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Landscape architecture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640578/the-insect-analogue-to-the-lotus-leaf-a-planthopper-wing-membrane-incorporating-a-low-adhesion-non-wetting-superhydrophobic-bactericidal-and-biocompatible-surface
#1
Gregory Shaun Watson, David W Green, Bronwen W Cribb, Christopher Leslie Brown, Christopher Merritt, Mark James Tobin, Jitraporn Vongsvivut, Ming-Xia Sun, Alping Liang, Jolanta Anna Watson
Nature has produced many intriguing and spectacular surfaces at the micro and nanoscales. These small surface decorations act for a singular or, in most cases, a range of functions. The minute landscape found on the lotus leaf is one such example, displaying anti-wetting behaviour and low adhesion with foreign particulate matter. Indeed the lotus leaf has often been considered the 'benchmark' for such properties. One could expect that there are animal counterparts of this self-drying and self-cleaning surface system...
June 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638623/the-genetic-architecture-of-growth-traits-in-salix-matsudana-under-salt-stress
#2
Jian Zhang, Huwei Yuan, Qingshan Yang, Min Li, Ying Wang, Yujuan Li, Xiangjian Ma, Feng Tan, Rongling Wu
Willow (Salix) is one of the most important ornamental tree species in landscape plants. One species, Salix matsudana, is widely used as a shade tree and border tree because of its soft branches and plump crown. Some varieties of S. matsudana were salt tolerant and could grow normally in coastal regions. However, the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance for S. matsudana have been less clear. Here, we addressed this issue by performing a mapping experiment containing 195 intraspecific F1 progeny of S. matsudana, derived from salt-sensitive 'yanjiang' and salt-tolerant '9901', grown by cuttings in a 100 mM NaCl solution...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627434/a-different-kind-of-love-lipid-droplet-contact-sites
#3
REVIEW
Maya Schuldiner, Maria Bohnert
Lipid droplets (LDs) store lipids and hence serve as energy reservoir and as a source for building-blocks for the organelle membrane systems. LD biology therefore depends on tight communication with other organelles. The unique architecture of LDs, consisting of a neutral lipid core shielded by a phospholipid-monolayer, is however an obstacle to bulk-exchange of bilayer-bounded vesicles with other organelles. In recent years, it is emerging that contact sites, places where two organelles are positioned in close proximity allowing vesicle-independent communication, are an important way to integrate LDs into the organellar landscape...
June 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596419/intra-tumor-heterogeneity-novel-approaches-for-resolving-genomic-architecture-and-clonal-evolution
#4
Ravi G Gupta, Robert A Somer
High-throughput genomic technologies have revealed a remarkably complex portrait of intra-tumor heterogeneity in cancer and have shown that tumors evolve through a reiterative process of genetic diversification and clonal selection. This discovery has challenged the classical paradigm of clonal dominance and brought attention to subclonal tumor cell populations that contribute to the cancer phenotype. Dynamic evolutionary models may explain how these populations grow within the ecosystem of tissues, including linear, branching, neutral and punctuated patterns...
June 8, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579392/bptf-maintains-chromatin-accessibility-and-the-self-renewal-capacity-of-mammary-gland-stem-cells
#5
Wesley D Frey, Anisha Chaudhry, Priscila F Slepicka, Adam M Ouellette, Steven E Kirberger, William C K Pomerantz, Gregory J Hannon, Camila O Dos Santos
Chromatin remodeling is a key requirement for transcriptional control of cellular differentiation. However, the factors that alter chromatin architecture in mammary stem cells (MaSCs) are poorly understood. Here, we show that BPTF, the largest subunit of the NURF chromatin remodeling complex, is essential for MaSC self-renewal and differentiation of mammary epithelial cells (MECs). BPTF depletion arrests cells at a previously undefined stage of epithelial differentiation that is associated with an incapacity to achieve the luminal cell fate...
May 16, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575308/spatial-temporal-transcriptional-dynamics-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-human-brain
#6
Xiao-Qin Zhang, Ze-Lin Wang, Ming-Wai Poon, Jian-Hua Yang
The functional architecture of human brain is greatly determined by the temporal and spatial regulation of the transcription process. However, the spatial and temporal transcriptional landscape of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) during human brain development remains poorly understood. Here, we report the genome-wide lncRNA transcriptional analysis in an extensive series of 1340 post-mortem human brain specimens collected from 16 regions spanning the period from early embryo development to late adulthood. We discovered that lncRNA transcriptome dramatically changed during fetal development, while transited to a surprisingly relatively stable state after birth till the late adulthood...
May 31, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567358/beyond-landscape-development-of-a-major-healing-garden
#7
T Scott Rawlings
Healthcare in China is expanding faster than anywhere else on the planet and the impact of multiple, mega-medical centers on their communities, their culture and their general way of life is substantial. Through the lens of a 5.5 million square foot hospital located in the Hunan Province of China, this article addresses the factors design teams must consider when integrating nature in to hospital design. The Fifth Xiangya Hospital, designed by Boston-based architecture firm Payette, features a major public park, which is fully integrated in to the hospital design...
June 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562590/genetic-wiring-maps-of-single-cell-protein-states-reveal-an-off-switch-for-gpcr-signalling
#8
Markus Brockmann, Vincent A Blomen, Joppe Nieuwenhuis, Elmer Stickel, Matthijs Raaben, Onno B Bleijerveld, A F Maarten Altelaar, Lucas T Jae, Thijn R Brummelkamp
As key executers of biological functions, the activity and abundance of proteins are subjected to extensive regulation. Deciphering the genetic architecture underlying this regulation is critical for understanding cellular signalling events and responses to environmental cues. Using random mutagenesis in haploid human cells, we apply a sensitive approach to directly couple genomic mutations to protein measurements in individual cells. Here we use this to examine a suite of cellular processes, such as transcriptional induction, regulation of protein abundance and splicing, signalling cascades (mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), protein kinase B (AKT), interferon, and Wingless and Int-related protein (WNT) pathways) and epigenetic modifications (histone crotonylation and methylation)...
June 8, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562219/determination-of-the-lowest-energy-states-for-the-model-distribution-of-trained-restricted-boltzmann-machines-using-a-1000-qubit-d-wave-2x-quantum-computer
#9
Yaroslav Koshka, Dilina Perera, Spencer Hall, M A Novotny
The possibility of using a quantum computer D-Wave 2X with more than 1000 qubits to determine the global minimum of the energy landscape of trained restricted Boltzmann machines is investigated. In order to overcome the problem of limited interconnectivity in the D-Wave architecture, the proposed RBM embedding combines multiple qubits to represent a particular RBM unit. The results for the lowest-energy (the ground state) and some of the higher-energy states found by the D-Wave 2X were compared with those of the classical simulated annealing (SA) algorithm...
July 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535409/mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-diminishes-functional-connectivity-during-emotion-perception
#10
Bettina K Steiger, Angela M Muller, Esther Spirig, Gianina Toller, Hennric Jokeit
OBJECTIVES: Unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) has been associated with impaired recognition of emotional facial expressions. Correspondingly, imaging studies showed decreased activity of the amygdala and cortical face processing regions in response to emotional faces. However, functional connectivity among regions involved in emotion perception has not been studied so far. METHODS: To address this, we examined intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) modulated by the perception of dynamic fearful faces among the amygdala and limbic, frontal, temporal and brainstem regions...
May 10, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524624/pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-progress-in-understanding-the-disease-and-prioritizing-strategies-for-drug-development
#11
REVIEW
P Ghataorhe, C J Rhodes, L Harbaum, M Attard, J Wharton, M R Wilkins
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), at one time a largely overlooked disease, is now the subject of intense study in many academic and biotech groups. The availability of new treatments has increased awareness of the condition. This in turn has driven a change in the demographics of PAH, with an increase in the mean age at diagnosis. The diagnosis of PAH in more elderly patients has highlighted the need for careful phenotyping of patients and for further studies to understand how best to manage pulmonary hypertension associated with, for example, left heart disease...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507139/long-read-sequencing-uncovers-the-adaptive-topography-of-a-carnivorous-plant-genome
#12
Tianying Lan, Tanya Renner, Enrique Ibarra-Laclette, Kimberly M Farr, Tien-Hao Chang, Sergio Alan Cervantes-Pérez, Chunfang Zheng, David Sankoff, Haibao Tang, Rikky W Purbojati, Alexander Putra, Daniela I Drautz-Moses, Stephan C Schuster, Luis Herrera-Estrella, Victor A Albert
Utricularia gibba, the humped bladderwort, is a carnivorous plant that retains a tiny nuclear genome despite at least two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) since common ancestry with grapevine and other species. We used a third-generation genome assembly with several complete chromosomes to reconstruct the two most recent lineage-specific ancestral genomes that led to the modern U. gibba genome structure. Patterns of subgenome dominance in the most recent WGD, both architectural and transcriptional, are suggestive of allopolyploidization, which may have generated genomic novelty and led to instantaneous speciation...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505093/the-crucial-role-of-dna-methylation-and-mecp2-in-neuronal-function
#13
REVIEW
Maria Fasolino, Zhaolan Zhou
A neuron is unique in its ability to dynamically modify its transcriptional output in response to synaptic activity while maintaining a core gene expression program that preserves cellular identity throughout a lifetime that is longer than almost every other cell type in the body. A contributing factor to the immense adaptability of a neuron is its unique epigenetic landscape that elicits locus-specific alterations in chromatin architecture, which in turn influences gene expression. One such epigenetic modification that is sensitive to changes in synaptic activity, as well as essential for maintaining cellular identity, is DNA methylation...
May 13, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489315/mechanically-guided-deterministic-assembly-of-3d-mesostructures-assisted-by-residual-stresses
#14
Haoran Fu, Kewang Nan, Paul Froeter, Wen Huang, Yuan Liu, Yiqi Wang, Juntong Wang, Zheng Yan, Haiwen Luan, Xiaogang Guo, Yijie Zhang, Changqing Jiang, Luming Li, Alison C Dunn, Xiuling Li, Yonggang Huang, Yihui Zhang, John A Rogers
Formation of 3D mesostructures in advanced functional materials is of growing interest due to the widespread envisioned applications of devices that exploit 3D architectures. Mechanically guided assembly based on compressive buckling of 2D precursors represents a promising method, with applicability to a diverse set of geometries and materials, including inorganic semiconductors, metals, polymers, and their heterogeneous combinations. This paper introduces ideas that extend the levels of control and the range of 3D layouts that are achievable in this manner...
June 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475873/structure-and-dynamics-of-a-197%C3%A2-bp-nucleosome-in-complex-with-linker-histone-h1
#15
Jan Bednar, Isabel Garcia-Saez, Ramachandran Boopathi, Amber R Cutter, Gabor Papai, Anna Reymer, Sajad H Syed, Imtiaz Nisar Lone, Ognyan Tonchev, Corinne Crucifix, Hervé Menoni, Christophe Papin, Dimitrios A Skoufias, Hitoshi Kurumizaka, Richard Lavery, Ali Hamiche, Jeffrey J Hayes, Patrick Schultz, Dimitar Angelov, Carlo Petosa, Stefan Dimitrov
Linker histones associate with nucleosomes to promote the formation of higher-order chromatin structure, but the underlying molecular details are unclear. We investigated the structure of a 197 bp nucleosome bearing symmetric 25 bp linker DNA arms in complex with vertebrate linker histone H1. We determined electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) and crystal structures of unbound and H1-bound nucleosomes and validated these structures by site-directed protein cross-linking and hydroxyl radical footprinting experiments...
May 4, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475225/the-adaptive-genomic-landscape-of-beak-morphology-in-darwin-s-finches
#16
Lucinda P Lawson, Kenneth Petren
Beak shape in Darwin's ground finches (Geospiza) is emblematic of natural selection and adaptive radiation, yet our understanding of the genetic basis of beak shape variation, and thus the genetic target of natural selection, is still evolving. Here we reveal the genomic architecture of beak shape variation using genomewide comparisons of four closely related and hybridizing species across 13 islands subject to parallel natural selection. Pairwise contrasts among species were used to identify a large number of genomic loci that are consistently related to species differences across a complex landscape...
May 5, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474175/the-hmga-gene-family-in-chordates-evolutionary-perspectives-from-amphioxus
#17
Matteo Bozzo, Simone Macrì, Daniela Calzia, Riccardo Sgarra, Guidalberto Manfioletti, Paola Ramoino, Thurston Lacalli, Robert Vignali, Mario Pestarino, Simona Candiani
High mobility group A proteins of vertebrates, HMGA1 and 2, are chromatin architectural factors involved in development, cell differentiation, and neoplastic transformation. Here, we characterize an amphioxus HMGA gene ortholog and analyze its expression. As a basal chordate, amphioxus is well placed to provide insights into the evolution of the HMGA gene family, particularly in the transition from invertebrates to vertebrates. Our phylogenetic analysis supports the basal position of amphioxus, echinoderm, and hemichordate HMGA sequences to those of vertebrate HMGA1 and HMGA2...
May 4, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446118/motor-neurone-disease-progress-and-challenges
#18
REVIEW
Thanuja Dharmadasa, Robert D Henderson, Paul S Talman, Richard Al Macdonell, Susan Mathers, David W Schultz, Merrillee Needham, Margaret Zoing, Steve Vucic, Matthew C Kiernan
Major progress has been made over the past decade in the understanding of motor neurone disease (MND), changing the landscape of this complex disease. Through identifying positive prognostic factors, new evidence-based standards of care have been established that improve patient survival, reduce burden of disease for patients and their carers, and enhance quality of life. These factors include early management of respiratory dysfunction with non-invasive ventilation, maintenance of weight and nutritional status, as well as instigation of a multidisciplinary team including neurologists, general practitioners and allied health professionals...
May 1, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436955/vitamin-a-mediates-conversion-of-monocyte-derived-macrophages-into-tissue-resident-macrophages-during-alternative-activation
#19
Uma Mahesh Gundra, Natasha M Girgis, Michael A Gonzalez, Mei San Tang, Hendrik J P Van Der Zande, Jian-Da Lin, Mireille Ouimet, Lily J Ma, Jordan Poles, Nikollaq Vozhilla, Edward A Fisher, Kathryn J Moore, P'ng Loke
It remains unclear whether activated inflammatory macrophages can adopt features of tissue-resident macrophages, or what mechanisms might mediate such a phenotypic conversion. Here we show that vitamin A is required for the phenotypic conversion of interleukin 4 (IL-4)-activated monocyte-derived F4/80(int)CD206(+)PD-L2(+)MHCII(+) macrophages into macrophages with a tissue-resident F4/80(hi)CD206(-)PD-L2(-)MHCII(-)UCP1(+) phenotype in the peritoneal cavity of mice and during the formation of liver granulomas in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni...
June 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413161/rapid-and-recent-evolution-of-ltr-retrotransposons-drives-rice-genome-evolution-during-the-speciation-of-aa-genome-oryza-species
#20
Qun-Jie Zhang, Li-Zhi Gao
The dynamics of LTR retrotransposons and their contribution to genome evolution during plant speciation have remained largely unanswered. Here, we perform a genome-wide comparison of all eight Oryza AA- genome species, and identify 3,911 intact LTR retrotransposons classified into 790 families. The top 44 most abundant LTR retrotransposon families show patterns of rapid and distinct diversification since the species split over the last ~4.8 Myr. Phylogenetic and read depth analyses of 11 representative retrotransposon families further provide a comprehensive evolutionary landscape of these changes...
April 16, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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