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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079147/flood-dynamics-in-urbanised-landscapes-100-years-of-climate-and-humans-interaction
#1
G Sofia, G Roder, G Dalla Fontana, P Tarolli
Raising interest in the interaction between humans and climate drivers to understand the past and current development of floods in urbanised landscapes is of great importance. This study presents a regional screening of land-use, rainfall regime and flood dynamics in north-eastern Italy, covering the timeframe 1900-2010. This analysis suggests that, statistically, both climate and land-use have been contributing to a significant increase of the contribution of short duration floods to the increase in the number of flooded locations...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076320/solid-waste-management-in-thailand-an-overview-and-case-study-tha-khon-yang-sub-district
#2
Nachalida Yukalang, Beverley Dawn Clarke, Kirstin Elizabeth Ross
Due to rapid urbanization, solid waste management (SWM) has become a significant issue in several developing countries including Thailand. Policies implemented by the Central Thai Government to manage SWM issues have had only limited success. This article reviews current municipal waste management plans in Thailand and examines municipal waste management at the local level, with focus on the Tha Khon Yang sub-district surrounding Mahasarakham University in Mahasarakham Province. Within two decades this area has been converted from a rural to an urban landscape featuring accommodation for over 45,000 university students and a range of business facilities...
January 11, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074402/riparian-rehabilitation-planning-in-an-urban-rural-gradient-integrating-social-needs-and-ecological-conditions
#3
Bárbara Guida-Johnson, Gustavo A Zuleta
In the present context of global change and search for sustainability, we detected a gap between restoration and society: local communities are usually only considered as threats or disturbances when planning for restoration. To bridge this gap, we propose a landscape design framework for planning riparian rehabilitation in an urban-rural gradient. A spatial multi-criteria analysis was used to assess the priority of riversides by considering two rehabilitation objectives simultaneously-socio-environmental and ecological-and two sets of criteria were designed according to these objectives...
January 10, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070303/using-species-distribution-models-to-define-nesting-habitat-of-the-eastern-metapopulation-of-double-crested-cormorants
#4
Kate L Sheehan, Samuel T Esswein, Brian S Dorr, Greg K Yarrow, Ron J Johnson
When organisms with similar phenotypes have conflicting management and conservation initiatives, approaches are needed to differentiate among subpopulations or discrete groups. For example, the eastern metapopulation of the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) has a migratory phenotype that is culled because they are viewed as a threat to commercial and natural resources, whereas resident birds are targeted for conservation. Understanding the distinct breeding habitats of resident versus migratory cormorants would aid in identification and management decisions...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068411/projected-impacts-of-climate-urbanization-water-management-and-wetland-restoration-on-waterbird-habitat-in-california-s-central-valley
#5
Elliott L Matchett, Joseph P Fleskes
The Central Valley of California is one of the most important regions for wintering waterbirds in North America despite extensive anthropogenic landscape modification and decline of historical wetlands there. Like many other mediterranean-climate ecosystems across the globe, the Central Valley has been subject to a burgeoning human population and expansion and intensification of agricultural and urban development that have impacted wildlife habitats. Future effects of urban development, changes in water supply management, and precipitation and air temperature related to global climate change on area of waterbird habitat in the Central Valley are uncertain, yet potentially substantial...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040700/hodgkin-lymphoma-current-status-and-clinical-trial-recommendations
#6
REVIEW
Catherine S Diefenbach, Joseph M Connors, Jonathan W Friedberg, John P Leonard, Brad S Kahl, Richard F Little, Lawrence Baizer, Andrew M Evens, Richard T Hoppe, Kara M Kelly, Daniel O Persky, Anas Younes, Lale Kostakaglu, Nancy L Bartlett
The National Clinical Trials Network lymphoid malignancies Clinical Trials Planning Meeting (CTPM) occurred in November of 2014. The scope of the CTPM was to prioritize across the lymphoid tumors clinically significant questions and to foster strategies leading to biologically informed and potentially practice changing clinical trials. This review from the Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) subcommittee of the CTPM discusses the ongoing clinical challenges in HL, outlines the current standard of care for HL patients from early to advanced stage, and surveys the current science with respect to biomarkers and the landscape of ongoing clinical trials...
April 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031560/the-landscape-of-new-drugs-in-lymphoma
#7
REVIEW
Anas Younes, Stephen Ansell, Nathan Fowler, Wyndham Wilson, Sven de Vos, John Seymour, Ranjana Advani, Andres Forero, Franck Morschhauser, Marie Jose Kersten, Kensei Tobinai, Pier Luigi Zinzani, Emanuele Zucca, Jeremy Abramson, Julie Vose
The landscape of drugs for the treatment of lymphoma has become crowded in light of the plethora of new agents, necessitating the efficient prioritization of drugs for expedited development. The number of drugs available, and the fact that many can be given for an extended period of time, has resulted in the emergence of new challenges; these include determining the optimal duration of therapy, and the need to balance costs, benefits, and the risk of late-onset toxicities. Moreover, with the increase in the number of available investigational drugs, the number of possible combinations is becoming overwhelming, which necessitates prioritization plans for the selective development of novel combination regimens...
December 29, 2016: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003445/distance-decay-effect-in-stone-tool-transport-by-wild-chimpanzees
#8
Lydia V Luncz, Tomos Proffitt, Lars Kulik, Michael Haslam, Roman M Wittig
Stone tool transport leaves long-lasting behavioural evidence in the landscape. However, it remains unknown how large-scale patterns of stone distribution emerge through undirected, short-term transport behaviours. One of the longest studied groups of stone-tool-using primates are the chimpanzees of the Taï National Park in Ivory Coast, West Africa. Using hammerstones left behind at chimpanzee Panda nut-cracking sites, we tested for a distance-decay effect, in which the weight of material decreases with increasing distance from raw material sources...
December 28, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999262/crapemyrtle-bark-scale-a-new-threat-for-crapemyrtles-a-popular-landscape-plant-in-the-u-s
#9
REVIEW
Zinan Wang, Yan Chen, Mengmeng Gu, Erfan Vafaie, Michael Merchant, Rodrigo Diaz
Crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus (=Eriococcus) lagerstroemiae (Kuwana) (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae), is a newly introduced insect pest on crapemyrtles, Lagerstroemia spp. (Myrtales: Lythraceae), one of the most popular flowering shrubs in the U.S. Since first detected in Texas in 2004, this pest has spread to twelve states causing losses to stakeholders. To develop a management plan, we reviewed current knowledge about the pest's biology and ecology, and suggested research approaches including studying its thermal tolerance, host range, plant resistance and biological control...
December 16, 2016: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996154/assessing-climate-change-impacts-on-wildfire-exposure-in-mediterranean-areas
#10
Olga M Lozano, Michele Salis, Alan A Ager, Bachisio Arca, Fermin J Alcasena, Antonio T Monteiro, Mark A Finney, Liliana Del Giudice, Enrico Scoccimarro, Donatella Spano
We used simulation modeling to assess potential climate change impacts on wildfire exposure in Italy and Corsica (France). Weather data were obtained from a regional climate model for the period 1981-2070 using the IPCC A1B emissions scenario. Wildfire simulations were performed with the minimum travel time fire spread algorithm using predicted fuel moisture, wind speed, and wind direction to simulate expected changes in weather for three climatic periods (1981-2010, 2011-2040, and 2041-2070). Overall, the wildfire simulations showed very slight changes in flame length, while other outputs such as burn probability and fire size increased significantly in the second future period (2041-2070), especially in the southern portion of the study area...
December 20, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986215/beyond-just-androgen-deprivation-therapy-novel-therapies-combined-with-radiation
#11
REVIEW
Oliver Sartor, Brian Lewis
External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) combined with androgen deprivation are standard of care for selected patients with prostate cancer. In recent years, multiple therapies have been experimentally combined with EBRT either concomitantly or adjuvantly. These therapies include chemotherapies, immunotherapies, and novel hormones. In addition to EBRT, clinical trials with radiopharmaceuticals are planned or have been performed with concomitant chemotherapy, immunotherapies, novel hormones, and inhibitors of DNA damage repair...
January 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955992/pediatric-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-clinical-trials-challenges-and-opportunities
#12
REVIEW
S E McAnaw, A C Hesseling, J A Seddon, K E Dooley, A J Garcia-Prats, S Kim, H E Jenkins, H S Schaaf, T R Sterling, C R Horsburgh
On June 17, 2016, RESIST-TB, IMPAACT, Vital Strategies, and New Ventures jointly hosted the Pediatric Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis Clinical Trials Landscape Meeting in Arlington, Virginia, USA. The meeting provided updates on current multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) trials targeting pediatric populations and adult trials that have included pediatric patients. A series of presentations were given that discussed site capacity needs, community engagement, and additional interventions necessary for clinical trials to improve the treatment of pediatric MDR-TB...
December 9, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955737/palliative-care-and-pediatric-surgical-oncology
#13
Alessandro Inserra, Alessandra Narciso, Guglielmo Paolantonio, Raffaella Messina, Alessandro Crocoli
Survival rate for childhood cancer has increased in recent years, reaching as high as 70% in developed countries compared with 54% for all cancers diagnosed in the 1980s. In the remaining 30%, progression or metastatic disease leads to death and in this framework palliative care has an outstanding role though not well settled in all its facets. In this landscape, surgery has a supportive actor role integrated with other welfare aspects from which are not severable. The definition of surgical palliation has moved from the ancient definition of noncurative surgery to a group of practices performed not to cure but to alleviate an organ dysfunction offering the best quality of life possible in all the aspects of life (pain, dysfunctions, caregivers, psychosocial, etc...
October 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939708/applications-of-phylogenetics-to-solve-practical-problems-in-insect-conservation
#14
REVIEW
Thomas R Buckley
Phylogenetic approaches have much promise for the setting of conservation priorities and resource allocation. There has been significant development of analytical methods for the measurement of phylogenetic diversity within and among ecological communities as a way of setting conservation priorities. Application of these tools to insects has been low as has been the uptake by conservation managers. A critical reason for the lack of uptake includes the scarcity of detailed phylogenetic and species distribution data from much of insect diversity...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936980/chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-and-small-lymphocytic-lymphoma-two-faces-of-the-same-disease
#15
Michael T Tees, Ian W Flinn
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) are considered indolent lymphocytic malignancies, more often requiring active surveillance rather than intervention. Despite the indolent nature of CLL/SLL, treatment is likely indicated in a patients' lifetime. Recent changes in the therapeutic landscape have created more options to the clinician. Areas covered: The authors provide a broad assessment of the current state of disease, including the work-up, prognostic features, and mutational aspects of the disease that should be acknowledged when developing a rational treatment plan...
December 26, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929449/reviewing-the-history-of-pandemic-influenza-understanding-patterns-of-emergence-and-transmission
#16
REVIEW
Patrick R Saunders-Hastings, Daniel Krewski
For centuries, novel strains of influenza have emerged to produce human pandemics, causing widespread illness, death, and disruption. There have been four influenza pandemics in the past hundred years. During this time, globalization processes, alongside advances in medicine and epidemiology, have altered the way these pandemics are experienced. Drawing on international case studies, this paper provides a review of the impact of past influenza pandemics, while examining the evolution of our understanding of, and response to, these viruses...
December 6, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926937/intensive-circulation-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-in-peri-urban-sentinel-pigs-near-phnom-penh-cambodia
#17
Julien Cappelle, Veasna Duong, Long Pring, Lida Kong, Maud Yakovleff, Didot Budi Prasetyo, Borin Peng, Rithy Choeung, Raphaël Duboz, Sivuth Ong, San Sorn, Philippe Dussart, Arnaud Tarantola, Philippe Buchy, Véronique Chevalier
Despite the increased use of vaccination in several Asian countries, Japanese Encephalitis (JE) remains the most important cause of viral encephalitis in Asia in humans with an estimated 68,000 cases annually. Considered a rural disease occurring mainly in paddy-field dominated landscapes where pigs are amplifying hosts, JE may nevertheless circulate in a wider range of environment given the diversity of its potential hosts and vectors. The main objective of this study was to assess the intensity of JE transmission to pigs in a peri-urban environment in the outskirt of Phnom Penh, Cambodia...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923043/clonal-evolutionary-analysis-during-her2-blockade-in-her2-positive-inflammatory-breast-cancer-a-phase-ii-open-label-clinical-trial-of-afatinib-vinorelbine
#18
Gerald Goh, Ramona Schmid, Kelly Guiver, Wichit Arpornwirat, Imjai Chitapanarux, Vinod Ganju, Seock-Ah Im, Sung-Bae Kim, Arunee Dechaphunkul, Jedzada Maneechavakajorn, Neil Spector, Thomas Yau, Mehdi Afrit, Slim Ben Ahmed, Stephen R Johnston, Neil Gibson, Martina Uttenreuther-Fischer, Javier Herrero, Charles Swanton
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare, aggressive form of breast cancer associated with HER2 amplification, with high risk of metastasis and an estimated median survival of 2.9 y. We performed an open-label, single-arm phase II clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01325428) to investigate the efficacy and safety of afatinib, an irreversible ErbB family inhibitor, alone and in combination with vinorelbine in patients with HER2-positive IBC. This trial included prospectively planned exome analysis before and after afatinib monotherapy...
December 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912134/uncertainties-in-mapping-forest-carbon-in-urban-ecosystems
#19
Gang Chen, Emre Ozelkan, Kunwar K Singh, Jun Zhou, Marilyn R Brown, Ross K Meentemeyer
Spatially explicit urban forest carbon estimation provides a baseline map for understanding the variation in forest vertical structure, informing sustainable forest management and urban planning. While high-resolution remote sensing has proven promising for carbon mapping in highly fragmented urban landscapes, data cost and availability are the major obstacle prohibiting accurate, consistent, and repeated measurement of forest carbon pools in cities. This study aims to evaluate the uncertainties of forest carbon estimation in response to the combined impacts of remote sensing data resolution and neighborhood spatial patterns in Charlotte, North Carolina...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891717/emerging-climate-driven-disturbance-processes-widespread-mortality-associated-with-snow-to-rain-transitions-across-10%C3%A2-of-latitude-and-half-the-range-of-a-climate-threatened-conifer
#20
Brian Buma, Paul E Hennon, Constance A Harrington, Jamie R Popkin, John Krapek, Melinda S Lamb, Lauren E Oakes, Sari Saunders, Stefan Zeglen
Climate change is causing rapid changes to forest disturbance regimes worldwide. While the consequences of climate change for existing disturbance processes, like fires, are relatively well studied, emerging drivers of disturbance such as snow loss and subsequent mortality are much less documented. As the climate warms, a transition from winter snow to rain in high latitudes will cause significant changes in environmental conditions such as soil temperatures, historically buffered by snow cover. The Pacific coast of North America is an excellent test case, as mean winter temperatures are currently at the snow-rain threshold and have been warming for approximately 100 years post-Little Ice Age...
November 5, 2016: Global Change Biology
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