recent study (Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B. (2010)155: 301-308) we reported that the fatty acids (FA) of the avian (7 species) total lung phospholipids (PL) (i.e. lung parenchyma and surfactant together) provide allometric properties. To test whether this allometric scaling also occurs in either of the above components, in six gallinaceous species, in a body weight range from 150 g (Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica) to 19 kg (turkey, Meleagris gallopavo) the PL FA composition (mol%) was determined in the pulmonary surfactant, in native and in thoroughly lavaged lungs (referred to as lung parenchyma)...
June 2012: Acta Biologica Hungarica
André Wirkes, Kristina Jung, Matthias Ochs, Christian Mühlfeld
Alveolar epithelial (AE) surface area is closely correlated with body mass (BM) in mammals. The AE is covered by a surfactant layer produced by alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cells. We hypothesized that the total number of AE2 cells and the volume of intracellular surfactant-storing lamellar bodies (Lb) are correlated with BM with a similar slope as AE surface area. We used light and electron microscopic stereology to estimate the number and mean volume of AE2 cells and the total volume of Lb in 12 mammalian species ranging from 2 to 3 g (Etruscan shrew) to 400-500 kg (horse) BM...
December 2010: Journal of Applied Physiology
Jeremy A Goldbogen, Jean Potvin, Robert E Shadwick
Rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae) represent not only some of the largest animals of all time, but also exhibit a wide range in intraspecific and interspecific body size. Balaenopterids are characterized by their extreme lunge-feeding behaviour, a dynamic process that involves the engulfment of a large volume of prey-laden water at a high energetic cost. To investigate the consequences of scale and morphology on lunge-feeding performance, we determined allometric equations for fin whale body dimensions and engulfment capacity...
March 22, 2010: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Dominique Singer, Christian Mühlfeld
Mammalian birth is accompanied by profound changes in metabolic rate that can be described in terms of body size relationship (Kleiber's rule). Whereas the fetus, probably as an adaptation to the low intrauterine pO2, exhibits an "inappropriately" low, adult-like specific metabolic rate, the term neonate undergoes a rapid metabolic increase up to the level to be expected from body size. A similar, albeit slowed, "switching-on" of metabolic size allometry is found in human preterm neonates whereas animals that are normally born in a very immature state are able to retard or even suppress the postnatal metabolic increase in favor of weight gain and O2 supply...
December 2007: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Bruce C Jayne, Michael A Riley
Networks of branches in arboreal environments create many functional challenges for animals, including traversing gaps between perches. Many snakes are arboreal and their elongate bodies are theoretically well suited for bridging gaps. However, only two studies have previously investigated gap bridging in snakes, and the effects of size are poorly understood. Thus, we videotaped and quantified maximal gap-bridging ability in a highly arboreal species of snake (Boiga irregularis), for which we were able to obtain a large range in snout-vent length (SVL=43-188 cm) and mass (10-1391 g)...
April 2007: Journal of Experimental Biology
Roger S Seymour, Sue Runciman, Russell V Baudinette
The Australian Brush Turkey Alectura lathami is a member of the Megapodiidae, the mound-building birds that produce totally independent, "superprecocial" hatchlings. This study examined the post-hatching development of resting and maximal metabolic rates, and the morphometrically determined changes in pulmonary gas exchange anatomy, in chicks during 3.7 months of growth from hatchlings (122 g) to subadults (1.1 kg). Allometric equations of the form y=aM(b) related gas exchange variables (y) to body mass (M, g)...
June 2008: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Adam Watkins, Adrian Wilkins, Clive Osmond, Carol M Warner, Martina Comiskey, Mark Hanson, Tom P Fleming
The Ped (preimplantation embryo development) gene, whose product is Qa-2 protein, is correlated with a faster rate of preimplantation development (Ped fast phenotype) in mice that express Qa-2 protein compared with mice with an absence of Qa-2 protein (Ped slow phenotype). In the current study, we have used two congenic mouse strains differentially expressing the Ped gene, strain B6.K1 (Ped slow; Qa-2 negative) and strain B6.K2 (Ped fast; Qa-2 positive), to investigate the effects of Ped gene expression on postnatal growth profiles, systolic blood pressure and adult organ allometry...
February 15, 2006: Journal of Physiology
S C Hempleman, D L Kilgore, C Colby, R W Bavis, F L Powell
Biological rates in small animals are usually higher than those in large animals, yet the maximal rate of action potential (spike) generation in sensory neurons encoding rate functions is similar in all animals, due to the conserved genetics of voltage-gated ion channels. Therefore, sensory signals that vary at rates approaching maximal spike generation rate, as might occur in animals of diminished body size, may require specialized spike coding to convey this information. To test whether spike coding scales allometrically in sensory neurons monitoring signals that change frequency with body size, we recorded action potentials from 70 avian intrapulmonary chemoreceptors (IPC), respiratory neurons that detect lung CO2 changes during breathing, in five different avian species ranging in size from body mass Mb=0...
August 2005: Journal of Experimental Biology
Roger S Seymour, Sue Runciman, Russell V Baudinette, James T Pearson
Quantitative methods have been used to correlate maximal oxygen uptake with lung development in Australian pelicans. These birds produce the largest altricial neonates and become some of the largest birds capable of flight. During post-hatching growth to adults, body mass increases by two orders of magnitude (from 88 g to 8.8 kg). Oxygen consumption rates were measured at rest and during exposure to cold and during exercise. Then the lungs were quantitatively assessed using morphometric techniques. Allometric relationships between body mass (M) and gas exchange parameters (Y) were determined and evaluated by examining the exponents of the equation Y=aM(b)...
July 2004: Journal of Experimental Biology
P H Burri, B Haenni, S A Tschanz, A N Makanya
An utrastructural morphometric study of the postnatally remodelling lungs of the quokka wallaby (Setonix brachyurus) was undertaken. Allometric scaling of the volumes of the parenchymal components against body mass was performed. Most parameters showed a positive correlation with body mass in all the developmental stages, except the volume of type II pneumocytes during the alveolar stage. The interstitial tissue and type II cell volumes increased slightly faster than body mass in the saccular stage, their growth rates declining in the alveolar stage...
November 14, 2003: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
A N Makanya, B Haenni, P H Burri
The postnatally developing lungs of the quokka wallaby, Setonix brachyurus, were investigated macroscopically and by light microscopic morphometry. Lung, parenchymal and non-parenchymal volumes as well as the components of the latter two were analysed by regression analysis. The lungs comprised a single undivided left lung and a right lung with an adherent accessory lobe. Septal tissue growth was most remarkable in the canalicular and saccular stages. Between mid-canalicular stage and the saccular stage, the lung volume increased 2-fold, mainly due to airspace expansion, coupled with septal tissue thinning...
February 19, 2003: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
I Mahmood
The objective of this study was to predict minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of inhalational anesthetics in humans from animal data. The MAC of 10 anesthetics was obtained from the literature. At least three animal species (excluding humans) were used in the scaling. Interspecies scaling of MAC was performed in two ways: (1) using the traditional allometric approach, the MAC of each drug was plotted against the body weight of the species on a log-log scale, and MAC in humans was predicted from the resultant equation; and (2) MAC in each species was multiplied by a correction factor obtained by adjusting the lung weight of the species based on per kg body weight...
July 2001: American Journal of Therapeutics
S A Stewart, R Z German
Most studies of sexual dimorphism in mammals focus on overall body size. However, relatively little is known about the differences in growth trajectories that produce dimorphism in organ and muscle size. We weighed six organs and four muscles in Rattus norvegicus to determine what heterochronic and allometric scaling differences exist between the sexes. This cross-sectional growth study included 113 males and 109 females with ages ranging from birth to 200 days of age. All muscle and organ weights were ultimately greater in males than in females, because males grew for a longer period of time, had a greater maximum rate of growth, and spent more time near the maximum rate...
October 1999: Journal of Morphology
H Mover, A Ar
Heart and lung mass, rate of oxygen consumption (VO2), respiration rate (fR), tidal volume (VT), and heart rate (fH), were measured at rest and thermoneutrality in the shrew Crocidura russula monacha [(This shrew is claimed to be Crocidura suaveolens (Catzeflis, F., T. Maddalena, S. Hellwing and P. Vogel (1985). Unexpected findings on the taxonomic status of East Mediterranean Crocidura russula auct. (Mammalia, Insectivora). Zeitschrift fur Saugetierkunde 50: 185-201)] in nullipar (N), pregnant (P) and lactating (L) females...
December 1995: Respiration Physiology
R H Luecke, W D Wosilait, J F Young
During human pregnancy, there is a huge increase in the total weight of the embryo/fetus from conception to term. The total growth, which is the summation of growth of the various organs and tissues that make up the organism, was analyzed in a previous paper and fitted to the Gompertz equation for growth. In the present study, allometry, the quantitative representation of the consequence of size, was utilized to describe the correlation of individual fetal organ/tissue weights with the total fetal weight. The organ/tissue weight and the total fetal weight data used in the analyses were pooled from various sources that provided data ranging from 25 days to 300 days post-conception...
June 1995: International Journal of Bio-medical Computing
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