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glucose and blood flow

Dilmurodjon Eshmuminov, Filippo Leoni, Marcel André Schneider, Dustin Becker, Xavier Muller, Christopher Onder, Max Hefti, Martin Schuler, Philipp Dutkowski, Rolf Graf, Philipp Rudolf von Rohr, Pierre-Alain Clavien, Lucia Bautista Borrego
Liver machine perfusion at normothermic temperature (NMP) is a promising way to preserve and evaluate extended criteria donor livers. Currently, no consensus exists in methodology and perfusion protocols. Here, the authors performed a systematic literature search to identify human and porcine studies reporting on liver NMP with red blood cells. A qualitative synthesis was performed concerning technical aspects of machine perfusion, fluid composition, gas supply and liver positioning. 37 publications including 11 human and 26 porcine studies were considered for qualitative synthesis...
June 21, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Laurent Carteron, Daria Solari, Camille Patet, Hervé Quintard, John-Paul Miroz, Jocelyne Bloch, Roy T Daniel, Lorenz Hirt, Philippe Eckert, Pierre J Magistretti, Mauro Oddo
OBJECTIVES: Lactate promotes cerebral blood flow and is an efficient substrate for the brain, particularly at times of glucose shortage. Hypertonic lactate is neuroprotective after experimental brain injury; however, human data are limited. DESIGN: Prospective study ( NCT01573507). SETTING: Academic ICU. PATIENTS: Twenty-three brain-injured subjects (13 traumatic brain injury/10 subarachnoid hemorrhage; median age, 59 yr [41-65 yr]; median Glasgow Coma Scale, 6 [3-7])...
June 19, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Alessandra Vella, Mario Mascalchi
Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) with different radiotracers enable regional evaluation of blood flow and glucose metabolism, of receptors and transporters of several molecules, and of abnormal deposition of peptides and proteins in the brain. The cerebellum has been used as a reference region for different radiotracers in several disease conditions. Whole-brain voxel-wise analysis is not affected by a priori knowledge bias and should be preferred. SPECT and PET have contributed to establishing the cerebellum role in motion, cognition, and emotion control in physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Tom S Chan, Shamir Cassim, Valérie-Ann Raymond, Sven Gottschalk, Grégory Merlen, Claudia Zwingmann, Pascal Lapierre, Peter Darby, Cyril David Mazer, Marc Bilodeau
The liver is a highly vascularized organ receiving a dual input of oxygenated blood from the hepatic artery and portal vein. The impact of decreased blood flow on glucose metabolism and how hepatocytes could adapt to this restrictive environment are still unclear. Using the left portal vein ligation (LPVL) rat model, we found that cellular injury was delayed after the onset of liver ischemia. We hypothesized that a metabolic adaptation by hepatocytes to maintain energy homeostasis could account for this lag phase...
2018: PloS One
Harumasa Takano
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a non-invasive imaging technique used to assess various brain functions, including cerebral blood flow, glucose metabolism, and neurotransmission, in the living human brain. In particular, neurotransmission mediated by the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, has been extensively examined using PET probes, which specifically bind to the monoamine receptors and transporters. This useful tool has revealed the pathophysiology of various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, and the mechanisms of action of psychotropic drugs...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Xuejing Zhang, Xuelian Tang, Milton H Hamblin, Ke-Jie Yin
Angiogenesis is a complex process that depends on the delicate regulation of gene expression. Dysregulation of transcription during angiogenesis often leads to various human diseases. Emerging evidence has recently begun to show that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) may mediate angiogenesis in both physiological and pathological conditions; concurrently, underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unexplored. Previously, our lab identified metastasis associates lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 ( Malat1 ) as an oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-responsive endothelial lncRNA...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Abd R A Ismaili, Mark B Vestergaard, Adam E Hansen, Henrik B W Larsson, Helle H Johannesen, Ian Law, Otto M Henriksen
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the components of day-to-day variability of repeated phase contrast mapping (PCM) magnetic resonance imaging measurements of global cerebral blood flow (gCBF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two dataset were analyzed. In Dataset 1 duplicated PCM measurements of total brain flow were performed in 11 healthy young volunteers on two separate days applying a strictly standardized setup. For comparison PCM measurements obtained from a previously published study (Dataset 2) were analyzed in order to assess long-term variability in an aged population in a less strictly controlled setup...
2018: PloS One
Hung T Pham, Julie E Stevens, Rachael S Rigda, Liza K Phillips, Tongzhi Wu, Trygve Hausken, Stijn Soenen, Renuka Visvanathan, Christopher K Rayner, Michael Horowitz, Karen L Jones
Background: Postprandial hypotension (PPH) occurs frequently, particularly in older people and those with type 2 diabetes, and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The magnitude of the decrease in blood pressure (BP) induced by carbohydrate, fat, and protein appears to be comparable and results from the interaction of macronutrients with the small intestine, including an observed stimulation of mesenteric blood flow. It is not known whether artificial sweeteners, such as sucralose, which are widely used, affect BP...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Natalie Kirch, Lea Berk, Yvonne Liegl, Marcel Adelsbach, Benno F Zimmermann, Peter Stehle, Birgit Stoffel-Wagner, Norbert Ludwig, Andreas Schieber, Hans-Peter Helfrich, Sabine Ellinger
Background: Regular cocoa consumption has been shown to reduce blood pressure, improve lipid profiles, and increase insulin sensitivity and flow-mediated dilatation in healthy adults. It is assumed that these effects can be attributed to polyphenolic cocoa ingredients such as flavanols, especially to (-)-epicatechin. Nutritive intervention studies to prove this hypothesis are scarce. Objective: We aimed to evaluate whether regular consumption of 25 mg of pure (-)-epicatechin can affect increased cardiometabolic risk factors [blood pressure, glucose and lipid metabolism, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation] in overweight-to-obese subjects...
June 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
K S Shalini Devi, Annamalai Senthil Kumar
The sulfide ion and its associated species (H2S and HS-) are widely referred to as toxic chemicals. However, at concentrations of ∼10-100 μM, it serves as a neurotransmitter and signaling agent in biological systems. Abnormalities in blood serum sulfide can be an indication of several diseases, including diabetes, wherein there is a significant reduction in the sulfide ion concentration (<10 μM). Herein, we wish report a 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PQn) tethered graphene oxide (GO) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE/GO@PQn) for the highly selective and stable electrocatalytic oxidation and flow injection analysis (FIA) of sulfide ions...
June 5, 2018: Analyst
Yuan Li, Quan Li, Chun-Shui Pan, Li Yan, Bai-He Hu, Yu-Ying Liu, Lei Yang, Ping Huang, Shao-Yang Zhao, Chuan-She Wang, Jing-Yu Fan, Xue-Mei Wang, Jing-Yan Han
Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is closely correlated with cognitive impairment and neurodegenerative disease. Bushen Huoxue (BSHX) is a compound Chinese medicine used clinically to treat diabetes-induced cognitive impairment. However, its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, KKAy mice, a genetic model of type 2 diabetes with obesity and insulin resistant hyperglycemia, received a daily administration of BSHX for 12 weeks. Blood glucose was measured every 4 weeks. After 12 weeks, BSHX treatment significantly ameliorated the T2DM related insults, including the increased blood glucose, the impaired spatial memory, decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF), occurrence of albumin leakage, leukocyte adhesion and opening capillary rarefaction...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Michelle L Headland, Peter M Clifton, Jennifer B Keogh
Intermittent energy restriction is a popular alternative to daily energy restriction for weight loss; however, it is unknown if endothelial function, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is altered by periods of severe energy restriction. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of two consecutive very low energy intake days, which is the core component of the 5:2 intermittent energy restriction diet strategy, on endothelial function compared to consecutive ad libitum eating days. The secondary objective was to explore the effects of these dietary conditions on fasting glucose concentrations...
June 4, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Natalie Z M Eichner, Nicole M Gilbertson, Julian M Gaitan, Emily M Heiston, Luca Musante, Sabrina LaSalvia, Arthur Weltman, Uta Erdbrügger, Steven K Malin
Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) independent of obesity. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a novel target of CVD, however, it remains unknown if obese individuals with very poor fitness (VPF) have elevated EVs versus people with poor fitness (PF). Thus, we tested whether VPF was associated with greater EV subtypes in obese adults. Subjects with VPF (n = 13, VO2 peak: 15.4 ± 0.6 mL/kg/min, BMI: 34.1 ± 1.7 kg/m2 ) and PF (n = 13, VO2 peak: 25.9 ± 3...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
Graeme Weir, Lynne E Ramage, Murat Akyol, Jonathan K Rhodes, Catriona J Kyle, Alison M Fletcher, Thomas H Craven, Sonia J Wakelin, Amanda J Drake, Maria-Lena Gregoriades, Ceri Ashton, Nick Weir, Edwin J R van Beek, Fredrik Karpe, Brian R Walker, Roland H Stimson
Current understanding of in vivo human brown adipose tissue (BAT) physiology is limited by a reliance on positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scanning, which has measured exogenous glucose and fatty acid uptake but not quantified endogenous substrate utilization by BAT. Six lean, healthy men underwent 18 fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT scanning to localize BAT so microdialysis catheters could be inserted in supraclavicular BAT under CT guidance and in abdominal subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT)...
May 12, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Lovisa Tobieson, Sandro Rossitti, Peter Zsigmond, Jan Hillman, Niklas Marklund
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) and/or energy metabolic disturbances exist in the tissue surrounding a surgically evacuated intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). If present, such CBF and/or metabolic impairments may contribute to ongoing tissue injury and the modest clinical efficacy of ICH surgery. OBJECTIVE: To conduct an observational study of CBF and the energy metabolic state in the perihemorrhagic zone (PHZ) tissue and in seemingly normal cortex (SNX) by microdialysis (MD) following surgical ICH evacuation...
May 21, 2018: Neurosurgery
Caihong Wang, Chong Wang, Jianxin Liu, Hongyun Liu
The aim of the research reported in this Research Communication was to identify differentially expressed proteins in dairy cows with normal and lutein diet and to elucidate the mechanisms of lutein-induced effects on bovine mammary gland metabolism using a comparative proteomic approach. Thirty-three differentially expressed proteins were identified from mammary gland of control diet-fed and lutein diet-fed dairy cows. Among these proteins, 15 were upregulated and 18 were downregulated in the lutein group. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed proteins showed that increased blood flow, depressed glycolysis, enhanced lactose anabolism, decreased fatty acid oxidation and up-regulated beta lactoglobulin expression were connected with lutein addition...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
H Kahal, A Aburima, B Spurgeon, K S Wraith, A S Rigby, T Sathyapalan, E S Kilpatrick, K M Naseem, S L Atkin
AIM: Strict glycaemic control has been associated with an increased mortality rate in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Here we examined platelet function immediately and 24hours following induced hypoglycaemia in people with type 2 diabetes compared to healthy age-matched controls. METHODS: Hyperinsulinaemic clamps reduced blood glucose to 2.8mmol/L (50mg/dl) for 1hour. Sampling at baseline; euglycaemia 5mmol/L (90mg/dl); hypoglycaemia; and at 24 post clamp were undertaken...
May 3, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism
Andressa Heimbecher Soares, Nidia Celeste Horie, Lucas Augusto Piccinin Chiang, Bruno Caramelli, Mariana Gomes Matheus, Alexandre Holthausen Campos, Luciana Cavalheiro Marti, Fernanda Agostini Rocha, Marcio C Mancini, Elaine Maria Frade Costa, Cintia Cercato
BACKGROUND: Obesity causes secondary hypogonadism (HG) in men. Standard testosterone (T) replacement therapy improves metabolic parameters but leads to infertility. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clomiphene citrate (CC) treatment of adult men with male obesity-associated secondary hypogonadism (MOSH). DESIGN: Single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-eight men aged 36.5 ± 7...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Yong-Zhi Wang, Lei Yang, Chuan-Fang Li
BACKGROUND: Accelerated atherosclerosis in patients suffering from diabetes represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of present study was to investigate the protective effects conferred by atorvastatin (AVT) meditated by the HMGCR gene in diabetic rats with atherosclerosis. METHODS: Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), fasting blood glucose (FBG) and serum insulin (INS) were all determined by means of in vivo experiments...
May 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Taku Sugita, Yusuke Kondo, Seigo Ishino, Ikuo Mori, Takashi Horiguchi, Mikako Ogawa, Yasuhiro Magata
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is the development of novel fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG)-PET and Tc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) SPECT methods with free-moving apparatus on conscious rats to investigate brain activity without the effects of anesthesia and tactual stimulation. We also assessed the sensitivity of the experimental system by an intervention study using fluoxetine as a reference drug. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A catheter was inserted into the femoral vein and connected to a free-moving cannula system...
May 15, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
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