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endochondral bone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687525/smd-kozlowski-type-caused-by-p-arg594his-substitution-in-trpv4-reveals-abnormal-ossification-and-notochordal-remnants-in-discs-and-vertebrae
#1
Tadeusz Bieganski, Peter Beighton, Maciej Lukaszewski, Krzysztof Bik, Lukasz Kuszel, Ewa Wasilewska, Kazimierz Kozlowski, Malwina Czarny-Ratajczak
Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia Kozlowski type (SMDK) is a monogenic disorder within the TRPV4 dysplasia spectrum and has characteristic spinal and metaphyseal involvement. We report skeletal MR imaging in a two-year-old patient who manifested typical clinical and radiographic features of SMDK. The diagnosis was confirmed by molecular analysis which revealed a mutation NM_021625.4:c.1781G > A - p.(Arg594His) in exon 11 of the TRPV4 gene. We have documented abnormalities in endochondral formation of the long and short tubular bones as well as round bones of the wrists and feet...
July 4, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681971/growth-plate-expression-profiling-large-and-small-breed-dogs-provide-new-insights-in-endochondral-bone-formation
#2
Michelle Teunissen, Frank M Riemers, Dik van Leenen, Marian J A Groot Koerkamp, Björn P Meij, Jacqueline Alblas, Louis C Penning, Alberto Miranda-Bedate, Marianna A Tryfonidou
The difference in the adult height of mammals, and hence in endochondral bone formation, is not yet fully understood and may serve to identify targets for bone and cartilage regeneration. In line with this hypothesis, the intra-species disparity between the adult height of Great Danes and Miniature Poodles was investigated at a transcriptional level. Microarray analysis of the growth plate of 5 Great Danes and 5 Miniature Poodles revealed 2981 unique genes that were differentially expressed, including many genes with an unknown role in skeletal development...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675805/characterization-of-normal-murine-carpal-bone-development-prompts-re-evaluation-of-pathologic-osteolysis-as-the-cause-of-human-carpal-tarsal-osteolysis-disorders
#3
Syndia Lazarus, Hsu-Wen Tseng, Felicity Lawrence, Maria Ann Woodruff, Emma Letitia Duncan, Allison Robyn Pettit
Multicentric carpal-tarsal osteolysis; multicentric osteolysis, nodulosis, and arthropathy; and Winchester syndromes, skeletal dysplasias characterized by carpal/tarsal and epiphyseal abnormalities, are caused by mutations in v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene ortholog B (MAFB), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), and MMP14, respectively; however, the underlying pathophysiology is unclear. Osteoclast-mediated osteolysis has been regarded as the main mechanism, but does not explain the skeletal distribution...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668522/the-traumatic-bone-trauma-induced-heterotopic-ossification
#4
REVIEW
Devaveena Dey, Benjamin M Wheatley, David Cholok, Shailesh Agarwal, Paul B Yu, Benjamin Levi, Thomas A Davis
Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a common occurrence after multiple forms of extensive trauma. These include arthroplasties, traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries, extensive burns in the civilian setting, and combat-related extremity injuries in the battlefield. Irrespective of the form of trauma, heterotopic bone is typically endochondral in structure and is laid down via a cartilaginous matrix. Once formed, the heterotopic bone typically needs to be excised surgically, which may result in wound healing complications, in addition to a risk of recurrence...
June 15, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661587/endochondral-ossification-in-critical-sized-bone-defects-via-readily-implantable-scaffold-free-stem-cell-constructs
#5
Phuong N Dang, Samuel Herberg, Davood Varghai, Hooman Riazi, Daniel Varghai, Alexandra McMillan, Amad Awadallah, Lauren M Phillips, Oju Jeon, Minh K Nguyen, Neha Dwivedi, Xiaohua Yu, William L Murphy, Eben Alsberg
The growing socioeconomic burden of musculoskeletal injuries and limitations of current therapies have motivated tissue engineering approaches to generate functional tissues to aid in defect healing. A readily implantable scaffold-free system comprised of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells embedded with bioactive microparticles capable of controlled delivery of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) was engineered to guide endochondral bone formation...
July 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645539/gli1-labeled-adult-mesenchymal-stem-progenitor-cells-and-hedgehog-signaling-contribute-to-endochondral-heterotopic-ossification
#6
Chen Kan, Lijun Chen, Yangyang Hu, Na Ding, Yuyun Li, Tammy L McGuire, Haimei Lu, John A Kessler, Lixin Kan
Heterotopic ossification (HO), acquired or hereditary, endochondral or intramembranous, is the formation of true bone outside the normal skeleton. Since perivascular Gli1+ progenitors contribute to injury induced organ fibrosis, and CD133 is expressed by a variety of populations adult stem cells, this study utilized Cre-lox based genetic lineage tracing to test the contribution to endochondral HO of adult stem/progenitor cells that expressed either Gli1 or CD133. We found that both lineages contributed broadly to different normal tissues with distinct patterns, but that only Gli1-creERT labeled stem/progenitor cells contributed to all stages of endochondral HO in a BMP dependent, injury induced, transgenic mouse model...
June 20, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644737/circulatory-cnp-rescues-craniofacial-hypoplasia-in-achondroplasia
#7
S Yamanaka, Kazumasa Nakao, N Koyama, Y Isobe, Y Ueda, Y Kanai, E Kondo, T Fujii, M Miura, A Yasoda, Kazuwa Nakao, K Bessho
Achondroplasia is the most common genetic form of human dwarfism, characterized by midfacial hypoplasia resulting in occlusal abnormality and foramen magnum stenosis, leading to serious neurologic complications and hydrocephalus. Currently, surgery is the only way to manage jaw deformity, neurologic complications, and hydrocephalus in patients with achondroplasia. We previously showed that C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a potent stimulator of endochondral bone growth of long bones and vertebrae and is also a potent stimulator in the craniofacial region, which is crucial for midfacial skeletogenesis...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643905/diverse-contribution-of-col2a1-expressing-cells-to-the-craniofacial-skeletal-cell-lineages
#8
N Sakagami, W Ono, N Ono
OBJECTIVES: Craniofacial skeletal development requires deliberate coordination of two distinct mechanisms of endochondral and intramembranous ossification. Col2a1-expressing cells encompass growth-associated skeletal progenitors in endochondral bones of the limb. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of Col2a1-expressing cells to the craniofacial skeletal cell lineages. We hypothesize that Col2a1-expressing progenitors significantly contribute to various modes of ossification associated with the craniofacial development...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643552/drug-induced-physeal-abnormalities-in-preclinical-toxicity-studies
#9
Kendall S Frazier
Most toxic physeal changes are characterized microscopically by altered chondrocyte development, proliferation, or maturation in the growth plate and eventually result in disordered appositional bone growth. Many therapeutic drugs directly or indirectly target proteins involved in chondrocytic differentiation and maturation pathways, so toxic physeal injury has become increasingly common in preclinical toxicologic pathology. While physeal dysplasia has been associated with several different drug classes including bisphosphonates, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitors, fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitors, transforming growth factor beta receptor inhibitors, and vascular targeting agents, physeal changes often share similar morphologic features including thickening and disorganization of the hypertrophic layer, increased numbers of hypertrophic chondrocytes, altered mineralization of endochondral ossification, and/or increased thickness of subphyseal bone...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637283/an-essential-physiological-role-for-mct8-in-bone-in-male-mice
#10
Victoria D Leitch, Caterina Di Cosmo, Xiao-Hui Liao, Sam O'Boy, Thomas M Galliford, Holly Evans, Peter I Croucher, Alan Boyde, Alexandra Dumitrescu, Roy E Weiss, Samuel Refetoff, Graham R Williams, J H Duncan Bassett
T3 is an important regulator of skeletal development and adult bone maintenance. Thyroid hormone action requires efficient transport of T4 and T3 into target cells. We hypothesized that monocarboxylate transporter-8, encoded by Mct8 on the X-chromosome, is an essential thyroid hormone transporter in bone. To test this hypothesis, we determined the juvenile and adult skeletal phenotypes of male Mct8 knockout mice (Mct8KO) and Mct8D1D2KO compound mutants, which additionally lack the ability to convert the prohormone T4 to the active hormone T3...
June 15, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629737/the-obligatory-role-of-activin-a-in-the-formation-of-heterotopic-bone-in-fibrodysplasia-ossificans-progressiva
#11
Dana M Alessi Wolken, Vincent Idone, Sarah J Hatsell, Paul B Yu, Aris N Economides
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP) is a rare genetic disorder that presents at birth with only minor patterning defects, but manifests its debilitating pathology early in life with episodic, yet progressive and cumulative, heterotopic ossification (HO) of ligaments, tendons, and a subset of major skeletal muscles. The resulting HO lesions are endochondral in nature, and appear to be linked to inflammatory stimuli arising in association with known injuries, or from inflammation linked to normal tissue repair...
June 16, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629234/healing-of-osteochondral-defects-via-endochondral-ossification-in-an-ovine-model
#12
Helen Lydon, Alan Getgood, Frances M D Henson
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe the mechanism of healing of osteochondral defects of the distal femur in the sheep, a commonly used translational model. Information on the healing mechanism be useful to inform the design of tissue engineering devices for joint surface defect repair. DESIGN: A retrospective study was conducted examining 7-mm diameter osteochondral defects made in the distal medial femoral condyle of 40 adult female sheep, comprising control animals from 3 separate structures...
June 1, 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627740/biofabrication-of-soft-tissue-templates-for-engineering-the-bone-ligament-interface
#13
Ella Harris, Yurong Liu, Grainne Cuniffe, David Morrissey, Simon Carroll, Kevin Mulhall, Daniel J Kelly
Regenerating damaged tissue interfaces remains a significant clinical challenge, requiring recapitulation of the structure, composition and function of the native enthesis. In the ligament-to-bone interface this region transitions from ligament to fibrocartilage, to calcified cartilage and then to bone. This gradation in tissue types facilitates the transfer of load between soft and hard structures while minimizing stress concentrations at the interface. Previous attempts to engineer the ligament-bone interface have utilized various scaffold materials with an array of various cell types and/or biological cues...
June 19, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622604/tissue-engineered-hypertrophic-chondrocyte-grafts-enhanced-long-bone-repair
#14
Jonathan Bernhard, James Ferguson, Bernhard Rieder, Patrick Heimel, Thomas Nau, Stefan Tangl, Heinz Redl, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic
Bone has innate ability to regenerate following injury. However, large and complex fractures exceed bone's natural repair capacity and result in non-unions, requiring external intervention to facilitate regeneration. One potential treatment solution, tissue-engineered bone grafts, has been dominated by recapitulating intramembranous ossification (bone formation by osteoblasts), although most serious bone injuries heal by endochondral ossification (bone formation by remodeling of hypertrophic cartilaginous anlage)...
September 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602824/distribution-of-bdnf-and-trkb-isoforms-in-growing-antler-tissues-of-red-deer
#15
M Colitti
Antlers are the cranial appendages of deer that regenerate each year. This renewal provides a model to explore molecules involved in mammalian organ regeneration. The cellular distributions of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the isoforms of its cognate receptor Trk tyrosine kinase receptor (TrkB) were localized by immunohistochemistry in sections of growing red deer antler. BDNF and TrkB full length were widely expressed in the integument, perichondrium, periosteum and bone. The truncated isoform receptor was particularly evidenced in integument and vascular inner dermis, but very light reaction was observed in cartilage and bone, both at the site of endochondral and intramembranous ossification...
June 7, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602122/transcriptome-wide-analyses-of-human-neonatal-articular-cartilage-and-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-hmscs-derived-cartilage-provide-a-new-molecular-target-for-evaluating-engineered-cartilage
#16
Rodrigo Alfonso Somoza, Diego Correa, Ivan Labat, Hal Sternberg, Megan E Forrest, Ahmad M Khalil, Michael D West, Paul J Tesar, Arnold I Caplan
Cellular differentiation comprises a progressive, multistep program that drives cells to fabricate a tissue with specific and site distinctive structural and functional properties. Cartilage constitutes one of the potential differentiation lineages that Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) can follow under the guidance of specific bioactive agents. Single agents such as TGF-β and BMP2 in unchanging culture conditions have been historically used to induce in vitro chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. Despite the expression of traditional chondrogenic biomarkers such as type II collagen and aggrecan, the resulting tissue represents a transient cartilage rather than an in vivo articular cartilage (AC), differing significantly in structure, chemical composition, cellular phenotypes, and mechanical properties...
June 10, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600846/ectopic-implantation-of-juvenile-osteochondral-tissues-recapitulates-endochondral-ossification
#17
Johnathan Ng, Yiyong Wei, Bin Zhou, Sarindr Bhumiratana, Aonnicha Burapachaisri, Edward Guo, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic
Subcutaneous implantation in a mouse can be used to investigate tissue maturation in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that this simple model can recapitulate endochondral ossification associated with native skeletal development. By histological and μCT analysis, we investigated morphological changes of immature bovine osteochondral tissues over the course of subcutaneous implantation in immunocompromised mice for up to 10 weeks. We observed multiple similarities between the ectopic process and native endochondral ossification: (i) permanent cartilage retention in the upper zones, (ii) progressive loss of transient cartilage accompanied by bone formation at the interface, and (iii) remodeling of nascent endochondral bone into mature cancellous bone...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583512/comprehensive-management-of-congenital-choanal-atresia
#18
Pierre Brihaye, Isabelle Delpierre, Andrée De Villé, Anne-Britt Johansson, Dominique Biarent, Anne-Laure Mansbach
OBJECTIVES: To present results of a one-stage minimally invasive surgical procedure for congenital choanal atresia (CCA). Seven outcome measures were applied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study conducted between 1999 and 2015. The same endonasal endoscopic approach with multiflaps and no stenting was used on 36 children. The flaps were attached with fibrine glue. There were 50% unilateral and 50% bilateral cases, 70% primary and 30% secondary surgery. The mean age at primary surgery for bilateral atresia was 10 days and for unilateral atresia 4 years...
July 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562424/biology-of-bone-formation-fracture-healing-and-distraction-osteogenesis
#19
Christopher M Runyan, Kyle S Gabrick
Distraction osteogenesis is a bone-regenerative process in which an osteotomy is followed by distraction of the surrounding vascularized bone segments, with formation of new bone within the distraction gap. Distraction osteogenesis is efficacious for reconstructing critical sized bony defects in the appendicular and craniofacial skeleton. To provide opportunity to expand applications of distraction osteogenesis, it is important to have a thorough understanding of the underlying molecular biology and physiology of bone development and fracture healing...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559051/8-nitro-cgmp-promotes-bone-growth-through-expansion-of-growth-plate-cartilage
#20
Marie Hoshino, Kotaro Kaneko, Yoichi Miyamoto, Kentaro Yoshimura, Dai Suzuki, Takaaki Akaike, Tomohiro Sawa, Tomoaki Ida, Shigemoto Fujii, Hideshi Ihara, Junichi Tanaka, Risa Tsukuura, Daichi Chikazu, Kenji Mishima, Kazuyoshi Baba, Ryutaro Kamijo
In endochondral ossification, growth of bones occurs at their growth plate cartilage. While it is known that nitric oxide (NO) synthases are required for proliferation of chondrocytes in growth plate cartilage and growth of bones, the precise mechanism by which NO facilitates these process has not been clarified yet. C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) also positively regulate elongation of bones through expansion of the growth plate cartilage. Both NO and CNP are known to use cGMP as the second messenger. Recently, 8-nitro-cGMP was identified as a signaling molecule produced in the presence of NO in various types of cells...
May 27, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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