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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051333/optimal-loading-for-maximising-power-during-sled-resisted-sprinting
#1
Matt R Cross, Matt Brughelli, Pierre Samozino, Scott R Brown, Jean-Benoit Morin
Purpose We sought to ascertain whether force-velocity-power relationships could be compiled from a battery of sled-resisted over-ground sprints, and to clarify and compare the optimal loading conditions for maximising power production for different athlete cohorts. Methods Recreational mixed-sport athletes (n=12) and sprinters (n=15) performed multiple trials of maximal sprints unloaded and towing a selection of sled masses (20-120% body-mass). Velocity data were collected by sports radar, and kinetics at peak velocity were quantified using friction coefficients and aerodynamic drag...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040320/semimembranosus-tenosynovitis-diagnosis-and-management-of-a-commonly-missed-cause-of-posteromedial-knee-pain
#2
Joel K Melton, Arman Memarzadeh, William H Dunbar, Mervyn J Cross
BACKGROUND: In orthopedic and sports medicine literature there is minimal information regarding accurate diagnosis and the treatment options for tenosynovitis of the distal semimembranosus tendon. After reviewing the literature, the authors question both the etiology and treatment of this condition. Previous descriptions have associated the condition primarily with the endurance athlete but we have noted multiple cases in which this is a condition common to the 'sprinter' as well. There has been very little mention of this condition in recent literature but the most recent complete description of operative treatment for this condition recommends both tendon transfer and concomitant arthroscopy...
December 28, 2016: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967284/sled-towing-the-optimal-overload-for-peak-power-production
#3
Andrea Monte, Francesca Nardello, Paola Zamparo
PURPOSE: The effects of different loads on kinematic and kinetic variables during sled towing were investigated with the aim to identify the optimal overload for this specific sprint training. METHODS: Thirteen male sprinters (100m PB: 10.91±0.14 s) performed 5 maximal trials over a 20m distance in the following conditions: unloaded (UL) and with loads from +15% to +40% of the athlete's body mass (BM). In these calculations the sled mass and friction were taken into account...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940620/how-to-build-a-deep-diver-the-extreme-morphology-of-mesoplodonts
#4
D Ann Pabst, William A McLellan, Sentiel A Rommel
Mesoplodont beaked whales are extreme divers, diving for over 45 mins and to depths of over 800 m. These dives are of similar depth and duration to those of the giant sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) whose body mass can be 50 times larger. Velten et al. (2013) provided anatomical data that demonstrated that on-board oxygen stores were sufficient to aerobically support the extreme dives of mesoplodonts if their diving metabolic rates are low. Because no physiological data yet exist, we utilized an anatomical approach-the body composition technique-to examine the relative metabolic rates of mesoplodonts...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916891/comparison-of-site-specific-bone-mineral-densities-between-endurance-runners-and-sprinters-in-adolescent-women
#5
Aoi Ikedo, Aya Ishibashi, Saori Matsumiya, Aya Kaizaki, Kumiko Ebi, Satoshi Fujita
We aimed to compare site-specific bone mineral densities (BMDs) between adolescent endurance runners and sprinters and examine the relationship of fat-free mass (FFM) and nutrient intake on BMD. In this cross-sectional study, 37 adolescent female endurance runners and sprinters (16.1 ± 0.8 years) were recruited. BMD and FFM were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Nutrient intake and menstrual state were evaluated by questionnaires. After adjusting for covariates, spine and total bone less head (TBLH) BMDs were significantly higher in sprinters than endurance runners (TBLH, 1...
November 30, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905858/seasonal-effects-on-body-composition-muscle-characteristics-and-performance-of-collegiate-swimmers-and-divers
#6
Erica J Roelofs, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Eric T Trexler, Katie R Hirsch
CONTEXT:  Previous researchers have indicated the importance of body composition and muscle quality in athletic performance. However, body composition and muscle-quality measures in swimmers and divers over a training season have yet to be evaluated. OBJECTIVE:  To identify changes in body composition and muscle characteristics over a competitive season and identify relationships between these variables and performance in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I swimmers and divers...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874306/power-and-speed-differences-between-brazilian-paralympic-sprinters-with-visual-impairment-and-their-guides
#7
Lucas Pereira, Ciro Winckler, Cesar C Cal Abad, Ronaldo Kobal, Katia Kitamura, Amaury Veríssimo, Fabio Y Nakamura, Irineu Loturco
This study compared the physical performance of Paralympic sprinters with visual impairments (PSVI) and their guides in jump and sprint tests. Ten PSVI and guides executed squat jumps (SJ), countermovement jumps (CMJ), horizontal quintuple right/left-leg jumps (QR/QL), decuple jumps (DEC), and 50-m-sprint tests. The guides were superior to the PSVI in SJ (35.9 ± 6.3 vs 45.6 ± 3.2 cm), CMJ (38.5 ± 6.2 vs 46.7 ± 4.0 cm), QR (9.2 ± 1.9 vs 12.7 ± 1.0 m), QL (9.4 ± 1.9 vs 13.1 ± 0.8 m), DEC (21.0 ± 3.3 vs...
October 2016: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly: APAQ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846785/the-three-dimensional-kinetic-behaviour-of-the-pelvic-rotation-in-maximal-sprint-running
#8
Natsuki Sado, Shinsuke Yoshioka, Senshi Fukashiro
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of lumbosacral kinetics on sprinting. Twelve male sprinters performed 50 m sprints at maximal effort. Kinematic and ground reaction force data were recorded at approximately 40 m from sprint commencement. A whole-body inverse dynamics approach was applied to calculate joint forces and torques at the hip and lumbosacral joints. The contribution of the hips and lumbosacral joint torques to pelvic rotation was subsequently calculated, with joint force powers indicating the rate of mechanical energy transfer between segments across joint centres calculated for both hip joints...
November 15, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846241/sprint-start-kinetics-of-amputee-and-non-amputee-sprinters
#9
Steffen Willwacher, Volker Herrmann, Kai Heinrich, Johannes Funken, Gerda Strutzenberger, Jan-Peter Goldmann, Björn Braunstein, Adam Brazil, Gareth Irwin, Wolfgang Potthast, Gert-Peter Brüggemann
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the forces applied to the starting blocks and the start performances (SPs) of amputee sprinters (ASs) and non-amputee sprinters (NASs). SPs of 154 male and female NASs (100-m personal records [PRs], 9.58-14.00 s) and 7 male ASs (3 unilateral above knee, 3 unilateral below knee, 1 bilateral below knee; 100 m PRs, 11.70-12.70 s) with running specific prostheses (RSPs) were analysed during full-effort sprint starts using instrumented starting blocks that measured the applied forces in 3D...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806673/sprint-performance-and-mechanical-outputs-computed-with-an-iphone-app-comparison-with-existing-reference-methods
#10
Natalia Romero-Franco, Pedro Jiménez-Reyes, Adrián Castaño-Zambudio, Fernando Capelo-Ramírez, Juan José Rodríguez-Juan, Jorge González-Hernández, Francisco Javier Toscano-Bendala, Víctor Cuadrado-Peñafiel, Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández
The purpose of this study was to assess validity and reliability of sprint performance outcomes measured with an iPhone application (named: MySprint) and existing field methods (i.e. timing photocells and radar gun). To do this, 12 highly trained male sprinters performed 6 maximal 40-m sprints during a single session which were simultaneously timed using 7 pairs of timing photocells, a radar gun and a newly developed iPhone app based on high-speed video recording. Several split times as well as mechanical outputs computed from the model proposed by Samozino et al...
November 3, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701443/spatiotemporal-parameters-of-100-m-sprint-in-different-levels-of-sprinters-with-unilateral-transtibial-amputation
#11
Hiroaki Hobara, Satoru Hashizume, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Masaaki Mochmaru
The aim of this study was to investigate differences of the spatiotemporal parameters in a 100-m sprint among elite, sub-elite, and non-elite sprinters with a unilateral transtibial amputation. Using publicly available Internet broadcasts, we analyzed 125, 19, and 33 records from 30 elite, 12 sub-elite, and 22 non-elite sprinters, respectively. For each sprinter's run, the average velocity, step frequency, and step length were calculated using the number of steps in conjunction with the official race time. Average velocity was greatest in elite sprinters (8...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671707/strength-and-performance-asymmetry-during-maximal-velocity-sprint-running
#12
T Exell, G Irwin, M Gittoes, D Kerwin
The aim of this study was to empirically examine the interaction of athlete-specific kinematic kinetic and strength asymmetry in sprint running. Bilateral ground reaction force and kinematic data were collected during maximal velocity (mean = 9.05 m/s) sprinting for eight athletes. Bilateral ground reaction force data were also collected while the same athletes performed maximal effort squat jumps. Using novel composite asymmetry scores, interactions between kinematic and kinetic asymmetry were compared for the group of sprinters...
September 27, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598715/lower-limb-joint-kinetics-in-the-starting-blocks-and-first-stance-in-athletic-sprinting
#13
Adam Brazil, Timothy Exell, Cassie Wilson, Steffen Willwacher, Ian Bezodis, Gareth Irwin
The aim of this study was to examine lower limb joint kinetics during the block and first stance phases in athletic sprinting. Ten male sprinters (100 m PB, 10.50 ± 0.27 s) performed maximal sprint starts from blocks. External force (1000 Hz) and three-dimensional kinematics (250 Hz) were recorded in both the block (utilising instrumented starting blocks) and subsequent first stance phases. Ankle, knee and hip resultant joint moment, power and work were calculated at the rear and front leg during the block phase and during first stance using inverse dynamics...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544619/a-prosthesis-specific-multi-link-segment-model-of-lower-limb-amputee-sprinting
#14
Stacey M Rigney, Anne Simmons, Lauren Kark
Lower-limb amputees commonly utilize non-articulating energy storage and return (ESAR) prostheses for high impact activities such as sprinting. Despite these prostheses lacking an articulating ankle joint, amputee gait analysis conventionally features a two-link segment model of the prosthetic foot. This paper investigated the effects of the selected link segment model׳s marker-set and geometry on a unilateral amputee sprinter׳s calculated lower-limb kinematics, kinetics and energetics. A total of five lower-limb models of the Ottobock(®) 1E90 Sprinter were developed, including two conventional shank-foot models that each used a different version of the Plug-in-Gait (PiG) marker-set to test the effect of prosthesis ankle marker location...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540875/sprint-start-kinematics-during-competition-in-elite-and-world-class-male-and-female-sprinters
#15
Simone Ciacci, Franco Merni, Sandro Bartolomei, Rocco Di Michele
The start kinematics has been reported to differ between male and female sprinters. This study aimed to determine whether kinematic differences between the sexes are attributable to an effect of sex per se, or rather to the absolute performance level of the sprinters, quantified by the 100-m time. A total of 20 sprinters (10 M, 10 F), including world-class and elite athletes, were assessed. Start phases from the "set" position to the first two steps were analysed. Linear regression analyses showed a few significant differences between sexes when taking into account the effect of performance level: M had shorter pushing phase duration, higher horizontal velocity at block clearing, and shorter contact times of the first two steps...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516941/acute-effects-of-different-conditioning-activities-on-running-performance-of-sprinters
#16
Takaya Yoshimoto, Yohei Takai, Hiroaki Kanehisa
This study investigated acute effects of different conditioning activities on sprint performance of collegiate sprinters using a randomized, crossover design. Male sprinters (N = 10; 20.1 ± 0.6 years; 174.6 ± 4.4 cm; 66.7 ± 3.5 kg; 100-m race personal best time, 11.46 ± 0.57 s; means ± SDs) performed two 60-m sprints and one of three treatments within the same day, with an interval of 2 days between the treatments. The baseline sprint was followed by one of three different conditioning activities: mini-hurdles, bounding jumps, or a free sprint...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27467387/on-the-existence-of-step-to-step-breakpoint-transitions-in-accelerated-sprinting
#17
Gertjan Ettema, David McGhie, Jørgen Danielsen, Øyvind Sandbakk, Thomas Haugen
Accelerated running is characterised by a continuous change of kinematics from one step to the next. It has been argued that breakpoints in the step-to-step transitions may occur, and that these breakpoints are an essential characteristic of dynamics during accelerated running. We examined this notion by comparing a continuous exponential curve fit (indicating continuity, i.e., smooth transitions) with linear piecewise fitting (indicating breakpoint). We recorded the kinematics of 24 well trained sprinters during a 25 m sprint run with start from competition starting blocks...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462495/effects-of-compression-clothing-on-speed-power-performance-of-elite-paralympic-sprinters-a-pilot-study
#18
Irineu Loturco, Ciro Winckler, Thiago F Lourenço, Amaury Veríssimo, Ronaldo Kobal, Katia Kitamura, Lucas A Pereira, Fábio Y Nakamura
BACKGROUND: Compression garments are thought to aid performance in some selected speed-power activities owing to improved sensory feedback and proprioception. The aim of this study was to test the effects of using compression garments on speed and power-related performances in elite sprinters with visual impairment, who rely more on proprioception to perform than their Olympic peers. Eight top-level Paralympic sprinters competing in 100- and 200-m races performed, in the following order: unloaded squat jump (SJ), loaded jump squat (JS) and sprint tests over 20- and 70-m distances; using or not the compression garment...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448392/is-soleus-muscle-tendon-unit-behavior-related-to-ground-force-application-during-the-sprint-start
#19
Erik Schrödter, Gert-Peter Brüggemann, Steffen Willwacher
PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe the stretch shortening behavior of ankle plantarflexing muscle tendon units during the push off in a sprint start. METHODS: For this purpose, 54 male (100 m PR: 9.58-12.07 s) and 34 female (100 m PR: 11.05-14.00 s) sprinters were analyzed using an instrumented starting block and 2D high speed video imaging. Analysis was performed separately for front and rear legs, while accounting for block obliquities and performance levels...
August 24, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446911/how-fast-can-a-human-run-bipedal-vs-quadrupedal-running
#20
Ryuta Kinugasa, Yoshiyuki Usami
Usain Bolt holds the current world record in the 100-m run, with a running time of 9.58 s, and has been described as the best human sprinter in history. However, this raises questions concerning the maximum human running speed, such as "Can the world's fastest men become faster still?" The correct answer is likely "Yes." We plotted the historical world records for bipedal and quadrupedal 100-m sprint times according to competition year. These historical records were plotted using several curve-fitting procedures...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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