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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445642/the-predictive-power-of-clean-bed-filtration-theory-for-fecal-indicator-bacteria-removal-in-stormwater-biofilters
#1
Emily Parker, Megan A Rippy, Andrew Mehring, Brandon Winfrey, Richard F Ambrose, Lisa A Levin, Stanley B Grant
Green infrastructure (also referred to as low impact development, or LID) has the potential to transform urban stormwater runoff from an environmental threat to a valuable water resource. In this paper we focus on the removal of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB, a pollutant responsible for runoff-associated inland and coastal beach closures) in stormwater biofilters (a common type of green infrastructure). Drawing on a combination of previously published and new laboratory studies of FIB removal in biofilters, we find that 66% of the variance in FIB removal rates can be explained by clean bed filtration theory (CBFT, 31%), antecedent dry period (14%), study effect (8%), biofilter age (7%), and the presence or absence of shrubs (6%)...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445398/consensus-based-cooperative-control-based-on-pollution-sensing-and-traffic-information-for-urban-traffic-networks
#2
Antonio Artuñedo, Raúl M Del Toro, Rodolfo E Haber
Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks...
April 26, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445158/the-hdac-inhibitor-valproate-induces-a-bivalent-status-of-the-cd20-promoter-in-cll-patients-suggesting-distinct-epigenetic-regulation-of-cd20-expression-in-cll-in-vivo
#3
Annarita Scialdone, Muhammad Sharif Hasni, Jesper Kofoed Damm, Andreas Lennartsson, Urban Gullberg, Kristina Drott
Treatment with anti-CD20 antibodies is only moderately efficient in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a feature which has been explained by the inherently low CD20 expression in CLL. It has been shown that CD20 is epigenetically regulated and that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) can increase CD20 expression in vitro in CLL. To assess whether HDACis can upregulate CD20 also in vivo in CLL, the HDACi valproate was given to three del13q/NOTCH1wt CLL patients and CD20 levels were analysed (the PREVAIL study)...
April 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441601/improving-understanding-of-mixed-land-use-watershed-suspended-sediment-regimes-mechanistic-progress-through-high-frequency-sampling
#4
Elliott Kellner, Jason A Hubbart
Given the importance of suspended sediment to biogeochemical functioning of aquatic ecosystems, and the increasing concern of mixed-land-use effects on pollutant loading, there is an urgent need for research that quantitatively characterizes spatiotemporal variation of suspended sediment dynamics in contemporary watersheds. A study was conducted in a representative watershed of the central United States utilizing a nested-scale experimental watershed design, including five gauging sites (n=5) partitioning the catchment into five sub-watersheds...
April 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440977/low-re-infection-rate-of-helicobacter-pylori-after-successful-eradication-in-thailand-a-2-years-study
#5
Ratha Korn Vilaichone, Arti Wongcha Um, Peranart Chotivitayatarakorn
Background: H. pylori is an important cause of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. Re-infection rates after successful eradication vary in different regions of the world but only limited studies have been performed in ASEAN Countries to clarify this important issue. The present study was designed to evaluate the H. pylori re-infection rate and predictors of re-infection in Thailand. Methods: We recruited patients with chronic gastritis after 1 and 2 years successful H. pylori eradication from Thammasat University Hospital, Pathumthani (Central urban area) and Maesod district, Tak (Northern rural area), Thailand...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440643/field-calibration-of-xad-based-passive-air-sampler-on-the-tibetan-plateau-wind-influence-and-configuration-improvement
#6
Ping Gong, Xiao-Ping Wang, Xiande Liu, Frank Wania
The passive air sampler based on XAD-2 resin (XAD-PAS) has proven useful for collecting atmospheric persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in remote regions. Whereas laboratory studies have shown that, due to the open bottom of its housing, the passive sampling rate (PSR) of the XAD-PAS is susceptible to wind and other processes causing air turbulence, the sampler has not been calibrated in the field at sites experiencing high winds. In this study, the PSRs of the XAD-PAS were calibrated at three sites on the Tibetan Plateau, covering a wide range in temperature (T), pressure (P) and wind speed (v)...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439149/refinement-and-preliminary-testing-of-an-imagery-based-program-to-improve-coping-and-performance-and-prevent-trauma-among-urban-police-officers
#7
Eamonn Arble, Mark A Lumley, Nnamdi Pole, James Blessman, Bengt B Arnetz
Police officers are regularly exposed to traumatic critical incidents. The substantial mental, behavioral, and social costs of police trauma indicate a substantial need for prevention. We have refined and enhanced a previously tested Swedish program to the harsh conditions of U.S. inner cities. The program was designed to strengthen resilience during stressful encounters and teach methods of coping after exposure, thereby preventing the emergence of maladaptive symptoms and behaviors with adverse effects on professionalism...
March 2017: J Police Crim Psychol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438122/comprehensive-performance-comparison-of-high-resolution-array-platforms-for-genome-wide-copy-number-variation-cnv-analysis-in-humans
#8
Rajini R Haraksingh, Alexej Abyzov, Alexander Eckehart Urban
BACKGROUND: High-resolution microarray technology is routinely used in basic research and clinical practice to efficiently detect copy number variants (CNVs) across the entire human genome. A new generation of arrays combining high probe densities with optimized designs will comprise essential tools for genome analysis in the coming years. We systematically compared the genome-wide CNV detection power of all 17 available array designs from the Affymetrix, Agilent, and Illumina platforms by hybridizing the well-characterized genome of 1000 Genomes Project subject NA12878 to all arrays, and performing data analysis using both manufacturer-recommended and platform-independent software...
April 24, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434913/development-of-school-based-asthma-management-programs-in-rochester-ny
#9
REVIEW
Jill S Halterman, Reynaldo Tajon, Paul Tremblay, Maria Fagnano, Arlene Butz, Tamara Perry, Ken McConnochie
In the spirit of Dr. Haggerty's teachings, we present an overview of our work to improve care for children with asthma in the context of 3 lessons learned:(1) 1) The importance of providing integrated services across disciplinary boundaries for children with chronic illness, 2) The need to move from a care model focused only on the individual child to a model focused on the child, family, and community, and 3) The need to expand beyond the local community and take a broad perspective on improving health on a national level...
April 18, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434804/nurses-knowledge-and-perception-of-delirium-screening-and-assessment-in-the-intensive-care-unit-long-term-effectiveness-of-an-education-based-knowledge-translation-intervention
#10
Sharon L Hickin, Sandra White, Jennifer Knopp-Sihota
OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of education on nurses' knowledge of delirium, knowledge and perception of a validated screening tool, and delirium screening in the ICU. METHODS: A quasi-experimental single group pretest-post-test design. SETTING: A 16 bed ICU in a Canadian urban tertiary care centre. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Nursing knowledge and perception were measured at baseline, 3-month and 18-month periods. Delirium screening was then assessed over 24-months...
April 20, 2017: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434409/-a-very-diadem-of-light-exhibitions-in-victorian-london-the-parliamentary-light-and-the-shaping-of-the-trinity-house-lighthouses
#11
Stephen Courtney
In the midsummer of 1872 a lighthouse apparatus was installed in the Clock Tower of the House of Commons. The installation served the practical function of communicating at a distance when the House was sitting, but also provided a highly visible symbolic indication of the importance of lighthouse technology to national concerns. Further, the installation served as an experimental space in which rival technological designs, with corresponding visions for the lighthouse system, could compete in public. This article considers nineteenth-century lighthouse technology as a case study in the power and political significance of display...
April 24, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431458/reclaiming-our-spirits-development-and-pilot-testing-of-a-health-promotion-intervention-for-indigenous-women-who-have-experienced-intimate-partner-violence
#12
Colleen Varcoe, Annette J Browne, Marilyn Ford-Gilboe, Madeleine Dion Stout, Holly McKenzie, Roberta Price, Victoria Bungay, Victoria Smye, Jane Inyallie, Linda Day, Koushambhi Khan, Angela Heino, Marilyn Merritt-Gray
Indigenous women are subjected to high rates of multiple forms of violence, including intimate partner violence (IPV), in the context of ongoing colonization and neo-colonization. Health promotion interventions for women who experience violence have not been tailored specifically for Indigenous women. Reclaiming Our Spirits (ROS) is a health promotion intervention designed for Indigenous women living in an urban context in Canada. In this paper, we describe the development of the intervention, results of a pilot study, and the revised subsequent intervention...
April 21, 2017: Research in Nursing & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430114/urban-and-rural-differences-in-hypertension-risk-factors-in-turkey
#13
İlker Daştan, Ayşegül Erem, Volkan Çetinkaya
OBJECTIVE: Existing literature shows considerable regional differences in terms of hypertension (HT) prevalence in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to analyze some of the known HT risk factors contributing to the variations between urban and rural areas of Turkey in HT development. METHODS: We used data from the 2011 Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors Survey that was conducted by the Turkish Ministry of Health on a representative sample of the Turkish adult population aged 20 years or more (n=16...
April 19, 2017: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429567/the-tsimane-health-and-life-history-project-integrating-anthropology-and-biomedicine
#14
Michael Gurven, Jonathan Stieglitz, Benjamin Trumble, Aaron D Blackwell, Bret Beheim, Helen Davis, Paul Hooper, Hillard Kaplan
The Tsimane Health and Life History Project, an integrated bio-behavioral study of the human life course, is designed to test competing hypotheses of human life-history evolution. One aim is to understand the bidirectional connections between life history and social behavior in a high-fertility, kin-based context lacking amenities of modern urban life (e.g. sanitation, banks, electricity). Another aim is to understand how a high pathogen burden influences health and well-being during development and adulthood...
April 2017: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426322/formative-research-to-design-a-promotional-campaign-to-increase-drinking-water-among-central-american-latino-youth-in-an-urban-area
#15
Nicole Barrett, Uriyoán Colón-Ramos, Allison Elkins, Ivonne Rivera, W Douglas Evans, Mark Edberg
Latinos consume more sugary drinks and less water than other demographic groups. Our objective was to understand beverage choice motivations and test promotional concepts that can encourage Central American Latino urban youth to drink more water. Two rounds of focus group discussions were conducted (n = 10 focus groups, 61 participants, 6-18 years old). Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using inductive and deductive coding approaches. Youth motivations for drinking water were shaped by level of thirst, weather, energy, and perceptions of health benefits...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426308/humanitarian-needs-among-displaced-and-female-headed-households-in-government-controlled-areas-of-syria
#16
Shannon Doocy, Emily Lyles
OBJECTIVES: To identify unmet needs and assistance priorities of displaced and female-headed households in government-controlled areas of Syria. METHODS: In mid-2016, we undertook a survey of accessible areas, largely urban and government-controlled, to identify unmet needs and assistance priorities. We used a cluster design with probability sampling to attain a final sample of 2405 households from 10 of 14 governorates; 31 of 65 (47.7%) districts were included that are home to 38...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419106/quality-improvement-intervention-to-increase-adherence-to-art-prescription-policy-at-hiv-treatment-clinics-in-lusaka-zambia-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#17
Elizabeth A McCarthy, Hamsa L Subramaniam, Margaret L Prust, Marta R Prescott, Felton Mpasela, Albert Mwango, Leah Namonje, Crispin Moyo, Benjamin Chibuye, Jan Willem van den Broek, Lindsey Hehman, Sarah Moberley
INTRODUCTION: In urban areas, crowded HIV treatment facilities with long patient wait times can deter patients from attending their clinical appointments and picking up their medications, ultimately disrupting patient care and compromising patient retention and adherence. METHODS: Formative research at eight facilities in Lusaka revealed that only 46% of stable HIV treatment patients were receiving a three-month refill supply of antiretroviral drugs, despite it being national policy for stable adult patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418804/determinants-of-nonmedically-indicated-in-hospital-supplementation-of-infants-whose-birthing-parents-intended-to-exclusively-breastfeed
#18
Julia Temple Newhook, Leigh Anne Newhook, William K Midodzi, Janet Murphy Goodridge, Lorraine Burrage, Nicole Gill, Beth Halfyard, Laurie Twells
BACKGROUND: Despite high rates of intention to exclusively breastfeed, rates of exclusive breastfeeding in Canada are low. Supplementation may begin in hospital and is associated with reduced breastfeeding duration. Research aim: The aim of this investigation was to explore determinants of in-hospital nonmedically indicated supplementation of infants whose birthing parents intended to exclusively breastfeed. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional one-group nonexperimental design, focused on participants who intended to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months ( n = 496)...
May 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415303/generic-patterns-in-the-evolution-of-urban-water-networks-evidence-from-a-large-asian-city
#19
Elisabeth Krueger, Christopher Klinkhamer, Christian Urich, Xianyuan Zhan, P Suresh C Rao
We examine high-resolution urban infrastructure data using every pipe for the water distribution network (WDN) and sanitary sewer network (SSN) in a large Asian city (≈4 million residents) to explore the structure as well as the spatial and temporal evolution of these infrastructure networks. Network data were spatially disaggregated into multiple subnets to examine intracity topological differences for functional zones of the WDN and SSN, and time-stamped SSN data were examined to understand network evolution over several decades as the city expanded...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415196/traffic-gridlock-on-a-honeycomb-city
#20
L E Olmos, J D Muñoz
Inspired by an old and almost in oblivion urban plan, we report the behavior of the Biham-Middleton-Levine (BML) model-a paradigm for studying phase transitions of traffic flow-on a hypothetical city with a perfect honeycomb street network. In contrast with the original BML model on a square lattice, the same model on a honeycomb does not show any anisotropy or intermediate states, but a single continuous phase transition between free and totally congested flow, a transition that can be completely characterized by the tools of classical percolation...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
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