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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727811/factors-limiting-sulfolane-biodegradation-in-contaminated-subarctic-aquifer-substrate
#1
Christopher P Kasanke, Mary Beth Leigh
Sulfolane, a water-soluble organosulfur compound, is used industrially worldwide and is associated with one of the largest contaminated groundwater plumes in the state of Alaska. Despite being widely used, little is understood about the degradation of sulfolane in the environment, especially in cold regions. We conducted aerobic and anaerobic microcosm studies to assess the biological and abiotic sulfolane degradation potential of contaminated subarctic aquifer groundwater and sediment from Interior Alaska...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727445/an-antibiotic-that-inhibits-the-atpase-activity-of-an-abc-transporter-by-binding-to-a-remote-extracellular-site
#2
Leigh Morgan Matano, Heidi Gabrielle Morris, Anthony R Hesser, Sara E S Martin, Wonsik Lee, Tristan W Owens, Emaline Laney, Hidemasa Nakaminami, David Hooper, Timothy C Meredith, Suzanne Walker
Antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus pose a major threat to human health and there is an ongoing need for new antibiotics to treat resistant infections. In a high throughput screen (HTS) of 230,000 small molecules designed to identify bioactive wall teichoic acid (WTA) inhibitors, we identified one hit, which was expanded through chemical synthesis into a small panel of potent compounds. We showed that these compounds target TarG, the transmembrane component of the two-component ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter TarGH, which exports WTA precursors to the cell surface for attachment to peptidoglycan...
July 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726252/central-amygdala-relaxin-3-rxfp3-signalling-modulates-alcohol-seeking-in-rats
#3
Leigh C Walker, Hanna E Kastman, Elena Krstew, Andrew L Gundlach, Andrew J Lawrence
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Alcohol use disorders are a leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide and stress is a major trigger of relapse. The neuropeptide relaxin-3 and its cognate receptor, relaxin family peptide receptor 3 (RXFP3), modulate stress-induced relapse to alcohol seeking in rats and while the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis has been implicated in this regard, the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) also receives a relaxin-3 innervation and CeA neurons densely express RXFP3 mRNA...
July 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725203/retrieval-and-monitoring-processes-during-visual-working-memory-an-erp-study-of-the-benefit-of-visual-semantics
#4
Elizabeth Orme, Louise A Brown, Leigh M Riby
In this study, we examined electrophysiological indices of episodic remembering whilst participants recalled novel shapes, with and without semantic content, within a visual working memory paradigm. The components of interest were the parietal episodic (PE; 400-800 ms) and late posterior negativity (LPN; 500-900 ms), as these have previously been identified as reliable markers of recollection and post-retrieval monitoring, respectively. Fifteen young adults completed a visual matrix patterns task, assessing memory for low and high semantic visual representations...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723130/sequence-specific-beta-peptide-synthesis-by-a-rotaxane-based-molecular-machine
#5
Guillaume De Bo, Malcolm Gall, Matthew O Kitching, Sonja Kuschel, David A Leigh, Daniel J Tetlow, John W Ward
We report on the synthesis and operation of a three-barrier, rotaxane-based, artificial molecular machine capable of sequence-specific beta-homo (β3) peptide synthesis. The machine utilizes non-proteinogenic β(3)-amino acids, a class of amino acids not generally accepted by the ribosome, particularly consecutively. Successful operation of the machine via native chemical ligation (NCL) demonstrates that even challenging 15- and 19-membered ligation transition states are suitable for information translation using this artificial molecular machine...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722240/an-mri-hyperintense-acute-reperfusion-marker-is-related-to-elevated-peripheral-monocyte-count-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#6
Zurab Nadareishvili, Marie Luby, Richard Leigh, Jignesh Shah, John K Lynch, Amie W Hsia, Richard T Benson, Lawrence L Latour
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption detected on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in acute ischemic stroke as a hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM) is associated with upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Although activated leukocytes, including monocytes, are the main source of MMPs, limited data exist to support relationship between leukocyte activation and BBB disruption in patients with acute ischemic stroke. The goal of this study is to investigate the relationship between neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes with BBB disruption detected as HARM (+) in patients with acute ischemic stroke...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721755/clinicaltrials-gov-stem-cells-and-pay-to-participate-clinical-studies
#7
Leigh Turner
Numerous US businesses that engage in direct-to-consumer advertising of stem cell interventions that are not US FDA-approved also recruit clients by listing 'pay-to-participate' studies listed on ClinicalTrials.gov . Individuals considering enrolling in such studies and NIH officials responsible for overseeing the database need to be aware that some businesses are using the registry to promote unapproved stem cell interventions that study subjects are charged to receive. Inclusion of such studies in ClinicalTrials...
July 19, 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719997/the-benefit-of-evolving-multidisciplinary-care-in-als-a-diagnostic-cohort-survival-comparison
#8
Sarah Martin, Emma Trevor-Jones, Sabyha Khan, Keelan Shaw, Deepti Marchment, Anna Kulka, Catherine E Ellis, Rachel Burman, Martin R Turner, Liam Carroll, Leah Mursaleen, P Nigel Leigh, Christopher E Shaw, Neil Pearce, Daniel Stahl, Ammar Al-Chalabi
BACKGROUND: Care for people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has altered at King's College Hospital over the last 20 years. The clinic has been a multidisciplinary, specialist, tertiary referral centre since 1995 with a large team with integrated palliative and respiratory care since 2006. We hypothesised that these changes would improve survival. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, patients diagnosed with El Escorial definite, probable and possible ALS between 1995-1998 and 2008-2011 were followed up...
July 18, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716310/the-role-of-same-sex-mentorship-and-organizational-support-in-encouraging-women-to-pursue-surgery
#9
Erynne A Faucett, Hilary C McCrary, Tijana Milinic, Tania Hassanzadeh, Simin G Roward, Leigh A Neumayer
INTRODUCTION: While women represent approximately half of all medical students, only 38% of general surgery residents are women. The objective of this study is to explore how access to mentors and organizational support affects career choices. METHODS: In June of 2016, a survey was sent to medical students at a single institution (n = 472). Questions utilized a 5-point Likert scale. A two-sample t-test was used to evaluate data. RESULTS: A total of 160 students participated in the survey...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715485/characterization-of-the-maize-lipoxygenase-gene-family-in-relation-to-aflatoxin-accumulation-resistance
#10
Oluwaseun F Ogunola, Leigh K Hawkins, Erik Mylroie, Michael V Kolomiets, Eli Borrego, Juliet D Tang, W Paul Williams, Marilyn L Warburton
Maize (Zea mays L.) is a globally important staple food crop prone to contamination by aflatoxin, a carcinogenic secondary metabolite produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. An efficient approach to reduce accumulation of aflatoxin is the development of germplasm resistant to colonization and toxin production by A. flavus. Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a group of non-heme iron containing dioxygenase enzymes that catalyze oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). LOX derived oxylipins play critical roles in plant defense against pathogens including A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715418/early-life-family-income-and-subjective-well-being-in-adolescents
#11
Genevieve Gariepy, Frank J Elgar, Mariane Sentenac, Christopher Barrington-Leigh
PURPOSE: Subjective well-being (SWB) in youths positively relates to family income, however its association with income during childhood is unclear. Using longitudinal data from the US Panel Study of Income Dynamics (n = 2234 adolescents, age 12-19 years), we examined whether the timing and duration of low family income in childhood was associated with adolescent SWB. METHODS: We categorized family income during childhood into state-specific quintiles. Adolescent SWB was assessed using a 12-item questionnaire (score range 3-18)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712151/the-incidence-of-public-sector-hospitalisations-due-to-dog-bites-in-australia-2001-2013
#12
Mithun Rajshekar, Leigh Blizzard, Roberta Julian, Anne-Marie Williams, Marc Tennant, Alex Forrest, Laurence J Walsh, Gary Wilson
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of dog bite-related injuries requiring public sector hospitalisation in Australia during the period 2001-13. METHODS: Summary data on public sector hospitalisations due to dog bite-related injuries with an ICD 10-AM W54.0 coding were sourced from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare for the study period 2001-2013. RESULTS: In Australia, on average, 2,061 persons were hospitalised each year for treatment for dog bite injuries at an annual rate of 12...
July 16, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711921/mir-30e-is-overexpressed-in-prostate-cancer-and-promotes-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-proliferation-and-tumor-growth
#13
Shawn M Egan, Ellen Karasik, Leigh Ellis, Sandra O Gollnick
According to the CDC prostate cancer (CaP) has the highest incidence and second highest mortality rate amongst cancers in American men. Constitutive NF-κB activation is a hallmark of CaP and this pathway drives many pro-tumorigenic characteristics of CaP cells, including cell proliferation and survival. An activated NF-κB gene signature is predictive of CaP progression and biochemical recurrence following therapeutic intervention. However, the mechanisms that perpetuate NF-κB activation are incompletely understood...
June 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711115/anticipatory-processing-maladaptive-attentional-focus-and-postevent-processing-for-interactional-and-performance-situations-treatment-response-and-relationships-with-symptom-change-for-individuals-with-social-anxiety-disorder
#14
Quincy J J Wong, Bree Gregory, Lauren F McLellan, Maria Kangas, Maree J Abbott, Leigh Carpenter, Peter M McEvoy, Lorna Peters, Ronald M Rapee
Anticipatory processing, maladaptive attentional focus, and postevent processing are key cognitive constructs implicated in the maintenance of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The current study examined how treatment for SAD concurrently affects these three cognitive maintaining processes and how these processes are associated with each other as well as with symptom change from pre- to posttreatment. The sample consisted of 116 participants with SAD receiving group cognitive behavioral therapy. All three cognitive maintaining processes were measured relative to a speech task and again relative to a conversation task...
September 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706281/thiamine-metabolism-is-critical-for-regulating-correlated-growth-of-dendrite-arbors-and-neuronal-somata
#15
Huimin Liu, Shaoming Sang, Yuan Lu, Zhongfeng Wang, Xiang Yu, Chunjiu Zhong
Thiamine is critical for cellular function, as its phosphorylated and active form, thiamine diphosphate (TDP), acts as coenzyme for three key enzymes in glucose metabolism. Mutations in thiamine transporter, TDP synthesizing enzyme or carrier, including solute carrier family 19 member 3 (SLC19A3), thiamine pyrophosphokinase (TPK1) and solute carrier family 25 member 19 (SLC25A19), have been associated with developmental neurological disorders, including microcephaly and Leigh syndrome. However, little is known about how thiamine metabolism regulates neuronal morphology at the cellular level...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706279/elimination-of-undifferentiated-human-embryonic-stem-cells-by-cardiac-glycosides
#16
Yu-Tsen Lin, Cheng-Kai Wang, Shang-Chih Yang, Shu-Ching Hsu, Hsuan Lin, Fang-Pei Chang, Tzu-Chien Kuo, Chia-Ning Shen, Po-Ming Chiang, Michael Hsiao, Frank Leigh Lu, Jean Lu
An important safety concern in the use of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) is tumorigenic risk, because these cells can form teratomas after an in vivo injection at ectopic sites. Several thousands of undifferentiated hPSCs are sufficient to induce teratomas in a mouse model. Thus, it is critical to remove all residue-undifferentiated hPSCs that have teratoma potential before the clinical application of hPSC-derived cells. In this study, our data demonstrated the cytotoxic effects of cardiac glycosides, such as digoxin, lanatoside C, bufalin, and proscillaridin A, in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706103/vitamin-d-levels-in-critically-ill-patients-with-acute-kidney-injury-a-protocol-for-a-prospective-cohort-study-vid-aki
#17
Lynda Katherine Cameron, Katie Lei, Samantha Smith, Nanci Leigh Doyle, James F Doyle, Kate Flynn, Nicola Purchase, John Smith, Kathryn Chan, Farida Kamara, Nardos Ghebremedhin Kidane, Lui G Forni, Dominic Harrington, Geeta Hampson, Marlies Ostermann
INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects more than 50% of critically ill patients. The formation of calcitriol, the active vitamin D metabolite, from the main inactive circulating form, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), occurs primarily in the proximal renal tubules. This results in a theoretical basis for reduction in levels of calcitriol over the course of an AKI. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in critically ill adults, and has been associated with increased rates of sepsis, longer hospital stays and increased mortality...
July 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702950/gender-ethnicity-and-smoking-affect-pain-and-function-in-patients-with-rotator-cuff-tears
#18
Anthony Maher, Warren Leigh, Matt Brick, Simon Young, James Millar, Cameron Walker, Michael Caughey
BACKGROUND: This study is a collation of baseline demographic characteristics of those presenting for rotator cuff repair in New Zealand, and exploration of associations with preoperative function and pain. Data were obtained from the New Zealand Rotator Cuff Registry; a multicentre, nationwide prospective cohort of rotator cuff repairs undertaken from 1 March 2009 until 31 December 2010. METHODS: A total of 1383 patients were included in the study. This required complete demographic information, preoperative Flex-SF (functional score) and pain scores...
July 12, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702169/exome-sequencing-reveals-independent-sgcd-deletions-causing-limb-girdle-muscular-dystrophy-in-boston-terriers
#19
Melissa L Cox, Jacquelyn M Evans, Alexander G Davis, Ling T Guo, Jennifer R Levy, Alison N Starr-Moss, Elina Salmela, Marjo K Hytönen, Hannes Lohi, Kevin P Campbell, Leigh Anne Clark, G Diane Shelton
BACKGROUND: Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) are a heterogeneous group of inherited autosomal myopathies that preferentially affect voluntary muscles of the shoulders and hips. LGMD has been clinically described in several breeds of dogs, but the responsible mutations are unknown. The clinical presentation in dogs is characterized by marked muscle weakness and atrophy in the shoulder and hips during puppyhood. METHODS: Following clinical evaluation, the identification of the dystrophic histological phenotype on muscle histology, and demonstration of the absence of sarcoglycan-sarcospan complex by immunostaining, whole exome sequencing was performed on five Boston terriers: one affected dog and its three family members and one unrelated affected dog...
2017: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700459/the-microbiome-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-trauma-exposed-controls-an-exploratory-study
#20
Sian M J Hemmings, Stefanie Malan-Muller, Leigh L van den Heuvel, Brittany A Demmitt, Maggie A Stanislawski, David G Smith, Adam D Bohr, Christopher E Stamper, Embriette R Hyde, James T Morton, Clarisse A Marotz, Philip H Siebler, Maarten Braspenning, Wim Van Criekinge, Andrew J Hoisington, Lisa A Brenner, Teodor T Postolache, Matthew B McQueen, Kenneth S Krauter, Rob Knight, Soraya Seedat, Christopher A Lowry
OBJECTIVE: Inadequate immunoregulation and elevated inflammation may be risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and microbial inputs are important determinants of immunoregulation; however, the association between the gut microbiota and PTSD is unknown. This study investigated the gut microbiome in a South African sample of PTSD-affected individuals and trauma-exposed (TE) controls, to identify potential differences in microbial diversity or microbial community structure...
July 11, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
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