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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150954/physiological-role-of-urothelial-cancer-associated-1-long-noncoding-rna-in-human-skeletogenic-cell-differentiation
#1
Takanori Ishikawa, Takashi Nishida, Mitsuaki Ono, Takeshi Takarada, Nguyen Ha, Shinnosuke Kurihara, Takayuki Furumatsu, Yurika Murase, Masaharu Takigawa, Toshitaka Oohashi, Hiroshi Kamioka, Satoshi Kubota
A vast number of long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) are found expressed in human cells, which RNAs have been developed along with human evolution. However, the physiological functions of these lncRNAs remain mostly unknown. In the present study, we for the first time uncovered the fact that one of such lncRNAs plays a significant role in the differentiation of chondrocytes and, possibly, of osteoblasts differentiated from mesenchymal stem cells, which cells eventually construct the human skeleton. The urothelial cancer-associated 1 (UCA1) lncRNA is known to be associated with several human malignancies...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132383/an-unusually-large-osteochondroma-of-the-mandibular-angle-a-case-report
#2
Ryosuke Abe, Ikuya Miyamoto, Hirotaka Sato, Daishi Saitou, Genki Yamaya, Hiroyuki Yamada
BACKGROUND: Osteochondroma is a benign bone tumor that can occur in both the mesenchymal and craniofacial bones. However, craniofacial osteochondromas are extremely rare, because the mandible develops by intramembranous ossification rather than by endochondral ossification. CASE PRESENTATION: The most common site of craniofacial osteochondroma is the mandibular condyle, followed by the coronoid process. In the present study, we have described the case of a 64-year-old Japanese man with an unusually large osteochondroma located on the internal angle of the mandibular body...
November 13, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124078/demineralized-bone-matrix-to-augment-tendon-bone-healing-a-systematic-review
#3
Adam T Hexter, Catherine Pendegrass, Fares Haddad, Gordon Blunn
Background: Following injury to the rotator cuff and anterior cruciate ligament, a direct enthesis is not regenerated, and healing occurs with biomechanically inferior fibrous tissue. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is a collagen scaffold that contains growth factors and is a promising biological material for tendon and ligament repair because it can regenerate a direct fibrocartilaginous insertion via endochondral ossification. Purpose: To provide a comprehensive review of the literature investigating the use of DBM to augment tendon-bone healing in tendon repair and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR)...
October 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107337/cd169-macrophages-are-critical-for-osteoblast-maintenance-and-promote-intramembranous-and-endochondral-ossification-during-bone-repair
#4
Lena Batoon, Susan Marie Millard, Martin Eduard Wullschleger, Corina Preda, Andy Chiu-Ku Wu, Simranpreet Kaur, Hsu-Wen Tseng, David Arthur Hume, Jean-Pierre Levesque, Liza Jane Raggatt, Allison Robyn Pettit
Osteal macrophages (osteomacs) contribute to bone homeostasis and regeneration. To further distinguish their functions from osteoclasts, which share many markers and growth factor requirements, we developed a rapid, enzyme-free osteomac enrichment protocol that permitted characterization of minimally manipulated osteomacs by flow cytometry. Osteomacs differ from osteoclasts in expression of Siglec1 (CD169). This distinction was confirmed using the CD169-diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor (DTR) knock-in model. DT treatment of naïve CD169-DTR mice resulted in selective and striking loss of osteomacs, whilst osteoclasts and trabecular bone area were unaffected...
October 22, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106746/low-dose-lithium-regimen-enhances-endochondral-fracture-healing-in-osteoporotic-rodent-bone
#5
Kathak Vachhani, Cari Whyne, Yufa Wang, David Burns, Diane Nam
Osteoporotic bone fractures are highly prevalent and involve lengthy recovery. Lithium, commonly used in psychiatric medicine, inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3β in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, leading to up-regulation of osteogenesis. Our recent preclinical work demonstrated that a 20mg/kg lithium dose administered beginning 7 days post-fracture for 14 days optimally improved femoral fracture healing in healthy rats at 4 weeks post fracture (46% higher torsional strength). In this study, lithium treatment was evaluated for healing of osteoporotic bone fractures...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104492/pth-1-34-ameliorates-the-osteopenia-and-delayed-healing-of-stabilized-tibia-fracture-in-mice-with-achondroplasia-resulting-from-gain-of-function-mutation-of-fgfr3
#6
Hangang Chen, Xianding Sun, Liangjun Yin, Shuai Chen, Ying Zhu, Junlan Huang, Wanling Jiang, Bo Chen, Ruobin Zhang, Lin Chen, Mao Nie, Yangli Xie, Zhongliang Deng
Bone fracture healing is processed through multiple stages including the cartilaginous callus formation and its transition to bony callus. FGFR3 negatively regulates chondrogenesis and enhances osteogenesis during skeleton development. We previously found in mice carrying gain-of-function mutation of FGFR3 that FGFR3 delays the healing of un-stabilized fracture that heals mainly through endochondral ossification. Since fracture is regularly treated in clinics with rigid fixation, and stabilized fracture is healed largely through intramembranous ossification, we asked whether FGFR3, a key regulator of osteogenesis, also affect the regeneration of stabilized fracture...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095481/biallelic-mutations-in-flnb-cause-a-skeletal-dysplasia-with-46-xy-gonadal-dysgenesis-by-activating-%C3%AE-catenin
#7
K Upadhyay, J Loke, V O, B Taragin, H Ostrer
Filamin B (FLNB) functions as a switch that can affect chrondrocyte development and endochondral bone formation through a series of signaling molecules and transcription factors that also affect Sertoli cell development. Here, we report a subject with a novel skeletal dysplasia and co-existing 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis and biallelic mutations in FLNB. Whole exome sequencing was performed to identify mutations. Quantitative qPCR and flow variant assays were performed to quantify RNA, proteins and phosphorylated proteins...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076702/endogenous-production-of-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-promotes-fracture-healing-in-mice
#8
Yuhui Chen, He Cao, Dawei Sun, Changxin Lin, Liang Wang, Minjun Huang, Huaji Jiang, Zhongmin Zhang, Dadi Jin, Baiyu Zhang, Xiaochun Bai
Bone fracture is a global healthcare issue for high rates of delayed healing and nonunions. Although n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) is considered as a beneficial factor for bone metabolism, only few studies till date focused on the effects of n-3 PUFAs on fracture healing. In this study, we investigated the effect of endogenous n-3 PUFAs on fracture healing by measuring femur fracture repair in both fat-1 transgenic mice and WT mice. Proximal femoral fracture model was established in fat-1 transgenic mice and WT mice, respectively, and then the fracture was analyzed by using X-ray, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and histological assessment at 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days after fixation...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074299/angiopoietin-like-protein-2-promotes-chondrogenic-differentiation-during-bone-growth-as-a-cartilage-matrix-factor
#9
H Tanoue, J Morinaga, T Yoshizawa, M Yugami, H Itoh, T Nakamura, Y Uehara, T Masuda, H Odagiri, T Sugizaki, T Kadomatsu, K Miyata, M Endo, K Terada, H Ochi, S Takeda, K Yamagata, T Fukuda, H Mizuta, Y Oike
OBJECTIVE: Chondrocyte differentiation is crucial for long bone growth. Many cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins reportedly contribute to chondrocyte differentiation, indicating that mechanisms underlying chondrocyte differentiation are likely more complex than previously appreciated. Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) is a secreted factor normally abundantly produced in mesenchymal lineage cells such as adipocytes and fibroblasts, but its loss contributes to the pathogenesis of lifestyle- or aging-related diseases...
October 23, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072695/glucocorticoid-mediates-prenatal-caffeine-exposure-induced-endochondral-ossification-retardation-and-its-molecular-mechanism-in-female-fetal-rats
#10
Yangfan Shangguan, Hongqiang Jiang, Zhengqi Pan, Hao Xiao, Yang Tan, Kai Tie, Jun Qin, Yu Deng, Liaobin Chen, Hui Wang
Our previous studies discovered that prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) could induce intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and long-bone dysplasia in offspring rats, accompanied by maternal glucocorticoid over-exposure. This study is to explore whether intrauterine high glucocorticoid level can cause endochondral ossification retardation and clarify its molecular mechanism in PCE fetal rats. Pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered 30 and 120 mg/kg day of caffeine during gestational days (GDs) 9-20, then collected fetal serum and femurs at GD20...
October 26, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065587/endogenous-production-of-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-promotes-fracture-healing-in-mice
#11
Yuhui Chen, He Cao, Dawei Sun, Changxin Lin, Liang Wang, Minjun Huang, Huaji Jiang, Zhongmin Zhang, Dadi Jin, Baiyu Zhang, Xiaochun Bai
Bone fracture is a global healthcare issue for high rates of delayed healing and nonunions. Although n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) is considered as a beneficial factor for bone metabolism, only few studies till date focused on the effects of n-3 PUFAs on fracture healing. In this study, we investigated the effect of endogenous n-3 PUFAs on fracture healing by measuring femur fracture repair in both fat-1 transgenic mice and WT mice. Proximal femoral fracture model was established in fat-1 transgenic mice and WT mice, respectively, and then the fracture was analyzed by using X-ray, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and histological assessment at 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days after fixation...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046415/skeletal-stiffening-in-an-amphibious-fish-out-of-water-is-a-response-to-increased-body-weight
#12
Andy J Turko, Dietmar Kültz, Douglas Fudge, Roger P Croll, Frank M Smith, Matthew R Stoyek, Patricia A Wright
Terrestrial animals must support their bodies against gravity, while aquatic animals are effectively weightless because of buoyant support from water. Given this evolutionary history of minimal gravitational loading of fishes in water, it has been hypothesized that weight-responsive musculoskeletal systems evolved during the tetrapod invasion of land and are thus absent in fishes. Amphibious fishes, however, experience increased effective weight when out of water - are these fishes responsive to gravitational loading? Contrary to the tetrapod-origin hypothesis, we found that terrestrial acclimation reversibly increased gill arch stiffness (∼60% increase) in the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus when loaded normally by gravity, but not under simulated microgravity...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044593/patterns-of-chondrification-and-ossification-in-the-skull-of-graptemys-pseudogeographica-the-false-map-turtle-emydidae
#13
Sharon C Danielson, Christopher A Sheil
Patterns of ossification and chondrification are well-described for several species of turtles, but details of the chondrocranial anatomy are known for only a handful of species. Cleared and double-stained embryos of Graptemys pseudogeographica were used to examine the fully formed chondrocranium and the formation, chondrification, and ossification of the cranium. The chondrocranium of G. pseudogeographica possesses an unusually large, irregularly shaped foramen epiphaniale that is joined with the fenestra olfactoria...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039630/impairment-of-the-chondrogenic-phase-of-endochondral-ossification-in-vivo-by-inhibition-of-cyclooxygenase-2
#14
M P Janssen, M M Caron, B van Rietbergen, D A Surtel, L W van Rhijn, T J Welting, P J Emans
Many studies have reported on the effects of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition on osteogenesis. However, far less is known about the effects of COX-2 inhibition on chondrogenic differentiation. Previous studies conducted by our group show that COX-2 inhibition influences in vitro chondrogenic differentiation. Importantly, this might have consequences on endochondral ossification processes occurring in vivo, such as bone fracture healing, growth plate development and ectopic generation of cartilage. The goal of our study was to investigate, in vivo, the effect of COX-2 inhibition by celecoxib on the cartilaginous phase of three different endochondral ossification scenarios...
October 17, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024060/loss-of-dnmt3b-in-chondrocytes-leads-to-delayed-endochondral-ossification-and-fracture-repair
#15
Cuicui Wang, Yousef Abu-Amer, Regis J O'Keefe, Jie Shen
Despite advanced understanding of signaling mediated by local and systemic factors, the role of epigenetic factors in the regulation of bone regeneration remains vague. The DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b have tissue specific expression patterns and create unique methylation signatures to regulate gene expression. Using a stabilized murine tibia fracture model we find that Dnmt3b is induced early in fracture healing, peaks at 10 days post fracture (dpf), and declines to nearly undetectable levels by 28 dpf...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020504/fibrocartilage-stem-cells-engraft-and-self-organize-into-vascularized-bone
#16
J Nathan, A Ruscitto, S Pylawka, A Soharby, C J Shawber, M C Embree
Angiogenesis is a complex, multicellular process that is critical for bone development and generation. Endochondral ossification depends on an avascular cartilage template that completely remodels into vascularized bone and involves a dynamic interplay among chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and endothelial cells. We have discovered fibrocartilage stem cells (FCSCs) derived from the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) mandibular condyle that generates cartilage anlagen, which is subsequently remodeled into vascularized bone using an ectopic transplantation model...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019753/imaging-of-pediatric-growth-plate-disturbances
#17
Jie C Nguyen, B Keegan Markhardt, Arnold C Merrow, Jerry R Dwek
The growth plates, or physes, are visible on virtually all images obtained in skeletally immature children. The proper function of these growth plates depends on an intricate balance between chondrocyte proliferation, which requires nourishment from the epiphyseal vessels, and chondrocyte death, which requires the integrity of the metaphyseal vessels. Therefore, injury to the growth plate (ie, direct insult) or vascular compromise on either side of the growth plate (ie, indirect insult) can cause growth plate dysfunction...
October 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017973/modulating-microfibrillar-alignment-and-growth-factor-stimulation-to-regulate-mesenchymal-stem-cell-differentiation
#18
Dinorath Olvera, Binulal N Sathy, Simon F Carroll, Daniel J Kelly
The ideal tissue engineering (TE) strategy for ligament regeneration should recapitulate the bone - calcified cartilage - fibrocartilage - soft tissue interface. Aligned electrospun-fibers have been shown to guide the deposition of a highly organized extracellular matrix (ECM) necessary for ligament TE. However, recapitulating the different tissues observed in the bone-ligament interface using such constructs remains a challenge. This study aimed to explore how fiber alignment and growth factor stimulation interact to regulate the chondrogenic and ligamentous differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
December 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990933/circulating-osteocrin-stimulates-bone-growth-by-limiting-c-type-natriuretic-peptide-clearance
#19
Yugo Kanai, Akihiro Yasoda, Keita P Mori, Haruko Watanabe-Takano, Chiaki Nagai-Okatani, Yui Yamashita, Keisho Hirota, Yohei Ueda, Ichiro Yamauchi, Eri Kondo, Shigeki Yamanaka, Yoriko Sakane, Kazumasa Nakao, Toshihito Fujii, Hideki Yokoi, Naoto Minamino, Masashi Mukoyama, Naoki Mochizuki, Nobuya Inagaki
Although peptides are safe and useful as therapeutics, they are often easily degraded or metabolized. Dampening the clearance system for peptide ligands is a promising strategy for increasing the efficacy of peptide therapies. Natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) and its naturally occurring ligand, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), are potent stimulators of endochondral bone growth, and activating the CNP/NPR-B system is expected to be a powerful strategy for treating impaired skeletal growth. CNP is cleared by natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C); therefore, we investigated the effect of reducing the rate of CNP clearance on skeletal growth by limiting the interaction between CNP and NPR-C...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990069/knockdown-of-indian-hedgehog-protein-induces-an-inhibition-of-cell-growth-and-differentiation-in-osteoblast-mc3t3%C3%A2-e1-cells
#20
Ang Deng, Hongqi Zhang, Minyu Hu, Shaohua Liu, Qile Gao, Yuxiang Wang, Chaofeng Guo
Indian hedgehog protein (Ihh) is evolutionarily conserved and serves important roles in controlling the differentiation of progenitor cells into osteoblasts. Ihh null mutant mice exhibit a failure of osteoblast development in endochondral bone. Although studies have demonstrated that Ihh signaling is a potent local factor that regulates osteoblast differentiation, the specific transcription factors that determine osteoblast differentiation remain unclear. Further studies are required to determine the precise mechanism through which Ihh regulates osteoblast differentiation...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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