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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316946/correlation-between-salivary-glucose-and-blood-glucose-and-the-implications-of-salivary-factors-on-the-oral-health-status-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients
#1
Kavitha A Puttaswamy, Jaishankar H Puttabudhi, Shashidara Raju
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to estimate and assess any correlation between random capillary blood glucose (RCBG) and unstimulated whole salivary glucose (UWSG), as well as to estimate various salivary parameters, such as flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, and the influence of these factors on the oral health status in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty individuals suffering from type 2 DM and 40 healthy individuals in the age group of 30-60 years were included in the study...
January 2017: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302035/translational-multimodality-neuroimaging
#2
Sushil K Sharma
Recently high-resolution, noninvasive, multimodality in-vivo molecular imaging with PET, SPECT, CT and MRI, employing fusion algorithms has revolutionized personalized medicine. However, specific radiopharmaceuticals (RPs) for the accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, drug addiction, and other cognitive impairments still remain in developmental phase. Currently, multimodality fusion neuroimaging is utilized for the determination of: pharmacokinetics and pre-clinical development of radiopharmaceuticals (RPs); in-vivo monitoring of stem cell transplantation therapy; nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) investigations; and regional cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in cognitively-impaired subjects employing noninvasive microPET and nano-SPECT imaging...
March 15, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301988/the-influence-of-lipid-and-proinflammatory-status-on-maternal-uterine-blood-flow-in-women-with-late-onset-gestational-diabetes
#3
Fernando Bugatto, Rocío Quintero-Prado, Francisco M Visiedo, José M Vilar-Sánchez, Alejandro Figueroa-Quiñones, Cristina López-Tinoco, Rafael Torrejón, José L Bartha
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased proinflammatory cytokines and is also associated with adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes later in life. We aim to evaluate the relationships between uterine arteries vascularization and endothelial dysfunction markers, proinflammatory cytokines, and glycemic and lipid profile in women with GDM. METHODS: Fifty pregnant women were recruited at the third trimester of pregnancy for a prospective cohort study...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299608/dissipative-energy-loss-within-the-left-ventricle-detected-by-vector-flow-mapping-in-diabetic-patients-with-controlled-and-uncontrolled-blood-glucose-levels
#4
Chun-Mei Li, Wen-Juan Bai, Yan-Ting Liu, Hong Tang, Li Rao
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is related to increased risks of cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction, diabetic cardiomyopathy and secondary hypertension. Dissipative energy loss (EL) derived from vector flow mapping (VFM) is thought to reflect the efficiency of blood flow and has been deemed to be an index for the evaluation of left ventricular function. Our study aimed to investigate the value of dissipative EL in diabetic patients with controlled and uncontrolled blood glucose by VFM. Eighty-eight patients with DM and 58 age-matched healthy controls were recruited...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289180/beneficial-effects-of-apelin-on-vascular-function-in-patients-with-central-obesity
#5
Francesca Schinzari, Augusto Veneziani, Nadia Mores, Angela Barini, Nicola Di Daniele, Carmine Cardillo, Manfredi Tesauro
Patients with central obesity have impaired insulin-stimulated vasodilation and increased ET-1 (endothelin 1) vasoconstriction, which may contribute to insulin resistance and vascular damage. Apelin enhances insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal but also acts as a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilator and a counter-regulator of AT1 (angiotensin [Ang] II type 1) receptor-induced vasoconstriction. We, therefore, examined the effects of exogenous (Pyr(1))apelin on NO-mediated vasodilation and Ang II- or ET-1-dependent vasoconstrictor tone in obese patients...
March 13, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284926/moderate-short-term-local-hyperglycemia-attenuates-forearm-endothelium-dependent-vasodilation-after-transient-ischemia-reperfusion-in-human-volunteers
#6
Thomas J Ebert, Jutta Novalija, Jill A Barney, Toni D Uhrich, Shahbaz R Arain, Julie K Freed, Paul S Pagel
OBJECTIVE: Acute hyperglycemia causes endothelial dysfunction in diabetic patients, abolishes ischemic pre- and postconditioning, and is an independent predictor of adverse outcome after myocardial infarction in nondiabetic patients. Its effects on endothelial-dependent vasodilation are controversial in healthy subjects. The authors studied the effect of moderate short-term local hyperglycemia on forearm endothelium-dependent vasodilation in healthy volunteers. DESIGN: Randomized, crossover, blinded, 2-visit, pilot design...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283718/measuring-transdermal-glucose-levels-in-neonates-by-passive-diffusion-an-in-vitro-porcine-skin-model
#7
Cristina Tiangco, Abhay Andar, Juliana Quarterman, Xudong Ge, Fortunato Sevilla, Govind Rao, Audra Stinchcomb, Annette Bunge, Leah Tolosa
Current glucose monitoring techniques for neonates rely heavily on blood glucose monitors which require intermittent blood collection through skin-penetrating pricks on the heel or fingers. This procedure is painful and often not clinically conducive, which presents a need for a noninvasive method for monitoring glucose in neonates. Our motivation for this study was to develop an in vitro method for measuring passive diffusion of glucose in premature neonatal skin using a porcine skin model. Such a model will allow us to initially test new devices for noninvasive glucose monitoring without having to do in vivo testing of newborns...
March 10, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271589/clustering-of-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors-in-parents-of-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-and-microalbuminuria
#8
M Loredana Marcovecchio, Päivi H Tossavainen, Katharine Owen, Catherine Fullah, Paul Benitez-Aguirre, Stefano Masi, Ken Ong, Helen Nguyen, Scott T Chiesa, R Neil Dalton, John Deanfield, David B Dunger
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between a clustering of cardio-metabolic risk factors in parents and the development of microalbuminuria (MA) in their offspring with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: The study population comprised 53 parents (mean age [±SD]: 56.7±6.2 years) of 35 T1D young people with MA (MA+) and 86 parents (age: 56.1±6.3 years) of 50 matched offspring with normoalbuminuria (MA-), who underwent clinical, biochemical and cardiovascular imaging assessments...
March 8, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270914/sepsis-induced-cardiac-dysfunction-and-%C3%AE-adrenergic-blockade-therapy-for-sepsis
#9
REVIEW
Takeshi Suzuki, Yuta Suzuki, Jun Okuda, Takuya Kurazumi, Tomohiro Suhara, Tomomi Ueda, Hiromasa Nagata, Hiroshi Morisaki
Despite recent advances in medical care, mortality due to sepsis, defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, remains high. Fluid resuscitation and vasopressors are the first-line treatment for sepsis in order to optimize hemodynamic instability caused by vasodilation and increased vascular permeability. However, these therapies, aimed at maintaining blood pressure and blood flow to vital organs, could have deleterious cardiac effects, as cardiomyocyte damage occurs in the early stages of sepsis...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270564/microsomal-and-cytosolic-scaling-factors-in-dog-and-human-kidney-cortex-and-application-for-in-vitro-in-vivo-extrapolation-of-renal-metabolic-clearance
#10
Daniel Scotcher, Sarah Billington, Jay Brown, Christopher Jones, Colin D A Brown, Amin Rostami-Hodjegan, Aleksandra Galetin
In vitro-in vivo extrapolation of drug metabolism data obtained in enriched preparations of sub-cellular fractions rely upon robust estimates of physiologically relevant scaling factors for prediction of clearance in vivo. The purpose of the current study was to measure the microsomal and cytosolic protein per gram of kidney (MPPGK and CPPGK) in dog and human kidney cortex using appropriate protein recovery markers, and evaluate functional activity of human cortex microsomes. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) content and glucose-6-phosphatase activity were used as microsomal protein markers, whereas glutathione-S-transferase activity was a cytosolic marker...
March 7, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261040/changes-in-cerebral-blood-flow-during-an-alteration-in-glycemic-state-in-a-large-non-human-primate-papio-hamadryas-sp
#11
Peter Kochunov, Hsiao-Ying Wey, Peter T Fox, Jack L Lancaster, Michael D Davis, Danny J J Wang, Ai-Ling Lin, Raul A Bastarrachea, Marcia C R Andrade, Vicki Mattern, Patrice Frost, Paul B Higgins, Anthony G Comuzzie, Venkata S Voruganti
Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during a hyperglycemic challenge were mapped, using perfusion-weighted MRI, in a group of non-human primates. Seven female baboons were fasted for 16 h prior to 1-h imaging experiment, performed under general anesthesia, that consisted of a 20-min baseline, followed by a bolus infusion of glucose (500 mg/kg). CBF maps were collected every 7 s and blood glucose and insulin levels were sampled at regular intervals. Blood glucose levels rose from 51.3 ± 10.9 to 203.9 ± 38...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261039/first-description-of-reduced-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-enzyme-activity-following-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-sah
#12
Nadine Lilla, Hannah Füllgraf, Christian Stetter, Stefan Köhler, Ralf-Ingo Ernestus, Thomas Westermaier
Object: Several previous studies reported metabolic derangements and an accumulation of metabolic products in the early phase of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which may contribute to secondary brain damage. This may be a result of deranged oxygen utilization due to enzymatic dysfunction in aerobic glucose metabolism. This study was performed to investigate, if pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme (PDH) is affected in its activity giving further hints for a derangement of oxidative metabolism. Methods: Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups (n = 9): (1) SAH induced by the endovascular filament model and (2) sham-operated controls...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259131/dysfunction-of-kidney-endothelium-after-ischemia-reperfusion-and-its-prevention-by-mitochondria-targeted-antioxidant
#13
S S Jankauskas, N V Andrianova, I B Alieva, A N Prusov, D D Matsievsky, L D Zorova, I B Pevzner, E S Savchenko, Y A Pirogov, D N Silachev, E Y Plotnikov, D B Zorov
One of the most important pathological consequences of renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is kidney malfunctioning. I/R leads to oxidative stress, which affects not only nephron cells but also cells of the vascular wall, especially endothelium, resulting in its damage. Assessment of endothelial damage, its role in pathological changes in organ functioning, and approaches to normalization of endothelial and renal functions are vital problems that need to be resolved. The goal of this study was to examine functional and morphological impairments occurring in the endothelium of renal vessels after I/R and to explore the possibility of alleviation of the severity of these changes using mitochondria-targeted antioxidant 10-(6'-plastoquinonyl)decylrhodamine 19 (SkQR1)...
December 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258126/effects-of-meal-and-incretins-in-the-regulation-of-splanchnic-blood-flow
#14
Jukka Koffert, Henri Honka, Jarmo Teuho, Saila Kauhanen, Saija Hurme, Riitta Parkkola, Vesa Oikonen, Andrea Mari, Andreas Lindqvist, Nils Wierup, Leif Groop, Pirjo Nuutila
OBJECTIVE: Meal ingestion is followed by a redistribution of blood flow (BF) within the splanchnic region contributing to nutrient absorption, insulin secretion and glucose disposal, but factors regulating this phenomenon in humans are poorly known. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the organ-specific changes in BF during a mixed-meal and incretin infusions. DESIGN: Non-randomized intervention study of 10 healthy adults to study splanchnic BF regulation...
March 3, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256564/capillary-flow-driven-microfluidic-device-with-wettability-gradient-and-sedimentation-effects-for-blood-plasma-separation
#15
M Sneha Maria, P E Rakesh, T S Chandra, A K Sen
We report a capillary flow-driven microfluidic device for blood-plasma separation that comprises a cylindrical well between a pair of bottom and top channels. Exposure of the well to oxygen-plasma creates wettability gradient on its inner surface with its ends hydrophilic and middle portion hydrophobic. Due to capillary action, sample blood self-infuses into bottom channel and rises up the well. Separation of plasma occurs at the hydrophobic patch due to formation of a 'self-built-in filter' and sedimentation...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254632/metabolic-and-inflammatory-responses-to-the-common-sweetener-stevioside-and-a-glycemic-challenge-in-horses-with-equine-metabolic-syndrome
#16
S E Elzinga, B Rohleder, B Schanbacher, K McQuerry, V D Barker, A A Adams
Extracts derived from the leaves of the stevia plant (stevioside) are commonly used as sweeteners for humans and horses. Stevioside appears to be safe for human consumption, including for individuals with insulin dysregulation. In the horse, the safety or metabolic effects of stevioside on normal animals or on those with metabolic dysfunction are unknown. Furthermore, the inflammatory response to a glycemic challenge or to stevioside in horses is not well defined. Therefore, the objective of this study was to measure the effects of stevioside and a glycemic challenge on insulin, glucose, and inflammatory responses in horses with a common metabolic dysfunction (equine metabolic syndrome or EMS) compared with non-EMS controls...
February 4, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249730/real-time-changes-in-hippocampal-energy-demands-during-a-spatial-working-memory-task
#17
John Kealy, Rachel Bennett, Barbara Woods, John P Lowry
Activity-dependent changes in hippocampal energy consumption have largely been determined using microdialysis. However, real-time recordings of brain energy consumption can be more accurately achieved using amperometric sensors, allowing for sensitive real-time monitoring of concentration changes. Here, we test the theory that systemic pre-treatment with glucose in rats prevents activity-dependent decreases in hippocampal glucose levels and thus enhances their performance in a spontaneous alternation task. Male Sprague Dawley rats were implanted into the hippocampus with either: 1) microdialysis probe; or 2) an oxygen sensor and glucose biosensor co-implanted together...
February 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248536/cardiovascular-diseases-depression-disorders-and-potential-effects-of-omega-3-fatty-acids
#18
J Trebatická, A Dukát, Z Ďuračková, J Muchová
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and depressive disorders (DD) are two of the most prevalent health problems in the world. Although CVD and depression have different origin, they share some common pathophysiological characteristics and risk factors, such as the increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, endothelial dysfunction, blood flow abnormalities, decreased glucose metabolism, elevated plasma homocysteine levels, oxidative stress and disorder in vitamin D metabolism. Current findings confirm the common underlying factors for both pathologies, which are related to dramatic dietary changes in the mid-19th century...
February 28, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245208/patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-display-decreased-flow-mediated-dilatation-evidence-from-a-meta-analysis
#19
Yuyu Wang, Huajun Xu, Yingjun Qian, Jian Guan, Hongliang Yi, Shankai Yin
BACKGROUND Endothelial dysfunction, which can be measured by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), is an early clinical marker of atherosclerosis, which is considered to be the main cause of the observed cardiovascular complications in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. The association between OSA and endothelial dysfunction has been reported in a number of studies; however, the findings are not entirely consistent. Our aim was to meta-analytically synthesize the existing evidence to explore the association between OSA and endothelial dysfunction...
February 28, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242634/ketone-body-infusion-with-3-hydroxybutyrate-reduces-myocardial-glucose-uptake-and-increases-blood-flow-in-humans-a-positron-emission-tomography-study
#20
Lars C Gormsen, Mads Svart, Henrik Holm Thomsen, Esben Søndergaard, Mikkel H Vendelbo, Nana Christensen, Lars Poulsen Tolbod, Hendrik Johannes Harms, Roni Nielsen, Henrik Wiggers, Niels Jessen, Jakob Hansen, Hans Erik Bøtker, Niels Møller
BACKGROUND: High levels of ketone bodies are associated with improved survival as observed with regular exercise, caloric restriction, and-most recently-treatment with sodium-glucose linked transporter 2 inhibitor antidiabetic drugs. In heart failure, indices of ketone body metabolism are upregulated, which may improve energy efficiency and increase blood flow in skeletal muscle and the kidneys. Nevertheless, it is uncertain how ketone bodies affect myocardial glucose uptake and blood flow in humans...
February 27, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
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