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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548227/changing-the-risk-threshold-for-surgical-prevention-of-ovarian-cancer
#1
Ranjit Manchanda, Rosa Legood, Antonis C Antoniou, Leigh Pearce, Usha Menon
Ovarian cancer (OC) remains a lethal disease and a major cause of deaths from gynaecological cancer particularly in western countries. Despite advances in treatment, there have been only marginal improvements in survival rates over the last 30years. Additionally, the number of OC cases in the UK is estimated to increase by 27-45%, which translates to a 15% rise in the incidence rate by 2035.(1) A national OC screening programme is unavailable as this has not yet shown a conclusive mortality benefit.(2) Hence, primary prevention continues to be the cornerstone in reducing the burden of OC and improving health outcomes...
May 26, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546182/response-to-comment-on-dissolved-organic-sulfur-in-the-ocean-biogeochemistry-of-a-petagram-inventory
#2
Boris P Koch, Kerstin B Ksionzek, Oliver J Lechtenfeld, S Leigh McCallister, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Jana K Geuer, Walter Geibert
Dittmar et al proposed that mixing alone can explain our observed decrease in marine dissolved organic sulfur with age. However, their simple model lacks an explanation for the origin of sulfur-depleted organic matter in the deep ocean and cannot adequately reproduce our observed stoichiometric changes. Using radiocarbon age also implicitly models the preferential cycling of sulfur that they are disputing.
May 26, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542441/dot-or-sat-for-rifampicin-resistant-tuberculosis-a-non-randomized-comparison-in-a-high-hiv-prevalence-setting
#3
Erika Mohr, Johnny Daniels, Busisiwe Beko, Petros Isaakidis, Vivian Cox, Sarah Jane Steele, Odelia Muller, Leigh Snyman, Virginia De Azevedo, Amir Shroufi, Laura Trivino Duran, Jennifer Hughes
BACKGROUND: Daily directly-observed therapy (DOT) is recommended for rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) patients throughout treatment. We assessed the impact of self-administered treatment (SAT) in a South African township with high rates of RR-TB and HIV. METHODS: Community-supported SAT for patients who completed the intensive phase was piloted in five primary care clinics in Khayelitsha. We compared final treatment outcomes among RR-TB patients initiating treatment before (standard-of-care (SOC)-cohort, January 2010-July 2013) and after the implementation of the pilot (SAT-cohort, January 2012-December 2014)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540766/hiv-1-full-genome-phylogenetics-of-generalized-epidemics-in-sub-saharan-africa-impact-of-missing-nucleotide-characters-in-next-generation-sequences
#4
Oliver Ratmann, Chris Wymant, Caroline Colijn, Siva Danaviah, M Essex, Simon D W Frost, Astrid Gall, Simani Gaiseitsiwe, Mary Grabowski, Ronald Gray, Stephane Guindon, Arndt von Haeseler, Pontiano Kaleebu, Michelle Kendall, Alexey Kozlov, Justen Manasa, Bui Quang Minh, Sikhulile Moyo, Vladimir Novitsky, Rebecca Nsubuga, Sureshnee Pillay, Thomas C Quinn, David Serwadda, Deogratius Ssemwanga, Alexandros Stamatakis, Jana Trifinopoulos, Maria Wawer, Andrew Leigh Brown, Tulio de Oliveira, Paul Kellam, Deenan Pillay, Christophe Fraser
To characterize HIV-1 transmission dynamics in regions where the burden of HIV-1 is greatest, the 'Phylogenetics and Networks for Generalised HIV Epidemics in Africa' consortium (PANGEA-HIV) is sequencing full-genome viral isolates from across sub-Saharan Africa. We report the first 3,985 PANGEA-HIV consensus sequences from four cohort sites (Rakai Community Cohort Study, n=2,833; MRC/UVRI Uganda, n=701; Mochudi Prevention Project, n=359; Africa Health Research Institute Resistance Cohort, n=92). Next-generation sequencing success rates varied: more than 80% of the viral genome from the gag to the nef genes could be determined for all sequences from South Africa, 75% of sequences from Mochudi, 60% of sequences from MRC/UVRI Uganda, and 22% of sequences from Rakai...
May 25, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540714/arbitrarily-primed-pcr-for-comparison-of-meta-genomes-and-extracting-useful-loci-from-them
#5
Leigh Burgoyne, Lin Y Koh, David Catcheside
A method is described that uses arbitrarily primed PCR followed by many cycles of amplification under stringent conditions and selection by computational means to obtain a set of sequence tags that can be used for the comparison of metagenomes. Relative to unselective shot-gun sequencing, the results are small data sets that can be csompared electronically or plotted as scattergrams that are simple to interpret. The method can be used to compare groups of samples of any size to build in-house databases from which, for example, the provenance of trace soil samples may be inferred...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539510/sexual-conflict-and-correlated-evolution-between-male-persistence-and-female-resistance-traits-in-the-seed-beetle-callosobruchus-maculatus
#6
Liam R Dougherty, Emile van Lieshout, Kathryn B McNamara, Joe A Moschilla, Göran Arnqvist, Leigh W Simmons
Traumatic mating (or copulatory wounding) is an extreme form of sexual conflict whereby male genitalia physically harm females during mating. In such species females are expected to evolve counter-adaptations to reduce male-induced harm. Importantly, female counter-adaptations may include both genital and non-genital traits. In this study, we examine evolutionary associations between harmful male genital morphology and female reproductive tract morphology and immune function across 13 populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus We detected positive correlated evolution between the injuriousness of male genitalia and putative female resistance adaptations across populations...
May 31, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539185/frequency-of-untreated-hypogammaglobulinemia-in-bronchiectasis
#7
Melanie A Ruffner, Timothy R Aksamit, Byron Thomashow, Radmila Choate, Angela DiMango, Gerard M Turino, Anne E O'Donnell, Margaret M Johnson, Kenneth N Olivier, Kevin Fennelly, Charles L Daley, Kevin L Winthrop, Mark L Metersky, Matthias A Salathe, Michael R Knowles, M Leigh Anne Daniels, Peadar G Noone, Gregory Tino, David E Griffith, Kathleen E Sullivan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 20, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536902/mental-health-screening-in-a-bosnian-refugee-population-using-the-primary-care-behavioral-health-screener-bosnian-translation
#8
Leigh E Tenkku Lepper, Ajlina Karamehic-Muratovic, Joanne Salas, C Alec Pollard, Edina Karahodzic, Jaron Asher
This study assesses the utility of the primary care behavioral health screener (PCBHS), which the authors have adapted and translated for adult Bosnian refugees (PCBHS-B) living in the Midwest area of the United States, who utilized primary care services within a private physician clinic and a federally qualified health center. The study was conducted from March 2012-April 2013 and included 131 Bosnian respondents, 24% of whom were receiving behavioral health services. Similar to a non-Bosnian U.S. sample, one-third (34...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534473/the-cost-of-communication-in-the-brain
#9
Brian A MacVicar, Leigh Wicki-Stordeur, Louis-Philippe Bernier
Imaging ATP in axons reveals that they rely on glucose from the blood and lactate produced by glial cells as sources of energy.
May 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533980/mitochondrial-complex-i-deficiency-leads-to-the-retardation-of-early-embryonic-development-in-ndufs4-knockout-mice
#10
Mei Wang, Ya-Ping Huang, Han Wu, Ke Song, Cong Wan, A-Ni Chi, Ya-Mei Xiao, Xiao-Yang Zhao
BACKGROUND: The NDUFS4 gene encodes an 18-kD subunit of mitochondria complex I, and mutations in this gene lead to the development of a severe neurodegenerative disease called Leigh syndrome (LS) in humans. To investigate the disease phenotypes and molecular mechanisms of Leigh syndrome, the Ndufs4 knockout (KO) mouse has been widely used as a novel animal model. Because the homozygotes cannot survive beyond child-bearing age, whether Ndufs4 and mitochondrial complex I influence early embryonic development remains unknown...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532482/-ensure-that-you-are-well-aware-of-the-risks-you-are-taking%C3%A2-actions-and-activities-medical-tourists-informal-caregivers-can-undertake-to-protect-their-health-and-safety
#11
Valorie A Crooks, Rebecca Whitmore, Jeremy Snyder, Leigh Turner
BACKGROUND: When seeking care at international hospitals and clinics, medical tourists are often accompanied by family members, friends, or other caregivers. Such caregiver-companions assume a variety of roles and responsibilities and typically offer physical assistance, provide emotional support, and aid in decision-making and record keeping as medical tourists navigate unfamiliar environments. While traveling abroad, medical tourists' caregiver-companions can find themselves confronted with challenging communication barriers, financial pressures, emotional strain, and unsafe environments...
May 22, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530810/seleniranium-ions-undergo-%C3%AF-ligand-exchange-via-an-associative-mechanism-in-the-gas-phase
#12
Shea Fern Lim, Benjamin Leigh Harris, George N Khairallah, Evan John Bieske, Philippe Maître, Gabriel da Silva, Brian D Adamson, Michael S Scholz, Neville J A Coughlan, Richard A J O'Hair, Michael Rathjen, Daniel Stares, Jonathan M White
Collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry of the ammonium ions 4a and 4b results in the formation of the seleniranium ion 5, the structure and purity of which was verified using gas phase infra-red spectroscopy coupled to mass spectrometry, and gas phase ion-mobility measurements. Ion-molecule reactions between the ion 5 (m/z = 261) and cyclopentene, cyclohexene, cycloheptene and cyclooctene, resulted in the formation of the seleniranium ions 7 (m/z = 225), 6 (m/z = 239), 8 (m/z = 253), and 9 (m/z = 267) respectively...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528474/toxicity-assessment-of-ash-and-dust-from-handmade-gold-jewelry-manufacturing-workshops-in-bangladesh
#13
Arif M Sikder, Tanvir Hossain, Manzurul H Khan, M Aziz Hasan, M Fakhruzzaman, Joseph B Turner, Dmitry Pestov, Leigh S McCallister, K Maudood Elahi
Traditionally, handmade gold jewelry played a very important role in the cultural heritage of Bangladesh. Goldsmiths still are partially using ancient manufacturing process with coal fire, candle flame blowing, and nitric and sulfuric acid treatments. Such process leads to the contamination of workplace with the dust of toxic metals, acidic vapors, and particles of different natures. To evaluate contamination by particulate matter (PM), the passive particle collectors were installed in different manufacturing units for a period of 85 days at Tanti Bazar, Dhaka, Bangladesh...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526621/electrophysiological-signatures-of-phonological-and-semantic-maintenance-in-sentence-repetition
#14
Jed A Meltzer, Aneta Kielar, Lilia Panamsky, Kira A Links, Tiffany Deschamps, Rosie C Leigh
Verbal short-term memory comprises resources for phonological rehearsal, which have been characterized anatomically, and for maintenance of semantic information, which are less understood. Sentence repetition tasks tap both processes interactively. To distinguish brain activity involved in phonological vs. semantic maintenance, we recorded magnetoencephalography during a sentence repetition task, incorporating three manipulations emphasizing one mechanism over the other. Participants heard sentences or word lists and attempted to repeat them verbatim after a 5-second delay...
May 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526185/empa-reg-outcome-the-endocrinologist-s-point-of-view
#15
Leigh Perreault
For many years, it was widely accepted that control of plasma lipids and blood pressure could lower macrovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), whereas the benefits of lowering plasma glucose were largely limited to improvements in microvascular complications. The Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients-Removing Excess Glucose (EMPA-REG OUTCOME) study demonstrated for the first time that a glucose-lowering agent, the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin, could reduce major adverse cardiovascular events, cardiovascular mortality, hospitalization for heart failure, and overall mortality when given in addition to standard care in patients with T2DM at high cardiovascular risk...
May 12, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520085/assessment-of-the-relationship-between-body-mass-index-and-incidence-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-hospitalized-overweight-and-obese-patients
#16
Sophie Samuel, Leigh Gomez, Jude P Savarraj, Suhas Bajgur, Huimahn A Choi
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a positive linear association exists between body mass index (BMI) and incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in overweight and obese hospitalized patients. DESIGN: Single-center, retrospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: Large, academic, tertiary care medical center. PATIENTS: A total of 1452 adults hospitalized between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2014, who weighed more than 100 kg and had a BMI of 25 kg/m(2) or greater on admission, and received heparin subcutaneously for VTE prophylaxis; patients were categorized into four subgroups based on World Health Organization BMI classification: overweight (141 patients), obese class I (305 patients), obese class II (324 patients), and obese class III (682 patients)...
May 18, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517366/genie-in-a-blotter-a-comparative-study-of-lsd-and-lsd-analogues-effects-and-user-profile
#17
Leigh D Coney, Larissa J Maier, Jason A Ferris, Adam R Winstock, Monica J Barratt
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe self-reported patterns of use and effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) analogues (AL-LAD, 1P-LSD, and ETH-LAD) and the characteristics of those who use them. METHODS: An anonymous self-selected online survey of people who use drugs (Global Drug Survey 2016; N = 96,894), which measured perceived drug effects of LSD and its analogues. RESULTS: Most LSD analogue users (91%) had also tried LSD. The proportion of U...
May 18, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515908/renal-manifestations-of-primary-mitochondrial-disorders
#18
Josef Finsterer, Fulvio Scorza
The aim of the present review was to summarize and discuss previous findings concerning renal manifestations of primary mitochondrial disorders (MIDs). A literature review was performed using frequently used databases. The study identified that primary MIDs frequently present as mitochondrial multiorgan disorder syndrome (MIMODS) at onset or in the later course of the MID. Occasionally, the kidneys are affected in MIDs. Renal manifestations of MIDs include renal insufficiency, nephrolithiasis, nephrotic syndrome, renal cysts, renal tubular acidosis, Bartter-like syndrome, Fanconi syndrome, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, nephrocalcinosis, and benign or malign neoplasms...
May 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511706/analgesic-antipyretic-use-among-young-children-in-the-teddy-study-no-association-with-islet-autoimmunity
#19
Markus Lundgren, Leigh Johnson Steed, Roy Tamura, Berglind Jonsdottir, Patricia Gesualdo, Claire Crouch, Maija Sjöberg, Gertie Hansson, William A Hagopian, Anette G Ziegler, Marian J Rewers, Åke Lernmark, Jorma Toppari, Jin-Xiong She, Beena Akolkar, Jeffrey P Krischer, Michael J Haller, Helena Elding Larsson
BACKGROUND: The use of analgesic antipyretics (ANAP) in children have long been a matter of controversy. Data on their practical use on an individual level has, however, been scarce. There are indications of possible effects on glucose homeostasis and immune function related to the use of ANAP. The aim of this study was to analyze patterns of analgesic antipyretic use across the clinical centers of The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) prospective cohort study and test if ANAP use was a risk factor for islet autoimmunity...
May 16, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511584/a-pilot-intervention-designed-to-address-behavioral-factors-that-place-overweight-obese-young-children-at-risk-for-later-life-obesity
#20
Leigh Small, Leroy Thacker, Heather Aldrich, Darya Bonds-McClain, Bernadette Melnyk
The purpose of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to intervene with parents of overweight/obese 4- to 8-year-old children to improve child internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Parent-child dyads ( N = 60) were randomly assigned to treatment or comparison conditions. Parents attended four intervention sessions at their child's primary health care office over 3 months. Child behaviors were assessed at 0, 3, 6, and 12 months post intervention. Parental beliefs in their skills/abilities increased in the experimental group parents, but there was no statistical difference between groups at any time...
May 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
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