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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713468/a-model-for-determining-the-effect-of-the-wind-velocity-on-100-m-sprinting-performance
#1
Natasa Janjic, Darko Kapor, Dragan Doder, Aleksandar Petrovic, Radoslava Doder
This paper introduces an equation for determining instantaneous and final velocity of a sprinter in a 100 m run completed with a wind resistance ranging from 0.1 to 4.5 m/s. The validity of the equation was verified using the data of three world class sprinters: Carl Lewis, Maurice Green, and Usain Bolt. For the given constant wind velocity with the values + 0.9 and + 1.1 m/s, the wind contribution to the change of sprinter velocity was the same for the maximum as well as for the final velocity. This study assessed how the effect of the wind velocity influenced the change of sprinting velocity...
June 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673896/serum-androgen-levels-and-their-relation-to-performance-in-track-and-field-mass-spectrometry-results-from-2127-observations-in-male-and-female-elite-athletes
#2
Stéphane Bermon, Pierre-Yves Garnier
OBJECTIVE: To describe and characterise serum androgen levels and to study their possible influence on athletic performance in male and female elite athletes. METHODS: 2127 observations of competition best performances and mass spectrometry-measured serum androgen concentrations, obtained during the 2011 and 2013 International Association of Athletics Federations World Championships, were analysed in male and female elite track and field athletes. To test the influence of serum androgen levels on performance, male and female athletes were classified in tertiles according to their free testosterone (fT) concentration and the best competition results achieved in the highest and lowest fT tertiles were then compared...
July 3, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664327/effects-of-mindfulness-practice-on-performance-relevant-parameters-and-performance-outcomes-in-sports-a-meta-analytical-review
#3
REVIEW
Lucia Bühlmayer, Daniel Birrer, Philipp Röthlin, Oliver Faude, Lars Donath
BACKGROUND: Mindfulness as a present-oriented form of mental training affects cognitive processes and is increasingly considered meaningful for sport psychological training approaches. However, few intervention studies have examined the effects of mindfulness practice on physiological and psychological performance surrogates or on performance outcomes in sports. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present meta-analytical review was to examine the effects of mindfulness practice or mindfulness-based interventions on physiological and psychological performance surrogates and on performance outcomes in sports in athletes over 15 years of age...
June 29, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651061/modelling-of-optimal-training-load-patterns-during-the-11-weeks-preceding-major-competition-in-elite-swimmers
#4
Philippe Hellard, Charlotte Scordia, Marta Avalos, Inigo Mujika, David B Pyne
Periodization of swim training in the final training phases prior to competition and its effect on performance have been poorly described. PURPOSE: We modelled the relationships between the final 11 weeks of training and competition performance in 138 elite sprint, middle-distance and distance swimmers over 20 competitive seasons. METHODS: Total training load (TTL), strength training (ST), low-to medium and high-intensity training variables were monitored. Training loads were scaled as a percentage of the maximal volume measured at each intensity level...
June 26, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640007/evaluation-of-pulse-height-control-for-rapid-isometric-contractions-in-college-sprinters
#5
Seiji Ono, Atsushi Itaya, Tatsuya Hayami, Keigo Ohyama-Byun, Tomohiro Kizuka
The ability of rapid force development is one of the important factors for improving physical performance. It has been known that rapid isometric force is controlled by a central motor program to maintain the rise time relatively constant independent of force amplitude (pulse height control). The advantage of using pulse height control is that it increases the rate of force with force amplitude. However, this strategy is believed to be applicable up to about 50-60% of maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). When the force level increases further, individuals often switch to pulse width control to increase the time to peak force...
August 16, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605277/ground-reaction-forces-during-sprinting-in-unilateral-transfemoral-amputees
#6
Atsushi Makimoto, Yoko Sano, Satoru Hashizume, Akihiko Murai, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Hiroshi Takemura, Hiroaki Hobara
Understanding the characteristics of ground reaction forces (GRFs) on both limbs during sprinting in unilateral amputees wearing running-specific prostheses would provide important information that could be utilized in the evaluation of athletic performance and development of training methods in this population. The purpose of this study was to compare GRFs between intact and prosthetic limbs during sprinting in unilateral transfemoral amputees wearing running-specific prostheses. Nine sprinters with unilateral transfemoral amputation wearing the same type of prosthesis performed maximal sprinting on a 40 m of runway...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605265/associations-between-individual-lower-limb-muscle-volumes-and-100-m-sprint-time-in-male-sprinters
#7
Norihide Sugisaki, Kai Kobayashi, Hiroyasu Tsuchie, Hiroaki Kanehisa
PURPOSE: To elucidate the relationship between the muscularity of individual lower limb muscles and 100-m race time (t100) in young adult male sprinters. METHODS: A total of 31 young adult male sprinters took part in this study (age, 19.9 ± 1.4 years; height, 173.5 ± 4.6 cm; body mass, 67.0 ± 4.9 kg; t100, 10.23-11.71 s). The cross-sectional images from the origin to insertion of 12 lower limb muscles were obtained with a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572782/timing-of-gun-fire-influences-sprinters-multiple-joint-reaction-times-of-whole-body-in-block-start
#8
Mitsuo Otsuka, Toshiyuki Kurihara, Tadao Isaka
Experienced sprinters are specifically adapted to pre-planning an advanced motor program. Herein, sprinters are able to immediately accelerate their center of mass forward with a whole-body coordinated motion, following a steady state crouched position. We examined the effect of variable timing of reaction signals on multiple joint reaction times (RT) and whole-body RT for specialist sprinters. Twenty well-experienced male sprinters performed five start-dashes from a block start under five variable foreperiod (FP) length conditions (1...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471718/mechanical-power-thrust-power-and-propelling-efficiency-relationships-with-elite-sprint-swimming-performance
#9
Giorgio Gatta, Matteo Cortesi, Ian Swaine, Paola Zamparo
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between mechanical power, thrust power, propelling efficiency and sprint performance in elite swimmers. Mechanical power was measured in 12 elite sprint male swimmers: (1) in the laboratory, by using a whole-body swimming ergometer (W'TOT) and (2) in the pool, by measuring full tethered swimming force (FT) and maximal swimming velocity (Vmax): W'T = FT · Vmax. Propelling efficiency (ηP) was estimated based on the "paddle wheel model" at Vmax. Vmax was 2...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469741/biomechanical-differences-in-the-sprint-start-between-faster-and-slower-high-level-sprinters
#10
Milan Čoh, Stanislav Peharec, Petar Bačić, Krzyszfof Mackala
The purpose of this study was to examine the kinematic and kinetic differences of the sprint start and first two steps between faster and slower high-level sprinters. Twelve male sprinters were dichotomized according to personal best 60- and 100-m times. Each participant performed five starts under constant conditions. An eight-camera system was used for 3-D kinematic analysis. Dynamic forces at the start were determined with starting blocks mounted on bipedal force plates. Measures of front and rear block total force, front and rear block maximal force, time to front and rear block peak force, total force impulse, total horizontal and vertical impulse, front and rear block force impulse, time of block clearance, block leaving velocity and block leaving acceleration were collected...
February 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462572/kinematics-of-the-thorax-and-pelvis-during-accelerated-sprinting
#11
Ryu Nagahara, Takeo Matsubayashi, Akifumi Matsuo, Koji Zushi
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to describe changes in thoracic and pelvic movements during the acceleration phase of maximal sprinting, and to clarify which kinematic variable relates to better accelerated sprinting performance. METHODS: Twelve male sprinters performed 60-m sprints, during which three-dimensional step-to-step changes in thoracic and pelvic angles, as well as the trunk quasi-joint angle, were obtained throughout a 50-m distance. RESULTS: The patterns of thoracic and pelvic movements were maintained throughout the entire acceleration phase, although the phase profiles of the relative movements between the thorax and pelvis in three planes differed...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447185/maximum-rate-of-sweat-ions-reabsorption-during-exercise-with-regional-differences-sex-and-exercise-training
#12
Tatsuro Amano, Megumi Hirose, Kana Konishi, Nicola Gerrett, Hiroyuki Ueda, Narihiko Kondo, Yoshimitsu Inoue
PURPOSE: It is recently reported that determining sweat rate (SR) threshold for increasing galvanic skin conductance (GSC) would represent a maximum rate of sweat ion reabsorption in sweat glands. We evaluate the maximum rate of sweat ion reabsorption over skin regions, sex, and long-term exercise training by using the threshold analysis in the present study. METHODS: Ten males (2 untrained, 4 sprinters, and 4 distance runners) and 12 females (5 untrained, 4 sprinters, and 3 distance runners) conducted graded cycling exercise for 45 min at low, middle, and high exercise intensities (heart rate 100-110, 120-130, and 140-150 beats/min, respectively) for 10, 15, and 20 min, respectively, at 30 °C and 50% relative humidity...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396485/alteration-of-swing-leg-work-and-power-during-human-accelerated-sprinting
#13
Ryu Nagahara, Takeo Matsubayashi, Akifumi Matsuo, Koji Zushi
This study investigated changes in lower-extremity joint work and power during the swing phase in a maximal accelerated sprinting. Twelve male sprinters performed 60 m maximal sprints while motion data was recorded. Lower-extremity joint work and power during the swing phase of each stride for both legs were calculated. Positive hip and negative knee work (≈4.3 and ≈-2.9 J kg(-1)) and mean power (≈13.4 and ≈-8.7 W kg(-1)) during the entire swing phase stabilized or decreased after the 26.2±1...
May 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385335/foot-structure-is-correlated-with-performance-in-a-single-joint-jumping-task
#14
Herman van Werkhoven, Stephen J Piazza
Variability in musculoskeletal structure has the potential to influence locomotor function. It has been shown, for example, that sprinters have smaller Achilles tendon moment arms and longer toes than non-sprinters, and toe length has been found to correlate with toe flexor work in running humans. These findings suggest that interindividual variation in human foot structure allows for function that is adapted to various motor tasks. The purpose of this study was to test for correlations between foot anthropometry and single-joint maximal-height jumping performance...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360121/prosthetic-model-but-not-stiffness-or-height-affects-the-metabolic-cost-of-running-for-athletes-with-unilateral-transtibial-amputations
#15
Owen N Beck, Paolo Taboga, Alena M Grabowski
Running-specific prostheses enable athletes with lower limb amputations to run by emulating the spring-like function of biological legs. Current prosthetic stiffness and height recommendations aim to mitigate kinematic asymmetries for athletes with unilateral transtibial amputations. However, it is unclear how different prosthetic configurations influence the biomechanics and metabolic cost of running. Consequently, we investigated how prosthetic model, stiffness, and height affect the biomechanics and metabolic cost of running...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355967/joint-power-generation-differentiates-young-and-adult-sprinters-during-the-transition-from-block-start-into-acceleration-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Sofie Debaere, Benedicte Vanwanseele, Christophe Delecluse, Dirk Aerenhouts, Friso Hagman, Ilse Jonkers
The aim of this study was to investigate differences in joint power generation between well-trained adult athletes and young sprinters from block clearance to initial contact of second stance. Eleven under 16 (U16) and 18 under 18 (U18) promising sprinters executed an explosive start action. Fourteen well-trained adult sprinters completed the exact same protocol. All athletes were equipped with 74 spherical reflective markers, while an opto-electronic motion analysis system consisting of 12 infrared cameras (250 Hz, MX3, Vicon, Oxford Metrics, UK) and 2 Kistler force plates (1,000 Hz) was used to collect the three-dimensional marker trajectories and ground reaction forces (Nexus, Vicon)...
March 29, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344456/caffeine-ingestion-improves-repeated-freestyle-sprints-in-elite-male-swimmers
#17
Paul S R Goods, Grant Landers, Sacha Fulton
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of a moderate dose of caffeine to improve repeat-sprint performance in elite freestyle sprinters. Nine highly trained male swimmers performed 6 x 75 m freestyle sprints on two occasions 1-h after consuming either 3 mg·kg(-1) caffeine (CAF), or placebo, in a cross-over manner. Capillary blood samples for the analysis of blood lactate concentration and pH were collected after the 1(st), 3(rd), and 5(th) sprint, while heart rate and perceived exertion (RPE) were collected after every sprint...
March 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247444/velocity-specific-and-time-dependent-adaptations-following-a-standardised-nordic-hamstring-exercise-training
#18
Tobias Alt, Yannick T Nodler, Jannik Severin, Axel J Knicker, Heiko K Strüder
The Nordic Hamstring Exercise (NHE) is effective for selective hamstring strengthening to improve muscle balance between knee flexors and extensors. The purpose of this study (within subject design of repeated measures) was to determine the effects of a standardised 4-week NHE training on thigh strength and balance with concomitant kinetic and kinematic monitoring. Sixteen male sprinters (22 years, 181 cm, 76 kg) performed a standardised 4-week NHE training consisting of three sessions per week (each 3 x 3 repetitions)...
March 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210652/prevention-of-hamstring-injuries-in-collegiate-sprinters
#19
Yusaku Sugiura, Kazuhiko Sakuma, Keishoku Sakuraba, Yamato Sato
BACKGROUND: No studies have been reported on how strength, agility, and flexibility training reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in sprinters. Therefore, a program for preventing hamstring injury in these athletes has not been established. PURPOSE: To document the incidence of hamstring injuries during times when different prevention strategies were employed to see whether a particular prevention program reduced their occurrence. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study...
January 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207966/relationship-between-the-length-of-the-forefoot-bones-and-performance-in-male-sprinters
#20
Takahiro Tanaka, Tadashi Suga, Mitsuo Ohtsuka, Jun Misaki, Yuto Miyake, Shoma Kudo, Akinori Nagano, Tadao Isaka
Although recent studies have reported that the forefoot bones are longer in sprinters than in non-sprinters, these reports included a relatively small number of subjects. Moreover, while computer simulation suggested that longer forefoot bones may contribute to higher sprint performance by enhancing plantar flexor moment during sprinting, the correlation between forefoot bone length and sprint performance in humans has not been confirmed in observational studies. Thus, using a relatively large sample, we compared the length of the forefoot bones between sprinters and non-sprinters...
February 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
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