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Landscape planning

Megan K Creutzburg, Robert M Scheller, Melissa S Lucash, Stephen D LeDuc, Mark G Johnson
Balancing economic, ecological and social values has long been a challenge in the forests of the Pacific Northwest, where conflict over timber harvest and old-growth habitat on public lands has been contentious for the past several decades. The Northwest Forest Plan, adopted two decades ago to guide management on federal lands, is currently being revised as the region searches for a balance between sustainable timber yields and habitat for sensitive species. In addition, climate change imposes a high degree of uncertainty on future forest productivity, sustainability of timber harvest, wildfire risk, and species habitat...
October 21, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Vincent Ronfard, Alain Vertes, Michael May, Anne Dupraz, Mark van Dyke, Yves Bayon
"Evaluating the Past & Present of Regenerative Medicine (RM)" was the first part of an Industry Symposium dedicated to the subject during the 2015 World TERMIS Congress in Boston. This working session presented a critical review of the current RM landscape in Europe and North America with possible projections for the future. Interestingly, the RM development cycle seems to obey the Gartner hype cycle, now at the enlightenment phase, after past exaggerated expectations and discouragements, as suggested by increasing numbers of clinical trials and recent market approvals of RM solutions in both Europe (Glybera & Holoclar® from Chiesi Pharma and Strimvelis® from GSK) and Japan (Remestemcel-L from Mesoblast® )...
October 20, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Antonino Neri, Katia Todoerti, Marta Lionetti, Vittorio Simeon, Marzia Barbieri, Filomena Nozza, Gabriella Vona, Alessandra Pompa, Luca Baldini, Pellegrino Musto
Primary plasma cell leukemia (PPCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of multiple myeloma. The introduction of novel agents and modern technologies has recently partially changed the clinical and biological scenario of this malignancy, allowing limited, but not negligible, progresses. Areas covered: We will discuss the complex landscape of genetic alterations in PPCL, derived from conventional and high-throughput technologies; the best available treatments for PPCL; the possible future therapeutic perspectives...
October 19, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Sharon Downes, Darren Kriticos, Hazel Parry, Cate Paull, Nancy Schellhorn, Myron P Zalucki
Helicoverpa armigera is a major pest of agriculture, horticulture and floriculture throughout the old world and recently invaded parts of the new world. We overview of the evolution in thinking about the application of area-wide approaches to assist with its control by the Australian Cotton Industry to highlight important lessons and future challenges to achieving the same in the New World. An over-reliance of broad-spectrum insecticides led to Helicoverpa spp. in Australian cotton rapidly became resistant to DDT, synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates and endosulfan...
October 17, 2016: Pest Management Science
Michael D Caggiano, Wade T Tinkham, Chad Hoffman, Antony S Cheng, Todd J Hawbaker
The wildland-urban interface (WUI), the area where human development encroaches on undeveloped land, is expanding throughout the western United States resulting in increased wildfire risk to homes and communities. Although census based mapping efforts have provided insights into the pattern of development and expansion of the WUI at regional and national scales, these approaches do not provide sufficient detail for fine-scale fire and emergency management planning, which requires maps of individual building locations...
October 2016: Heliyon
Hiral Shah, Emiliano Albanese, Cynthia Duggan, Igor Rudan, Kenneth M Langa, Maria C Carrillo, Kit Yee Chan, Yves Joanette, Martin Prince, Martin Rossor, Shekhar Saxena, Heather M Snyder, Reisa Sperling, Mathew Varghese, Huali Wang, Marc Wortmann, Tarun Dua
At the First WHO Ministerial Conference on Global Action Against Dementia in March, 2015, 160 delegates, including representatives from 80 WHO Member States and four UN agencies, agreed on a call for action to reduce the global burden of dementia by fostering a collective effort to advance research. To drive this effort, we completed a globally representative research prioritisation exercise using an adapted version of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative method. We elicited 863 research questions from 201 participants and consolidated these questions into 59 thematic research avenues, which were scored anonymously by 162 researchers and stakeholders from 39 countries according to five criteria...
November 2016: Lancet Neurology
Antoine Adde, Emmanuel Roux, Morgan Mangeas, Nadine Dessay, Mathieu Nacher, Isabelle Dusfour, Romain Girod, Sébastien Briolant
Local variation in the density of Anopheles mosquitoes and the risk of exposure to bites are essential to explain the spatial and temporal heterogeneities in the transmission of malaria. Vector distribution is driven by environmental factors. Based on variables derived from satellite imagery and meteorological observations, this study aimed to dynamically model and map the densities of Anopheles darlingi in the municipality of Saint-Georges de l'Oyapock (French Guiana). Longitudinal sampling sessions of An...
2016: PloS One
João Vitor Campos-Silva, Carlos A Peres
Tropical wetlands are highly threatened socio-ecological systems, where local communities rely heavily on aquatic animal protein, such as fish, to meet food security. Here, we quantify how a 'win-win' community-based resource management program induced stock recovery of the world's largest scaled freshwater fish (Arapaima gigas), providing both food and income. We analyzed stock assessment data over eight years and examined the effects of protected areas, community-based management, and landscape and limnological variables across 83 oxbow lakes monitored along a ~500-km section of the Juruá River of Western Brazilian Amazonia...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hadrien P A Vanthomme, Elie Tobi, Angelique F Todd, Lisa Korte, Alfonso Alonso
Unsustainable hunting outside protected areas is threatening tropical biodiversity worldwide and requires conservationists to engage increasingly in antipoaching activities. Following the example of ecocertified logging companies, we argue that other extractive industries managing large concessions should engage in antipoaching activities as part of their environmental management plans. Onshore hydrocarbon concessions should also adopt antipoaching protocols as a standard because they represent a biodiversity threat comparable to logging...
October 12, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Nicholas M Wilkinson, Luong Van Duc
There has been much recent interest in using local knowledge and expert opinion for conservation planning, particularly for hard-to-detect species. However experts' knowledge is often geographically restricted relative to the area of interest. While it is possible to ask for direct estimation of quantities such as population size, relative abundance is easier to estimate. Here we present a new approach combining a Rapid Rural Appraisal method based on community maps with a rank aggregation procedure employing Google's PageRank algorithm...
October 8, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Job Aben, Greta Bocedi, Stephen C F Palmer, Petri Pellikka, Diederik Strubbe, Caspar Hallmann, Justin M J Travis, Luc Lens, Erik Matthysen
As biodiversity hotspots are often characterized by high human population densities, implementation of conservation management practices that focus only on the protection and enlargement of pristine habitats is potentially unrealistic. An alternative approach to curb species extinction risk involves improving connectivity among existing habitat patches. However, evaluation of spatially explicit management strategies is challenging, as predictive models must account for the process of dispersal, which is difficult in terms of both empirical data collection and modelling...
August 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
Anna Oldén, Atte Komonen, Kaisa Tervonen, Panu Halme
Wood-pastures are threatened biotopes in which trees and livestock grazing maintain high conservation values. However, browsing may threaten tree regeneration, whereas abandonment leads to tree encroachment. We studied the regeneration of trees in a grazed and abandoned boreal wood-pastures. In grazed sites, the density of young spruces (Picea abies) was high, while the density of young birches (Betula spp.) was very low. Sprucification can be prevented only by removing spruces. The number of young birches and pines (Pinus sylvestris) was correlated with the number of junipers (Juniperus communis), probably because thorny junipers protect palatable seedlings from browsing...
October 4, 2016: Ambio
Douglas A Luke, Amy A Sorg, Todd Combs, Christopher B Robichaux, Sarah Moreland-Russell, Kurt M Ribisl, Lisa Henriksen
BACKGROUND: There are ∼380 000 tobacco retailers in the USA, where the largest tobacco companies spend almost $9 billion a year to promote their products. No systematic survey has been conducted of state-level activities to regulate the retail environment, thus little is known about what policies are being planned, proposed or implemented. METHODS: This longitudinal study is the first US survey of state tobacco control programmes (TCPs) about retail policy activities...
October 2016: Tobacco Control
Cynthia G Colen, David M Ramey, Christopher R Browning
OBJECTIVES: The previous 25 years have witnessed remarkable upheavals in the social landscape of the United States. Two of the most notable trends have been dramatic declines in levels of crime as well as teen childbearing. Much remains unknown about the underlying conditions that might be driving these changes. More importantly, we do not know if the same distal factors that are responsible for the drop in the crime rate are similarly implicated in falling rates of teen births. We examine four overarching potential explanations: fluctuations in economic opportunity, shifting population demographics, differences in state-level policies, and changes in expectations regarding health and mortality...
September 2016: Journal of Quantitative Criminology
Oliver T Hogg, Veerle A I Huvenne, Huw J Griffiths, Boris Dorschel, Katrin Linse
Global biodiversity is in decline, with the marine environment experiencing significant and increasing anthropogenic pressures. In response marine protected areas (MPAs) have increasingly been adopted as the flagship approach to marine conservation, many covering enormous areas. At present, however, the lack of biological sampling makes prioritising which regions of the ocean to protect, especially over large spatial scales, particularly problematic. Here we present an interdisciplinary approach to marine landscape mapping at the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia as an effective protocol for underpinning large-scale (10(5)-10(6)  km(2)) MPA designations...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Margaret Benjamin Lyatuu, Temina Mkumbwa, Raz Stevenson, Marissa Isidro, Francis Modaha, Heather Katcher, Christina Nyhus Dhillon
BACKGROUND: Micronutrient deficiency in Tanzania is a significant public health problem, with vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affecting 34% of children aged 6 to 59 months. Since 2007, development partners have worked closely to advocate for the inclusion of twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation and deworming (VASD) activities with budgets at the subnational level, where funding and implementation occur. As part of the advocacy work, a VASD planning and budgeting tool (PBT) was developed and is used by district officials to justify allocation of funds...
May 3, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Susan F Murray, Ramila Bisht, Emma Pitchforth
Plans for 'medicities', announced in the Indian press from 2007 onwards, were to provide large scale 'one-stop-shops' of super-speciality medical services supplemented by diagnostics, education, research facilities, and other aspects of healthcare and lifestyle consumption. Placing this phenomenon within the recent domestic and global political economy of health, we then draw on recent research literatures on place and health to offer an analysis of the narration of these new healthcare places given in promotional texts from press media, official documents and marketing materials...
September 28, 2016: Health & Place
Antônio Márcio Tavares Thomé, Paula Santos Ceryno, Annibal Scavarda, Arne Remmen
This paper proposes a taxonomy of themes and a research agenda on sustainable infrastructure, with a focus on sustainable buildings (SB) and green infrastructure (GI). The citation databases of Web of Science formed the basis for a novel strategic thematic analysis of co-citation and co-occurrence of keywords with a longitudinal identification of themes during the last two decades (from 1995 to 2015) of an emerging and ever growing research area. SI is a multidisciplinary endeavour, including a diversified array of disciplines as general engineering, environmental ecology, construction, architecture, urban planning, and geography...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Andrew J Dougill, Stephen Whitfield, Lindsay C Stringer, Katharine Vincent, Benjamin T Wood, Edna L Chinseu, Peter Steward, David D Mkwambisi
Conservation agriculture (CA) practices of reduced soil tillage, permanent organic soil coverage and intercropping/crop rotation, are being advocated globally, based on perceived benefits for crop yields, soil carbon storage, weed suppression, reduced soil erosion and improved soil water retention. However, some have questioned their efficacy due to uncertainty around the performance and trade-offs associated with CA practices, and their compatibility with the diverse livelihood strategies and varied agro-ecological conditions across African smallholder systems...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Mohit Sharma, G Areendran, Krishna Raj, Ankita Sharma, P K Joshi
Forests in the mountains are a treasure trove; harbour a large biodiversity; and provide fodder, firewood, timber and non-timber forest products; all of these are essential for human survival in the highest mountains on earth. The present paper attempts a spatiotemporal assessment of forest fragmentation and changes in land use land cover (LULC) pattern using multitemporal satellite data over a time span of around a decade (2000-2009), within the third highest protected area (PA) in the world. The fragmentation analysis using Landscape Fragmentation Tool (LFT) depicts a decrease in large core, edge and patches areas by 5...
October 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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