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Tatsuya Ishii, Yasuyuki Kimura, Masanori Ichise, Keisuke Takahata, Soichiro Kitamura, Sho Moriguchi, Manabu Kubota, Ming-Rong Zhang, Makiko Yamada, Makoto Higuchi, Yoshinori Okubo, Tetsuya Suhara
METHODS: Seven healthy volunteers underwent PET scans with [18F]altanserin and [11C]FLB 457 for 5-HT2A and D2 receptors, respectively. As a measure of receptor density, a binding potential (BP) was calculated from PET data for 76 cerebral cortical regions. A correlation matrix was calculated between the binding potentials of [18F]altanserin and [11C]FLB 457 for those regions. The regional relationships were investigated using a bicluster analysis of the correlation matrix with an iterative signature algorithm...
2017: PloS One
Mark W Logue, Sanne J H van Rooij, Emily L Dennis, Sarah L Davis, Jasmeet P Hayes, Jennifer S Stevens, Maria Densmore, Courtney C Haswell, Jonathan Ipser, Saskia B J Koch, Mayuresh Korgaonkar, Lauren A M Lebois, Matthew Peverill, Justin T Baker, Premika S W Boedhoe, Jessie L Frijling, Staci A Gruber, Ilan Harpaz-Rotem, Neda Jahanshad, Sheri Koopowitz, Ifat Levy, Laura Nawijn, Lauren O'Connor, Miranda Olff, David H Salat, Margaret A Sheridan, Jeffrey M Spielberg, Mirjam van Zuiden, Sherry R Winternitz, Jonathan D Wolff, Erika J Wolf, Xin Wang, Kristen Wrocklage, Chadi G Abdallah, Richard A Bryant, Elbert Geuze, Tanja Jovanovic, Milissa L Kaufman, Anthony P King, John H Krystal, Jim Lagopoulos, Maxwell Bennett, Ruth Lanius, Israel Liberzon, Regina E McGlinchey, Katie A McLaughlin, William P Milberg, Mark W Miller, Kerry J Ressler, Dick J Veltman, Dan J Stein, Kathleen Thomaes, Paul M Thompson, Rajendra A Morey
BACKGROUND: Many studies report smaller hippocampal and amygdala volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but findings have not always been consistent. Here, we present the results of a large-scale neuroimaging consortium study on PTSD conducted by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC)-Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) PTSD Working Group. METHODS: We analyzed neuroimaging and clinical data from 1868 subjects (794 PTSD patients) contributed by 16 cohorts, representing the largest neuroimaging study of PTSD to date...
September 20, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
Elvira Khachatryan, Harm Brouwer, Willeke Staljanssens, Evelien Carrette, Alfred Meurs, Paul Boon, Dirk van Roost, Marc M Van Hulle
The effect of word association on sentence processing is still a matter of debate. Some studies observe no effect while others found a dependency on sentence congruity or an independent effect. In an attempt to separate the effects of sentence congruity and word association in the spatio-temporal domain, we jointly recorded scalp- and invasive-EEG (iEEG). The latter provides highly localized spatial (unlike scalp-EEG) and high temporal (unlike fMRI) resolutions. We recorded scalp- and iEEG in three patients with refractory epilepsy...
December 1, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Bo Wang, Yong-Jie Lian, Wen-Jun Su, Wei Peng, Xin Dong, Lin-Lin Liu, Hong Gong, Ting Zhang, Chun-Lei Jiang, Yun-Xia Wang
Our previous study has reported that the proactive secretion and role of central high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive behavior. Here, the potential mechanism of HMGB1 mediating chronic-stress-induced depression through the kynurenine pathway (KP) was further explored both in vivo and in vitro. Depression model was established with the 4-week chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Sucrose preference and Barnes maze test were performed to reflect depressive behaviors. The ratio of kynurenine (KYN)/tryptophan (Trp) represented the enzyme activity of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)...
November 28, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Ândrea Barbosa Kraemer, Gustavo Morrone Parfitt, Daiane da Silva Acosta, Gisele Eva Bruch, Marcos Freitas Cordeiro, Luis Fernando Marins, Juliane Ventura-Lima, José María Monserrat, Daniela Martí Barros
The buckminsterfullerene (C60) is considered as a relevant candidate for drug and gene delivery to the brain, once it has the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. However, the biological implications of this nanomaterial are not fully understood, and its safety for intracerebral delivery is still debatable. In this study, we investigated if C60 particle size could alter its biological effects. For this, two aqueous C60 suspensions were used with maximum particle size up to 200nm and 450nm. The suspensions were injected in the hippocampus, the main brain structure involved in memory processing and spatial localization...
November 27, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Ming-Chi Lai, Te-Yu Hung, Kao-Min Lin, Pi-Shan Sung, Shyh-Jong Wu, Chih-Sheng Yang, Yi-Jen Wu, Jing-Jane Tsai, Sheng-Nan Wu, Chin-Wei Huang
How sodium metabisulfite (SMB; Na2S2O5), a popular food preservative and antioxidant, interacts with excitable membrane and induces excitotoxicity is incompletely understood. In this study, the patch-clamp technique was used to investigate and record the electrophysiological effect of SMB on electrically excitable HL-1 cardiomyocytes and NSC-34 neurons, as well as its relationship to pilocarpine-induced seizures and neuronal excitotoxicity in rats. We used Western blotting, to analyze sodium channel expression on hippocampi after chronic SMB treatment...
November 29, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
Anne-Marie Neumann, Julia Abele, Timo Kirschstein, Robby Engelmann, Tina Sellmann, Rüdiger Köhling, Brigitte Müller-Hilke
Growing clinical and laboratory evidence corroborates a role for the immune system in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. In order to delineate the immune response following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in the mouse, we monitored the kinetics of leukocyte presence in the hippocampus over the period of four weeks. SE was induced following a ramping protocol of pilocarpine injection into 4-5 weeks old C57BL/6 mice. Brains were removed at days 1-4, 14 or 28 after SE, and the hippocampi were analyzed via flow cytometry, via quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) and via immunohistochemistry...
2017: PloS One
Deok-Sang Hwang, Namkwon Kim, Jin Gyu Choi, Hyo Geun Kim, Hocheol Kim, Myung Sook Oh
BACKGROUND: Dangguijakyak-san (DJS) is an herbal formulation that has been clinically applicable for treating postmenopausal symptoms and neurological disorders. It is reported that hippocampal estrogen attenuates memory impairment via neuroprotection and synaptogenesis. However, the effect of DJS on hippocampal estrogen synthesis remains unknown. In this study, we explored the effect of DJS and its neuroprotective mechanism against memory impairment in ovariectomized (OVX) mice, with respect to hippocampal estrogen stimulation...
November 25, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Hong-Yan Cai, Jun-Ting Yang, Zhao-Jun Wang, Jun Zhang, Wei Yang, Mei-Na Wu, Jin-Shun Qi
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been identified as a high risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The impairment of insulin signaling has been found in AD brain. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone, normalises insulin signaling and acts as a neuroprotective growth factor. We have previously shown that the long-lasting GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist lixisenatide plays an important role in memory formation, synaptic plasticity and cell proliferation of rats. In the follow-up study, we analysed the neuroprotective effect and mechanism of lixisenatide, injected for 60 days at 10 nmol/kg i...
November 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Kai Wei, Weiqi Bao, Zhengxiao Zhao, Weiyan Zhou, Jiaqi Liu, Ying Wei, Mihui Li, Xiao Wu, Baojun Liu, Yijie Du, Weiyi Gong, Jingcheng Dong
As a prevalent disease all over the world, changed functional activities and/or structures in many brain regions have been found in depression. In this study, 5-week chronic restraint stress (CRS) was performed to establish depression rat models, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) was used to detect brain functional activities. Our study found that CRS induced depressive behaviors and increased the expression of serum IL-6. After exposure to CRS, rats showed decreased glucose metabolism in the whole-brain and brain regions including left medial prefrontal and auditory cortices; right amygdala, cingulate cortex, olfactory and AcbCore/Shell; bilateral caudate putamen, dorsal hippocampi, insular and entorhinal cortices...
November 22, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
V Palomera-Ávalos, C Griñán-Ferré, V Izquierdo, A Camins, C Sanfeliu, A M Canudas, M Pallàs
With upcoming age, the capability to fight against harmful stimuli decreases and the organism becomes more susceptible to infections and diseases. Here, the objective was to demonstrate the effect of dietary resveratrol in aged mice in potentiating brain defenses against LipoPolySaccharide (LPS). Acute LPS injection induced a strong proinflammatory effect in 24-months-old C57/BL6 mice hippocampi, increasing InterLeukin (Il)-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (Tnf-α), Il-1β, and C-X-C motif chemokine (Cxcl10) gene expression levels...
November 23, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Maryam Ghasemi-Kasman, Hossein Baharvand, Mohammad Javan
Astrogliosis is the main landmark of neurodegenerative diseases. In vivo reprogramming of reactive astrocytes to functional neurons opened a new horizon in regenerative medicine. However there is little evidence that show possible application of in vivo reprogramming approaches for enhancement of neurogenesis. Cluster miR-302/367 showed high capability in cell reprogramming. Here we show that application of lentiviral particles expressing cluster miR-302/367 along with systemic valproate (VPA) enhanced the capability of mice brains for neurogenesis in CA3 area following kainic acid (KA) induced hippocampal neurodegeneration...
November 21, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Valentyna Dubovyk, Denise Manahan-Vaughan
The dorsoventral axis of the hippocampus exhibits functional differentiations with regard to (spatial Vs emotional learning) and information retention (rapid encoding Vs long-term storage), as well as its sensitivity to neuromodulation and information received from extrahippocampal structures. The mechanisms that underlie these differentiations remain unclear. Here, we explored neurotransmitter receptor expression along the dorsoventral hippocampal axis and compared hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region of the dorsal (DH), intermediate (IH) and ventral hippocampi (VH)...
November 24, 2017: Hippocampus
Natalie L Voets, Carl J Hodgetts, Arjune Sen, Jane E Adcock, Uzay Emir
Ultra high-field 7T MRI offers sensitivity to localize hippocampal pathology in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but has rarely been evaluated in patients with normal-appearing clinical MRI. We applied multimodal 7T MRI to assess if focal subfield atrophy and deviations in brain metabolites characterize epileptic hippocampi. Twelve pre-surgical TLE patients (7 MRI-negative) and age-matched healthy volunteers were scanned at 7T. Hippocampal subfields were manually segmented from 600μm isotropic resolution susceptibility-weighted images...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ivan Milenkovic, Tamara Stojanovic, Eleonora Aronica, Livia Fülöp, Zsolt Bozsó, Zoltán Máté, Yuchio Yanagawa, Homa Adle-Biassette, Gert Lubec, Gábor Szabó, Tibor Harkany, Gábor G Kovács, Erik Keimpema
The function, regulation and cellular distribution of GABAA receptor subunits have been extensively documented in the adult rodent brain and are linked to numerous neurological disorders. However, there is a surprising lack of knowledge on the cellular (sub-) distribution of GABAA receptor subunits and of their expressional regulation in developing healthy and diseased foetal human brains. To propose a role for GABAA receptor subunits in neurodevelopmental disorders, we studied the developing hippocampus of normal and Down syndrome foetuses...
November 22, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
Chelsie M Estey, Curtis W Dewey, Mark Rishniw, David M Lin, Jennifer Bouma, Joseph Sackman, Erica Burkland
MRI-acquired volumetric measurements from 100 dogs with presumptive idiopathic epilepsy (IE) and 41 non-epileptic (non-IE) dogs were used to determine if hippocampal asymmetry exists in the IE as compared to the non-IE dogs. MRI databases from three institutions were searched for dogs that underwent MRI of the brain and were determined to have IE and those that were considered non-IE dogs. Volumes of the right and left hippocampi were measured using Mimics(®) software. Median hippocampal volumes of IE and non-IE dogs were 0...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Masoomeh Bakhshayesh, Fereshteh Golab, Fatemeh Kermanian, Mehdi Mehdizadeh, Amir Reza Katebi, Mansooreh Soleimani, Farzaneh Mohammadzadeh, Ronak Shabani, Elham Movahed, Majid Katebi
Introduction: The 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is a popular recreational drug and a major source of substance abuse, which ultimately leads to sensations of well-being, elation and euphoria, moderate derealization/depersonalization, and cognitive disruptions, as well as intense sensory awareness. The mechanisms involved in memory impairment induced by MDMA are not completely understood. Methods: The current study used 40 Sprague-Dawley rats, weighted 200 to 250 g...
July 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Ramesh Pariyar, Chi-Su Yoon, Thida Svay, Dae-Sung Kim, Hyoung-Kwon Cho, Sung Yeon Kim, Hyuncheol Oh, Youn-Chul Kim, Jaehyo Kim, Ho-Sub Lee, Jungwon Seo
BACKGROUND: Grapes are among the most widely consumed plants and are used as a folk medicine. Vitis species have been traditionally used as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and memory-enhancing agents, but, their biological activities of discarded grape leaves are not completely understood. PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of alcoholic aqueous leaf extract of Vitis labruscana (LEVL) in a mouse model of memory impairment and tried to ascertain its mechanism. We also evaluated its effects in SH-SY5Y cells...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Manman Niu, Ying Han, Qinrui Li, Jing Zhang
Epilepsy is among the most common neurological diseases in children. Recurrent seizures can result in hippocampal damage and seriously impair learning and memory functions in children. However, the mechanisms underlying epilepsy-related brain injury are unclear. Neuronal apoptosis is among the most common neuropathological manifestations of brain injury. Endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been shown to be involved in seizures and related neuron apoptosis. However, the role of endogenous SO2 in epilepsy remains unclear...
November 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Gemma Cuberas-Borrós, Isabel Roca, Mercè Boada, Lluís Tárraga, Isabel Hernández, Mar Buendia, Lourdes Rubio, Gustavo Torres, Ángel Bittini, Juan A Guzmán-de-Villoria, Francesc Pujadas, Mireia Torres, Laura Núñez, Joan Castell, Antonio Páez
BACKGROUND: Recently, modifications of Aβ1-42 levels in CSF and plasma associated with improvement in memory and language functions have been observed in patients with mild-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) treated with plasma exchange (PE) with albumin replacement. OBJECTIVE: To detect structural and functional brain changes in PE-treated AD patients as part of a Phase II clinical trial. METHODS: Patients received between 3 and 18 PE with albumin (Albutein® 5%, Grifols) or sham-PE (controls) for 21 weeks (divided in one intensive and two maintenance periods) followed by 6-month follow-up...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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