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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166667/flotillin-scaffold-activity-contributes-to-type-vii-secretion-system-assembly-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
Benjamin Mielich-Süss, Rabea M Wagner, Nicole Mietrach, Tobias Hertlein, Gabriella Marincola, Knut Ohlsen, Sebastian Geibel, Daniel Lopez
Scaffold proteins are ubiquitous chaperones that promote efficient interactions between partners of multi-enzymatic protein complexes; although they are well studied in eukaryotes, their role in prokaryotic systems is poorly understood. Bacterial membranes have functional membrane microdomains (FMM), a structure homologous to eukaryotic lipid rafts. Similar to their eukaryotic counterparts, bacterial FMM harbor a scaffold protein termed flotillin that is thought to promote interactions between proteins spatially confined to the FMM...
November 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166573/interaction-of-hsp90-with-phospholipid-model-membranes
#2
Muhan Zhang, Daoying Wang, Pengpeng Li, Chong Sun, Rong Xu, Zhiming Geng, Weimin Xu, Zhaoqi Dai
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an essential molecular chaperone with versatile functions in cell homeostatic control under both normal and stress conditions. Hsp90 has been found to be expressed on the cell surface, but the mechanism of Hsp90 association to the membrane remains obscure. In this study, the direct interaction of Hsp90 and phospholipid vesicles was characterized, and the role of Hsp90 on membrane physical state was explored. Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), we observed a strong interaction between Hsp90 and different compositions of lipid...
November 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165698/nuclear-mrna-degradation-tunes-the-gain-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#3
Debasish Sarkar, Sunirmal Paira, Biswadip Das
Unfolded protein response (UPR) is triggered by the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is accomplished by a dramatic induction of genes encoding ER chaperones. Activation of these genes involves their rapid transcription by Hac1p, encoded by the HAC1 precursor transcript harboring an intron and a bipartite element (3'-BE) in the 3'-UTR. ER stress facilitates intracellular targeting and recruitment of HAC1 pre-mRNA to Ire1p foci (requiring 3'-BE), leading to its non-spliceosomal splicing mediated by Ire1p/Rlg1p...
November 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165246/regulatory-coiled-coil-domains-promote-head-to-head-assemblies-of-aaa-chaperones-essential-for-tunable-activity-control
#4
Marta Carroni, Kamila B Franke, Michael Maurer, Jasmin Jäger, Ingo Hantke, Felix Gloge, Daniela Linder, Sebastian Gremer, Kürşad Turgay, Bernd Bukau, Axel Mogk
Ring-forming AAA+ chaperones exert ATP-fueled substrate unfolding by threading through a central pore. This activity is potentially harmful requiring mechanisms for tight repression and substrate-specific activation. The AAA+ chaperone ClpC with the peptidase ClpP forms a bacterial protease essential to virulence and stress resistance. The adaptor MecA activates ClpC by targeting substrates and stimulating ClpC ATPase activity. We show how ClpC is repressed in its ground state by determining ClpC cryo-EM structures with and without MecA...
November 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165056/citrinin-induces-apoptosis-in-human-hct116-colon-cancer-cells-through-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#5
Amal Salah, Chayma Bouaziz, Alexandre Prola, Julie Pires Da Silva, Hassen Bacha, Salwa Abid-Essefi, Christophe Lemaire
The mycotoxin citrinin (CTN) is a natural contaminant of various human foods that may produce serious adverse health problems. Several studies demonstrated that citrinin exerts cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in both in vivo and in vitro systems. However, the precise mechanisms of action (MOA), particularly in intestinal cells remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the precise MOA of citrinin in vitro. Data demonstrated that CTN significantly decreased the number of viable human intestinal HCT116 cells and induced apoptotic events including (1) decrease in ΔѰm indicative of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, (2) activation of caspase 3, (3) elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and (4) relative persistence of plasma membrane integrity...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163823/myc-is-downregulated-by-a-mitochondrial-checkpoint-mechanism
#6
Xiaonan Zhang, Arjan Mofers, Per Hydbring, Maria Hägg Olofsson, Jing Guo, Stig Linder, Padraig D'Arcy
The MYC proto-oncogene serves as a rheostat coupling mitogenic signaling with the activation of genes regulating growth, metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis. Here we describe a novel link between mitochondria and MYC levels. Perturbation of mitochondrial function using a number of conventional and novel inhibitors resulted in the decreased expression of MYC mRNA. This decrease in MYC mRNA occurred concomitantly with an increase in the levels of tumor-suppressive miRNAs such as members of the let-7 family and miR-34a-5p...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163556/identification-of-mshsp20-gene-family-in-malus-sieversii-and-functional-characterization-of-mshsp16-9-in-heat-tolerance
#7
Meiling Yang, Yunxiu Zhang, Huanhuan Zhang, Hongbin Wang, Tao Wei, Shiyou Che, Lipeng Zhang, Baoquan Hu, Hong Long, Wenqin Song, Weiwei Yu, Guorong Yan
Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are common molecular chaperones present in all plants that accumulate in response to abiotic stress. Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) play important roles in alleviating diverse abiotic stresses, especially heat stress. However, very little is known about the MsHsp20 gene family in the wild apple Malus sieversii, a precious germplasm resource with excellent resistance characteristics. In this study, 12 putative M. sieversii Hsp20 genes were identified from RNA-Seq data and analyzed in terms of gene structure and phylogenetic relationships...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163555/ttt-and-pikk-complex-genes-reverted-to-single-copy-following-polyploidization-and-retain-function-despite-massive-retrotransposition-in-maize
#8
Nelson Garcia, Joachim Messing
The TEL2, TTI1, and TTI2 proteins are co-chaperones for heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) to regulate the protein folding and maturation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKKs). Referred to as the TTT complex, the genes that encode them are highly conserved from man to maize. TTT complex and PIKK genes exist mostly as single copy genes in organisms where they have been characterized. Members of this interacting protein network in maize were identified and synteny analyses were performed to study their evolution...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163405/overexpression-of-the-prunus-sogdiana-nbs-lrr-subgroup-gene-psorpm2-promotes-resistance-to-the-root-knot-nematode-meloidogyne-incognita-in-tobacco
#9
Xiang Zhu, Kun Xiao, Haiyang Cui, Jianfang Hu
Root-knot nematodes (RKNs), particularly Meloidogyne incognita, are the most devastating soil-borne pathogens that significantly affect the production of Prunus spp. fruit. RKN infection is difficult to control and consequently causes massive yield losses each year. However, several germplasms of wild Prunus spp. have been shown to display resistance to M. incognita. Consequently, both the isolation of novel plant resistance (R) genes and the characterization of their resistance mechanisms are important strategies for future disease control...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163381/functional-characterization-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-lacking-the-rna-chaperone-hfq
#10
Han-Yueh Kuo, Hsuan-Hao Chao, Po-Cheng Liao, Long Hsu, Kai-Chih Chang, Chi-Hua Tung, Chang-Hua Chen, Ming-Li Liou
The RNA chaperone Hfq is involved in the riboregulation of diverse genes via small RNAs. Recent studies have demonstrated that Hfq contributes to the stress response and the virulence of several pathogens, and the roles of Hfq vary among bacterial species. Here, we attempted to elucidate the role of Hfq in Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978. In the absence of hfq, A. baumannii exhibited retarded cell growth and was highly sensitive to environmental stress, including osmotic and oxidative pressure, pH, and temperature...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163229/cx43-isoform-gja1-20k-promotes-microtubule-dependent-mitochondrial-transport
#11
Ying Fu, Shan-Shan Zhang, Shaohua Xiao, Wassim A Basheer, Rachel Baum, Irina Epifantseva, TingTing Hong, Robin M Shaw
Connexin 43 (Cx43, encoded by GJA1) is a cell-cell communication gap junction protein expressed in all organ systems. It was recently found that GJA1 mRNA undergoes alternative translation to generate N-terminal truncated isoforms, of which GJA1-20k is the most abundant. Here we report a surprising finding that, unlike full length GJA1-43k, GJA1-20k has a strong tropism for mitochondria. Exploring function, we found that GJA1-20k appears to be an organelle chaperone and that overexpression of GJA1-20k is sufficient to rescue mitochondrial localization to the cell periphery upon exposure to hydrogen peroxide, which effectively limits the network fragmentation that occurs with oxidative stress...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162721/loss-of-%C3%AE-b-crystallin-function-in-zebrafish-reveals-critical-roles-in-the-development-of-the-lens-and-stress-resistance-of-the-heart
#12
Sanjay Mishra, Shu-Yu Wu, Alexandra W Fuller, Zhen Wang, Kristie L Rose, Kevin L Schey, Hassane S Mchaourab
Genetic mutations in the human small heat shock protein αB-crystallin have been implicated in autosomal cataracts and skeletal myopathies, including heart muscle diseases (cardiomyopathy). While these mutations lead to modulation of their chaperone activity in vitro, the in vivo functions of αB-crystallin in the maintenance of both lens transparency and muscle integrity remain unclear. This lack of information has hindered a mechanistic understanding of these diseases. To better define the functional roles of αB-crystallin, we generated loss-of-function zebrafish mutant lines by utilizing CRISPR/Cas9 system to specifically disrupt the two αB-crystallin genes, αBa and αBb We observed lens abnormalities in the mutant lines of both genes and the penetrance of the lens phenotype was higher in αBa than αBb mutants...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161404/mutation-dependent-aggregation-and-toxicity-in-a-drosophila-model-for-ubqln2-associated-als
#13
Sang Hwa Kim, Shannon G Stiles, Joseph M Feichtmeier, Nandini Ramesh, Lihong Zhan, Mark A Scalf, Lloyd M Smith, Udai Bhan Pandey, Randal S Tibbetts
Members of the conserved ubiquilin (UBQLN) family of ubiquitin (Ub) chaperones harbor an antipodal UBL (Ub-like)-UBA (Ub-associated) domain arrangement and participate in proteasome and autophagosome-mediated protein degradation. Mutations in a proline-rich-repeat region (PRR) of UBQLN2 cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)/frontotemporal dementia (FTD); however, neither the normal functions of the PRR nor impacts of ALS-associated mutations within it are well understood. In this study we show that ALS mutations perturb UBQLN2 solubility and folding in a mutation-specific manner...
November 17, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160038/endoplasmic-reticulum-in-health-and-disease-the-12th-international-calreticulin-workshop-delphi-greece
#14
REVIEW
Aristidis S Charonis, Marek Michalak, Jody Groenendyk, Luis B Agellon
Starting from 1994, every 2 years, an international workshop is organized focused on calreticulin and other endoplasmic reticulum chaperones. In 2017, the workshop took place at Delphi Greece. Participants from North and South America, Europe, Asia and Australia presented their recent data and discussed them extensively with their colleagues. Presentations dealt with structural aspects of calreticulin and calnexin, the role of Ca(2+) in cellular signalling and in autophagy, the endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response, the role of calreticulin in immune responses...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159897/identification-and-characterization-of-two-variants-of-the-hfq-srna-chaperone-in-the-fish-pathogen-piscirickettsia-salmonis
#15
S H Marshall, P Flores-Herrera, F A Henríquez, F A Gómez
Small RNA and chaperone proteins form synergistic duos that play pivotal roles in controlling gene expression in bacteria. This is the case for Hfq, a highly pleiotropic pretranslational modulator of general protein expression, which responds to harsh environmental conditions and influences fitness and virulence in a wide range of pathogenic Enterobacteria. Given this relevancy, we evaluated the presence and potential role of Hfq in the fish pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis, a Gram-negative bacterium that threatens the sustainability of Chilean salmon production...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159494/the-nucleocapsid-protein-of-hantaviruses-much-more-than-a-genome-wrapping-protein
#16
REVIEW
Monika Reuter, Detlev H Krüger
The nucleocapsid (N) protein of hantaviruses represents an impressive example of a viral multifunctional protein. It encompasses properties as diverse as genome packaging, RNA chaperoning, intracellular protein transport, DNA degradation, intervention in host translation, and restricting host immune responses. These functions all rely on the capability of N to interact with RNA and other viral and cellular proteins. We have compiled data on the N protein of different hantavirus species together with information of the recently published three-dimensional structural data of the protein...
November 20, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158977/the-sensitivity-of-the-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-to-acetic-acid-is-influenced-by-dom34-and-rpl36a
#17
Bahram Samanfar, Kristina Shostak, Houman Moteshareie, Maryam Hajikarimlou, Sarah Shaikho, Katayoun Omidi, Mohsen Hooshyar, Daniel Burnside, Imelda Galván Márquez, Tom Kazmirchuk, Thet Naing, Paula Ludovico, Anna York-Lyon, Kama Szereszewski, Cindy Leung, Jennifer Yixin Jin, Rami Megarbane, Myron L Smith, Mohan Babu, Martin Holcik, Ashkan Golshani
The presence of acetic acid during industrial alcohol fermentation reduces the yield of fermentation by imposing additional stress on the yeast cells. The biology of cellular responses to stress has been a subject of vigorous investigations. Although much has been learned, details of some of these responses remain poorly understood. Members of heat shock chaperone HSP proteins have been linked to acetic acid and heat shock stress responses in yeast. Both acetic acid and heat shock have been identified to trigger different cellular responses including reduction of global protein synthesis and induction of programmed cell death...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157973/when-the-good-go-bad-mutant-npm1-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#18
REVIEW
Preethi Kunchala, Sudhakiranmayi Kuravi, Roy Jensen, Joseph McGuirk, Ramesh Balusu
Nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) is a nucleolar phosphoprotein that performs diverse biological functions including molecular chaperoning, ribosome biogenesis, DNA repair, and genome stability. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease, more than half of the AML cases exhibit normal karyotype (NK). Approximately 50-60 percent of patients with NK-AML carry NPM1 mutations which are characterized by cytoplasmic dislocation of the NPM1 protein. In AML, mutant NPM1 (NPM1c+) acts in a dominant negative fashion and also blocks the differentiation of myeloid cells through gain-of-function for the AML phenotype...
November 4, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156781/toxoplasma-gondii-clp-family-protein-tgclpb1-plays-a-crucial-role-in-thermotolerance
#19
Shinuo Cao, Nali Du, Heming Chen, Yu Pang, Zhaoxia Zhang, Jun Zheng, Honglin Jia
Caseinolytic peptidase B (ClpB) plays a pivotal role in suppressing and reversing protein aggregation. Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasitic protozoan that infects a wide variety of mammals and birds and therefore is exposed to a broad range of living condition. We screened ToxoDB (http://ToxoDB.org) and identified 10 putative T. gondii genes encoding members of the Clp superfamily of caseinolytic proteases and chaperones. Of these, we focused on characterizing the Class I ATP-dependent molecular chaperones TgClpB1, TgClpB2, and TgClpB3...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156711/multiple-regulatory-aspects-of-histone-methyltransferase-ezh2-in-pb-induced-neurotoxicity
#20
Wei-Zhen Xue, Xiaozhen Gu, Yulan Wu, Danyang Li, Yi Xu, Hui-Li Wang
Pb is a pervasive environmental threat to human health. Although remarkable progress has been made in its neurotoxicity, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying this widespread toxicant still remain elusive. In this study, the detailed roles of EZH2, a transcriptional repressor, in the regulation of Pb-led neurotoxicity were investigated, highlighting its sub-functionalization, compartmentalization, functional chaperones and downstream partners. Based on the findings, EZH2's protein levels were significantly reduced in response to Pb treatment; EZH2's gain-of-function trials recovered the dampened neurite outgrowth; EZH2' recruitment to ploycomb complex, as well as its interaction with cytosolic Vav1, was altered in a distinct manner, suggesting that EZH2's multiple roles were markedly redistributed in this context; EZH2's cytosolic and nuclear presence differed in their respective response towards Pb treatment; EZH2 directly occupied the promoters of EGR2, NGFR and CaMKK2, genes responsible for various nerve functions and repair mechanisms, and essentially contributed to their aberrant expression...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
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