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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810558/functional-assessment-of-prefrontal-lobes-in-patients-with-major-depression-disorder-using-a-dual-mode-technique-of-3d-arterial-spin-labeling-and-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography
#1
Chang Fu, Dapeng Shi, Yongju Gao, Junling Xu
The aim of this study was to explore the functions of cerebral blood perfusion and glucose metabolism in the prefrontal lobe of patients with major depression disorder (MDD), and to analyze the correlations between these functional changes and depressive symptoms. 3D-arterial spin labeling (ASL) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) were successfully performed in 17 patients with MDD and 16 healthy controls in a resting state. The depressive symptoms of the patients were classified into seven factors and scored with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802108/do-environmental-factors-affect-male-fathead-minnow-pimephales-promelas-response-to-estrone-part-2-temperature-and-food-availability
#2
N W Shappell, D J Feifarek, D C Rearick, S E Bartell, H L Schoenfuss
Fish are subject to constantly changing environmental conditions and food availability, factors that may impact their response to endocrine disruptors (EDs). This may, in part, explain outcome discrepancies between field studies and laboratory exposures to EDs. This study assessed whether standard laboratory conditions for fish exposures adequately represent effects of ED exposure at two environmentally realistic temperatures. The impact of temperature and food availability on male fathead minnow response to estrone (E1) exposure was studied in two experiments (3×2×2 factorial design) with three E1 concentrations (range 0-135ng/L); two temperatures (18°C and 26°C, the latter the prescribed laboratory temperature), and two feeding treatments (full fed vs...
August 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801292/-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-modulates-differentiation-of-murine-memory-cd8-t-cell-subpopulations
#3
Hua Zheng, Ze-Hang Lin, Yan-Mei Zhang, Chen-Fei Zhou, Xuan Liu, Sha Wu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate effect of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) on memory CD8(+) T cell subpopulation differentiation in mice with autoimmune diabetes. METHODS: Cultured splenic CD8(+) T cells from pre-diabetic NOD mice isolated with magnetic beads were treated with 30 µg/mL ox-LDL and 10 U/mL interleukin-2 (IL-2) for 24 h and the control cells were treated with IL-2 only. Flow cytometry was used to determine the percentage of splenic CD8(+)IFN-γ(+) T cells, expressions of CD8, CD44 and CD62L on the T cells, and the activation of T cell factor-1 (TCF-1) and STAT-3...
August 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798199/human-cerebral-blood-flow-control-during-hypoxia-focus-on-chronic-pulmonary-obstructive-disease-copd-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea-osa
#4
Andrew E Beaudin, Sara E Hartmann, Matiram Pun, Marc J Poulin
The brain is a vital organ that relies on a constant and adequate blood flow to match oxygen and glucose delivery with the local metabolic demands of active neurons. Thus, exquisite regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is particularly important under hypoxic conditions to prevent a detrimental decrease in the partial pressure of oxygen within the brain tissues. Cerebrovascular sensitivity to hypoxia, assessed as the change in CBF during a hypoxic challenge, represents the capacity of cerebral vessels to respond to, and compensate for, a reduced oxygen supply, and has been shown to be impaired or blunted in a number of conditions...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798193/the-role-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-b-in-metabolic-homeostasis-current-evidence
#5
Mohammad Ishraq Zafar, Juan Zheng, Wen Kong, Xiaofeng Ye, Luoning Gou, Anita Regmi, Lu-Lu Chen
It has been shown that adipose tissue and skeletal muscles of lean individuals respond to meal-induced hyperinsulinemia by increases in perfusion, the effect not observed in patients with metabolic syndrome. In conditions of hyperglycaemia and hypertriglyceridemia, this insufficient vascularization leads to the liberation of reactive oxygen species, and disruption of nitric oxide synthesis and endothelial signalling responsible for the uptake of circulating fatty acids, whose accumulation in skeletal muscles and adipose tissue is widely associated with impairment of insulin signalling...
August 10, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794109/comparative-study-on-glucose-transporters-expression-and-activity-between-stem-cell-derived-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-and-hcmec-d3-cells
#6
Abraham J Al-Alahmad
Glucose constitutes the major source of energy of mammalian brains. Glucose uptake at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) occurs through a facilitated glucose transport, through glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), although other isoforms have been described at the BBB. Mutations in GLUT1 is associated with the GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS), yet none of the current in vitro models of the human BBB maybe suited for modelling such disorder. In this study, we investigated the expression of glucose transporters and glucose diffusion across the human BBB using brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) derived from healthy patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793270/pancreatic-islet-blood-flow-dynamics-in-primates
#7
Juan A Diez, Rafael Arrojo E Drigo, Xiaofeng Zheng, Olga V Stelmashenko, Minni Chua, Rayner Rodriguez-Diaz, Masahiro Fukuda, Martin Köhler, Ingo Leibiger, Sai Bo Bo Tun, Yusuf Ali, George J Augustine, Veluchamy A Barathi, Per-Olof Berggren
Blood flow regulation in pancreatic islets is critical for function but poorly understood. Here, we establish an in vivo imaging platform in a non-human primate where islets transplanted autologously into the anterior chamber of the eye are monitored non-invasively and longitudinally at single-cell resolution. Engrafted islets were vascularized and innervated and maintained the cytoarchitecture of in situ islets in the pancreas. Blood flow velocity in the engrafted islets was not affected by increasing blood glucose levels and/or the GLP-1R agonist liraglutide...
August 8, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780750/ischemic-colitis-of-the-colon-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#8
Yahya Ozel, H Kubra Elcioglu, Z Ayca Cevikelli, Ilyas Kudas, Sarfraz Ahmad, Hafize Uzun, Cumhur Topal, Serife Aktas, Levent Kabasakal
This study focuses on two inflammatory diseases, viz., "diabetes mellitus (DM)" that causes serious complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy, and "ischemic colitis" which is evoked by DM. Ischemic colitis originates from the reduction in mesenteric blood flow to the colon with existence of the occlusive or non-occlusive reasons. Our study objective was to provide early diagnostic approach for ischemic colitis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (i) control use of 0...
August 5, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771445/influence-of-angiographic-spontaneous-coronary-reperfusion-on-long-term-prognosis-in-patients-with-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#9
Xiaoming Li, Boyu Li, Jing Gao, Yunfei Wang, Song Xue, Dachuan Jiang, Qi Hua, Jing Li
OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence of angiographic spontaneous coronary reperfusion (SR) on the short- and long-term outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients diagnosed as STEMI and undergoing emergent coronary angiography from January 2009 to August 2010 in a single center were enrolled. Patients whose initial coronary blood flow met Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) grade 3 were regarded as angiographic SR...
July 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770459/effect-of-liraglutide-on-myocardial-glucose-uptake-and-blood-flow-in-stable-chronic-heart-failure-patients-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-live-sub-study
#10
Roni Nielsen, Anders Jorsal, Peter Iversen, Lars Poulsen Tolbod, Kirsten Bouchelouche, Jens Sørensen, Hendrik Johannes Harms, Allan Flyvbjerg, Lise Tarnow, Caroline Kistorp, Ida Gustafsson, Hans Erik Bøtker, Henrik Wiggers
BACKGROUND: The glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide increases heart rate and may be associated with more cardiac events in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. We studied whether this could be ascribed to effects on myocardial glucose uptake (MGU), myocardial blood flow (MBF) and MBF reserve (MFR). METHODS AND RESULTS: CHF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤45% and without type 2 diabetes were randomized to liraglutide (N = 18) 1.8 mg once daily or placebo (N = 18) for 24 weeks in a double-blinded design...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770207/aberrant-cerebral-blood-flow-in-response-to-hunger-and-satiety-in-women-remitted-from-anorexia-nervosa
#11
Christina E Wierenga, Amanda Bischoff-Grethe, Grace Rasmusson, Ursula F Bailer, Laura A Berner, Thomas T Liu, Walter H Kaye
The etiology of pathological eating in anorexia nervosa (AN) remains poorly understood. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is an indirect marker of neuronal function. In healthy adults, fasting increases CBF, reflecting increased delivery of oxygen and glucose to support brain metabolism. This study investigated whether women remitted from restricting-type AN (RAN) have altered CBF in response to hunger that may indicate homeostatic dysregulation contributing to their ability to restrict food. We compared resting CBF measured with pulsed arterial spin labeling in 21 RAN and 16 healthy comparison women (CW) when hungry (after a 16-h fast) and after a meal...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768175/neuronal-stimulation-triggers-neuronal-glycolysis-and-not-lactate-uptake
#12
Carlos Manlio Díaz-García, Rebecca Mongeon, Carolina Lahmann, Dorothy Koveal, Hannah Zucker, Gary Yellen
Proper brain function requires a substantial energy supply, up to 20% of whole-body energy in humans, and brain activation produces large dynamic variations in energy demand. While local increases in cerebral blood flow are well known, the cellular responses to energy demand are controversial. During brain excitation, glycolysis of glucose to lactate temporarily exceeds the rate of mitochondrial fuel oxidation; although the increased energy demand occurs mainly within neurons, some have suggested this glycolysis occurs mainly in astrocytes, which then shuttle lactate to neurons as their primary fuel...
August 1, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768174/loss-of-brain-aerobic-glycolysis-in-normal-human-aging
#13
Manu S Goyal, Andrei G Vlassenko, Tyler M Blazey, Yi Su, Lars E Couture, Tony J Durbin, Randall J Bateman, Tammie L-S Benzinger, John C Morris, Marcus E Raichle
The normal aging human brain experiences global decreases in metabolism, but whether this affects the topography of brain metabolism is unknown. Here we describe PET-based measurements of brain glucose uptake, oxygen utilization, and blood flow in cognitively normal adults from 20 to 82 years of age. Age-related decreases in brain glucose uptake exceed that of oxygen use, resulting in loss of brain aerobic glycolysis (AG). Whereas the topographies of total brain glucose uptake, oxygen utilization, and blood flow remain largely stable with age, brain AG topography changes significantly...
August 1, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761130/lipodystrophy-and-obesity-are-associated-with-decreased-number-of-t-cells-with-regulatory-function-and-pro-inflammatory-macrophage-phenotype
#14
S Berger, G Ceccarini, G Scabia, I Barone, C Pelosini, F Ferrari, S Magno, A Dattilo, L Chiovato, P Vitti, F Santini, M Maffei
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In lipodystrophy (LD) adipose tissue function to store lipids is impaired, leading to metabolic syndrome, similar to that found in obesity. Emerging evidence links dysmetabolism with disorders of the immune system. Our aim is to investigate whether T-cell populations with regulatory function and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) are affected by LD and obesity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Blood was collected from 16 LD, 16 obese (OB, BMI>30 kg m(-2)) and 16 healthy normal-weight women (CNT)...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760353/evaluation-of-endothelial-dysfunction-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-association-of-selenoprotein-p-with-carotid-intima-media-thickness-and-endothelium-dependent-vasodilation
#15
Ibrahim Cetindağlı, Muammer Kara, Alpaslan Tanoglu, Veysel Ozalper, Serkan Aribal, Yusuf Hancerli, Mehmet Unal, Onur Ozarı, Serdar Hira, Mustafa Kaplan, Yusuf Yazgan
BACKGROUND: In patients with NAFLD, there is an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Selenoprotein P (SelP), a hepatokine, is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and serum SelP was found to be elevated in patients with NAFLD. AIM: This study aimed to determine the risk of CVD in NAFLD patients and the association of serum SelP levels with this NAFLD related CVD risk. METHODS: Ninety-three patients with NAFLD and 37 healthy controls were included in the study...
July 28, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751169/differences-in-laser-doppler-indices-between-skin-surface-measurement-sites-in-subjects-with-diabetes
#16
Hsin Hsiu, Hsiao-Feng Hu, Hung-Chi Tsai
This study performed laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) measurements with the aim of identifying differences in diabetes-induced microcirculatory-blood-flow (MBF) responses between the following skin surface measurement sites: an acupoint around the wrist, an acupoint around the ankle, and a nearby nonacupoint around the ankle. The 67 study subjects were assigned to diabetic, prediabetic, and healthy groups according to the results of oral glucose tolerance tests. Beat-to-beat and spectral analyses were applied to the LDF waveform to obtain the foot delay time (FDT), the flow rise time (FRT), and the relative energy contributions (RECs) in five frequency bands...
July 25, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738076/the-comparison-of-chca-solvent-compositions-for-improving-lc-maldi-performance-and-its-application-to-study-the-impact-of-aflatoxin-b1-on-the-liver-proteome-of-diabetes-mellitus-type-1-mice
#17
Fuu-Jen Tsai, Shih-Yin Chen, Yu-Ching Liu, Hsin-Yi Liao, Chao-Jung Chen
In nanoflow liquid chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (nanoLC-MALDI-TOF/TOF) approaches, it is critical to directly apply small amounts of the sample elutes on the sample target using a nanoLC system due to its low flow rate of 200 ~ 300 nl/min. It is recommended to apply a sheath liquid containing a matrix with a several μL/min flow rate at the end of the nanoLC column to ensure a larger co-eluted droplet for more reproducible sample spotting and avoid the laborious task of post-manual matrix spotting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724607/renal-hemodynamic-effects-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-agonist-are-mediated-by-nitric-oxide-but-not-prostaglandin
#18
Scott Culver Thomson, Ali Kashkouli, Zhi Zhao Liu, Prabhleen Singh
The incretin hormone, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), is known for responding to dietary fat and carbohydrate. It elicits effects on pancreas, gut, and brain to stabilize blood glucose levels. We have previously reported that the GLP-1 agonist, exenatide, vasodilates the kidney and suppresses proximal reabsorption. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the renal effects of exenatide are mediated by nitric oxide (NO) and/or prostaglandins. Inulin clearance (GFR) and urine flow rate (UV) were measured in anesthetized rats before and during exenatide infusion (1 nmol/h iv)...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712380/influence-of-para-aminohippuric-acid-analysis-on-net-portal-drained-viscera-flux-of-nutrients-in-pigs
#19
I Fernández-Fígares, M Lachica, M L Rojas-Cano, A González-Casado
In nutrition studies, para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) is a marker frequently used to measure blood flow in pigs, which is essential for estimating portal-drained viscera (PDV) flux of nutrients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PAH analytical method by means of qualimetric statistical procedures to estimate the matrix effect and the accuracy and limits of quantitation of the method. Net PDV flux of nutrients was determined in five multi-catheterized pigs using water, plasma or commercial serum as standard matrix...
July 17, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711736/two-dose-investigation-of-the-5-ht-agonist-psilocybin-on-relative-and-global-cerebral-blood-flow
#20
Candace R Lewis, Katrin H Preller, Rainer Kraehenmann, Lars Michels, Philipp Staempfli, Franz X Vollenweider
Psilocybin, the active compound in psychedelic mushrooms, is an agonist of various serotonin receptors. Seminal psilocybin positron emission tomography (PET) research suggested regional increases in glucose metabolism in frontal cortex (hyperfrontality). However, a recent arterial spin labeling (ASL) study suggests psilocybin may lead to hypo-perfusion in various brain regions. In this placebo-controlled, double-blind study we used pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) to measure perfusion changes, with and without adjustment for global brain perfusion, after two doses of oral psilocybin (low dose: 0...
July 12, 2017: NeuroImage
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