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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925106/the-effect-of-increasing-jump-steps-on-stance-leg-joint-kinetics-in-bounding
#1
Yasushi Kariyama, Hiroaki Hobara, Koji Zushi
Jump distance per step in bounding exercises from the standing position increases with increasing number of steps. We examined the hypothesis that the joint kinetic variables of the stance leg would also increase accordingly. Eleven male athletes (sprinters and jumpers) performed bounding exercise, starting from the double-leg standing posture, and covered the longest distance possible by performing a series of seven forward alternating single-leg jumps. Kinematic and kinetic data were calculated using the data by a motion capture system and force platforms...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922374/how-to-maintain-maximal-straight-path-running-speed-on-a-curved-path-in-sprint-events
#2
Hayato Ohnuma, Masanobu Tachi, Akihito Kumano, Yuichi Hirano
This study aims to clarify the ideal technique for running on a curved path during sprinting events. Participants were twelve male track and field athletes including long jumpers and sprinters. The participants performed a 60-m sprint with maximal effort on straight and curved paths. Participants were divided into "good curve runners" and "poor curve runners" according to the curved path running speed relative to that of the straight path. Kinematic variables and ground reaction forces (GRFs) were registered and compared between the groups and paths...
June 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867637/long-distance-runners-and-sprinters-show-different-performance-monitoring-an-event-related-potential-study
#3
Yuya Maruo, Timothy I Murphy, Hiroaki Masaki
Previous findings have reported that track and field athletes may monitor and utilize internal information, including anxiety level, suggesting that the ability to inwardly monitor one's own functioning and utilize anxiety are required to achieve superior performance. Performance monitoring has been investigated using two event-related potential components; the error (-related) negativity (Ne/ERN) and error positivity (Pe). It is unknown whether performance monitoring differs among various types of athletes...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864052/effects-of-combining-running-and-practical-duration-stretching-on-proprioceptive-skills-of-national-sprinters
#4
Natalia Romero-Franco, Juan Antonio Párraga-Montilla, Enrique M Molina-Flores, Pedro Jiménez-Reyes
Romero-Franco, N, Párraga-Montilla, JA, Molina-Flores, EM, and Jiménez-Reyes, P. Effects of combining running and practical duration stretching on proprioceptive skills of national sprinters. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Practical duration stretching after aerobic activities is a recommended component of the first part of warm-up because of its effects on performance. However, its effects on proprioceptive skills are unknown. This study aimed to analyze the effects of running and practical duration static stretching (SS) and dynamic stretching (DS) on postural balance and the joint position sense (JPS) of national sprinters...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29845839/discriminant-analysis-of-cardiovascular-and-respiratory-variables-for-classification-of-road-cyclists-by-specialty
#5
Biljana Nikolić, Jelena Martinović, Milan Matić, Đorđe Stefanović
Different variables determine the performance of cyclists, which brings up the question how these parameters may help in their classification by specialty. The aim of the study was to determine differences in cardiorespiratory parameters of male cyclists according to their specialty, flat rider (N=21), hill rider (N=35) and sprinter (N=20) and obtain the multivariate model for further cyclists classification by specialties, based on selected variables. Seventeen variables were measured at submaximal and maximum load on the cycle ergometer Cosmed E 400HK (Cosmed, Rome, Italy) (initial 100W with 25W increase, 90-100 rpm)...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29809068/1rm-measures-or-maximum-bar-power-output-which-is-more-related-to-sport-performance
#6
Irineu Loturco, Timothy Suchomel, Chris Bishop, Ronaldo Kobal, Lucas A Pereira, Michael McGuigan
PURPOSE: This study compared the associations between optimum power loads and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) values (assessed in half-squat [HS] and jump squat [JS] exercises) and multiple performance measures in elite athletes. METHODS: Sixty-one elite athletes (fifteen Olympians) from four different sports (track and field [sprinters and jumpers], rugby sevens, bobsled, and soccer) performed squat and countermovement jumps, HS exercise (for assessing 1RM), HS and JS exercises (for assessing bar-power output), and sprint tests (60-m for sprinters and jumpers and 40-m for the other athletes)...
May 29, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795740/effects-of-starting-stance-on-base-running-sprint-speed-in-softball-players
#7
Amy Marquardt, Megan A Wong, Casey M Watkins, Saldiam R Barillas, Andrew J Galpin, Jared W Coburn, Lee E Brown
Speed is a crucial aspect in softball, and can be the difference between winning and losing. Base stealing is a method used to produce runs. There has been debate over which starting position is the most advantageous to maximize acceleration and speed to reach the next base the fastest. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of different starting stances on acceleration and speed phases in collegiate softball players. Seventeen healthy NCAA Division I women's softball players (age = 19.9 ± 1.3yrs, height = 167...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780386/automated-processing-and-evaluation-of-anti-nuclear-antibody-indirect-immunofluorescence-testing
#8
Vincent Ricchiuti, Joseph Adams, Donna J Hardy, Alexander Katayev, James K Fleming
Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) is considered by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and the international consensus on ANA patterns (ICAP) the gold standard for the screening of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA). As conventional IIF is labor intensive, time-consuming, subjective, and poorly standardized, there have been ongoing efforts to improve the standardization of reagents and to develop automated platforms for assay incubation, microscopy, and evaluation. In this study, the workflow and performance characteristics of a fully automated ANA IIF system (Sprinter XL, EUROPattern Suite, IFA 40: HEp-20-10 cells) were compared to a manual approach using visual microscopy with a filter device for single-well titration and to technologist reading...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768121/a-biomechanical-comparison-of-initial-sprint-acceleration-performance-and-technique-in-an-elite-athlete-with-cerebral-palsy-and-able-bodied-sprinters
#9
Ian N Bezodis, James Cowburn, Adam Brazil, Rhian Richardson, Cassie Wilson, Timothy A Exell, Gareth Irwin
Cerebral palsy is known to generally limit range of motion and force producing capability during movement. It also limits sprint performance, but the exact mechanisms underpinning this are not well known. One elite male T36 multiple-Paralympic sprint medallist (T36) and 16 well-trained able-bodied (AB) sprinters each performed 5-6 maximal sprints from starting blocks. Whole-body kinematics (250 Hz) in the block phase and first two steps, and synchronised external forces (1,000 Hz) in the first stance phase after block exit were combined to quantify lower limb joint kinetics...
May 16, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768094/lower-limb-stiffness-testing-in-athletic-performance-a-critical-review
#10
Sean J Maloney, Iain M Fletcher
Stiffness describes the resistance of a body to deformation. In regard to athletic performance, a stiffer leg-spring would be expected to augment performance by increasing utilisation of elastic energy. Two-dimensional spring-mass and torsional spring models can be applied to model whole-body (vertical and/or leg stiffness) and joint stiffness. Various tasks have been used to characterise stiffness, including hopping, gait, jumping, sledge ergometry and change of direction tasks. Appropriate levels of reliability have been reported in most tasks, although they vary between investigations...
May 16, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757049/prevalence-of-indicators-of-low-energy-availability-in-elite-female-sprinters
#11
Jennifer Sygo, Alexandra M Coates, Erik Sesbreno, Margo L Mountjoy, Jamie F Burr
Low energy availability (LEA), and subsequent relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S), has been observed in endurance, aesthetic, and team sport athletes, with limited data on prevalence in athletes in short-burst activities such as sprinting. We examined prevalence of signs and symptoms of LEA in elite female sprinters at the start of the training season (PRE), and at the end of a 5-month indoor training period (POST). Four of 13 female sprinters (31%) presented at PRE testing with at least one primary (amenorrhea, low BMD, low FSH, LH, or estradiol, RMR ≤ 29kcal/kg FFM, Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q) score ≥8) and one secondary indicator of LEA (fasting blood glucose < 4mmol/L, free triiodothyronine < 3...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747080/potential-relationship-between-passive-plantar-flexor-stiffness-and-sprint-performance-in-sprinters
#12
Chieri Takahashi, Tadashi Suga, Hiromasa Ueno, Yuto Miyake, Mitsuo Otsuka, Masafumi Terada, Akinori Nagano, Tadao Isaka
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between passive planter flexor stiffness and sprint performance in sprinters. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty well-trained male sprinters (age: 20.7 ± 1.9 years, height: 175.6 ± 4.9 cm, weight: 66.7 ± 5.1 kg) were participated in this study. Their best personal times in a 100-m sprint ranged from 10.22 to 11.86 s (mean, 11.12 ± 0.43 s). METHODS: Passive stiffness of the plantar flexors measured using a dynamometer system...
April 23, 2018: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745735/time-trial-performance-in-elite-speed-skaters-after-remote-ischemic-preconditioning
#13
Philippe Richard, François Billaut
PURPOSE: Speed skating leads to blood-flow restriction and deoxygenation in the lower limbs (especially the right leg) that may affect performance. Although the acute influence of such deoxygenation is not clearly understood, we tested whether remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) could modify muscular oxygenation and improve time-trial performance in that sport. METHODS: Using a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 9 elite speed skaters performed 1000-m on-ice time-trials preceded by either RIPC of the upper limbs (3x5-min compression/5-min reperfusion cycles at 30 mmHg > arterial systolic pressure) or SHAM (10 mmHg)...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691309/locomotor-muscle-fiber-heterogeneity-and-metabolism-in-the-fastest-large-bodied-rorqual-the-fin-whale-balaenoptera-physalus
#14
José-Luis L Rivero
From a terrestrial ancestry, fin whale ( Balaenoptera physalus ) is one of the largest animal on Earth with a sprinter antipredator strategy, and a characteristic feeding mode, lunge feeding, which involve bouts of high-intensity muscle activity demanding high metabolic output. We investigated the locomotor muscle morphology and metabolism of this cetacean to determine whether its muscle profile (1) explains this unique swimming performance and feeding behaviour, (2) is or is not homogeneous within the muscle, and (3) predicts allometric variations inherent to an extreme body size...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687744/differences-in-spatiotemporal-parameters-during-200-m-sprint-between-bilateral-and-unilateral-transfemoral-amputees
#15
Hiroaki Hobara, Sakiko Saito, Satoru Hashizume, Yuta Namiki, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Although Paralympic T42 class Men's 200 m sprints are currently competed by athletes with bilateral and unilateral transfemoral amputations, there may be performance differences between the groups. This study aimed to compare the spatiotemporal parameters of a 200-m sprint between bilateral and unilateral transfemoral amputees wearing running-specific prostheses. TECHNIQUE: We analyzed 29 races (nine sprinters) with bilateral or unilateral transfemoral amputations from publicly available Internet broadcasts...
April 1, 2018: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578384/start-and-turn-performances-of-elite-sprinters-at-the-2016-european-championships-in-swimming
#16
Jorge E Morais, Daniel A Marinho, Raul Arellano, Tiago M Barbosa
The aim of this study was to examine the performance characteristics of male and female finalists in the 100-m distance at the 2016 European Championships in swimming (long-course-metre). The performances of all 64 (32-males and 32-females) were analysed (8 swimmers per event; Freestyle, Backstroke, Breaststroke and Butterfly). A set of start and turn parameters were analysed. In the start main outcome, male swimmers were faster in Butterfly (5.71 ± 0.14s) and females in Freestyle (6.68 ± 0.28s). In the turn main outcome, male and female swimmers were faster in Freestyle (males: 9...
March 26, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570579/moderate-load-resisted-sprints-do-not-improve-subsequent-sprint-performance-in-varsity-level-sprinters
#17
Kyle M A Thompson, Alanna K Whinton, Shane Ferth, Lawrence L Spriet, Jamie F Burr
Resisted sprint training (RST) is commonly used for performance enhancement in athletics and team sports to develop acceleration ability. Evidence suggests that RST may be effective as a short-term intervention to improve successive sprints. While these improvements have been measured in team sport athletes, limited research has considered the acute effects of RST training in sprint-trained athletes. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine if performing RST with varsity level sprinters using sled-equivalent resistive loads of ∼45% body mass results in a potentiation effect, leading to improvements in subsequent maximal sprint performance over 0-5 m and 0-20 m...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561708/the-agtr2-rs11091046-a-c-polymorphism-and-power-athletic-status-in-top-level-brazilian-athletes
#18
João Paulo Limongi França Guilherme, Mariana Sussi Silva, Rômulo Bertuzzi, Antonio Herbert Lancha Junior
The main purpose of this study was to investigate if the rs11091046 (A>C) polymorphism in AGTR2 gene is associated with athletic status in top-level athletes from Brazil. Since the AGTR2 gene is located on the X chromosome, the case-control association study was done separately for women and men. The female cohort was composed of 205 athletes and 241 non-athletes, and the male cohort was composed of 419 athletes and 490 non-athletes. We did not identify an association between the C-allele and the endurance phenotype...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547032/characteristics-of-plantar-pressures-and-related-pain-profiles-in-elite-sprinters-and-recreational-runners
#19
Tong-Hsien Chow, Yih-Shyuan Chen, Jia-Chang Wang
BACKGROUND: Plantar pressure measurement is effective for assessing plantar loading and can be applied to evaluating foot performance. We sought to explore the characteristics of plantar pressures in elite sprinters and recreational runners during static standing and walking. METHODS: Arch index (AI) values, regional plantar pressure distributions (PPDs), and footprint characteristics were examined in 80 elite sprinters and 90 recreational runners using an optical plantar pressure measurement system...
January 2018: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543080/peak-age-and-performance-progression-in-world-class-track-and-field-athletes
#20
Thomas A Haugen, Paul A Solberg, Carl Foster, Ricardo Morán-Navarro, Felix Breitschädel, Will G Hopkins
The aim of this study was to quantify peak age and improvements over the preceding years to peak age in elite athletic contestants according to athlete performance level, sex and discipline. Individual season bests for world-ranked top 100 athletes from 2002 to 2016 (14937 athletes and 57049 individual results) were downloaded from the International Association of Athletics Federations' web site. Individual performance trends were generated by fitting a quadratic curve separately to each athlete's performance and age data using a linear modeling procedure...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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