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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777956/how-do-gender-relations-affect-the-working-lives-of-close-to-community-health-service-providers-empirical-research-a-review-and-conceptual-framework
#1
Rosalind Steege, Miriam Taegtmeyer, Rosalind McCollum, Kate Hawkins, Hermen Ormel, Maryse Kok, Sabina Rashid, Lilian Otiso, Mohsin Sidat, Kingsley Chikaphupha, Daniel Gemechu Datiko, Rukhsana Ahmed, Rachel Tolhurst, Woedem Gomez, Sally Theobald
Close-to-community (CTC) providers have been identified as a key cadre to progress universal health coverage and address inequities in health service provision due to their embedded position within communities. CTC providers both work within, and are subject to, the gender norms at community level but may also have the potential to alter them. This paper synthesises current evidence on gender and CTC providers and the services they deliver. This study uses a two-stage exploratory approach drawing upon qualitative research from the six countries (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique) that were part of the REACHOUT consortium...
May 5, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772280/an-analysis-of-palliative-care-development-in-africa-a-ranking-based-on-region-specific-macro-indicators
#2
John Y Rhee, Eduardo Garralda, Eve Namisango, Emmanuel Luyirika, Liliana de Lima, Richard A Powell, Jesús López-Fidalgo, Carlos Centeno
CONTEXT: To date, there is no study comparing palliative care (PC) development among African countries. OBJECTIVE: To analyze comparatively PC development in African countries based on region-specific indicators. METHODS: Data were obtained from the APCA Atlas of PC in Africa and a comparative analysis conducted. Nineteen indicators were developed and defined through qualitative interviews with African PC experts and a two-round modified Delphi consensus process with international experts on global PC indicators...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769022/development-and-validation-of-a-malawian-version-of-the-primary-care-assessment-tool
#3
Luckson Dullie, Eivind Meland, Øystein Hetlevik, Thomas Mildestvedt, Sturla Gjesdal
BACKGROUND: Malawi does not have validated tools for assessing primary care performance from patients' experience. The aim of this study was to develop a Malawian version of Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT-Mw) and to evaluate its reliability and validity in the assessment of the core primary care dimensions from adult patients' perspective in Malawi. METHODS: A team of experts assessed the South African version of the primary care assessment tool (ZA-PCAT) for face and content validity...
May 16, 2018: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765777/patterns-of-authorship-on-community-health-workers-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-an-analysis-of-publications-2012-2016
#4
Helen Schneider, Nelisiwe Maleka
Introduction: Studies of authorship provide a barometer of local research capacity and ownership of research, considered key to defining appropriate research priorities, developing contextualised responses to health problems and ensuring that research informs policy and practice. This paper reports on an analysis of patterns of research authorship of the now substantial literature on community health workers (CHWs) in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) for the 5-year period: 2012-2016...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763555/biodegradation-of-polyethylene-and-plastic-mixtures-in-mealworms-larvae-of-tenebrio-molitor-and-effects-on-the-gut-microbiome
#5
Anja Malawi Brandon, Shu-Hong Gao, Renmao Tian, Daliang Ning, Shanshan Yang, Jizhong Zhou, Wei-Min Wu, Craig S Criddle
Recent studies have demonstrated the ability for polystyrene (PS) degradation within the gut of mealworms ( Tenebrio molitor). To determine whether plastics may be broadly susceptible to biodegradation within mealworms, we evaluated the fate of polyethylene (PE) and mixtures (PE+PS). We find that PE biodegrades at comparable rates to PS. Mass balances indicate conversion of up 49.0 ± 1.4% of the ingested PE into a putative gas fraction (CO2 ). The molecular weights (Mn ) of egested polymer residues decreased by 40...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762385/hiv-sero-discordance-and-dual-contraceptive-method-use-among-hiv-infected-men-and-women-in-lilongwe-malawi
#6
Blessings Gausi, Maganizo B Chagomerana, Jennifer H Tang, Lisa B Haddad, Mina C Hosseinipour, Hannock Tweya, Sam Phiri
BACKGROUND: Some HIV sero-discordant couples are faced with the dual challenge of preventing HIV transmission to the uninfected partner and avoiding unintended pregnancy. Therefore, we hypothesized that sero-discordance is associated with dual method use at last sex. METHODS: We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of HIV-infected men and women attending 2 ART clinics in Lilongwe, Malawi. We used Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon rank sum to assess for associations between sero-discordance, covariates, and dual method use...
May 14, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762365/multiplex-real-time-pcr-detection-of-intestinal-protozoa-in-hiv-infected-children-in-malawi-enterocytozoon-bieneusi-is-common-and-associated-with-gastrointestinal-complaints-and-may-delay-bmi-nutritional-status-recovery
#7
Minke H W Huibers, Peter Moons, Nelson Maseko, Monfort B Gushu, Oluwadamilola H Iwajomo, Robert S Heyderman, Michael Boele van Hensbroek, Eric A Brienen, Lisette van Lieshout, Job C J Calis
BACKGROUND: Intestinal protozoa are common opportunistic infections in HIV patients. Longitudinal studies on either the clinical relevance, or the effect of immune reconstitution by anti-retroviral therapy on intestinal protozoan infections are children is lacking however. This study investigates prevalence and clinical relevance of intestinal protozoa in HIV-infected Malawian children prior to and during their first year of ART. METHODS: Stool samples collected at enrolment and during follow-up were tested for non-opportunistic (Giardia lamblia, Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica) and opportunistic protozoa (Entroctytoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon spp...
May 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762174/reasons-for-non-adherence-to-the-dapivirine-vaginal-ring-results-of-the-mtn-032-aha-study
#8
Elizabeth T Montgomery, Jonathan Stadler, Sarita Naidoo, Ariana Katz, Nicole Laborde, Morgan Garcia, Krishnaveni Reddy, Leila Mansoor, Juliane Etima, Chifundo Zimba, Miria Chitukuta, Lydia Soto-Torres
OBJECTIVE(S): METHODS:: Former ASPIRE participants were stratified by age group (18-21; 22-45) and randomly selected at seven sites in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe, 12-17 months after trial exit. Using in-depth interviews or focus group discussions, ring use barriers were explored using structured guides and visual tools including individual-level depictions of dapivirine levels detected in plasma and returned rings. RESULTS: 187 were enrolled; 37% were 18-21 when they began ASPIRE...
May 11, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758176/women-s-satisfaction-use-storage-and-disposal-of-subcutaneous-depot-medroxyprogesterone-acetate-dmpa-sc-during-a-randomized-trial
#9
Holly M Burke, Mario Chen, Mercy Buluzi, Rachael Fuchs, Silver Wevill, Lalitha Venkatasubramanian, Leila Dal Santo, Bagrey Ngwira
OBJECTIVE: To describe women's experiences with subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-SC) to inform scale-up of self-administered DMPA-SC. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a 12-month randomized controlled trial in Malawi to measure DMPA-SC continuation rates. A total of 731 women presenting at six Ministry of Health clinics or to community health workers (CHWs) in rural communities were randomized to receive DMPA-SC administered by a provider, or be trained to self-inject DMPA-SC...
May 11, 2018: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758040/early-school-failure-predicts-teenage-pregnancy-and-marriage-a-large-population-based-cohort-study-in-northern-malawi
#10
Judith R Glynn, Bindu S Sunny, Bianca DeStavola, Albert Dube, Menard Chihana, Alison J Price, Amelia C Crampin
BACKGROUND: School dropout has been linked to early pregnancy and marriage but less is known about the effect of school performance. We aimed to assess whether school performance influenced age at sexual debut, pregnancy and marriage, and from what age school drop-out and performance were associated with these later life events. METHODS: Data from 2007-2016 from a demographic surveillance site in northern Malawi with annual updating of schooling status and grades, and linked sexual behaviour surveys, were analysed to assess the associations of age-specific school performance (measured as age-for-grade) and status (in or out of school) on subsequent age at sexual debut, pregnancy and marriage...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751834/a-method-to-develop-vocabulary-checklists-in-new-languages-and-their-validity-to-assess-early-language-development
#11
Elizabeth L Prado, John Phuka, Eugenia Ocansey, Kenneth Maleta, Per Ashorn, Ulla Ashorn, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Brietta M Oaks, Anna Lartey, Kathryn G Dewey
BACKGROUND: Since the adoption of United Nations' Sustainable Goal 4.2 to ensure that all children have access to quality early child development (ECD) so that they are ready for primary education, the demand for valid ECD assessments has increased in contexts where they do not yet exist. The development of early language ability is important for school readiness. Our objective was to evaluate the validity of a method to develop vocabulary checklists in new languages to assess early language development, based on the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751178/how-does-performance-based-financing-affect-health-workers-intrinsic-motivation-a-self-determination-theory-based-mixed-methods-study-in-malawi
#12
Julia Lohmann, Adamson S Muula, Nathalie Houlfort, Manuela De Allegri
"Intrinsic motivation crowding out", the erosion of high-quality, sustainable motivation through the introduction of financial incentives, is one of the most frequently discussed but yet little researched potential unfavorable consequence of Performance-based Financing (PBF). We used the opportunity of the introduction of PBF in Malawi to investigate whether and how PBF affected intrinsic motivation, using a mixed-methods research design theoretically grounded in Self-Determination Theory (SDT). The quantitative component served to estimate the impact of PBF on intrinsic motivation, relying on a controlled pre- and post-test design, with data collected from health workers in 23 intervention and 10 comparison facilities before (March/April 2013; n = 70) and approximately two years after (June/July 2015; n = 71) the start of the intervention...
April 30, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750925/two-year-contraceptive-continuation-rates-among-immediate-postpartum-implant-users-at-a-district-hospital-in-malawi-a-prospective-cohort-study
#13
Jennifer H Tang, Clara Lemani, Jerome Nkambule, George Talama, Chimwemwe Banda, Webster Zgambo, Maganizo Chagomerana
OBJECTIVE: To compare 2-year continuation rates in Malawian women undergoing immediate postpartum insertion of the levonorgestrel implant or etonorgestrel implant. STUDY DESIGN: We followed 159 women who underwent immediate postpartum levonorgestrel implant or etonorgestrel implant insertion at Kasungu District Hospital for up to 2years. RESULTS: We analyzed continuation data on 145 (92.4%) implant users. The 2-year continuation rates were 93...
May 8, 2018: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743000/partnership-duration-and-hiv-serodisclosure-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-lilongwe-malawi
#14
Tinkhani H Mbichila, Maganizo Chagomerana, Jennifer H Tang, Lisa B Haddad, Mina C Hosseinipour, Hannock Tweya, Samuel Phiri
HIV serodisclosure to sexual partners is an important aspect of HIV prevention, treatment, and care. We investigated the association between partnership duration and serodisclosure among HIV-infected individuals in Lilongwe, Malawi. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional study of individuals attending one of two antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics in Lilongwe. Clients aged 18-45 years and sexually active within the past six months were eligible. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between partnership duration ≤1 year and serodisclosure...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739289/adverse-childhood-experiences-and-hiv-sexual-risk-taking-behaviors-among-young-adults-in-malawi
#15
Kristin VanderEnde, Laura Chiang, James Mercy, Mary Shawa, Justin Hamela, Nankali Maksud, Sundeep Gupta, Nellie Wadonda-Kabondo, Janet Saul, Jessie Gleckel, Howard Kress, Susan Hillis
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) exhibit a dose-response association with poor health outcomes in adulthood, including HIV. In this analysis, we explored the relationship between ACEs and HIV sexual risk-taking behaviors among young adults in Malawi. We analyzed responses from sexually active 19- to 24-year-old males and females ( n = 610) participating in the Malawi Violence Against Children Survey. We tested the association between respondents' exposure to six ACEs (having experienced emotional, physical, or sexual violence; witnessing intimate partner violence or an attack in the community; one or both parents died) and infrequent condom use in the past year and multiple sexual partners in the past year...
June 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736274/burden-of-physical-psychological-and-social-ill-health-during-and-after-pregnancy-among-women-in-india-pakistan-kenya-and-malawi
#16
Mary McCauley, Barbara Madaj, Sarah A White, Fiona Dickinson, Sarah Bar-Zev, Mamuda Aminu, Pamela Godia, Pratima Mittal, Shamsa Zafar, Nynke van den Broek
Introduction: For every woman who dies during pregnancy and childbirth, many more suffer ill-health, the burden of which is highest in low-resource settings. We sought to assess the extent and types of maternal morbidity. Methods: Descriptive observational cross-sectional study at primary-level and secondary-level healthcare facilities in India, Pakistan, Kenya and Malawi to assess physical, psychological and social morbidity during and after pregnancy. Sociodemographic factors, education, socioeconomic status (SES), quality of life, satisfaction with health, reported symptoms, clinical examination and laboratory investigations were assessed...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731584/fuel-efficiency-and-air-pollutant-concentrations-of-wood-burning-improved-cookstoves-in-malawi-implications-for-scaling-up-cookstove-programs
#17
Pamela Jagger, Joseph Pedit, Ashley Bittner, Laura Hamrick, Tione Phwandapwhanda, Charles Jumbe
National governments and other key stakeholders in developing countries are grappling with how to reduce household air pollution (HAP) resulting from cooking with solid fuels using traditional cooking technologies. Recent studies have shown that improved cookstoves may offer reductions in fuel use and harmful emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ), yet there is little quantitative evidence collected in a "real-world" setting showing how improved stoves perform directly compared to traditional cooking technologies...
December 2017: Energy for Sustainable Development: the Journal of the International Energy Initiative
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730628/glycated-haemoglobin-a-1c-hba-1c-for-detection-of-diabetes-mellitus-and-impaired-fasting-glucose-in-malawi-a-diagnostic-accuracy-study
#18
Sujit D Rathod, Amelia C Crampin, Crispin Musicha, Ndoliwe Kayuni, Louis Banda, Jacqueline Saul, Estelle McLean, Keith Branson, Shabbar Jaffar, Moffat J Nyirenda
OBJECTIVES: To examine the accuracy of glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ) in detecting type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose among adults living in Malawi. DESIGN: A diagnostic validation study of HbA1c . Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥7.0 mmol/L was the reference standard for type 2 diabetes, and FPG between 6.1 and 6.9 mmol/L as impaired fasting glucose. PARTICIPANTS: 3645 adults (of whom 63% were women) recruited from two demographic surveillance study sites in urban and rural Malawi...
May 5, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725143/living-arrangements-and-health-at-older-ages-in-rural-malawi
#19
Jacob Kendall, Philip Anglewicz
Sub-Saharan Africa's older population is projected to nearly double in size by 2030. At the same time, demographic changes have caused major shifts in the units primarily responsible for the care of older adults: the family and household. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between household composition and health at older ages in rural Malawi. We use data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH), which contains detailed information on household and family structure, along with measures of mental and physical health (from the Short Form-12)...
May 2018: Ageing and Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720279/analysis-of-rural-health-centres-preparedness-for-the-management-of-diabetic-patients-in-malawi
#20
Ibrahim Chikowe, Victor Mwapasa, Andre Pascal Kengne
OBJECTIVE: There is limited data on the quality of primary care management for diabetes mellitus across Africa. The study was aimed at assessing the availability of basic supplies for the rapid diagnosis, treatment and management of diabetes in Malawian rural health facilities. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 55 public and private health centers from 19 districts using a structured questionnaire and checklist to interview the pharmacy personnel or officer in-charge of the health centers...
May 2, 2018: BMC Research Notes
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