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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578384/start-and-turn-performances-of-elite-sprinters-at-the-2016-european-championships-in-swimming
#1
Jorge E Morais, Daniel A Marinho, Raul Arellano, Tiago M Barbosa
The aim of this study was to examine the performance characteristics of male and female finalists in the 100-m distance at the 2016 European Championships in swimming (long-course-metre). The performances of all 64 (32-males and 32-females) were analysed (8 swimmers per event; Freestyle, Backstroke, Breaststroke and Butterfly). A set of start and turn parameters were analysed. In the start main outcome, male swimmers were faster in Butterfly (5.71 ± 0.14s) and females in Freestyle (6.68 ± 0.28s). In the turn main outcome, male and female swimmers were faster in Freestyle (males: 9...
March 26, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570579/moderate-load-resisted-sprints-do-not-improve-subsequent-sprint-performance-in-varsity-level-sprinters
#2
Kyle M A Thompson, Alanna K Whinton, Shane Ferth, Lawrence L Spriet, Jamie F Burr
Resisted sprint training (RST) is commonly used for performance enhancement in athletics and team sports to develop acceleration ability. Evidence suggests that RST may be effective as a short-term intervention to improve successive sprints. While these improvements have been measured in team sport athletes, limited research has considered the acute effects of RST training in sprint-trained athletes. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine if performing RST with varsity level sprinters using sled-equivalent resistive loads of ∼45% body mass results in a potentiation effect, leading to improvements in subsequent maximal sprint performance over 0-5 m and 0-20 m...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561708/the-agtr2-rs11091046-a-c-polymorphism-and-power-athletic-status-in-top-level-brazilian-athletes
#3
João Paulo Limongi França Guilherme, Mariana Sussi Silva, Rômulo Bertuzzi, Antonio Herbert Lancha Junior
The main purpose of this study was to investigate if the rs11091046 (A>C) polymorphism in AGTR2 gene is associated with athletic status in top-level athletes from Brazil. Since the AGTR2 gene is located on the X chromosome, the case-control association study was done separately for women and men. The female cohort was composed of 205 athletes and 241 non-athletes, and the male cohort was composed of 419 athletes and 490 non-athletes. We did not identify an association between the C-allele and the endurance phenotype...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547032/characteristics-of-plantar-pressures-and-related-pain-profiles-in-elite-sprinters-and-recreational-runners
#4
Tong-Hsien Chow, Yih-Shyuan Chen, Jia-Chang Wang
BACKGROUND: Plantar pressure measurement is effective for assessing plantar loading and can be applied to evaluating foot performance. We sought to explore the characteristics of plantar pressures in elite sprinters and recreational runners during static standing and walking. METHODS: Arch index (AI) values, regional plantar pressure distributions (PPDs), and footprint characteristics were examined in 80 elite sprinters and 90 recreational runners using an optical plantar pressure measurement system...
January 2018: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543080/peak-age-and-performance-progression-in-world-class-track-and-field-athletes
#5
Thomas A Haugen, Paul A Solberg, Carl Foster, Ricardo Morán-Navarro, Felix Breitschädel, Will G Hopkins
The aim of this study was to quantify peak age and improvements over the preceding years to peak age in elite athletic contestants according to athlete performance level, sex and discipline. Individual season bests for world-ranked top 100 athletes from 2002 to 2016 (14937 athletes and 57049 individual results) were downloaded from the International Association of Athletics Federations' web site. Individual performance trends were generated by fitting a quadratic curve separately to each athlete's performance and age data using a linear modeling procedure...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489904/the-variations-on-the-aerodynamics-of-a-world-ranked-wheelchair-sprinter-in-the-key-moments-of-the-stroke-cycle-a-numerical-simulation-analysis
#6
Pedro Forte, Daniel A Marinho, Jorge E Morais, Pedro G Morouço, Tiago M Barbosa
Biomechanics plays an important role helping Paralympic sprinters to excel, having the aerodynamic drag a significant impact on the athlete's performance. The aim of this study was to assess the aerodynamics in different key-moments of the stroke cycle by Computational Fluid Dynamics. A world-ranked wheelchair sprinter was scanned on the racing wheelchair wearing his competition gear and helmet. The sprinter was scanned in three different positions: (i) catch (hands in the 12h position on the hand-rim); (ii) the release (hands in the 18h position on the hand-rim) and; (iii) recovery phase (hands do not touch the hand-rim and are hyperextended backwards)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475206/association-between-forefoot-bone-length-and-performance-in-male-endurance-runners
#7
Hiromasa Ueno, Tadashi Suga, Kenji Takao, Takahiro Tanaka, Jun Misaki, Yuto Miyake, Akinori Nagano, Tadao Isaka
Recently, we reported that the forefoot bones were longer in sprinters than in non-sprinters, and that longer forefoot bones correlated with higher sprint performance in sprinters. To further understand the superiority of long forefoot bones in athletic performance, we examined whether forefoot bone length was associated with running performance in endurance runners. The length of the forefoot bones of the big and second toes were measured using magnetic resonance imaging in 45 male well-trained endurance runners and 45 male untrained subjects...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393546/comparison-of-metabolic-adaptations-between-endurance-and-sprint-trained-athletes-after-an-exhaustive-exercise-in-two-different-calf-muscles-using-a-multi-slice-31-p-mr-spectroscopic-sequence
#8
Kevin Moll, Alexander Gussew, Maria Nisser, Steffen Derlien, Martin Krämer, Jürgen R Reichenbach
Measurements of exercise-induced metabolic changes, such as oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide exhalation or lactate concentration, are important indicators for assessing the current performance level of athletes in training science. With exercise-limiting metabolic processes occurring in loaded muscles, 31 P-MRS represents a particularly powerful modality to identify and analyze corresponding training-induced alterations. Against this background, the current study aimed to analyze metabolic adaptations after an exhaustive exercise in two calf muscles (m...
February 2, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327827/differences-in-100-m-sprint-performance-and-skeletal-muscle-mass-between-elite-male-and-female-sprinters
#9
Takashi Abe, Scott J Dankel, Samuel L Buckner, Matthew B Jessee, Kevin T Mattocks, J Grant Mouser, Zachary W Bell, Jeremy P Loenneke
BACKGROUND: The sex difference in 100-m sprint performance between the world's best athletes is approximately 10%. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle mass (SM) relative to body mass may be a major factor contributing to this difference. The aim of this study was to examine the sex difference in absolute and relative SM and sprint performance in male and female sprinters. METHODS: We analyzed the SM of male (n=37) and female (n=26) 100-m sprinters; the sample was divided into two subgroups within each sex according to personal best 100-m time: 10...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326905/neuromuscular-features-in-sprinters-with-cerebral-palsy-case-studies-based-on-paralympic-classification
#10
Diego Antunes, Mateus Rossato, Rafael Lima Kons, Raphael Luiz Sakugawa, Gabriela Fischer
Despite the evolution of runner performance in athletes with cerebral palsy (CP), little is known about neuromuscular parameters of sprinters from different classes, especially related to power output, muscular imbalances and asymmetry indexes in lower limbs. The aim of this study was to assess muscle power, muscular imbalance and asymmetry in sprinters with CP. Four male sprinters with CP (age, 18 to 27 years; body mass, 58.5 to 72.8 kg; height, 161.5 to 174 cm) classified as T38, T37, T36, T35 according to International Paralympic Committee functional classification, performed vertical counter movement jump and squat jump on force plate and isokinetic torque evaluations in both limbs...
December 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260403/bilateral-deficit-of-spring-like-behaviour-during-hopping-in-sprinters
#11
Mitsuo Otsuka, Toshiyuki Kurihara, Tadao Isaka
PURPOSE: Unilateral leg stiffness is a key contributor to sprint running speed, thereby great bilateral deficit (BLD) of leg stiffness would be expected to be observed in sprinters. However, it remains clear only BLD of leg stiffness at the preferred hopping frequency in non-sprinters. The purpose of this study was to clarify the BLD of spring-like behaviour in hopping at various frequencies and the effect of chronic adaptation via sprint running experience on BLD during the hopping. METHODS: Fifteen male experienced sprinters and 12 male novices participated in this study...
February 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182434/reactive-strength-index-a-poor-indicator-of-reactive-strength
#12
Robin Healy, Ian Kenny, Drew Harrison
PURPOSE: The primary aim was to assess the relationships between reactive strength measures and associated kinematic and kinetic performance variables achieved during drop jumps. A secondary aim was to highlight issues with the use of reactive strength measures as performance indicators. METHODS: Twenty eight national and international level sprinters, consisting of fourteen men and women, participated in this cross-sectional analysis. Athletes performed drop jumps from a 0...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173043/joint-kinetic-determinants-of-starting-block-performance-in-athletic-sprinting
#13
Adam Brazil, Timothy Exell, Cassie Wilson, Steffen Willwacher, Ian N Bezodis, Gareth Irwin
The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between lower limb joint kinetics, external force production and starting block performance (normalised average horizontal power, NAHP). Seventeen male sprinters (100 m PB, 10.67 ± 0.32 s) performed maximal block starts from instrumented starting blocks (1000 Hz) whilst 3D kinematics (250 Hz) were also recorded during the block phase. Ankle, knee and hip resultant joint moment and power were calculated at the rear and front leg using inverse dynamics...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140147/sprint-running-performance-and-technique-changes-in-athletes-during-periodized-training-an-elite-training-group-case-study
#14
Ian N Bezodis, David G Kerwin, Stephen-Mark Cooper, Aki I T Salo
PURPOSE: To understand how training periodization influences sprint performance and key step characteristics over an extended training period in an elite sprint training group. METHODS: Four sprinters were studied during five months of training. Step velocities, step lengths and step frequencies were measured from video of the maximum velocity phase of training sprints. Bootstrapped mean values were calculated for each athlete for each session and 139 within-athlete, between-session comparisons were made with a repeated measures ANOVA...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107196/high-prevalence-of-the-igf2-rs680-gg-polymorphism-among-top-level-sprinters-and-jumpers
#15
Sigal Ben-Zaken, Yoav Meckel, Dan Nemet, Alon Eliakim
Previous studies have shown that the IGF1 polymorphism is associated with greater muscle mass and improved power athletic ability, but very little is known about the IGF2 polymorphism and athletic performance. PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency distribution of the IGF2 rs680 polymorphism among Israeli athletes. METHODS: 185 short- (n=72) and long-distance (n=113) runners, 94 short- (n=44) and long-distance (n=50) swimmers, 54 weight lifters and 111 controls participated in the study...
December 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106897/estimation-and-validation-of-spatio-temporal-parameters-for-sprint-running-using-a-radio-based-tracking-system
#16
Thomas Seidl, Daniel Linke, Martin Lames
Spatio-temporal parameters like step length, step frequency and ground contact time are directly related to sprinting performance. There is still a lack of knowledge, however, on how these parameters interact. Recently, various algorithms for the automatic detection of step parameters during sprint running have been presented which have been based on data from motion capture systems, video cameras, opto-electronic systems or Inertial measurement units. However, all of these methods suffer from at least one of the following shortcomings: they are (a) not applicable for more than one sprinter simultaneously, (b) only capable of capturing a small volume or (c) do not provide accurate spatial parameters...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100249/longer-telomere-length-in-elite-master-sprinters-relationship-to-performance-and-body-composition
#17
Herbert Gustavo Simoes, Caio Victor Sousa, Thiago Dos Santos Rosa, Samuel da Silva Aguiar, Lysleine Alves Deus, Erica Carine Campos Caldas Rosa, Angelica Amorim Amato, Rosangela Vieira Andrade
Emergent evidence suggests that the long-term healthy lifestyle of master athletes may attenuate aging. We compared telomere length (TL) of high-level master sprinters and non-athlete age-matched controls, and analyzed the relationships of TL with performance and body fat. Elite master sprinters (n=11; aged 50.1±9.2yrs) and healthy untrained controls (n=10; aged 45.4±10.9yrs) had blood samples collected for biochemical and biomolecular analyses. Master sprinters had longer TL, lower body fat and BMI, and a better lipid profile than age-matched controls (p<0...
December 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083127/influence-of-shoe-sole-bending-stiffness-on-sprinting-performance
#18
Ryu Nagahara, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Tetsuo Fukunaga
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the influence of shoe sole bending stiffness on sprint performance, in relation to anthropometric and strength-power capability characteristics of sprinters. METHODS: Seventeen male athletes performed three maximal effort 60-m sprints using spiked-shoes with different bending stiffness sole. Sprint times during 60-m sprint, anthropometry and strength-power capabilities represented by maximum toe-flexor test and rebound continuous ankle jump of athletes were measured...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075233/genes-gender-hormones-and-doping-in-sport-a-convoluted-tale
#19
Alan D Rogol, Lindsay Parks Pieper
We are writing this piece in the aftermath of the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Each of the words in the title plays a role(s) in deciding who may compete, especially who may compete as a woman. We shall be careful to disentangle the issues of genes and gender from hormonal levels of the potent androgen testosterone, and very clearly demarcate these natural occurrences from those of doping, for which the World Anti-Doping Agency has established strict guidelines. These elements became conflated in the aftermath of the Court of Arbitration of Sport's decision, now more than 2 years ago, concerning the teenage Indian sprinter, Dutee Chand...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072032/training-induced-annual-changes-in-red-blood-cell-profile-in-highly-trained-endurance-and-speed-power-athletes
#20
Monika Ciekot-Sołtysiak, Krzysztof Kusy, Tomasz Podgórski, Jacek Zieliński
BACKGROUND: An extensive body of literature exists on the effects of training on haematological parameters, but the previous studies have not reported how hematological parameters respond to changes in training loads within consecutive phases of the training cycle in highly-trained athletes in extremely different sport disciplines. The aim of this study was to identify changes in red blood cell (RBC) profile in response to training loads in consecutive phases of the annual training cycle in highly-trained sprinters (8 men, aged 24 ± 3 years) and triathletes (6 men, aged 24 ± 4 years) who competed at the national and international level...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
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