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Landscape planning

Katy Börner, Adam H Simpson, Andreas Bueckle, Robert L Goldstone
Most maps of science use a network layout; few use a landscape metaphor. Human users are trained in reading geospatial maps, yet most have a hard time reading even simple networks. Prior work using general networks has shown that map-based visualizations increase recall accuracy of data. This paper reports the result of a comparison of two comparable renderings of the UCSD map of science that are: the original network layout and a novel hexmap that uses a landscape metaphor to layout the 554 subdisciplines grouped into 13 color-coded disciplines of science...
February 2018: Scientometrics
Catalina Gutiérrez-Chacón, Felix Fornoff, Rodulfo Ospina-Torres, Alexandra-Maria Klein
The contribution of wild pollinators to food production has recently been assessed for many crops, although it remains unclear for several tropical crops. Granadilla (Passiflora ligularis Juss), a crop native to the tropical Andes, is one such crop where a gap exists regarding comprehensive knowledge about its pollination system. In a field experiment in the Colombian Andes, we 1) describe flower visitors in terms of visit quantity (visitation rate) and quality (touches of flower-reproductive structures), 2) assess the pollination system by comparing fruit set and fruit weight per flower in three pollination treatments: pollinator exclusion, open pollination, and supplementary pollination, and 3) evaluate pollination deficits (difference between open and supplementary pollination) in relation to pollinator density...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Yan Zhang, Yanfang Liu, Yang Zhang, Yi Liu, Guangxia Zhang, Yiyun Chen
A clear understanding of the relationship between ecosystem services (ESs) and urbanization provides new insight into urban landscape planning and decision making. Although a considerable amount of literature has focused on this topic, few studies address the spatial interactions between ESs and urbanization, especially at the local scale. Various models and multisource data were integrated to estimate ESs and urbanization in Wuhan City, China. The bivariate Moran's I methods were employed to test and visualize the spatial correlations between ESs and urbanization...
May 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Cecilia Arnaiz-Schmitz, Cristina Herrero-Jáuregui, María F Schmitz
Traditional rural landscapes host a biocultural heritage acquired by rural societies, developed in a secular adaptation with nature. Hedgerows play a key role in preserving biocultural diversity and associated ecosystem services. Despite their benefits, in some European regions inappropriate hedge management has led to a drastic degradation of hedgerows, with significant effects on natural and biocultural diversity, landscape connectivity and sustainable flow of ecosystem services. In Central Spain, an ancient hedgerow landscape constitutes a valuable natural and cultural heritage recognized by the establishment of different protection categories...
May 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Lin Wei Han, Xiao Fu, Yan Yan, Chen Xing Wang, Gang Wu
In order to determine the cumulative eco-environmental effect of coal-electricity integration, we selected 29 eco-environmental factors including different development and construction activities of coal-electricity integration, soil, water, atmospheric conditions, biology, landscape, and ecology. Literature survey, expert questionnaire and interview were conducted to analyze the interactive relationships between different factors. The structure and correlations between the eco-environmental factors influenced by coal-electricity integration activities were analyzed using interpretive structural modeling (ISM) and the cumulative eco-environment effect of development and construction activities was determined...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Maria Serena Chiriacò, Andrea Luvisi, Elisabetta Primiceri, Erika Sabella, Luigi De Bellis, Giuseppe Maruccio
Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca strain CoDiRO, a pathogen responsible for Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS), is strongly threatening the agricultural-based economy of South Italy and making its typical landscape collapse. The bacteria can also infect more than other twenty woody or shrub species and quarantine programs are carried out in Italy. Since symptoms of OQDS like leaf scorching and wilting of canopy may appear several months after infection and some hosts are asymptomatic, a tool for the rapid and early screening of plants is desirable, in order to plan a sudden control strategy and apply programs for pest management...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rebecca Elliott
How do people respond to the ways in which insurance mediates environmental risks? Socio-cultural risk research has characterized and analyzed the experiential dimension of risk, but has yet to focus on insurance, which is a key institution shaping how people understand and relate to risk. Insurance not only assesses and communicates risk; it also economizes it, making the problem on the ground not just one of risk, but also of value. This article addresses these issues with an investigation of the social life of the flood insurance rate map, the central technology of the U...
May 8, 2018: British Journal of Sociology
Paul R Armsworth
Should conservation organizations focus on protecting habitats that are at imminent risk of being converted but are expensive or more remote areas that are less immediately threatened but where a large amount of land can be set aside? Variants of this trade-off commonly arise in spatial planning. We examined this trade-off using models of land use change near a deforestation frontier. The optimal choice of where to protect was determined by how decisions taken today accounted for ecological benefits and economic costs of conservation actions that would occur sometime in the future...
May 8, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Fatemeh Jahanishakib, Seyed Hamed Mirkarimi, Abdolrassoul Salmanmahiny, Fatemeh Poodat
Efficient land use management requires awareness of past changes, present actions, and plans for future developments. Part of these requirements is achieved using scenarios that describe a future situation and the course of changes. This research aims to link scenario results with spatially explicit and quantitative forecasting of land use development. To develop land use scenarios, SMIC PROB-EXPERT and MORPHOL methods were used. It revealed eight scenarios as the most probable. To apply the scenarios, we considered population growth rate and used a cellular automata-Markov chain (CA-MC) model to implement the quantified changes described by each scenario...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Jamie G Suski, Christopher M Swan, Christopher J Salice, Charles F Wahl
As urban areas continue expanding, major cities become connected forming megacities. Urban encroachment into natural areas transforms the landscape into a built environment with heterogeneously distributed patches of novel habitat. Community structure within novel habitats is influenced by anthropogenic factors including fragmentation and species interactions. Alterations in complex biodiversity patterns may be used to assess how urban stressors impact community assemblages which, ultimately, may inform sustainable management decisions...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Duong H Nong, Christopher A Lepczyk, Tomoaki Miura, Jefferson M Fox
Urbanization has been driven by various social, economic, and political factors around the world for centuries. Because urbanization continues unabated in many places, it is crucial to understand patterns of urbanization and their potential ecological and environmental impacts. Given this need, the objectives of our study were to quantify urban growth rates, growth modes, and resultant changes in the landscape pattern of urbanization in Hanoi, Vietnam from 1993 to 2010 and to evaluate the extent to which the process of urban growth in Hanoi conformed to the diffusion-coalescence theory...
2018: PloS One
Lauren J Alessi, Holly R Warmus, Erin K Schaffner, Sajel Kantawala, Joseph Carcillo, Johanna Rosen, Christopher M Horvat
Background: Sepsis kills almost 5,000 children annually, accounting for 16% of pediatric health care spending in the United States. Objectives: We sought to identify sepsis within the Electronic Health Record (EHR) of a quaternary children's hospital to characterize disease incidence, improve recognition and response, and track performance metrics. Methods: Methods are organized in a plan-do-study-act cycle. During the "plan" phase, electronic definitions of sepsis (blood culture and antibiotic within 24 hours) and septic shock (sepsis plus vasoactive medication) were created to establish benchmark data and track progress with statistical process control...
March 2018: Pediatric Quality & Safety
Manuel A Hernández-Ruedas, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, José Carlos Morante-Filho, Jorge A Meave, Miguel Martínez-Ramos
Understanding the patterns and processes driving biodiversity maintenance in fragmented tropical forests is urgently needed for conservation planning, especially in species-rich forest reserves. Of particular concern are the effects that habitat modifications at the landscape scale may have on forest regeneration and ecosystem functioning - a topic that has received limited attention. Here, we assessed the effects of landscape structure (i.e., forest cover, open area matrices, forest fragmentation, and mean inter-patch isolation distance) on understory plant assemblages in the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve, Mexico...
May 4, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Grazia Salvo, Bonnie M Lashewicz, Patricia K Doyle-Baker, Gavin R McCormack
Qualitative studies can provide important information about how and why the built environment impacts physical activity decision-making—information that is important for informing local urban policies. We undertook a systematized literature review to synthesize findings from qualitative studies exploring how the built environment influences physical activity in adults. Our review included 36 peer-reviewed qualitative studies published from 1998 onwards. Our findings complemented existing quantitative evidence and provided additional insight into how functional, aesthetic, destination, and safety built characteristics influence physical activity decision-making...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Matthew Strimas-Mackey, Jedediah F Brodie
Protected areas form the cornerstone of global efforts to conserve biodiversity. Most current methods for designing reserve networks focus on maximizing the representation of species, but with no assurance that those species will persist in the protected landscapes into the future. We present a new strategy for reserve design that combines metapopulation theory with spatial conservation prioritization to estimate conservation solutions that minimize extinction risk across numerous species simultaneously. Our framework optimizes the spatial configuration of reserves to maximize metapopulation persistence for an entire assemblage of species by accounting for both species representation and landscape connectivity...
May 3, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Ugyen Penjor, David W Macdonald, Sonam Wangchuk, Tandin Tandin, Cedric Kai Wei Tan
The survival of large carnivores is increasingly precarious due to extensive human development that causes the habitat loss and fragmentation. Habitat selection is influenced by anthropogenic as well as environmental factors, and understanding these relationships is important for conservation management. We assessed the environmental and anthropogenic variables that influence site use of clouded leopard Neofelis nebulosa in Bhutan, estimated their population density, and used the results to predict the species' site use across Bhutan...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Clara J Rodríguez-Zárate, Jonathan Sandoval-Castillo, Erik van Sebille, Robert G Keane, Axayácatl Rocha-Olivares, Jose Urteaga, Luciano B Beheregaray
Spatial and temporal scales at which processes modulate genetic diversity over the landscape are usually overlooked, impacting the design of conservation management practices for widely distributed species. We examine processes shaping population divergence in highly mobile species by re-assessing the case of panmixia in the iconic olive ridley turtle from the eastern Pacific. We implemented a biophysical model of connectivity and a seascape genetic analysis based on nuclear DNA variation of 634 samples collected from 27 nesting areas...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Joanne R Festa
This special issue on neuropsychology practices in integrated healthcare teams demonstrates how neuropsychologists have transformed their practices in an evolving healthcare landscape. These contributions are an overview of the many ways in which neuropsychologists function in integrated care teams. The experiences of integrated neuropsychologists serve as a model for those seeking new practice opportunities by providing highly practical, clinically relevant information. Included in this volume are articles on education and reimbursement issues, information about clinical practices that address diagnostic issues, prognostics and clinical management, as well as surgical treatment planning and outcome prediction...
May 1, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Barbara Jester, Joy Schwerzmann, Desiree Mustaquim, Tricia Aden, Lynnette Brammer, Rosemary Humes, Pete Shult, Shahram Shahangian, Larisa Gubareva, Xiyan Xu, Joseph Miller, Daniel Jernigan
Influenza virologic surveillance is critical each season for tracking influenza circulation, following trends in antiviral drug resistance, detecting novel influenza infections in humans, and selecting viruses for use in annual seasonal vaccine production. We developed a framework and process map for characterizing the landscape of US influenza virologic surveillance into 5 tiers of influenza testing: outpatient settings (tier 1), inpatient settings and commercial laboratories (tier 2), state public health laboratories (tier 3), National Influenza Reference Center laboratories (tier 4), and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention laboratories (tier 5)...
July 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
G H Baker, C R Tann, P Verwey, L Lisle
The use of Bt cotton varieties has greatly reduced the amount of conventional insecticides required to control lepidopteran pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera, in Australia, but the possibility that these moths might become resistant to Bt remains a threat. Consequently, a Resistance Management Plan, which includes the mandatory growing of refuge crops (pigeon pea and non-Bt cotton; both C3 plants), has been established for Bt cotton farmers. However, knowledge of the relative contributions made to overall moth populations from the many host origins (both C3 and C4 plants) available to these insects throughout cotton production regions remains limited, as do the scales of movement and spatial mixing of moths within and between these areas...
April 29, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
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