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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923043/clonal-evolutionary-analysis-during-her2-blockade-in-her2-positive-inflammatory-breast-cancer-a-phase-ii-open-label-clinical-trial-of-afatinib-vinorelbine
#1
Gerald Goh, Ramona Schmid, Kelly Guiver, Wichit Arpornwirat, Imjai Chitapanarux, Vinod Ganju, Seock-Ah Im, Sung-Bae Kim, Arunee Dechaphunkul, Jedzada Maneechavakajorn, Neil Spector, Thomas Yau, Mehdi Afrit, Slim Ben Ahmed, Stephen R Johnston, Neil Gibson, Martina Uttenreuther-Fischer, Javier Herrero, Charles Swanton
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare, aggressive form of breast cancer associated with HER2 amplification, with high risk of metastasis and an estimated median survival of 2.9 y. We performed an open-label, single-arm phase II clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01325428) to investigate the efficacy and safety of afatinib, an irreversible ErbB family inhibitor, alone and in combination with vinorelbine in patients with HER2-positive IBC. This trial included prospectively planned exome analysis before and after afatinib monotherapy...
December 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912134/uncertainties-in-mapping-forest-carbon-in-urban-ecosystems
#2
Gang Chen, Emre Ozelkan, Kunwar K Singh, Jun Zhou, Marilyn R Brown, Ross K Meentemeyer
Spatially explicit urban forest carbon estimation provides a baseline map for understanding the variation in forest vertical structure, informing sustainable forest management and urban planning. While high-resolution remote sensing has proven promising for carbon mapping in highly fragmented urban landscapes, data cost and availability are the major obstacle prohibiting accurate, consistent, and repeated measurement of forest carbon pools in cities. This study aims to evaluate the uncertainties of forest carbon estimation in response to the combined impacts of remote sensing data resolution and neighborhood spatial patterns in Charlotte, North Carolina...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891717/emerging-climate-driven-disturbance-processes-widespread-mortality-associated-with-snow-to-rain-transitions-across-10%C3%A2-of-latitude-and-half-the-range-of-a-climate-threatened-conifer
#3
Brian Buma, Paul E Hennon, Constance A Harrington, Jamie R Popkin, John Krapek, Melinda S Lamb, Lauren E Oakes, Sari Saunders, Stefan Zeglen
Climate change is causing rapid changes to forest disturbance regimes worldwide. While the consequences of climate change for existing disturbance processes, like fires, are relatively well studied, emerging drivers of disturbance such as snow loss and subsequent mortality are much less documented. As the climate warms, a transition from winter snow to rain in high latitudes will cause significant changes in environmental conditions such as soil temperatures, historically buffered by snow cover. The Pacific coast of North America is an excellent test case, as mean winter temperatures are currently at the snow-rain threshold and have been warming for approximately 100 years post-Little Ice Age...
November 5, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888423/assessment-of-land-use-and-land-cover-change-using-spatiotemporal-analysis-of-landscape-case-study-in-south-of-tehran
#4
Abutaleb Sabr, Mazaher Moeinaddini, Hossein Azarnivand, Benjamin Guinot
In the recent years, dust storms originating from local abandoned agricultural lands have increasingly impacted Tehran and Karaj air quality. Designing and implementing mitigation plans are necessary to study land use/land cover change (LUCC). Land use/cover classification is particularly relevant in arid areas. This study aimed to map land use/cover by pixel- and object-based image classification methods, analyse landscape fragmentation and determine the effects of two different classification methods on landscape metrics...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881142/ethnoagroforestry-integration-of-biocultural-diversity-for-food-sovereignty-in-mexico
#5
Ana Isabel Moreno-Calles, Alejandro Casas, Alexis Daniela Rivero-Romero, Yessica Angélica Romero-Bautista, Selene Rangel-Landa, Roberto Alexander Fisher-Ortíz, Fernando Alvarado-Ramos, Mariana Vallejo-Ramos, Dídac Santos-Fita
BACKGROUND: Documenting the spectrum of ecosystem management, the roles of forestry and agricultural biodiversity, TEK, and human culture for food sovereignty, are all priority challenges for contemporary science and society. Ethnoagroforestry is a research approach that provides a theoretical framework integrating socio-ecological disciplines and TEK. We analyze in this study general types of Agroforestry Systems of México, in which peasants, small agriculturalist, and indigenous people are the main drivers of AFS and planning of landscape diversity use...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880787/seasonal-and-spatial-environmental-influence-on-opisthorchis-viverrini-intermediate-hosts-abundance-and-distribution-insights-on-transmission-dynamics-and-sustainable-control
#6
Christina Sunyoung Kim, Pierre Echaubard, Apiporn Suwannatrai, Sasithorn Kaewkes, Bruce A Wilcox, Banchob Sripa
BACKGROUND: Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov) is a complex-life-cycle trematode affecting 10 million people in SEA (Southeast Asia). Human infection occurs when infected cyprinid fish are consumed raw or undercooked. Ov requires three hosts and presents two free-living parasitic stages. As a consequence Ov transmission and infection in intermediate and human hosts are strongly mediated by environmental factors and understanding how environmental variability influences intermediate host abundance is critical...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870994/landscape-changes-in-a-neotropical-forest-savanna-ecotone-zone-in-central-brazil-the-role-of-protected-areas-in-the-maintenance-of-native-vegetation
#7
Andrea S Garcia, Henrique O Sawakuchi, Manuel Eduardo Ferreira, Maria Victoria R Ballester
In the Amazon-savanna ecotone in northwest Brazil, the understudied Araguaia River Basin contains high biodiversity and seasonal wetlands. The region is representative of tropical humid-dry ecotone zones, which have experienced intense land use and land cover (LULC) conversions. Here we assessed the LULC changes for the last four decades in the central portion of the Araguaia River Basin to understand the temporal changes in the landscape composition and configuration outside and inside protected areas. We conducted these analyzes by LULC mapping and landscape metrics based on patch classes...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862619/when-does-seed-limitation-matter-for-scaling-up-reforestation-from-patches-to-landscapes
#8
T Trevor Caughlin, Stephen Elliott, Jeremy W Lichstein
Restoring forest to hundreds of millions of hectares of degraded land has become a centerpiece of international plans to sequester carbon and conserve biodiversity. Forest landscape restoration will require scaling up ecological knowledge of secondary succession from small-scale field studies to predict forest recovery rates in heterogeneous landscapes. However, ecological field studies reveal widely divergent times to forest recovery, in part due to landscape features that are difficult to replicate in empirical studies...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846889/using-expert-decision-making-to-establish-indicators-of-urban-friendliness-for-walking-environments-a-multidisciplinary-assessment
#9
Yen-Cheng Chiang, Han-Yu Lei
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have suggested that friendly walking environments positively affect physical activity and health. Creating friendly walking environments in urban areas is a complex and wide-ranging topic, and no study has yet established a set of assessment indicators by drawing on the expertise of various disciplines. This study uses a multiple-criteria decision-making technique to elucidate the environmental factors that affect the friendliness of the walking environment...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832866/effects-of-landscape-composition-and-pattern-on-land-surface-temperature-an-urban-heat-island-study-in-the-megacities-of-southeast-asia
#10
Ronald C Estoque, Yuji Murayama, Soe W Myint
Due to its adverse impacts on urban ecological environment and the overall livability of cities, the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon has become a major research focus in various interrelated fields, including urban climatology, urban ecology, urban planning, and urban geography. This study sought to examine the relationship between land surface temperature (LST) and the abundance and spatial pattern of impervious surface and green space in the metropolitan areas of Bangkok (Thailand), Jakarta (Indonesia), and Manila (Philippines)...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832111/size-matters-what-are-the-characteristic-source-areas-for-urban-planning-strategies
#11
Zhi-Hua Wang, Chao Fan, Soe W Myint, Chenghao Wang
Urban environmental measurements and observational statistics should reflect the properties generated over an adjacent area of adequate length where homogeneity is usually assumed. The determination of this characteristic source area that gives sufficient representation of the horizontal coverage of a sensing instrument or the fetch of transported quantities is of critical importance to guide the design and implementation of urban landscape planning strategies. In this study, we aim to unify two different methods for estimating source areas, viz...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821186/the-changing-malaria-landscape-in-aseer-region-kingdom-of-saudi-arabia-2000-2015
#12
Ali Mohamed Alshahrani, Tarig M Abdelgader, Ibrahim Saeed, AbdulRhman Al-Akhshami, Mohamed Al-Ghamdi, Mohammed H Al-Zahrani, Ibrahim El Hassan, David Kyalo, Robert W Snow
BACKGROUND: In 2004, a revised action plan was developed, supported by the World Health Organization, to eliminate malaria from Saudi Arabia by preventing re-introduction of malaria into regions since declared malaria free, eliminating foci of transmission in the Mecca and Medina areas and a concerted effort of foci surveillance and control, to eliminate malaria from the regions of Jazan and Aseer. This paper provides the context, activities, progress, and possible contributions toward malaria elimination in the Aseer region since 2000, with a more detailed analysis of the spatial location of locally acquired case incidence since 2012...
November 8, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810108/public-values-for-integration-in-natural-disaster-management-and-planning-a-case-study-from-victoria-australia
#13
Andrea Rawluk, Rebecca M Ford, Fendi L Neolaka, Kathryn J Williams
Values can be useful for identifying what is important to individuals and communities, yet there is currently not a coherent way to conceptualize, identify, and organize the breadth of values that can be affected by a natural disaster. This research proposes a conceptual framework for how to conceptualize, identify, and organize values, and proposes a concrete, tangible value called the valued entity. The framework is applied in two studies of bushfire in Victoria, Australia: 112 submissions from individuals to the 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission and interviews with 30 members of the public in bushfire risk landscapes...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791070/quantifying-and-sustaining-biodiversity-in-tropical-agricultural-landscapes
#14
Chase D Mendenhall, Analisa Shields-Estrada, Arjun J Krishnaswami, Gretchen C Daily
Decision-makers increasingly seek scientific guidance on investing in nature, but biodiversity remains difficult to estimate across diverse landscapes. Here, we develop empirically based models for quantifying biodiversity across space. We focus on agricultural lands in the tropical forest biome, wherein lies the greatest potential to conserve or lose biodiversity. We explore two questions, drawing from empirical research oriented toward pioneering policies in Costa Rica. First, can remotely sensed tree cover serve as a reliable basis for improved estimation of biodiversity, from plots to regions? Second, how does tropical biodiversity change across the land-use gradient from native forest to deforested cropland and pasture? We report on understory plants, nonflying mammals, bats, birds, reptiles, and amphibians...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789732/new-medicaid-enrollees-see-health-and-social-benefits-in-pennsylvania-s-expansion
#15
Jeffrey K Hom, Charlene Wong, Christian Stillson, Jessica Zha, Carolyn C Cannuscio, Rachel Cahill, David Grande
Understanding how new Medicaid enrollees are approaching their own health and health care in the shifting health care landscape of the Affordable Care Act has implications for future outreach and enrollment efforts, as well as service planning for this population. The objective of this study was to explore the health care experiences and expectations of new Medicaid expansion beneficiaries in the immediate post-enrollment period. We conducted semistructured, qualitative interviews with a random sample of 40 adults in Philadelphia who had completed an application for Medicaid through a comprehensive benefits organization after January 1, 2015, when the Medicaid expansion in Pennsylvania took effect...
2016: Inquiry: a Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778063/forecasting-urban-forest-ecosystem-structure-function-and-vulnerability
#16
James W N Steenberg, Andrew A Millward, David J Nowak, Pamela J Robinson, Alexis Ellis
The benefits derived from urban forest ecosystems are garnering increasing attention in ecological research and municipal planning. However, because of their location in heterogeneous and highly-altered urban landscapes, urban forests are vulnerable and commonly suffer disproportionate and varying levels of stress and disturbance. The objective of this study is to assess and analyze the spatial and temporal changes, and potential vulnerability, of the urban forest resource in Toronto, Canada. This research was conducted using a spatially-explicit, indicator-based assessment of vulnerability and i-Tree Forecast modeling of temporal changes in forest structure and function...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777724/heading-for-the-hills-evaluating-spatial-distribution-of-woodland-caribou-in-response-to-a-growing-anthropogenic-disturbance-footprint
#17
Doug MacNearney, Karine Pigeon, Gordon Stenhouse, Wiebe Nijland, Nicholas C Coops, Laura Finnegan
Anthropogenic landscape change (i.e., disturbance) is recognized as an important factor in the decline and extirpation of wildlife populations. Understanding and monitoring the relationship between wildlife distribution and disturbance is necessary for effective conservation planning. Many studies consider disturbance as a covariate explaining wildlife behavior. However, we propose that there are several advantages to considering the spatial relationship between disturbance and wildlife directly using utilization distributions (UDs), including objective assessment of the spatially explicit overlap between wildlife and disturbance, and the ability to track trends in this relationship over time...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776977/emerging-role-of-checkpoint-inhibition-in-localized-bladder-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Parminder Singh, Peter Black
OBJECTIVE: Checkpoint inhibitors have rapidly become a standard treatment option for metastatic urothelial carcinoma. A wave of enthusiasm for these drugs has pushed them also into the setting of localized bladder cancer, including both non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and muscle-invasive disease bladder cancer (MIBC). Here, we aimed to review the emerging role of checkpoint inhibition in localized bladder cancer. METHODS: We reviewed the current treatment landscape for both NMIBC and MIBC and established a significant unmet clinical need for novel therapies...
December 2016: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775670/fine-scale-population-estimation-by-3d-reconstruction-of-urban-residential-buildings
#19
Shixin Wang, Ye Tian, Yi Zhou, Wenliang Liu, Chenxi Lin
Fine-scale population estimation is essential in emergency response and epidemiological applications as well as urban planning and management. However, representing populations in heterogeneous urban regions with a finer resolution is a challenge. This study aims to obtain fine-scale population distribution based on 3D reconstruction of urban residential buildings with morphological operations using optical high-resolution (HR) images from the Chinese No. 3 Resources Satellite (ZY-3). Specifically, the research area was first divided into three categories when dasymetric mapping was taken into consideration...
October 21, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767233/forest-management-scenarios-in-a-changing-climate-tradeoffs-between-carbon-timber-and-old-forest
#20
Megan K Creutzburg, Robert M Scheller, Melissa S Lucash, Stephen D LeDuc, Mark G Johnson
Balancing economic, ecological and social values has long been a challenge in the forests of the Pacific Northwest, where conflict over timber harvest and old-growth habitat on public lands has been contentious for the past several decades. The Northwest Forest Plan, adopted two decades ago to guide management on federal lands, is currently being revised as the region searches for a balance between sustainable timber yields and habitat for sensitive species. In addition, climate change imposes a high degree of uncertainty on future forest productivity, sustainability of timber harvest, wildfire risk, and species habitat...
October 21, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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