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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182434/reactive-strength-index-a-poor-indicator-of-reactive-strength
#1
Robin Healy, Ian Kenny, Drew Harrison
PURPOSE: The primary aim was to assess the relationships between reactive strength measures and associated kinematic and kinetic performance variables achieved during drop jumps. A secondary aim was to highlight issues with the use of reactive strength measures as performance indicators. METHODS: Twenty eight national and international level sprinters, consisting of fourteen men and women, participated in this cross-sectional analysis. Athletes performed drop jumps from a 0...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173043/joint-kinetic-determinants-of-starting-block-performance-in-athletic-sprinting
#2
Adam Brazil, Timothy Exell, Cassie Wilson, Steffen Willwacher, Ian N Bezodis, Gareth Irwin
The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between lower limb joint kinetics, external force production and starting block performance (normalised average horizontal power, NAHP). Seventeen male sprinters (100 m PB, 10.67 ± 0.32 s) performed maximal block starts from instrumented starting blocks (1000 Hz) whilst 3D kinematics (250 Hz) were also recorded during the block phase. Ankle, knee and hip resultant joint moment and power were calculated at the rear and front leg using inverse dynamics...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140147/sprint-running-performance-and-technique-changes-in-athletes-during-periodized-training-an-elite-training-group-case-study
#3
Ian N Bezodis, David G Kerwin, Stephen-Mark Cooper, Aki I T Salo
PURPOSE: To understand how training periodization influences sprint performance and key step characteristics over an extended training period in an elite sprint training group. METHODS: Four sprinters were studied during five months of training. Step velocities, step lengths and step frequencies were measured from video of the maximum velocity phase of training sprints. Bootstrapped mean values were calculated for each athlete for each session and 139 within-athlete, between-session comparisons were made with a repeated measures ANOVA...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107196/high-prevalence-of-the-igf2-rs680-gg-polymorphism-among-top-level-sprinters-and-jumpers
#4
Sigal Ben-Zaken, Yoav Meckel, Dan Nemet, Alon Eliakim
Previous studies have shown that the IGF1 polymorphism is associated with greater muscle mass and improved power athletic ability, but very little is known about the IGF2 polymorphism and athletic performance. PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency distribution of the IGF2 rs680 polymorphism among Israeli athletes. METHODS: 185 short- (n=72) and long-distance (n=113) runners, 94 short- (n=44) and long-distance (n=50) swimmers, 54 weight lifters and 111 controls participated in the study...
December 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106897/estimation-and-validation-of-spatio-temporal-parameters-for-sprint-running-using-a-radio-based-tracking-system
#5
Thomas Seidl, Daniel Linke, Martin Lames
Spatio-temporal parameters like step length, step frequency and ground contact time are directly related to sprinting performance. There is still a lack of knowledge, however, on how these parameters interact. Recently, various algorithms for the automatic detection of step parameters during sprint running have been presented which have been based on data from motion capture systems, video cameras, opto-electronic systems or Inertial measurement units. However, all of these methods suffer from at least one of the following shortcomings: they are (a) not applicable for more than one sprinter simultaneously, (b) only capable of capturing a small volume or (c) do not provide accurate spatial parameters...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100249/longer-telomere-length-in-elite-master-sprinters-relationship-to-performance-and-body-composition
#6
Herbert Gustavo Simoes, Caio Victor Sousa, Thiago Dos Santos Rosa, Samuel da Silva Aguiar, Lysleine Alves Deus, Erica Carine Campos Caldas Rosa, Angelica Amorim Amato, Rosangela Vieira Andrade
Emergent evidence suggests that the long-term healthy lifestyle of master athletes may attenuate aging. We compared telomere length (TL) of high-level master sprinters and non-athlete age-matched controls, and analyzed the relationships of TL with performance and body fat. Elite master sprinters (n=11; aged 50.1±9.2yrs) and healthy untrained controls (n=10; aged 45.4±10.9yrs) had blood samples collected for biochemical and biomolecular analyses. Master sprinters had longer TL, lower body fat and BMI, and a better lipid profile than age-matched controls (p<0...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083127/influence-of-shoe-sole-bending-stiffness-on-sprinting-performance
#7
Ryu Nagahara, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Tetsuo Fukunaga
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the influence of shoe sole bending stiffness on sprint performance, in relation to anthropometric and strength-power capability characteristics of sprinters. METHODS: Seventeen male athletes performed three maximal effort 60-m sprints using spiked-shoes with different bending stiffness sole. Sprint times during 60-m sprint, anthropometry and strength-power capabilities represented by maximum toe-flexor test and rebound continuous ankle jump of athletes were measured...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075233/genes-gender-hormones-and-doping-in-sport-a-convoluted-tale
#8
Alan D Rogol, Lindsay Parks Pieper
We are writing this piece in the aftermath of the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Each of the words in the title plays a role(s) in deciding who may compete, especially who may compete as a woman. We shall be careful to disentangle the issues of genes and gender from hormonal levels of the potent androgen testosterone, and very clearly demarcate these natural occurrences from those of doping, for which the World Anti-Doping Agency has established strict guidelines. These elements became conflated in the aftermath of the Court of Arbitration of Sport's decision, now more than 2 years ago, concerning the teenage Indian sprinter, Dutee Chand...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072032/training-induced-annual-changes-in-red-blood-cell-profile-in-highly-trained-endurance-and-speed-power-athletes
#9
Monika Ciekot-Sołtysiak, Krzysztof Kusy, Tomasz Podgórski, Jacek Zieliński
BACKGROUND: An extensive body of literature exists on the effects of training on haematological parameters, but the previous studies have not reported how hematological parameters respond to changes in training loads within consecutive phases of the training cycle in highly-trained athletes in extremely different sport disciplines. The aim of this study was to identify changes in red blood cell (RBC) profile in response to training loads in consecutive phases of the annual training cycle in highly-trained sprinters (8 men, aged 24 ± 3 years) and triathletes (6 men, aged 24 ± 4 years) who competed at the national and international level...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065661/joint-torque-and-mechanical-power-of-lower-extremity-and-its-relevance-to-hamstring-strain-during-sprint-running
#10
Yunjian Zhong, Weijie Fu, Shutao Wei, Qing Li, Yu Liu
The aim of this study was to quantify the contributions of lower extremity joint torques and the mechanical power of lower extremity muscle groups to further elucidate the loadings on hamstring and the mechanics of its injury. Eight national-level male sprinters performed maximum-velocity sprint running on a synthetic track. The 3D kinematic data and ground reaction force (GRF) were collected synchronously. Intersegmental dynamics approach was used to analyze the lower extremity joint torques and power changes in the lower extremity joint muscle groups...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051334/case-studies-in-physiology-the-biomechanics-of-the-fastest-sprinter-with-a-unilateral-transtibial-amputation
#11
Owen N Beck, Alena Marie Grabowski
People have debated whether athletes with transtibial amputations should compete with non-amputees in track events despite insufficient information regarding how the use of running-specific prostheses affects athletic performance. Thus, we sought to quantify the spatio-temporal variables, ground reaction forces, and spring-mass mechanics of the fastest athlete with a unilateral transtibial amputation using an RSP to reveal how he adapts his biomechanics to achieve elite running speeds. Accordingly, we measured ground reaction forces during treadmill running trials spanning 2...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965346/impact-of-5-days-of-sprint-training-in-hypoxia-on-performance-and-muscle-energy-substances
#12
Nobukazu Kasai, Chihiro Kojima, Daichi Sumi, Hideyuki Takahashi, Kazushige Goto, Yasuhiro Suzuki
The present study was designed to determine the effect of 5 consecutive days of repeated sprint training under hypoxia on anaerobic performance and energy substances. Nineteen male sprinters performed repeated sprints for 5 consecutive days under a hypoxic (HYPO; fraction of inspired oxygen [FiO2], 14.5%) or normoxic (NOR; FiO2, 20.9%) condition. Before and after the training period, 10-s maximal sprint, repeated sprint ability (5×6-s sprints), 30-s maximal sprint, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) tests were conducted...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923589/an-investigation-into-the-immediate-effects-of-pelvic-taping-on-hamstring-eccentric-force-in-an-elite-male-sprinter-a-case-report
#13
Ben Macdonald
BACKGROUND: Hamstring Injuries commonly cause missed training and competition time in elite sports. Injury surveillance studies have demonstrated high injury and re-injury rates, which have not improved across sports despite screening and prevention programmes being commonplace. The most commonly suggested intervention for hamstring prevention and rehabilitation is eccentric strength assessment and training. CASE DESCRIPTION: This case study describes the management of an elite sprinter with a history of hamstring injury...
November 2017: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873030/differences-in-hamstring-activation-characteristics-between-the-acceleration-and-maximum-speed-phases-of-sprinting
#14
Ayako Higashihara, Yasuharu Nagano, Takashi Ono, Toru Fukubayashi
This study aimed to investigate activation characteristics of the biceps femoris long head (BFlh) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles during the acceleration and maximum-speed phases of sprinting. Lower-extremity kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activities of the BFlh and ST muscles were examined during the acceleration sprint and maximum-speed sprint in 13 male sprinters during an overground sprinting. Differences in hamstring activation during each divided phases and in the hip and knee joint angles and torques at each time point of the sprinting gait cycle were determined between two sprints...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872386/on-the-importance-of-front-side-mechanics-in-athletics-sprinting
#15
Thomas Haugen, Jørgen Danielsen, Leif Olav Alnes, David McGhie, Øyvind Sandbakk, Gertjan Ettema
Practitioners have for many years argued that athletic sprinters should optimise front-side mechanics (leg motions occurring in front of the extended line through the torso) and minimise back-side mechanics. This study aimed to investigate if variables related to front- and back-side mechanics can be distinguished from other previously highlighted kinematic variables (spatiotemporal variables and variables related to segment configuration and velocities at touchdown) in how they statistically predict performance...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816504/validity-and-reliability-of-the-3-min-all-out-running-test-to-measure-critical-velocity-in-hot-environments
#16
Yu-Hsuan Kuo, Ching-Feng Cheng, Wei-Chieh Hsu, Del P Wong
This study's aim was to investigate the test-retest reliability of the 3-min all-out running test (3MRT) in hot environments. Twelve male sprinters (age 21.2 ± 1.8 years; height 1.78 ± 0.01 m; weight 71.0 ± 1.6 kg; [Formula: see text] 55.0 ± 1.0 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) performed an incremental exercise test in a laboratory, during which the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2) and [Formula: see text] were determined. In addition, they performed two 3MRTs on an outdoor track in a hot environment, during which the critical velocity (CV) and anaerobic capacity (D') were estimated...
August 17, 2017: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759127/kinematic-stride-cycle-asymmetry-is-not-associated-with-sprint-performance-and-injury-prevalence-in-athletic-sprinters
#17
Thomas Haugen, Jørgen Danielsen, David McGhie, Øyvind Sandbakk, Gertjan Ettema
The aims of this study were to i) quantify the magnitude of kinematic stride cycle asymmetry in high-level athletic sprinters, ii) explore the association between kinematic asymmetry and maximal sprint running performance, and iii) investigate possible associations between kinematic asymmetry and injury prevalence. Twenty-two competitive sprinters (age 23 ±3 yr, height 1.81 ±0.06 m, body mass 75.5 ±5.6 kg, personal best 100-m 10.86 ±0.22 s) performed 2-3 flying sprints over 20 m. Kinematics were recorded in 3D using a motion tracking system with 21 cameras at a 250 Hz sampling rate, allowing assessment of six consecutive steps for each athlete...
July 31, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744166/intramyocellular-lipids-of-muscle-type-in-athletes-of-different-sport-disciplines
#18
Yoshinao Nakagawa, Masaaki Hattori
The present study used magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to examine quantitative differences in intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) contents in various muscle types at rest for individual athletes from different sport disciplines. Five groups consisting of sprinters, alpine skiers, cross-country skiers, endurance runners and untrained healthy male subjects volunteered for this study. Data were acquired using (1)H-MRS from the tibialis anterior (TA), medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus (SOL) muscles. No significant difference was found in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the TA, MG and SOL muscles, whereas the CSA of subcutaneous fat was significantly lower (p<0...
2017: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713468/a-model-for-determining-the-effect-of-the-wind-velocity-on-100-m-sprinting-performance
#19
Natasa Janjic, Darko Kapor, Dragan Doder, Aleksandar Petrovic, Radoslava Doder
This paper introduces an equation for determining instantaneous and final velocity of a sprinter in a 100 m run completed with a wind resistance ranging from 0.1 to 4.5 m/s. The validity of the equation was verified using the data of three world class sprinters: Carl Lewis, Maurice Green, and Usain Bolt. For the given constant wind velocity with the values + 0.9 and + 1.1 m/s, the wind contribution to the change of sprinter velocity was the same for the maximum as well as for the final velocity. This study assessed how the effect of the wind velocity influenced the change of sprinting velocity...
June 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673896/serum-androgen-levels-and-their-relation-to-performance-in-track-and-field-mass-spectrometry-results-from-2127-observations-in-male-and-female-elite-athletes
#20
Stéphane Bermon, Pierre-Yves Garnier
OBJECTIVE: To describe and characterise serum androgen levels and to study their possible influence on athletic performance in male and female elite athletes. METHODS: 2127 observations of competition best performances and mass spectrometry-measured serum androgen concentrations, obtained during the 2011 and 2013 International Association of Athletics Federations World Championships, were analysed in male and female elite track and field athletes. To test the influence of serum androgen levels on performance, male and female athletes were classified in tertiles according to their free testosterone (fT) concentration and the best competition results achieved in the highest and lowest fT tertiles were then compared...
September 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
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