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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475158/modeling-the-effects-of-different-fuel-treatment-mosaics-on-wildfire-spread-and-behavior-in-a-mediterranean-agro-pastoral-area
#1
Michele Salis, Liliana Del Giudice, Bachisio Arca, Alan A Ager, Fermin Alcasena-Urdiroz, Olga Lozano, Valentina Bacciu, Donatella Spano, Pierpaolo Duce
Wildfire spread and behavior can be limited by fuel treatments, even if their effects can vary according to a number of factors including type, intensity, extension, and spatial arrangement. In this work, we simulated the response of key wildfire exposure metrics to variations in the percentage of treated area, treatment unit size, and spatial arrangement of fuel treatments under different wind intensities. The study was carried out in a fire-prone 625 km2 agro-pastoral area mostly covered by herbaceous fuels, and located in Northern Sardinia, Italy...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474486/assessing-changes-in-hiv-related-legal-and-policy-environments-lessons-learned-from-a-multi-country-evaluation
#2
Laura Ferguson, Alexandra Nicholson, Ian Henry, Amitrajit Saha, Tilly Sellers, Sofia Gruskin
INTRODUCTION: There is growing recognition in the health community that the legal environment-including laws, policies, and related procedures-impacts vulnerability to HIV and access to HIV-related services both positively and negatively. Assessing changes in the legal environment and how these affect HIV-related outcomes, however, is challenging, and understanding of appropriate methodologies nascent. METHODS: We conducted an evaluation of a UNDP project designed to strengthen legal environments to support the human rights of key populations, in particular LGBT populations, women and girls, affected by HIV in sub-Saharan Africa...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468924/emerging-molecular-target-antagonists-for-the-treatment-of-biliary-tract-cancer
#3
Pasquale Lombardi, Donatella Marino, Elisabetta Fenocchio, Giovanna Chilà, Massimo Aglietta, Francesco Leone
Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) are a heterogeneous group of cancers, characterized by low incidence but poor prognosis. Even after complete surgical resection for early stage, relapse is frequent and the lack of effective treatments contributes to the dismal prognosis. To date, the only standard treatment in first-line is cisplatin/gemcitabine combination, whereas no standard in 2nd -line has been defined. Hence, the current goal is to better understand the biology of BTCs, discovering new treatment methods and improving clinical outcomes...
February 22, 2018: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468044/low-rates-of-hybridization-between-european-wildcats-and-domestic-cats-in-a-human-dominated-landscape
#4
Katharina Steyer, Annika Tiesmeyer, Violeta Muñoz-Fuentes, Carsten Nowak
Hybridization between wild species and their domestic congeners is considered a major threat for wildlife conservation. Genetic integrity of the European wildcat, for instance, is a concern as they are outnumbered by domestic cats by several orders of magnitude throughout its range. We genotyped 1,071 individual wildcat samples obtained from hair traps and roadkills collected across the highly fragmented forests of western Central Europe, in Germany and Luxembourg, to assess domestic cat introgression in wildcats in human-dominated landscapes...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464134/crowdsourced-curriculum-development-for-online-medical-education
#5
REVIEW
Eric Shappell, Teresa M Chan, Brent Thoma, N Seth Trueger, Bob Stuntz, Robert Cooney, James Ahn
In recent years online educational content, efforts at quality appraisal, and integration of online material into institutional teaching initiatives have increased. However, medical education has yet to develop large-scale online learning centers. Crowd-sourced curriculum development may expedite the realization of this potential while providing opportunities for innovation and scholarship. This article describes the current landscape, best practices, and future directions for crowdsourced curriculum development using Kern's framework for curriculum development and the example topic of core content in emergency medicine...
December 8, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462254/mechanisms-of-acquired-resistance-to-first-and-second-generation-egfr-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors
#6
D Westover, J Zugazagoitia, B C Cho, C M Lovly, L Paz-Ares
Patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose tumours harbour activating mutations within the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) frequently derive significant clinical and radiographic benefits from treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). As such, prospective identification of EGFR mutations is now the standard of care worldwide. However, acquired therapeutic resistance to these agents invariably develops. Over the past 10 years, great strides have been made in defining the molecular mechanisms of EGFR TKI resistance in an effort to design rational strategies to overcome this acquired drug resistance...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457760/a-systematic-review-of-serious-games-in-medical-education-quality-of-evidence-and-pedagogical-strategy
#7
Iouri Gorbanev, Sandra Agudelo-Londoño, Rafael A González, Ariel Cortes, Alexandra Pomares, Vivian Delgadillo, Francisco J Yepes, Óscar Muñoz
INTRODUCTION: The literature shows an optimistic landscape for the effectiveness of games in medical education. Nevertheless, games are not considered mainstream material in medical teaching. Two research questions that arise are the following: What pedagogical strategies do developers use when creating games for medical education? And what is the quality of the evidence on the effectiveness of games? METHODS: A systematic review was made by a multi-disciplinary team of researchers following the Cochrane Collaboration Guidelines...
December 2018: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456920/evidence-based-analysis-of-adjacent-segment-degeneration-and-disease-after-lif-a-narrative-review
#8
Nikunj N Trivedi, Sean M Wilson, Luis A Puchi, Darren R Lebl
Study Design: Narrative review. Objectives: The etiology of adjacent segment degeneration (ASDeg) and adjacent segment disease (ASDz) after lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) remains controversial. The aim of this narrative review was to provide an evidence-based analysis of the peer-reviewed literature on clinical studies of ASDeg and ASDz after LIF. Methods: A review was performed utilizing Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Two reviewers independently extracted relevant data from each included study...
February 2018: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454554/geospatial-inequalities-and-determinants-of-nutritional-status-among-women-and-children-in-afghanistan-an-observational-study
#9
Nadia Akseer, Zaid Bhatti, Taufiq Mashal, Sajid Soofi, Rahim Moineddin, Robert E Black, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition is a pervasive condition in Afghanistan, and prevalence is among the highest in the world. We aimed to comprehensively assess district-level geographical disparities and determinants of nutritional status (stunting, wasting, or underweight) among women and children in Afghanistan. METHODS: The study used individualised data from the recent Afghanistan National Nutrition Survey 2013. Outcome variables were based on growth and weight anthropometry data, which we analysed linearly as Z scores and as dichotomous categories...
February 14, 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451898/integrating-linear-optimization-with-structural-modeling-to-increase-hiv-neutralization-breadth
#10
Alexander M Sevy, Swetasudha Panda, James E Crowe, Jens Meiler, Yevgeniy Vorobeychik
Computational protein design has been successful in modeling fixed backbone proteins in a single conformation. However, when modeling large ensembles of flexible proteins, current methods in protein design have been insufficient. Large barriers in the energy landscape are difficult to traverse while redesigning a protein sequence, and as a result current design methods only sample a fraction of available sequence space. We propose a new computational approach that combines traditional structure-based modeling using the Rosetta software suite with machine learning and integer linear programming to overcome limitations in the Rosetta sampling methods...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448934/from-theoretical-concepts-to-policies-and-applied-programmes-the-landscape-of-integration-of-oral-health-in-primary-care
#11
Hermina Harnagea, Lise Lamothe, Yves Couturier, Shahrokh Esfandiari, René Voyer, Anne Charbonneau, Elham Emami
BACKGROUND: Despite its importance, the integration of oral health into primary care is still an emerging practice in the field of health care services. This scoping review aims to map the literature and provide a summary on the conceptual frameworks, policies and programs related to this concept. METHODS: Using the Levac et al. six-stage framework, we performed a systematic search of electronic databases, organizational websites and grey literature from 1978 to April 2016...
February 15, 2018: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448375/natural-extension-of-fast-slow-decomposition-for-dynamical-systems
#12
J E Rubin, B Krauskopf, H M Osinga
Modeling and parameter estimation to capture the dynamics of physical systems are often challenging because many parameters can range over orders of magnitude and are difficult to measure experimentally. Moreover, selecting a suitable model complexity requires a sufficient understanding of the model's potential use, such as highlighting essential mechanisms underlying qualitative behavior or precisely quantifying realistic dynamics. We present an approach that can guide model development and tuning to achieve desired qualitative and quantitative solution properties...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448332/looking-for-the-optimal-rate-of-recombination-for-evolutionary-dynamics
#13
David B Saakian
We consider many-site mutation-recombination models of evolution with selection. We are looking for situations where the recombination increases the mean fitness of the population, and there is an optimal recombination rate. We found two fitness landscapes supporting such nonmonotonic behavior of the mean fitness versus the recombination rate. The first case is related to the evolution near the error threshold on a neutral-network-like fitness landscape, for moderate genome lengths and large population. The more realistic case is the second one, in which we consider the evolutionary dynamics of a finite population on a rugged fitness landscape (the smooth fitness landscape plus some random contributions to the fitness)...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444118/demographic-and-genetic-viability-of-a-medium-sized-ground-dwelling-mammal-in-a-fire-prone-rapidly-urbanizing-landscape
#14
Cristina E Ramalho, Kym M Ottewell, Brian K Chambers, Colin J Yates, Barbara A Wilson, Roberta Bencini, Geoff Barrett
The rapid and large-scale urbanization of peri-urban areas poses major and complex challenges for wildlife conservation. We used population viability analysis (PVA) to evaluate the influence of urban encroachment, fire, and fauna crossing structures, with and without accounting for inbreeding effects, on the metapopulation viability of a medium-sized ground-dwelling mammal, the southern brown bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus), in the rapidly expanding city of Perth, Australia. We surveyed two metapopulations over one and a half years, and parameterized the PVA models using largely field-collected data...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440463/immune-activation-underlies-a-sustained-clinical-response-to-yttrium-90-radioembolisation-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#15
Valerie Chew, Yun Hua Lee, Lu Pan, Nurul J M Nasir, Chun Jye Lim, Camillus Chua, Liyun Lai, Sharifah Nur Hazirah, Tony Kiat Hon Lim, Brian K P Goh, Alexander Chung, Richard H G Lo, David Ng, Rene L F Filarca, Salvatore Albani, Pierce K H Chow
OBJECTIVES: Yttrium-90 (Y90)-radioembolisation (RE) significantly regresses locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and delays disease progression. The current study is designed to deeply interrogate the immunological impact of Y90-RE, which elicits a sustained therapeutic response. DESIGN: Time-of-flight mass cytometry and next-generation sequencing (NGS) were used to analyse the immune landscapes of tumour-infiltrating leucocytes (TILs), tumour tissues and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at different time points before and after Y90-RE...
February 13, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438677/autophagy-inducers-in-cancer
#16
Maria Russo, Gian Luigi Russo
Autophagy is a complex, physiological process devoted to degrade and recycle cellular components. Proteins and organelles are first phagocytized by autophagosomes, then digested in lysosomes, and finally recycled to be utilized again during cellular metabolism. Moreover, autophagy holds an important role in the physiopathology of several diseases. In cancer, excellent works demonstrated the dual functions of autophagy in tumor biology: autophagy activation can promote cancer cells survival (protective autophagy), or contribute to cancer cell death (cytotoxic/nonprotective autophagy)...
February 10, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435246/the-effect-of-prescribed-burning-on-plant-rarity-in-a-temperate-forest
#17
John Patykowski, Greg J Holland, Matt Dell, Tricia Wevill, Kate Callister, Andrew F Bennett, Maria Gibson
Rare species can play important functional roles, but human-induced changes to disturbance regimes, such as fire, can inadvertently affect these species. We examined the influence of prescribed burns on the recruitment and diversity of plant species within a temperate forest in southeastern Australia, with a focus on species that were rare prior to burning. Floristic composition was compared among plots in landscapes before and after treatment with prescribed burns differing in the extent of area burnt and season of burn (before-after, control-impact design)...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432682/kinetically-controlled-formation-and-decomposition-of-metastable-bise-1-%C3%AE-m-tise2-m-compounds
#18
Alexander C Lygo, Danielle M Hamann, Daniel B Moore, Devin R Merrill, Jeffrey Ditto, Marco Esters, Jacob Orlowicz, Suzannah R Wood, David C Johnson
Preparing homologous series of compounds allows chemists to rapidly discover new compounds with predictable structure and properties. Synthesizing compounds within such a series involves navigating a free energy landscape defined by the interactions within and between constituent atoms. Historically, synthesis approaches are typically limited to forming only the most thermodynamically stable compound under the reaction conditions. Presented here is the synthesis, via self-assembly of designed precursors, of isocompositional incommensurate layered compounds [(BiSe)1+δ]m[TiSe2]m with m =1, 2, and 3...
February 12, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426814/exploring-the-specific-needs-of-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis-for-mhealth-solutions-for-physical-activity-mixed-methods-study
#19
Guido Giunti, Jan Kool, Octavio Rivera Romero, Enrique Dorronzoro Zubiete
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the world's most common neurologic disorders, with symptoms such as fatigue, cognitive problems, and issues with mobility. Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) helps people with MS reduce fatigue and improve quality of life. The use of mobile technologies for health has grown in recent years with little involvement from relevant stakeholders. User-centered design (UCD) is a design philosophy with the goal of creating solutions specific to the needs and tasks of the intended users...
February 9, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425116/integrated-systems-approach-reveals-sphingolipid-metabolism-pathway-dysregulation-in-association-with-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
John Stephen Malamon, Andres Kriete
Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) and age are significantly correlated such that one-third of Americans beyond 85 years of age are afflicted. We have designed and implemented a pilot study that combines systems biology approaches with traditional next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis techniques to identify relevant regulatory pathways, infer functional relationships and confirm the dysregulation of these biological pathways in LOAD. Our study design is a most comprehensive systems approach combining co-expression network modeling derived from RNA-seq data, rigorous quality control (QC) standards, functional ontology, and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) derived from whole exome (WES) single nucleotide variant (SNV) genotype data...
February 9, 2018: Biology
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