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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338707/sustained-10-year-gain-in-adult-life-expectancy-following-antiretroviral-therapy-roll-out-in-rural-malawi-july-2005-to-june-2014
#1
Alison J Price, Judith Glynn, Menard Chihana, Ndoliwe Kayuni, Sian Floyd, Emma Slaymaker, Georges Reniers, Basia Zaba, Estelle McLean, Fredrick Kalobekamo, Olivier Koole, Moffat Nyirenda, Amelia C Crampin
Background: Improved life expectancy in high HIV prevalence populations has been observed since antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up. However, it is unclear if the benefits are sustained, and the mortality among HIV-positive individuals not (yet) on ART is not well described. We assessed temporal change in mortality over 9 years in rural Malawi. Methods: Within a demographic surveillance site in northern rural Malawi, we combined demographic, HIV and ART uptake data...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334799/the-relative-roles-of-anc-and-epi-in-the-continuous-distribution-of-llins-a-qualitative-study-in-four-countries
#2
Katherine Theiss-Nyland, Diakalia Koné, Corine Karema, Waqo Ejersa, Jayne Webster, Jo Lines
Background: The continuous distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) for malaria prevention, through the antenatal care (ANC) and the Expanded Programme on Immunizations (EPI), is recommended by the WHO to improve and maintain LLIN coverage. Despite these recommendations, little is known about the relative strengths and weaknesses of the ANC and EPI-based LLIN distribution. This study aimed to explore and compare the roles of the ANC and EPI for LLIN distribution in four African countries...
December 26, 2016: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333330/genomic-landscape-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-resistance-in-escherichia-coli-from-an-urban-african-setting
#3
Patrick Musicha, Nicholas A Feasey, Amy K Cain, Teemu Kallonen, Chrispin Chaguza, Chikondi Peno, Margaret Khonga, Sarah Thompson, Katherine J Gray, Alison E Mather, Robert S Heyderman, Dean B Everett, Nicholas R Thomson, Chisomo L Msefula
Objectives: Efforts to treat Escherichia coli infections are increasingly being compromised by the rapid, global spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Whilst AMR in E. coli has been extensively investigated in resource-rich settings, in sub-Saharan Africa molecular patterns of AMR are not well described. In this study, we have begun to explore the population structure and molecular determinants of AMR amongst E. coli isolates from Malawi. Methods: Ninety-four E...
March 5, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327416/associations-between-adolescent-experiences-of-violence-in-malawi-and-gender-based-attitudes-internalizing-and-externalizing-behaviors
#4
Vira Ameli, Franziska Meinck, Alistair Munthali, Boniface Ushie, Lisa Langhaug
Little is known about adolescent exposure to and factors associated with violence in Malawi. The aim of this research was to describe the prevalence of exposure to violence among adolescents in Malawi, and test the hypotheses that such exposures are associated with gender-based violent attitudes, and with internalizing and externalizing problems. In 2014, 561 primary school pupils were interviewed (50% girls), and logistic regression analysis was performed on gender-stratified data, adjusting for sociodemographic differences...
March 16, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323754/-it-s-inside-my-body-and-it-s-mine
#5
Elizabeth T Montgomery, Ariane van der Straten, Miria Chitukuta, Krishnaveni Reddy, Kubashni Woeber, Millicent Atujuna, Linda-Gail Bekker, Juliane Etima, Teopista Nakyanzi, Ashley J Mayo, Ariana Katz, Nicole Laborde, Cynthia I Grossman, Lydia Soto-Torres, Thesla Palanee-Phillips, Jared M Baeten
The MTN-020/ASPIRE trial evaluated the safety and effectiveness of the dapivirine vaginal ring for prevention of HIV-1 infection among African women. A nested qualitative component was conducted at 6 of 15 study sites in Uganda, Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa to evaluate acceptability of and adherence to the ring. Qualitative study participants (n = 214) were interviewed with one of 3 modalities: single in-depth interview, up to 3 serial interviews, or an exit Focus Group Discussion. Using semi-structured guides administered in local languages, 280 interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, translated, coded and analyzed...
March 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321282/challenges-with-targeted-viral-load-testing-for-medical-inpatients-at-queen-elizabeth-central-hospital-in-blantyre-malawi
#6
Alison Craik, Priyanka Patel, Pratiksha Patel, Jane Mallewa, Ken Malisita, Joseph Bitilinyu-Bangoh, Joep J van Oosterhout, Christine Kelly
BACKGROUND: Approximately 75% of medical inpatients at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) in Blantyre, Malawi are HIV seropositive, and a third of these patients are on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Malawi guidelines recommend targeted viral load (VL) testing for patients on ART for at least one year who report excellent adherence and present with a WHO clinical stage 3 or 4 HIV disease. A switch to second-line ART is only indicated if a VL result >5000 copies/mL confirms treatment failure...
December 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321279/job-satisfaction-and-attitudes-towards-nursing-care-among-nurses-working-at-mzuzu-central-hospital-in-mzuzu-malawi
#7
Maloni Nyirenda, Patricia Mukwato
BACKGROUND: Job satisfaction is a major determinant of performance at the workplace. Studies have shown that job dissatisfaction can intensify emotional exhaustion, and this can influence nurses to perceive their work as tiresome and repetitive, leading to frustration and discouragement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and attitude towards nursing care at Mzuzu Central Hospital in Mzuzu, Malawi. METHODS: This was a descriptive correlational study...
December 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321278/risk-factors-for-anopheles-mosquitoes-in-rural-and-urban-areas-of-blantyre-district-southern-malawi
#8
Themba Mzilahowa, Madalitso Luka-Banda, Veronica Uzalili, Don P Mathanga, Carl H Campbell, Mavuto Mukaka, John E Gimnig
BACKGROUND: Although urban malaria transmission is low and seasonal, it remains a major public health problem. This study aimed at demonstrating the presence of Anopheles mosquitoes and their potential to transmit malaria in urban settings. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in Blantyre District, Malawi, during the dry and wet seasons of 2008 and 2010, respectively. A map of Blantyre was divided into a grid of 400 cells, of which 60 cells were randomly selected...
December 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321277/clinical-outcomes-among-febrile-children-aged-2-to-59-months-with-negative-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-test-results-in-mchinji-district-malawi
#9
Dyson Mwandama, Chawanangwa Mwale, Andrew Bauleni, Themba Phiri, Joseph Chisaka, Humphreys Nsona, Don P Mathanga
BACKGROUND: Malawi malaria treatment guidelines recommend a definitive diagnosis, using a malaria rapid diagnostic test (mRDT), for all patients with fever or history of fever. Improving the management and outcomes of febrile children with negative mRDT results should be a priority. METHODS: Through a prospective cohort study designed to investigate clinical outcomes of children treated at the community level, we followed, for 7 days, children aged 2 to 59 months, who had negative mRDT results and were treated with antipyretic medication...
December 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301484/health-facility-service-availability-and-readiness-for-intrapartum-and-immediate-postpartum-care-in-malawi-a-cross-sectional-survey
#10
Naoko Kozuki, Lolade Oseni, Angella Mtimuni, Reena Sethi, Tambudzai Rashidi, Fannie Kachale, Barbara Rawlins, Shivam Gupta
This analysis seeks to identify strengths and gaps in the existing facility capacity for intrapartum and immediate postpartum fetal and neonatal care, using data collected as a part of Malawi's Helping Babies Breath program evaluation. From August to September 2012, the Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program (MCHIP) conducted a cross-sectional survey in 84 Malawian health facilities to capture current health facility service availability and readiness and health worker capacity and practice pertaining to labor, delivery, and immediate postpartum care...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296240/hiv-positive-malawian-women-with-young-children-prefer-overweight-body-sizes-and-link-underweight-body-size-with-inability-to-exclusively-breastfeed
#11
Samantha E Croffut, Gloria Hamela, Innocent Mofolo, Suzanne Maman, Mina C Hosseinipour, Irving F Hoffman, Margaret E Bentley, Valerie L Flax
Before the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) program was widely implemented in Malawi, HIV-positive women associated exclusive breastfeeding with accelerated disease progression and felt that an HIV-positive woman could more successfully breastfeed if she had a larger body size. The relationship between breastfeeding practices and body image perceptions has not been explored in the context of the Option B+ PMTCT program, which offers lifelong antiretroviral therapy. We conducted in-depth interviews with 64 HIV-positive women in Lilongwe District, Malawi to investigate body size perceptions, how perceptions of HIV and body size influence infant feeding practices, and differences in perceptions among women in PMTCT and those lost to follow-up...
March 10, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295298/invisible-friends-across-four-countries-kenya-malawi-nepal-and-the-dominican-republic
#12
J Bradley Wigger
Cross-cultural comparisons of the prevalence of invisible/imaginary companions are difficult due to the use of various methods of data gathering and the lack of sampling in developing countries. The present study took place among 443 children (3-8-year-olds) in four different countries (Kenya, Malawi, Nepal and the Dominican Republic) employing the same interview method. Among all the children 21% affirmed that they had invisible/imaginary companions at the time of the interview. But the rates between countries varied significantly from a low of 5% in Nepal to a high of 34% in the Dominican Republic...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294688/successful-treatment-of-classical-hodgkin-lymphoma-during-pregnancy-in-malawi
#13
Edwards Kasonkanji, Bongani Kaimila, Amy Amuquandoh, Maria Chikasema, Blessings Tewete, Toon van der Gronde, Satish Gopal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289421/preliminary-studies-of-the-performance-of-quinoa-chenopodium-quinoa-willd-genotypes-under-irrigated-and-rainfed-conditions-of-central-malawi
#14
Moses F A Maliro, Veronica F Guwela, Jacinta Nyaika, Kevin M Murphy
The goal of sustainable intensification of agriculture in Malawi has led to the evaluation of innovative, regionally novel or under-utilized crop species. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has the potential to provide a drought tolerant, nutritious alternative to maize. We evaluated 11 diverse varieties of quinoa for their yield and agronomic performance at two locations, Bunda and Bembeke, in Malawi. The varieties originated from Ecuador, Chile and Bolivia in South America; the United States and Canada in North America; and, Denmark in Europe, and were chosen based on their variation in morphological and agronomic traits, and their potential for adaptation to the climate of Malawi...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286358/coping-with-the-double-crisis-lake-chilwa-recession-and-the-great-depression-on-chisi-island-in-colonial-malawi-1930-1935
#15
Joseph Nagoli, Erik Green, Wapulumuka Mulwafu, Linley Chiwona-Karltun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285153/contraceptive-method-and-self-reported-hiv-status-among-women-in-malawi
#16
Jamie E Luster, Abigail Norris Turner, Duna Alkhalaileh, Maria F Gallo
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe contraceptive methods used by women in Malawi and determine whether contraceptive use differed by self-reported HIV status. Effective contraception is a primary method of preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV. STUDY DESIGN: Analysis is based on 12,658 nonpregnant, sexually debuted women ages 15-49 years in the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey. Analysis was restricted to respondents with contraceptive need (i.e., fecund and did not want a child in the next 12 months) who reported their last HIV test result...
March 8, 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284678/analysis-of-the-effects-of-individual-and-community-level-factors-on-childhood-immunization-in-malawi
#17
Peter Austin Morton Ntenda, Kun-Yang Chuang, Fentanesh Nibret Tiruneh, Ying-Chih Chuang
BACKGROUND: Empirical evidence regarding the relationship between childhood immunization and individual- and community-level factors in low-income countries has received little attention. We compared the trends and the effects of a wide range of individual- and community-level socioeconomic factors on the likelihood of a child being immunized between 2004 and 2010 in Malawi. METHODS: We used data from the 2004 and 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and applied generalized estimating logistic regression equation to analyze data respectively on 2042 and 3496 children aged 12-23months...
March 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283041/erratum-to-the-value-of-informal-care-in-the-context-of-option-b-in-malawi-a-contingent-valuation-approach
#18
Levison Stanely Chiwaula, Gowokani Chijere Chirwa, Fabian Cataldo, Atupele Kapito-Tembo, Mina C Hosseinipour, Monique van Lettow, Hannock Tweya, Virginia Kayoyo, Blessings Khangamwa-Kaunda, Florence Kasende, Clement Trapence, Salem Gugsa, Nora E Rosenberg, Michael Eliya, Sam Phiri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274499/the-effect-of-seasonality-on-burn-incidence-severity-and-outcome-in-central-malawi
#19
Anna F Tyson, Jared Gallaher, Stephen Mjuweni, Bruce A Cairns, Anthony G Charles
INTRODUCTION: In much of the world, burns are more common in cold months. However, few studies have described the seasonality of burns in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examines the effect of seasonality on the incidence and outcome of burns in central Malawi. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed at Kamuzu Central Hospital and included all patients admitted from May 2011 to August 2014. Demographic data, burn mechanism, total body surface area (%TBSA), and mortality were analyzed...
March 5, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270615/impact-of-savings-groups-on-the-lives-of-the-poor
#20
Dean Karlan, Beniamino Savonitto, Bram Thuysbaert, Christopher Udry
Savings-led microfinance programs operate in poor rural communities in developing countries to establish groups that save and then lend out the accumulated savings to each other. Nonprofit organizations train villagers to create and lead these groups. In a clustered randomized evaluation spanning three African countries (Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda), we find that the promotion of these community-based microfinance groups leads to an improvement in household business outcomes and women's empowerment. However, we do not find evidence of impacts on average consumption or other livelihoods...
March 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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