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Hippocampi

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678562/effects-of-postnatal-handling-on-adult-behavior-and-brain-mrna-expression-of-serotonin-receptor-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-gaba-a-receptor-subunit
#1
Haiyan Li, Chihiro Ishikawa, Takashi Shiga
Development of brain and behavior is influenced by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Postnatal handling, a manipulation that briefly separates mouse offspring from their mother during the postnatal period, has been reported to yield beneficial effects on the behavior of adult offspring. However, brain mechanisms underlying the effects on the behavior have not been well understood. Here we first examined effects of postnatal handling on the behavior of adult male BALB/c mice. Offspring were separated for 15 min every day between postnatal day 1 (P1) and P14 and then various behaviors were tested in the adulthood...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668721/ultra-high-field-mri-of-human-hippocampi-morphological-and-multiparametric-differentiation-of-hippocampal-sclerosis-subtypes
#2
Clarissa Gillmann, Roland Coras, Karl Rössler, Arnd Doerfler, Michael Uder, Ingmar Blümcke, Tobias Bäuerle
The aim of the present study is to differentiate subtypes of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) using ex vivo ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Included were 14 surgically resected hippocampi of patients with medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. The resected hippocampi were histologically categorized into subtypes of hippocampal sclerosis (HS type 1 (n = 10), HS type 2 (n = 2) and no-HS (n = 2)) and subsequently scanned on a preclinical 7T MRI acquiring T2-weighted morphology, relaxometry and diffusion tensor imaging...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628875/profiling-of-long-non-coding-rnas-and-mrnas-by-rna-sequencing-in-the-hippocampi-of-adult-mice-following-propofol-sedation
#3
Jun Fan, Quan Zhou, Yan Li, Xiuling Song, Jijie Hu, Zaisheng Qin, Jing Tang, Tao Tao
Propofol is a frequently used intravenous anesthetic agent. The impairment caused by propofol on the neural system, especially the hippocampus, has been widely reported. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of propofol on learning and memory functions in the hippocampus is still unclear. In the present study we performed lncRNA and mRNA analysis in the hippocampi of adult mice, after propofol sedation, through RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq). A total of 146 differentially expressed lncRNAs and 1103 mRNAs were identified...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625071/human-hippocampal-neurogenesis-persists-throughout-aging
#4
Maura Boldrini, Camille A Fulmore, Alexandria N Tartt, Laika R Simeon, Ina Pavlova, Verica Poposka, Gorazd B Rosoklija, Aleksandar Stankov, Victoria Arango, Andrew J Dwork, René Hen, J John Mann
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis declines in aging rodents and primates. Aging humans are thought to exhibit waning neurogenesis and exercise-induced angiogenesis, with a resulting volumetric decrease in the neurogenic hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region, although concurrent changes in these parameters are not well studied. Here we assessed whole autopsy hippocampi from healthy human individuals ranging from 14 to 79 years of age. We found similar numbers of intermediate neural progenitors and thousands of immature neurons in the DG, comparable numbers of glia and mature granule neurons, and equivalent DG volume across ages...
April 5, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615895/hypertension-accelerates-alzheimer-s-disease-related-pathologies-in-pigs-and-3xtg-mice
#5
Yao-Hsiang Shih, Shih-Ying Wu, Megan Yu, Sheng-Huai Huang, Chu-Wan Lee, Meei-Jyh Jiang, Pao-Yen Lin, Ting-Ting Yang, Yu-Min Kuo
Epidemiological studies suggest there is an association between midlife hypertension and increased risk of late-life Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether hypertension accelerates the onset of AD or is a distinct disease that becomes more prevalent with age (comorbidity) remains unclear. This study aimed to test the possible relationship between hypertension and AD pathogenesis. Two animal models were used in this study. For the first model, 7-month-old Lanyu-miniature-pigs were given the abdominal aortic constriction operation to induce hypertension and their AD-related pathologies were assessed at 1, 2, and 3 months after the operation...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614684/novel-lipidized-analog-of-prolactin-releasing-peptide-improves-memory-impairment-and-attenuates-hyperphosphorylation-of-tau-protein-in-a-mouse-model-of-tauopathy
#6
Andrea Popelová, Veronika Pražienková, Barbora Neprašová, Barbora Judita Kasperová, Lucie Hrubá, Martina Holubová, Jana Zemenová, David Blum, Blanka Železná, Marie-Christine Galas, Jaroslav Kuneš, Lenka Maletínská
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were characterized as risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) development. Subsequently, T2DM drugs, such as liraglutide, were proven to be neuroprotective compounds attenuating levels of amyloid deposits, and tau hyperphosphorylation, both hallmarks of AD. The central anorexigenic effects of liraglutide inspired us to examine the potential neuroprotective effects of palm11-PrRP31, a strong anorexigenic analog with glucose-lowering properties, in THY-Tau22 mice overexpressing mutated human tau, a model of AD-like tau pathology...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614661/hippocampal-sclerosis-in-the-oldest-old-a-finnish-population-based-study
#7
Mia Kero, Anna Raunio, Tuomo Polvikoski, Pentti J Tienari, Anders Paetau, Liisa Myllykangas
BACKGROUND: There are only few population-based studies that have systemically investigated the prevalence of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) in the very old. The frequency of unilateral versus bilateral HS has been rarely studied. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the prevalence and laterality of HS and its association with other neurodegenerative and vascular pathologies in a population-based sample of very elderly. Furthermore, the concomitant presence of immunoreactivity for TDP-43, p62, and HPtau was studied...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611100/resveratrol-acts-anti-inflammatory-and-neuroprotective-in-an-infant-rat-model-of-pneumococcal-meningitis-by-modulating-the-hippocampal-mirnome
#8
Karina Barbosa de Queiroz, Thaís Dos Santos Fontes Pereira, Márcio Sobreira Silva Araújo, Ricardo Santiago Gomez, Roney Santos Coimbra
Resveratrol (RSV) is anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective, cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and has a safe profile. Besides, RSV modulates the expression of some miRNAs related to neurological disorders. Thus, we hypothesized that RSV can be neuroprotective in pneumococcal meningitis by modulating the global microRNA expression profile (miRNome). Eleven-day old rats were intracysternally infected with S. pneumoniae (~ 2 × 106 c.f.u.) and were orally administered with RSV (50 mg/kg) or vehicle in pre-treatment (before infection) or post-treatment schedules (3 and 18 h p...
April 2, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609516/a-systematic-review-of-positron-emission-tomography-of-tau-amyloid-beta-and-neuroinflammation-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-the-evidence-to-date
#9
Bern Lee, MacKenzie Leavitt, Charles Bernick, Gabriel Leger, Gil Rabinovici, Sarah Banks
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is associated with pathological changes, yet detecting these changes during life has proven elusive. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) offers the potential for identifying such pathology. Few studies have been completed to-date and their approaches and results have been diverse. It was the objective of this review to systematically examine relevant research using ligands for PET that bind to identified pathology in CTE. We focused on identification of patterns of binding and addressing gaps in knowledge of PET imaging for CTE...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605488/the-combined-impact-of-iglon-family-proteins-lsamp-and-neurotrimin-on-developing-neurons-and-behavioral-profiles-in-mouse
#10
Katyayani Singh, Kersti Lilleväli, Scott F Gilbert, Aleksandr Bregin, Jane Narvik, Mohan Jayaram, Märt Rahi, Jürgen Innos, Allen Kaasik, Eero Vasar, Mari-Anne Philips
Cell surface neural adhesion proteins are critical components in the complex orchestration of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and neuritogenesis essential for proper brain construction and behavior. We focused on the impact of two plasticity-associated IgLON family neural adhesion molecules, Neurotrimin (Ntm) and Limbic system associated membrane protein (Lsamp), on mouse behavior and its underlying neural development. Phenotyping neurons derived from the hippocampi of Lsamp-/- , Ntm-/- and Lsamp-/- Ntm-/- mice was performed in parallel with behavioral testing...
March 29, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596898/histamine-deficient-mice-do-not-respond-to-the-antidepressant-like-effects-of-oleoylethanolamide
#11
Alessia Costa, Claudia Cristiano, Tommaso Cassano, Cristina Anna Gallelli, Silvana Gaetani, Carla Ghelardini, Patrizio Blandina, Antonio Calignano, M Beatrice Passani, Gustavo Provensi
It has been suggested that the bioactive lipid mediator oleoylethanolamide (OEA), a potent agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) possesses anti-depressant-like effects in several preclinical models. We recently demonstrated that several of OEA's behavioural actions require the integrity of the brain histaminergic system, and that an intact histaminergic neurotransmission is specifically required for selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors to exert their anti-depressant-like effect...
March 26, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594239/the-posterior-cerebellum-a-new-organ-at-risk
#12
EDITORIAL
Daniëlle B P Eekers, Lieke In 't Ven, Sabine Deprez, Linda Jacobi, Erik Roelofs, Ann Hoeben, Philippe Lambin, Dirk de Ruysscher, Esther G C Troost
Eekers et al. have recently proposed a neuro-oncology atlas, which was co-authored by most centers associated in the European Proton Therapy Network (EPTN; Figure 1). With the introduction of new treatment techniques, such as integrated magnetic resonance imaging and linear accelerators (MR-linac) or particle therapy, the prediction of clinical efficacy of these more costly treatment modalities becomes more relevant. One of the side-effects of brain irradiation, being cognitive decline, is one of the toxicities most difficult to measure and predict...
January 2018: Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594045/cumulative-doses-to-brain-and-other-critical-structures-after-multisession-gamma-knife-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-treatment-of-multiple-metastatic-tumors
#13
Jianling Yuan, Richard Lee, Kathryn Ellen Dusenbery, Chung K Lee, Damien C Mathew, Paul Wayne Sperduto, Yoichi Watanabe
Purpose: Repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an attractive alternative to whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) for treatment of recurrent brain metastases (BM). The purpose of this study is to determine the cumulative doses to the brain and critical normal structures in patients who underwent repeat courses of Gamma Knife (GK) SRS. Materials and methods: We retrospectively identified ten patients who received at least three GK-SRS sessions for multiply recurrent BM at our institution from 2013 to 2016...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593633/quantitative-limbic-system-mapping-of-main-cognitive-domains-in-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Zafer Keser, Khader M Hasan, Benson Mwangi, Kyan Younes, Mahsa Khayat-Khoei, Arash Kamali, John A Lincoln, Flavia M Nelson
Background and objective: Cognitive impairment (CI) is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), but underlying mechanisms and their imaging correlates are not completely understood. The gray and white matter structures of the limbic system (LS) play crucial roles in different aspects of cognition. To investigate their role in MS related CI, and since a detailed evaluations are lacking in the literature, we used a comprehensive neuroimaging approach to evaluate CI's correlations with the main components of the LS...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590637/the-role-of-the-microrna-146a-complement-factor-h-interleukin-1%C3%AE-mediated-inflammatory-loop-circuit-in-the-perpetuate-inflammation-of-chronic-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#15
Tao-Ran Li, Yan-Jie Jia, Chao Ma, Wen-Ying Qiu, Qun Wang, Xiao-Qiu Shao, Rui-Juan Lv
Increasing evidence indicates that neuroinflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, it is unclear how the perpetuate inflammation develops. Some recent studies have suggested the possible involvement of microRNA-146a (miR-146a) in the modulation of inflammatory signaling occurring in TLE. To understand how miR-146a modulates inflammatory signaling in TLE, we investigated the role of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), miR-146a and human complement factor H (CFH) in the perpetuate inflammation in rat models of chronic TLE and U251 cells...
March 23, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577374/comparison-of-behavioral-neuroprotective-and-proinflammatory-cytokine-modulating-effects-exercised-by-cis-ec-and-cis-ec-stereoisomers-in-a-ptz-induced-kindling-test-in-mice
#16
Paula Regina Rodrigues Salgado, Diogo Vilar da Fonsêca, Cynthia Germoglio Farias de Melo, Fagner Carvalho Leite, Adriano Francisco Alves, Paula Benvindo Ferreira, Márcia Regina Piuvezam, Damião Pergentino de Sousa, Reinaldo Nóbrega de Almeida
Epoxy-carvone (EC) has chiral centers that allow generation of stereoisomers, including (+)-cis-EC and (-)-cis-EC, whose effects in the kindling tests have never been studied. Accordingly, this study aims to comparatively investigate the effect of stereoisomers (+)-cis-epoxy-carvone and (-)-cis-epoxy-carvone on behavioral changes measured in scores, in the levels of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα) and neuronal protection in the face of continuous treatment with pentylenetetrazol. Swiss mice were divided into 5 groups (n = 10), receiving vehicle, (+) - cis-EC, (-) - cis-EC (both at the dose of 30 mg / kg) and diazepam (4 mg/kg)...
March 25, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574717/dynamic-sap102-expression-in-the-hippocampal-subregions-of-rats-and-app-ps1-mice-of-various-ages
#17
Dongning Su, Hui Liu, Tianrong Liu, Xin Zhang, Wei Yang, Yizhi Song, Jinping Liu, Yan Wu, Lirong Chang
The hippocampus is a structurally and functionally complex brain area that plays important and diverse roles in higher brain functions, such as learning and memory, and mounting evidence indicates that different hippocampal subregions play distinctive roles. The hippocampus is also one of the first regions in the brain to suffer damage in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Synaptic dysfunction in the hippocampus, rather than neuronal loss per se, is paralleled by behavioural and functional deficits in AD. The membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family of proteins, including SAP102, PSD-95, PSD-93 and SAP97, have long been recognized as essential components of the postsynaptic density (PSD) at excitatory synapses...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541261/a-high-fat-and-high-cholesterol-diet-potentiates-oxidative-damage-in-hippocampus-of-mice-lacking-apolipoprotein-e
#18
Mary Guaraldi, Thomas B Shea
Objective: We examined genetic and dietary challenge on hippocampal oxidative damage. Mice expressing (ApoE+/+) or lacking apolipoprotein E (ApoE-/-) were maintained on a standard diet or a high fat /high cholesterol (challenge) diet for 11-31 weeks. Similar levels of oxidative species were observed for ApoE+/+ and -/- mice maintained on the basal diet. Method: However, treatment of ApoE-/- homogenates with hydrogen peroxide and iron increased oxidative species by >100%, indicating an equivalent amount of potential oxidative species in latent form...
2018: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516458/-developmental-amnesia-and-early-brain-damage-neuropsychology-and-neuroimaging
#19
N Crespo-Eguilaz, P D Dominguez, M Vaquero, J Narbona
AIM: To contribute to neuropsychological profiling of developmental amnesia subsequent to bilateral damage to both hippocampi in early age. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The total sample of 24 schoolchildren from both sexes is distributed in three groups: perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and everyday complaints of memory in school age (n = 8); perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy without memory complaints (n = 7); and a group of typically developing (n = 9)...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515366/the-activating-transcription-factor-3-atf3-homozygous-knockout-mice-exhibit-enhanced-conditioned-fear-and-down-regulation-of-hippocampal-gelsolin
#20
Chia-Sheng Pai, Pranao K Sharma, Hsien-Ting Huang, Srivaishnavi Loganathan, Heng Lin, Yu-Luan Hsu, Sarayut Phasuk, Ingrid Y Liu
The genetic and molecular basis underlying fear memory formation is a key theme in anxiety disorder research. Because activating transcription factor 3 ( ATF3 ) is induced under stress conditions and is highly expressed in the hippocampus, we hypothesize that ATF3 plays a role in fear memory formation. We used fear conditioning and various other paradigms to test Atf3 knockout mice and study the role of ATF3 in processing fear memory. The results demonstrated that the lack of ATF3 specifically enhanced the expression of fear memory, which was indicated by a higher incidence of the freeze response after fear conditioning, whereas the occurrence of spatial memory including Morris Water Maze and radial arm maze remained unchanged...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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