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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451906/brain-changes-due-to-hypoxia-during-light-anaesthesia-can-be-prevented-by-deepening-anaesthesia-a-study-in-rats
#1
Setayesh R Tasbihgou, Mina Netkova, Alain F Kalmar, Janine Doorduin, Michel M R F Struys, Regien G Schoemaker, Anthony R Absalom
In anaesthetic practice the risk of cerebral ischemic/hypoxic damage is thought to be attenuated by deep anaesthesia. The rationale is that deeper anaesthesia reduces cerebral oxygen demand more than light anaesthesia, thereby increasing the tolerance to ischemia or hypoxia. However, evidence to support this is scarce. We thus investigated the influence of light versus deep anaesthesia on the responses of rat brains to a period of hypoxia. In the first experiment we exposed adult male Wistar rats to deep or light propofol anaesthesia and then performed [18F]- Fludeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans to verify the extent of cerebral metabolic suppression...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444467/olfactory-function-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-systemic-sclerosis-a-longitudinal-study-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
REVIEW
Mariana Freschi Bombini, Fernando Augusto Peres, Aline Tamires Lapa, Nailú Angélica Sinicato, Beatriz Ricato Quental, Ágatha de Souza Melo Pincelli, Tiago Nardi Amaral, Caroline Cristina Gomes, Ana Paula Del Rio, João Francisco Marques-Neto, Lilian T L Costallat, Paula Teixeira Fernandes, Fernando Cendes, Leticia Rittner, Simone Appenzeller
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To evaluate olfactory function in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and healthy controls over a 2-year period, and to determine the association of olfactory dysfunction with age, disease activity, disease damage, treatment, anxiety and depression symptoms and limbic structures volumes. METHODS: Consecutive SLE and SSc patients were enrolled in this study. Clinical, laboratory disease activity and damage were assessed according to diseases specific guidelines...
February 11, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436038/comparison-of-reproducibility-of-single-voxel-spectroscopy-and-whole-brain-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-imaging-at-3t
#3
Yue Zhang, Edward Taub, Nouha Salibi, Gitendra Uswatte, Andrew A Maudsley, Sulaiman Sheriff, Brent Womble, Victor W Mark, David C Knight
To date, single voxel spectroscopy (SVS) is the most commonly used MRS technique. SVS is relatively easy to use and provides automated and immediate access to the resulting spectra. However, it is also limited in spatial coverage. A new and very promising MRS technique allows for whole-brain MR spectroscopic imaging (WB-MRSI) with much improved spatial resolution. Establishing the reproducibility of data obtained using SVS and WB-MRSI is an important first step for using these techniques to evaluate longitudinal changes in metabolite concentration...
February 13, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435804/human-neural-stem-cells-with-gdnf-site-specific-integration-at-aavs1-by-using-aav-vectors-retained-their-stemness
#4
Jinju Zhang, Xiaomei Liu, Yun Zhang, Zuo Luan, Yinxiang Yang, Zhaoyan Wang, Chun Zhang
The neural stem cells (NSCs) have the ability to self-renew, and to migrate to pathologically altered regions of the central nervous system. Glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) could protect dopamine neurons and rescue motor neurons in vivo, which has been proposed as a promising candidate for the treatments of degenerative neurological diseases. In order to combine the advantages of neurotrophic factors and stem cells in clinical therapy, we established the modified hNSCs that has site-specific integration of GDNF gene by using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors...
February 12, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434743/anti-depressant-like-effect-of-atractylenolide-i-in-a-mouse-model-of-depression-induced-by-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress
#5
Haiyan Gao, Xianghua Zhu, Yang Xi, Qun Li, Zhenzhong Shen, Yongjie Yang
Atractylenolide I (AT-I), a major component of the rhizoma of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz., exerts a wide range of activities. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-depressant-like effect of AT-I in a mouse model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), and to explore the possible molecular mechanism involved. It was revealed that AT-I significantly ameliorated CUMS-induced depressive-like behaviors, as evidenced by increased sucrose preference as well as shortened immobility time in the forced swimming and the tail suspension test...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432803/learning-and-memory-is-modulated-by-cannabidiol-when-administered-during-trace-fear-conditioning
#6
A L Uhernik, Z T Montoya, C D Balkissoon, J P Smith
Cannabidiol (CBD) is thought to have therapeutic potential for treating psychiatric conditions that affect cognitive aspects of learning and memory, including anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies have shown that CBD enhances extinction of fear memory when given after conditioning. This led us to hypothesize that CBD, if administered prior to fear conditioning, might modulate cognitive learning and memory processes in additional ways that would further guide its potential use for treating PTSD...
February 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428385/cognitive-enhancing-effect-of-polysaccharides-from-flammulina-velutipes-on-alzheimer-s-disease-by-compatibilizing-with-ginsenosides
#7
Yan Zhang, Hui Li, Xiudong Yang, Gang Jin, Yang Zhang
This study was performed to evaluate the cognitive-enhancing effect Flammulina velutipes polysaccharides (FVP) by compatibilizing with ginsenosides on D-galactose-induced Alzheimer's disease (AD) rats. Results of the Morris water maze test suggested that the cognitive ability of AD rats was significantly elevated after combined treatment with FVP and ginsenosides. Moreover, the anti-oxidant effect was also elevated as reflected by the increased levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and decreased levels of malondialdehyde in the combination group...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414031/unfolded-protein-response-and-associated-alterations-in-toll-like-receptor-expression-and-interaction-in-the-hippocampus-of-restraint-rats
#8
Matthew Timberlake, Kevin Prall, Bhaskar Roy, Yogesh Dwivedi
Recent evidence suggests that the cellular response to stress often elicits the unfolded protein response (UPR), which has an active role in major depression in emotionally relevant regions of the brain, such as the hippocampus. Much of the UPR activity has been found to be coalesced with the pro-inflammatory environment of the depressed brain. Specifically, downstream transcriptions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased regulation of candidate inflammatory mediators, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs), are promoted by the UPR...
January 26, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408867/genome-wide-profiling-reveals-functional-diversification-of-%C3%A2-fosb-gene-targets-in-the-hippocampus-of-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#9
Jason C You, Gabriel S Stephens, Chia-Hsuan Fu, Xiaohong Zhang, Yin Liu, Jeannie Chin
The activity-induced transcription factor ∆FosB has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a critical regulator of hippocampal function and cognition downstream of seizures and network hyperexcitability. With its long half-life (> 1 week), ∆FosB is well-poised to modulate hippocampal gene expression over extended periods of time, enabling effects to persist even during seizure-free periods. However, the transcriptional mechanisms by which ∆FosB regulates hippocampal function are poorly understood due to lack of identified hippocampal gene targets...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408270/gaba-function-may-be-related-to-the-impairment-of-learning-and-memory-caused-by-systemic-prenatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#10
Marta Cristina Cunha-Rodrigues, Cassiana Thayara do Nascimento Balduci, Frank Tenório, Penha Cristina Barradas
Intrauterine adverse conditions may be responsible for long-lasting damages which impact health even during adult phase. Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) events are a relevant cause of newborn mortality and the principal factor leading to permanent brain lesions. Using a model in which the ovarian and uterine flux of a pregnant rat is obstructed for 45 minutes we have described oligodendrocyte death, astrogliosis and neuronal loss. In this work we investigated hippocampal neuronal population and performed a functional evaluation of memory and learning of young rats that had been affected by prenatal HI...
February 3, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406269/hippocampus-and-hypothalamus-rna-sequencing-of-wfs1-deficient-mice
#11
Marilin Ivask, Sander Pajusalu, Ene Reimann, Sulev Kõks
Wolfram syndrome is caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene. WFS1 protein dysfunction results in a range of neuroendocrine syndromes and is mostly characterized by juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy. WFS1 has been shown to participate in membrane trafficking, protein processing and Ca 2+ homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum. Aim of the present study was to find the transcriptomic changes influenced by WFS1 in the hypothalamus and hippocampus using RNA-sequencing. The WFS1-deficient mice were used as a model system to analyze the changes in transcriptional networks...
February 3, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404714/migraine-and-the-hippocampus
#12
REVIEW
Hung-Yu Liu, Kun-Hsien Chou, Wei-Ta Chen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The hippocampus is involved in pain processing, pain-related attention and anxiety, and stress response. The present review compiles the present knowledge of hippocampal volume, activity, and connectivity regarding migraine. RECENT FINDINGS: For hippocampal volume, a longitudinal study discovered decreased volume in newly diagnosed migraine patients after 1 year. Two cross-sectional studies suggested an adaptive increase of volume at low headache frequency and a maladaptive decrease of volume at higher headache frequency...
February 5, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402847/extravascular-cd3-t-cells-in-brains-of-alzheimer-disease-patients-correlate-with-tau-but-not-with-amyloid-pathology-an-immunohistochemical-study
#13
Mario Merlini, Tunahan Kirabali, Luka Kulic, Roger M Nitsch, Maria Teresa Ferretti
BACKGROUND: Strong genetic and epidemiological evidence points to a crucial role of the immune system in the development of Alzheimer disease (AD). CD3+ T lymphocytes have been described in brains of postmortem AD patients and in transgenic models of AD-like cerebral amyloidosis and tau pathology. However, the occurrence of T cells in AD brains is still controversial; furthermore, the relationship between T cells and hallmarks of AD pathology (amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles) remains to be established...
February 7, 2018: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396876/neuronal-oscillations-on-an-ultra-slow-timescale-daily-rhythms-in-electrical-activity-and-gene-expression-in-the-mammalian-master-circadian-clockwork
#14
Mino D C Belle, Casey O Diekman
Neuronal oscillations of the brain, such as those observed in the cortices and hippocampi of behaving animals and humans, span across wide frequency bands, from slow delta waves (0.1 Hz) to ultra-fast ripples (600 Hz). Here, we focus on ultra-slow neuronal oscillators in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the master daily clock that operates on interlocking transcription-translation feedback loops to produce circadian rhythms in clock gene expression with a period of near 24 hours (<0.001 Hz)...
February 3, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393449/effect-of-cyclooxygenase%C3%A2-2-inhibition-on-the-development-of-post%C3%A2-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-rats
#15
Mengyang Wang, Faliang Duan, Jinglei Wu, Qiang Min, Qiaochun Huang, Ming Luo, Zhuqiang He
Post‑traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by re‑experiencing of a traumatic event, avoidance of trauma‑associated stimulation, general changes in mood and cognition, and hyper arousal symptoms. Cyclooxygenase is involved in the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes, and its inducible form cyclooxygenase‑2(COX‑2), an important mediator of cell injury in inflammation, is primarily expressed in leukocytes and brain cells. The present study investigated the expression of COX‑2 in the hippocampi of rats with PTSD and evaluated the effect of COX‑2 inhibition on PTSD...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388081/loss-of-angelman-syndrome-protein-e6ap-disrupts-a-novel-antagonistic-estrogen-retinoic-acid-transcriptional-crosstalk-in-neurons
#16
Jimmy El Hokayem, Edwin Weeber, Zafar Nawaz
Angelman syndrome (AS) is a complex genetic disorder that affects the nervous system. AS affects an estimated 1 in 12,000 to 20,000 individuals. Characteristic features of AS includes developmental delay or intellectual disability, severe speech impairment, seizures, small head size (microcephaly), and problems with movement and balance (ataxia). AS individuals usually have microdeletion of the maternal copy of 15q11.2-15q13 region of chromosome 15. The E6-associated protein (E6AP, an E3 ubiquitin protein ligase enzyme) is encoded by the gene UBE3A, which is located in this region, and it has been shown that deregulation of E6AP gives rise to AS and neuropathology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) (e...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382760/restoring-gabaergic-inhibition-rescues-memory-deficits-in-a-huntington-s-disease-mouse-model
#17
Zahra Dargaei, Jee Yoon Bang, Vivek Mahadevan, C Sahara Khademullah, Simon Bedard, Gustavo Morrone Parfitt, Jun Chul Kim, Melanie A Woodin
Huntington's disease (HD) is classically characterized as a movement disorder, however cognitive impairments precede the motor symptoms by ∼15 y. Based on proteomic and bioinformatic data linking the Huntingtin protein (Htt) and KCC2, which is required for hyperpolarizing GABAergic inhibition, and the important role of inhibition in learning and memory, we hypothesized that aberrant KCC2 function contributes to the hippocampal-associated learning and memory deficits in HD. We discovered that Htt and KCC2 interact in the hippocampi of wild-type and R6/2-HD mice, with a decrease in KCC2 expression in the hippocampus of R6/2 and YAC128 mice...
January 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382055/early-life-iron-deficiency-reduces-brain-iron-content-and-alters-brain-tissue-composition-despite-iron-repletion-a-neuroimaging-assessment
#18
Austin T Mudd, Joanne E Fil, Laura C Knight, Fan Lam, Zhi-Pei Liang, Ryan N Dilger
Early-life iron deficiency has lifelong influences on brain structure and cognitive function, however characterization of these changes often requires invasive techniques. There is a need for non-invasive assessment of early-life iron deficiency with potential to translate findings to the human clinical setting. In this study, 28 male pigs were provided either a control diet (CONT; n = 14; 23.5 mg Fe/L milk replacer) or an iron-deficient diet (ID; n = 14; 1.56 mg Fe/L milk replacer) for phase 1 of the study, from postnatal day (PND) 2 until 32...
January 27, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376873/lentivirus-mediated-hdac3-inhibition-attenuates-oxidative-stress-in-appswe-ps1de9-mice
#19
Linjie Yu, Yi Liu, Yuexinzi Jin, Xiang Cao, Jian Chen, Jiali Jin, Yue Gu, Xinyu Bao, Zhuoying Ren, Yun Xu, Xiaolei Zhu
Amyloid-β (Aβ) induces a burst of oxidative stress and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our previous results have shown that histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) inhibition ameliorates spatial memory deficits and decreases the Aβ burden in the brains of 9-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice. In this study, we investigated the role of HDAC3 inhibition in oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro models of AD. HDAC3 was detected mainly in the neurons, and HDAC3 inhibition significantly decreased reactive oxygen species generation and improved primary cortical neuron viability...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376847/early-stage-alterations-in-ca1-extracellular-region-proteins-indicate-dysregulation-of-il6-and-iron-homeostasis-in-the-5xfad-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#20
Busra Gurel, Mehmet Cansev, Cansu Sevinc, Seda Kelestemur, Busra Ocalan, Aysen Cakir, Sami Aydin, Nevzat Kahveci, Mehmet Ozansoy, Ozlem Taskapilioglu, Ismail Hakki Ulus, Merve Karayel Başar, Betul Sahin, Mete Bora Tuzuner, Ahmet Tarik Baykal
In recent years, an increasing number of research papers revealed that the compositional and volumetric alterations in the extracellular matrix are the consequences of aging and may be related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the alterations in hippocampal extracellular fluid proteins in vivo using the 5XFAD mouse model. Samples were obtained from hippocampi of 5XFAD mice (n = 6) and their non-transgenic littermates by intracerebral push-pull perfusion technique at 3 months of age, representing the pre-pathological stage of the AD...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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