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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205255/effect-of-postnatal-hiv-treatment-on-clinical-mastitis-and-breast-inflammation-in-hiv-infected-breast-feeding-women
#1
Sabrina Zadrozny, Daniel Westreich, Michael G Hudgens, Charles Chasela, Denise J Jamieson, Francis Martinson, Chifundo Zimba, Gerald Tegha, Irving Hoffman, William C Miller, Brian W Pence, Caroline C King, Athena P Kourtis, Wezi Msungama, Charles van der Horst
BACKGROUND: The relationship between mastitis and antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive, breast-feeding women is unclear. METHODS: In the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) study, conducted in Lilongwe, Malawi, 2369 mother-infant pairs were randomized to a nutritional supplement group and to one of three treatment groups: maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART), infant nevirapine (NVP) or standard of care for 24 weeks of exclusive breast-feeding and 4 weeks of weaning...
February 16, 2017: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196105/adaptive-geostatistical-sampling-enables-efficient-identification-of-malaria-hotspots-in-repeated-cross-sectional-surveys-in-rural-malawi
#2
Alinune N Kabaghe, Michael G Chipeta, Robert S McCann, Kamija S Phiri, Michèle van Vugt, Willem Takken, Peter Diggle, Anja D Terlouw
INTRODUCTION: In the context of malaria elimination, interventions will need to target high burden areas to further reduce transmission. Current tools to monitor and report disease burden lack the capacity to continuously detect fine-scale spatial and temporal variations of disease distribution exhibited by malaria. These tools use random sampling techniques that are inefficient for capturing underlying heterogeneity while health facility data in resource-limited settings are inaccurate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194144/trophic-interactions-of-infant-bifidobacteria-and-eubacterium-hallii-during-l-fucose-and-fucosyllactose-degradation
#3
Clarissa Schwab, Hans-Joachim Ruscheweyh, Vera Bunesova, Van Thanh Pham, Niko Beerenwinkel, Christophe Lacroix
Fucosyllactoses (2'- or 3'-FL) account for up to 20% of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). Infant bifidobacteria, such as Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, utilize the lactose moiety to form lactate and acetate, and metabolize L-fucose to 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD). Eubacterium hallii is a common member of the adult gut microbiota that can produce butyrate from lactate and acetate, and convert 1,2-PD to propionate. Recently, a Swiss cohort study identified E. hallii as one of the first butyrate producers in the infant gut...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190482/technicians-and-other-pharmacy-support-workforce-cadres-working-with-pharmacists-malawi-case-study
#4
Erin Larsen-Cooper, Jessica Crawford, Matthew Ziba, Carla Blauvelt, Andrew Brown
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190479/a-global-picture-of-pharmacy-technician-and-other-pharmacy-support-workforce-cadres
#5
Tamara Koehler, Andrew Brown
INTRODUCTION: Understanding how pharmacy technicians and other pharmacy support workforce cadres assist pharmacists in the healthcare system will facilitate developing health systems with the ability to achieve universal health coverage as it is defined in different country contexts. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the present global variety in the technician and other pharmacy support workforce cadres considering; their scope, roles, supervision, education and legal framework...
March 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187629/review-of-the-genus-i-lanchnophorus-i-hemiptera-heteroptera-rhyparochromidae-with-description-of-three-new-species-and-other-nomenclatural-changes
#6
Petr Kment, Attilio Carapezza, Zdeněk Jindra, Előd Kondorosy
The generic name Lanchnophorus Reuter, 1887, deemed for a long time to be unavailable as incorrect original spelling of Lachnophorus (in fact Lachnophorus Distant, 1903 is an unjustified emendation of the former), is restored as a valid name of the genus. Lachnesthus Bergroth, 1915, syn. nov. (new name for the preoccupied Lachnophorus Distant, 1903) is considered junior synonym of Lanchnophorus. The following nomenclatural changes are proposed: Lanchnophorus flavus (Scudder, 1971) comb. nov. = Lachnesthus chinai Scudder, nomen nudum; Lanchnophorus guttulatus Reuter, 1887, comb...
January 25, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187159/effects-of-a-social-accountability-approach-care-s-community-score-card-on-reproductive-health-related-outcomes-in-malawi-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-evaluation
#7
Sara Gullo, Christine Galavotti, Anne Sebert Kuhlmann, Thumbiko Msiska, Phil Hastings, C Nathan Marti
BACKGROUND: Social accountability approaches, which emphasize mutual responsibility and accountability by community members, health care workers, and local health officials for improving health outcomes in the community, are increasingly being employed in low-resource settings. We evaluated the effects of a social accountability approach, CARE's Community Score Card (CSC), on reproductive health outcomes in Ntcheu district, Malawi using a cluster-randomized control design. METHODS: We matched 10 pairs of communities, randomly assigning one from each pair to intervention and control arms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183123/a-new-brachypterous-species-of-i-phoberus-i-macleay-coleoptera-trogidae-and-status-changes-of-species-in-the-east-african-i-p-nigrociliatus-i-group
#8
Werner P Strümpher, Clarke H Scholtz
A new brachypterous species, Phoberus nyikanus Strümpher (Coleoptera: Trogidae), is described from Malawi. In addition, three status changes are proposed: Phoberus nigrociliatus (Kolbe) from the Ethiopian highlands, P. nyansanus (Haaf) from central East Africa, and P. nyassicus (Haaf) from southern Tanzanian mountains are elevated to species level. A key is provided to aid in the identification of members of the P. nigrociliatus group, and the species in the group are illustrated by photographs. This brings the total number of species in the genus to 44...
January 6, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176810/extinctions-genetic-erosion-and-conservation-options-for-the-black-rhinoceros-diceros-bicornis
#9
Yoshan Moodley, Isa-Rita M Russo, Desiré L Dalton, Antoinette Kotzé, Shadrack Muya, Patricia Haubensak, Boglárka Bálint, Gopi K Munimanda, Caroline Deimel, Andrea Setzer, Kara Dicks, Barbara Herzig-Straschil, Daniela C Kalthoff, Hans R Siegismund, Jan Robovský, Paul O'Donoghue, Michael W Bruford
The black rhinoceros is again on the verge of extinction due to unsustainable poaching in its native range. Despite a wide historic distribution, the black rhinoceros was traditionally thought of as depauperate in genetic variation, and with very little known about its evolutionary history. This knowledge gap has hampered conservation efforts because hunting has dramatically reduced the species' once continuous distribution, leaving five surviving gene pools of unknown genetic affinity. Here we examined the range-wide genetic structure of historic and modern populations using the largest and most geographically representative sample of black rhinoceroses ever assembled...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176645/prevention-interventions-for-people-living-with-hiv-in-military-settings
#10
Michael Grillo, Margo Sloan, Che Wankie, Kelly Woodland, Elizabeth Reader, Bruce Porter, Caroline Macera, Richard Shaffer
Military prevention programs and healthy living programs were developed in the mid-1980s to manage and support newly HIV-positive military personnel in the US military. Since then, a program developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with support from the Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program (DHAPP), called Positive Health, Dignity and Prevention (PHDP), is currently being rolled out by DHAPP in partner militaries. The program, designed to reduce HIV transmission, is a package of interventions for people living with HIV (PLHIV), including risk reduction counseling, condom provision, disclosure counseling, testing of sexual partner(s) and children, adherence counseling, diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections, and provision of family planning services...
February 7, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173743/the-burden-of-trauma-at-a-district-hospital-in-malawi
#11
Zahra Jaffry, Linda C Chokotho, William J Harrison, Nyengo C Mkandawire
Trauma disproportionately affects low- and middle-income countries, many of which do not have the surveillance systems required to design effective prevention and treatment strategies. The aim of this study was to establish such a system at a district hospital in Malawi. Data on all trauma patients presenting to Mulanje District Hospital from 14 April 2013 to 30 December 2014 were collected using a form based on the core minimum data points for injuries recommended by the World Health Organization and an injury severity assessment...
January 1, 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165378/pit-latrine-fecal-sludge-resistance-using-a-dynamic-cone-penetrometer-in-low-income-areas-in-mzuzu-city-malawi
#12
Charles F C Chirwa, Ralph P Hall, Leigh-Anne H Krometis, Eric A Vance, Adam Edwards, Ting Guan, Rochelle H Holm
Pit latrines can provide improved household sanitation, but without effective and inexpensive emptying options, they are often abandoned once full and may pose a public health threat. Emptying techniques can be difficult, as the sludge contents of each pit latrine are different. The design of effective emptying techniques (e.g., pumps) is limited by a lack of data characterizing typical in situ latrine sludge resistance. This investigation aimed to better understand the community education and technical engineering needs necessary to improve pit latrine management...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163813/hematospermia-in-a-returned-traveler
#13
Raynell Lang, Jessica Minion, Alexander Wong
Hematospermia is a common complaint among patients seen in outpatient urology clinics. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, structural, systemic, and traumatic causes. The most common infectious causes are uropathogens and sexually transmitted infections. However, with increasing global travel, physicians must maintain a high clinical suspicion for pathogens not endemic to their region, including Echinococcus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Schistosoma.1 We present a case of hematospermia in a traveler returning from Eastern Africa with exposure to Lake Malawi...
January 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161570/safety-of-a-killed-oral-cholera-vaccine-shanchol-in-pregnant-women-in-malawi-an-observational-cohort-study
#14
Mohammad Ali, Allyson Nelson, Francisco J Luquero, Andrew S Azman, Amanda K Debes, Maurice Mwesawina M'bang'ombe, Linly Seyama, Evans Kachale, Kingsley Zuze, Desire Malichi, Fatima Zulu, Kelias Phiri Msyamboza, Storn Kabuluzi, David A Sack
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy increases the risk of harmful effects from cholera for both mothers and their fetuses. A killed oral cholera vaccine, Shanchol (Shantha Biotechnics, Hydrabad, India), can protect against the disease for up to 5 years. However, cholera vaccination campaigns have often excluded pregnant women because of insufficient safety data for use during pregnancy. We did an observational cohort study to assess the safety of Shanchol during pregnancy. METHODS: This observational cohort study was done in two adjacent districts (Nsanje and Chikwawa) in Malawi...
February 1, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160640/uncovering-human-social-networks-in-coping-with-lake-chilwa-recessions-in-malawi
#15
Joseph Nagoli, Linley Chiwona-Karltun
This paper provides an in-depth understanding of social dynamics in the form of kinship ties in matrilineal societies. It unpacks gender roles and relationships at the community level to understand how social structures, created by the pattern of relations, enhance or hinder coping initiatives during lake recessions in the Lake Chilwa socio-ecological system. Using qualitative and quantitative methods including in-depth interviews, Focus Group Discussions (FGD) and household questionnaires, this paper provides insights into how people in the Lake Chilwa social-ecological system prepare for and cope with Lake Chilwa water recessions by capitalising on their social networks...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158974/a-compendium-of-developmental-gene-expression-in-lake-malawi-cichlid-fishes
#16
R F Bloomquist, T E Fowler, J B Sylvester, R J Miro, J T Streelman
BACKGROUND: Lake Malawi cichlids represent one of a growing number of vertebrate models used to uncover the genetic and developmental basis of trait diversity. Rapid evolutionary radiation has resulted in species that share similar genomes but differ markedly in phenotypes including brains and behavior, nuptial coloration and the craniofacial skeleton. Research has begun to identify the genes, as well as the molecular and developmental pathways that underlie trait divergence. RESULTS: We assemble a compendium of gene expression for Lake Malawi cichlids, across pharyngula (the phylotypic stage) and larval stages of development, encompassing hundreds of gene transcripts...
February 3, 2017: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153011/association-between-caregivers-knowledge-and-care-seeking-behaviour-for-children-with-symptoms-of-pneumonia-in-six-sub-saharan-african-countries
#17
Aaltje Camielle Noordam, Alyssa B Sharkey, Paddy Hinssen, GeertJan Dinant, Jochen W L Cals
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is the main cause of child mortality world-wide and most of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Treatment with effective antibiotics is crucial to prevent these deaths; nevertheless only 2 out of 5 children with symptoms of pneumonia are taken to an appropriate care provider in SSA. While various factors associated with care seeking have been identified, the relationship between caregivers' knowledge of pneumonia symptoms and actual care seeking for their child with symptoms of pneumonia is not well researched...
February 2, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150466/who-will-be-lost-identifying-patients-at-risk-of-loss-to-follow-up-in-malawi-the-dream-program-experience
#18
S Mancinelli, K Nielsen-Saines, P Germano, G Guidotti, E Buonomo, P Scarcella, R Lunghi, H Sangare, S Orlando, G Liotta, M C Marazzi, L Palombi
OBJECTIVES: Retention of subjects in HIV treatment programmes is crucial for the success of treatment. We evaluated retention/loss to follow-up (LTFU) in subjects receiving established care in Malawi. METHODS: Data for HIV-positive patients registered in Drug Resource Enhancement Against AIDS and Malnutrition centres in Malawi prior to 2014 were reviewed. Visits entailing HIV testing/counselling, laboratory evaluations, nutritional evaluation/supplementation, community support, peer education, and antiretroviral (ART) monitoring/pharmacy were noted...
February 2, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145162/early-use-of-corticosteroids-in-infants-with-a-clinical-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-jiroveci-pneumonia-in-malawi-a-double-blind-randomised-clinical-trial
#19
Laura Newberry, Bernadette O'Hare, Neil Kennedy, Andrew Selman, Sofia Omar, Pamela Dawson, Kim Stevenson, Yo Nishihara, Samantha Lissauer, Elizabeth Molyneux
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) is the most common opportunistic infection in infants with vertically acquired HIV infection and the most common cause of death in HIV-infected infants. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether early administration of adjuvant corticosteroids in addition to standard treatment reduces mortality in infants with vertically acquired HIV and clinically diagnosed PJP when co-infection with cytomegalovirus and other pathogens cannot be excluded...
February 1, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143549/patients-satisfaction-with-lower-limb-prosthetic-and-orthotic-devices-and-service-delivery-in-sierra-leone-and-malawi
#20
Lina Magnusson, Gerd Ahlström
BACKGROUND: People with disabilities have the right to personal mobility and available and affordable assistive technology, according to the Convention of Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The aims were to investigate similarities and differences between Sierra Leone and Malawi concerning participants' mobility and satisfaction with their lower-limb prosthetic or orthotic device and related service delivery, and to identify variables associated with patients' satisfaction with assistive devices and associated services in the entire study group from these two low-income countries...
February 1, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
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