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Landscape planning

A-G E Ausseil, J R Dymond, L Newstrom
Honey bees require nectar and pollen from flowers: nectar for energy and pollen for growth. The demand for nectar and pollen varies during the year, with more pollen needed in spring for colony population growth, and more nectar needed in summer to sustain the maximum colony size and collect surplus nectar stores for winter. Sufficient bee forage is therefore necessary to ensure a healthy bee colony. Land-use changes can reduce the availability of floral resources suitable for bees, thereby increasing the susceptibility of bees to other stressors such as disease and pesticides...
March 12, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Hendrik Borgmann, Johannes Salem, Martin Baunacke, Katharina Boehm, Christer Groeben, Marianne Schmid, Fabian P Siegel, Johannes Huber
OBJECTIVES: To quantify public and academic interest in the urological field using a novel new media-based methodology. METHODS: We systematically measured public and academic interest in 56 urological keywords and combined in nine subspecialties. Public interest was quantified as video views on YouTube. Academic interest was quantified as article citations using Microsoft Academic Search. The public-to-academic interest ratio was calculated for a comparison of subspecialties as well as for diseases and treatments...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Mara I Espinosa, Nicolas Gouin, Francisco A Squeo, David López, Angéline Bertin
Connectivity between populations plays a key role in the long-term persistence of species in fragmented habitats. This is of particular concern for biodiversity preservation in drylands, since water limited landscapes are typically characterized by little suitable habitat cover, high habitat fragmentation, harsh matrices, and are being rapidly degraded at a global scale. In this study, we modelled landscape connectivity between 11 guanaco Lama guanicoe populations in Chile's arid Norte Chico, a region that supports the last remnant coastal populations of this emblematic herbivore indigenous to South America...
2018: PeerJ
Louise A Kenny, Fabrizio DeRita, Mohamed Nassar, John Dark, Louise Coats, Asif Hasan
The single ventricle patient population comprises the most complex cohort presenting to the cardiac transplant team, in terms of demographics, anatomic substrate, and unique physiology. It is also the most rapidly growing diagnostic group presenting for heart transplantation. In this manuscript, we aim to describe the changing landscape of transplantation in single ventricle conditions through reflection on our own institution's practice and experience, alongside contemporary literature review. Single ventricle patients are heterogeneous in terms of age, anatomic diagnosis and physiology according to surgical stage of repair...
January 2018: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Anushika Bose, Tobias Dürr, Reinhard A Klenke, Klaus Henle
Biodiversity-related impacts at wind energy facilities have increasingly become a cause of conservation concern, central issue being the collision of birds. Utilizing spatial information of their carcass detections at wind turbines (WTs), we quantified the detections in relation to the metric distances of the respective turbines to different land-use types. We used ecological niche factor analysis (ENFA) to identify combinations of land-use distances with respect to the spatial allocation of WTs that led to higher proportions of collisions among the worst affected bird-groups: Buntings, Crows, Larks, Pigeons and Raptors...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mari Kathryn Reeves, Margaret Perdue, Lee Ann Munk, Birgit Hagedorn
Studies of environmental processes exhibit spatial variation within data sets. The ability to derive predictions of risk from field data is a critical path forward in understanding the data and applying the information to land and resource management. Thanks to recent advances in predictive modeling, open source software, and computing, the power to do this is within grasp. This article provides an example of how we predicted relative trace element pollution risk from roads across a region by combining site specific trace element data in soils with regional land cover and planning information in a predictive model framework...
February 24, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Marcello D'Amico, Inês Catry, Ricardo C Martins, Fernando Ascensão, Rafael Barrientos, Francisco Moreira
Power-line grids are increasingly expanding worldwide, as well as their negative impacts on avifauna, namely the direct mortality through collision and electrocution, the reduction of breeding performance, and the barrier effect. On the other hand, some bird species can apparently benefit from the presence of power lines, for example perching for hunting purposes or nesting on electricity towers. In this perspective essay, we reviewed the scientific literature on both costs and benefits for avifauna coexisting with power lines...
February 24, 2018: Ambio
Takeshi Osawa, Kazuhisa Yamasaki, Ken Tabuchi, Akira Yoshioka, Mayura B Takada
Detecting dispersal pathways is important both for understanding species range expansion and for managing nuisance species. However, direct detection is difficult. Here, we propose detecting these crucial pathways using a virtual ecology approach, simulating species dynamics using models, and virtual observations. As a case study, we developed a dispersal model based on cellular automata for the pest insect Stenotus rubrovittatus and simulated its expansion. We tested models for species expansion based on four landscape parameters as candidate pathways; these are river density, road density, area of paddy fields, and area of abandoned farmland, and validated their accuracy...
February 23, 2018: Ambio
Mehmet Cetin, Ilknur Zeren, Hakan Sevik, Cansel Cakir, Huseyin Akpinar
The surface site of Yesilyuva Nature Park encompasses natural, social, economic, and cultural characteristics and has become a marker of the region's natural and cultural heritage. To support the preservation of this site, promotional activities should be planned. In this study, because of tourism and related opinions of residents and visitors alike in terms of their natural determination, an important cultural and historical feature is aimed at evaluating the tourism potential of Yesilyuva Nature Park. This framework is designed to establish prospective tourism sustainability...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
David B Lindenmayer, Wade Blanchard, David Blair, Lachlan McBurney, John Stein, Sam C Banks
Large old trees are critically important keystone structures in forest ecosystems globally. Populations of these trees are also in rapid decline in many forest ecosystems, making it important to quantify the factors that influence their dynamics at different spatial scales. Large old trees often occur in forest landscapes also subject to fire and logging. However, the effects on the risk of collapse of large old trees of the amount of logging and fire in the surrounding landscape are not well understood. Using an 18-year study in the Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans) forests of the Central Highlands of Victoria, we quantify relationships between the probability of collapse of large old hollow-bearing trees at a site and the amount of logging and the amount of fire in the surrounding landscape...
2018: PloS One
Laura Ferguson, Alexandra Nicholson, Ian Henry, Amitrajit Saha, Tilly Sellers, Sofia Gruskin
INTRODUCTION: There is growing recognition in the health community that the legal environment-including laws, policies, and related procedures-impacts vulnerability to HIV and access to HIV-related services both positively and negatively. Assessing changes in the legal environment and how these affect HIV-related outcomes, however, is challenging, and understanding of appropriate methodologies nascent. METHODS: We conducted an evaluation of a UNDP project designed to strengthen legal environments to support the human rights of key populations, in particular LGBT populations, women and girls, affected by HIV in sub-Saharan Africa...
2018: PloS One
Maher Milad Aburas, Yuek Ming Ho, Mohammad Firuz Ramli, Zulfa Hanan Ash'aari
The identification of spatio-temporal patterns of the urban growth phenomenon has become one of the most significant challenges in monitoring and assessing current and future trends of the urban growth issue. Therefore, spatio-temporal and quantitative techniques should be used hand in hand for a deeper understanding of various aspects of urban growth. The main purpose of this study is to monitor and assess the significant patterns of urban growth in Seremban using a spatio-temporal built-up area analysis. The concentric circles approach was used to measure the compactness and dispersion of built-up area by employing Shannon's Entropy method...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Shengli Li, Weifang Yang, Lizhu Wang, Kai Chen, Sheng Xu, Beixin Wang
Key environmental factors and the mechanisms of their influence on the physicochemical habitats and macroinvertebrate communities of streams may vary among ecoregions. We studied the differences in environmental (land use and physicochemical) factors and the mechanisms of their influence on macroinvertebrate assemblages between mountain and lowland ecoregions in central China. We applied generalized linear models to identify key environmental factors that influence macroinvertebrate metrics consisting of taxa richness, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa, percentages of EPT and intolerant individuals, and the Shannon-Wiener diversity index...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Nadia Akseer, Zaid Bhatti, Taufiq Mashal, Sajid Soofi, Rahim Moineddin, Robert E Black, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition is a pervasive condition in Afghanistan, and prevalence is among the highest in the world. We aimed to comprehensively assess district-level geographical disparities and determinants of nutritional status (stunting, wasting, or underweight) among women and children in Afghanistan. METHODS: The study used individualised data from the recent Afghanistan National Nutrition Survey 2013. Outcome variables were based on growth and weight anthropometry data, which we analysed linearly as Z scores and as dichotomous categories...
February 14, 2018: Lancet Global Health
Edward Kessler, Momen M Wahidi
Interventional pulmonology has advanced rapidly over the last decade and continues to evolve with new medical advances and changes in the health care landscape. Establishing and developing a new interventional pulmonology program entails careful planning, including a needs assessment, a business plan with financial and marketing considerations, and outcomes monitoring. Addressing these aspects will provide a framework to ensure the success of a new interventional pulmonology program that can provide valuable services to the local practice and community...
March 2018: Clinics in Chest Medicine
Benjamin Zuckerberg, Jonathan N Pauli
The climate is changing rapidly, and this is especially true during the winter months of the Northern Hemisphere. Because of warming winters, we are witnessing reductions in the depth, duration, and extent of snowpack in regions where snowfall was historically a defining seasonal characteristic of the landscape. These changes have not gone undocumented, yet most management and conservation has focused on how aboveground wildlife will be affected by altered snow conditions, even though the majority of species that persist through the winter do so underneath the snowpack in a thermally stable refugium: the subnivium...
February 8, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Valerie Leung, Julie Hui-Chih Wu, Bradley J Langford, Gary Garber
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is an important public health issue globally and in Canada. To understand the current state of antimicrobial stewardship programs in Ontario health care facilities, Public Health Ontario conducted a voluntary survey of hospitals in the province. METHODS: The Ontario Antimicrobial Stewardship Program Landscape Survey was distributed online to hospitals, targeting front-line antimicrobial stewardship clinicians. The survey was open for 5 weeks in fall 2016...
February 2, 2018: CMAJ Open
Edward J Raynor, Larkin A Powell, Walter H Schacht
Better understanding animal ecology in terms of thermal habitat use has become a focus of ecological studies, in large part due to the predicted temperature increases associated with global climate change. To further our knowledge on how ground-nesting endotherms respond to thermal landscapes, we examined the thermal ecology of Sharp-tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus) during the nesting period. We measured site-specific iButton temperatures (TiB) and vegetation characteristics at nest sites, nearby random sites, and landscape sites to assess thermal patterns at scales relevant to nesting birds...
2018: PloS One
Nicolas Guibert, Laurent Mhanna, Alain Didier, Benjamin Moreno, Pierre Leyx, Gavin Plat, Julien Mazieres, Christophe Hermant
New 3D technologies are rapidly entering into the surgical landscape, including in interventional pulmonology. The transition of 2D restricted data into a physical model of pathological airways by three-dimensional printing (3DP) allows rapid prototyping and fabrication of complex and patient-specific shapes and can thus help the physician to plan and guide complex procedures. Furthermore, computer-assisted designed (CAD) patient-specific devices have already helped surgeons overcome several therapeutic impasses and are likely to rapidly cover a wider range of situations...
January 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Mónica E Riojas-López, Eric Mellink, Jaime Luévano
Many studies have addressed the potential of low-input agroecosystems for biological conservation. However, most have been carried out on annual agroecosystems in temperate, developed countries. As agricultural surface will increase and natural protected areas alone will not warrant the conservation of biodiversity, it is crucial to include different types of agroecosystems in research and conservation efforts. In Mexico, perennial, low-input, fruit-oriented nopal orchards (Opuntia spp.), one of the few crops suitable for semiarid areas, are the 10th out of 61 most important fruit crops grown in the country...
February 7, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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