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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632760/the-development-of-acquired-equivalence-from-childhood-to-adulthood-a-cross-sectional-study-of-265-subjects
#1
Gábor Braunitzer, Attila Őze, Gabriella Eördegh, Anna Pihokker, Petra Rózsa, László Kasik, Szabolcs Kéri, Attila Nagy
Acquired equivalence (AE) is a form of feedback-based associative learning where the subject learns that two or more stimuli are equivalent in terms of being mapped onto the same outcomes or responses. While several studies dealt with how various neurological and psychiatric conditions affect performance on AE tasks (typically with small populations), studies dealing with AE in healthy subjects are rare, and no study has ever made an attempt to plot the development of this form of learning from the childhood through adulthood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632041/automated-volumetry-of-hippocampus-is-useful-to-confirm-unilateral-mesial-temporal-sclerosis-in-patients-with-radiologically-positive-findings
#2
Guilherme Silva, Cristina Martins, Nádia Moreira da Silva, Duarte Vieira, Dias Costa, Ricardo Rego, José Fonseca, João Paulo Silva Cunha
Background and purpose We evaluated two methods to identify mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS): visual inspection by experienced epilepsy neuroradiologists based on structural magnetic resonance imaging sequences and automated hippocampal volumetry provided by a processing pipeline based on the FMRIB Software Library. Methods This retrospective study included patients from the epilepsy monitoring unit database of our institution. All patients underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging in 1.5T and 3T scanners with protocols that included thin coronal T2, T1 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and isometric T1 acquisitions...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629741/establishment-of-an-ideal-time-window-model-in-hypothermic-targeted-temperature-management-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#3
Wan-Yong Zhao, Shao-Bo Chen, Jing-Jing Wang, Chao Xu, Ming-Liang Zhao, Hua-Jiang Dong, Hai-Qian Liang, Xiao-Hong Li, Yue Tu, Sai Zhang, Chong Chen, Hong-Tao Sun
Although hypothermic-targeted temperature management (HTTM) holds great potential for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI), translation of the efficacy of hypothermia from animal models to TBI patientshas no entire consistency. This study aimed to find an ideal time window model in experimental rats which was more in accordance with clinical practice through the delayed HTTM intervention. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral cortical contusion injury and received therapeutic hypothermia at 15 mins, 2 hours, 4 hours respectively after TBI...
June 16, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628913/age-dependent-effects-of-alk5-inhibition-and-mechanism-of-neuroprotection-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#4
Brian H Kim, Mariano Guardia Clausi, Michelle Frondelli, Israel C Nnah, Chaitali Saqcena, Radek Dobrowolski, Steven W Levison
Neonatal encephalopathy due to hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury triggers a wave of neuroinflammatory events attributed to causing the progressive degeneration and functional deficits seen weeks after the initial insult. In a recent set of studies, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of a small molecule antagonist for ALK5 (activin-like kinase 5 ), TGF-β receptor in a rat model of moderate perinatal HI and found significant improvements in neurologic outcomes. Here, we have extended those studies to evaluate the efficacy of delayed TGF-β receptor antagonism on postnatal day (P) 6 and P9 HI rat pups with and without hypothermia...
June 20, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627642/effect-of-retinoid-x-receptor-%C3%AE-nuclear-export-inhibition-on-apoptosis-of-neurons-in%C3%A2-vivo-and-in%C3%A2-vitro
#5
Yingchun Liu, Jiangguo Tang, Xiaoxiao Gao, Min Wang, Jie Shen, Xiaoqing You
Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characte-rized by excessive apoptosis of neurons, is considered to be a global public health crisis. Retinoid-induced apoptosis is dependent on the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77, a transcription factor that is expressed predominantly in brain tissues. Nur77 nuclear export requires retinoid X receptor‑α (RXRα) as a carrier. However, the involvement of Nur77 in mediating β‑amyloid (Aβ)‑induced neuronal apoptosis has not yet been elucidated. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of Nur77 in Aβ‑induced neuron apoptosis, and to evaluate the effect of RXRα nuclear export inhibition on neuronal apoptosis...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614919/-effects-of-developmental-exposure-to-dehp-on-learning-and-memory-of-mice
#6
D J Wu, B B Luo, Q W Feng, Q N Wang
Objective: To investigate the effects of developmental exposure to DEHP on learning and memory of mice. Methods: Male littermates of ICR mice randomly assigned to five experimental groups (n=14 for each condition) on PND4 to receive distilled water, vehicle and 10, 50 and 200 mg/ (kg·d) DEHP from PND5 to PND38 by gavage, weighing and recording body weight of mice. Open field task were conducted on PND 26 and Morris water maze task were begun from PND30 to PND 37 to evaluate spontaneous exploration activity and emotion, spatial learning and memory performance of pubertal mice, respectively...
April 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611821/patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-show-lower-visual-short-term-memory-performance-in-feature-binding-tasks
#7
Raju P Sapkota, Ian van der Linde, Nirmal Lamichhane, Tirthalal Upadhyaya, Shahina Pardhan
BACKGROUND: Early cognitive changes in people at risk of developing dementia may be detected using behavioral tests that examine the performance of typically affected brain areas, such as the hippocampi. An important cognitive function supported by the hippocampi is memory binding, in which object features are associated to create a unified percept. AIM: To compare visual short-term memory (VSTM) binding performance for object names, locations, and identities between a participant group known to be at higher risk of developing dementia (mild cognitive impairment [MCI]) and healthily aging controls...
January 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609588/quantitative-profiling-of-neurotransmitter-abnormalities-in-brain-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-serum-of-experimental-diabetic-encephalopathy-male-rat
#8
Xiaowen Han, Mengjun Min, Juan Wang, Zejun Bao, Hongbin Fan, Xinyu Li, Temitope Isaac Adelusi, Xueyan Zhou, Xiaoxing Yin
Diabetic encephalopathy (DE), one of the most prevalent chronic complications of diabetes mellitus, is short of effective prevention and formidable therapeutic strategies. The aim of the present study is to reveal the imbalance of tryptophan (Trp) and its metabolites in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced experimental DE rats to underscore their critical values in clinical diagnosis of the disease. For this purpose, we first developed an accurate and appropriate simultaneous method for measuring Trp and its metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which was in accordance with the requirements of biological sample analysis...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599922/vitamin-d-improves-functional-outcomes-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-male-rats-treated-with-n-acetylcysteine-and-hypothermia
#9
Danielle W Lowe, Jamie L Fraser, Laura Grace Rollins, Jessica Bentzley, Xingju Nie, Renee Martin, Inderjit Singh, Dorothea Jenkins
Hypothermia treatment neuroprotects approximately 50% of neonates who present with moderate to severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, is neuroprotective in combination with hypothermia in neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) female rats, but less protective in males. Vitamin D is a neurosteroid, which may provide immunomodulation and improve outcomes for both sexes. We investigated the efficacy of this combination of drugs with hypothermia after severe HI, as well as potential mechanisms of vitamin D effects in the transition to chronic inflammation...
June 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597477/effective-expression-of-drebrin-in-hippocampus-improves-cognitive-function-and-alleviates-lesions-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-app-swe-ps1-%C3%AE-e9-mice
#10
Yan Liu, Yan-Feng Xu, Ling Zhang, Lan Huang, Pin Yu, Hua Zhu, Wei Deng, Chuan Qin
AIMS: Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive development dementia, is increasingly impacting patients' living conditions worldwide. Despite medical care and funding support, there are still no highly individualized drugs and practical strategies for clinical prevention and treatment. Developmentally regulated brain protein (abbreviated as Drebrin or Dbn, also known as Dbn1 in mouse) exists in neurons, especially in dendrites, and is an actin-binding protein that modulates synaptic morphology and long-term memory...
July 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587896/development-of-a-histologically-validated-segmentation-protocol-for-the-hippocampal-body
#11
Trevor A Steve, Clarissa L Yasuda, Roland Coras, Mohjevan Lail, Ingmar Blumcke, Daniel J Livy, Nikolai Malykhin, Donald W Gross
BACKGROUND: Recent findings have demonstrated that hippocampal subfields can be selectively affected in different disease states, which has led to efforts to segment the human hippocampus with in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, no studies have examined the histological accuracy of subfield segmentation protocols. The presence of MRI-visible anatomical landmarks with known correspondence to histology represents a fundamental prerequisite for in vivo hippocampal subfield segmentation...
June 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587591/microarray-expression-profiling-in-the-denervated-hippocampus-identifies-long-noncoding-rnas-functionally-involved-in-neurogenesis
#12
Bingying Deng, Xiang Cheng, Haoming Li, Jianbing Qin, Meiling Tian, Guohua Jin
BACKGROUND: The denervated hippocampus provides a proper microenvironment for the survival and neuronal differentiation of neural progenitors. While thousands of lncRNAs were identified, only a few lncRNAs that regulate neurogenesis in the hippocampus are reported. The present study aimed to perform microarray expression profiling to identify long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that might participate in the hippocampal neurogenesis, and investigate the potential roles of identified lncRNAs in the hippocampal neurogenesis...
June 6, 2017: BMC Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580377/optimization-of-curvilinear-needle-trajectories-for-transforamenal-hippocampotomy
#13
David B Comber, E Bryn Pitt, Hunter B Gilbert, Matthew W Powelson, Emily Matijevich, Joseph S Neimat, Robert J Webster, Eric J Barth
BACKGROUND: The recent development of MRI-guided laser-induced thermal therapy (LITT) offers a minimally invasive alternative to craniotomies performed for tumor resection or for amygdalohippocampectomy to control seizure disorders. Current LITT therapies rely on linear stereotactic trajectories that mandate twist-drill entry into the skull and potentially long approaches traversing healthy brain. The use of robotically-driven, telescoping, curved needles has the potential to reduce procedure invasiveness by tailoring trajectories to the curved shape of the ablated structure and by enabling access through natural orifices...
February 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569780/microrna-195-prevents-dendritic-degeneration-and-neuron-death-in-rats-following-chronic-brain-hypoperfusion
#14
Xin Chen, Xue-Mei Jiang, Lin-Jing Zhao, Lin-Lin Sun, Mei-Ling Yan, You Tian, Shuai Zhang, Ming-Jing Duan, Hong-Mei Zhao, Wen-Rui Li, Yang-Yang Hao, Li-Bo Wang, Qiao-Jie Xiong, Jing Ai
Impaired synaptic plasticity and neuron loss are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Here, we found that chronic brain hypoperfusion (CBH) by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO) decreased the total length, numbers and crossings of dendrites and caused neuron death in rat hippocampi and cortices. It also led to increase in N-terminal β-amyloid precursor protein (N-APP) and death receptor-6 (DR6) protein levels and in the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-6. Further study showed that DR6 protein was downregulated by miR-195 overexpression, upregulated by miR-195 inhibition, and unchanged by binding-site mutation and miR-masks...
June 1, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569173/apoe-isoforms-differentially-regulates-cleavage-and-secretion-of-bdnf
#15
Abhik Sen, Thomas J Nelson, Daniel L Alkon
Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) is a major genetic risk factor for sporadic or late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is decreased by 3 to 4-fold in the brains of AD patients at autopsy. ApoE4 mice also have reduced BDNF levels. However, there have been no reports relating the different ApoE isoforms or AD to differential regulation of BDNF. Here we report that in the hippocampal regions of AD patients both prepro-BDNF and pro-BDNF expression showed a 40 and 60% decrease respectively compared to that expression in the hippocampi of age-matched control patients...
June 1, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565808/rutin-attenuates-isoflurane-induced-neuroapoptosis-via-modulating-jnk-and-p38-mapk-pathways-in-the-hippocampi-of-neonatal-rats
#16
Wei Li, De-Yuan Li, Si-Ming Zhao, Zhe-Jun Zheng, Jie Hu, Zong-Zhe Li, Shan-Bai Xiong
An increasing number of infants and children undergo surgery and are exposed to anesthesia as a part of medical care each year. Isoflurane is a commonly used anesthetic in the pediatric population. However, previous studies have reported widespread isoflurane-induced neuroapoptosis and cognitive impairments in neonatal animal models, raising concerns over the administration of isoflurane in the pediatric population. The current study investigated the effects of rutin, a flavonoid, on isoflurane-induced neuroapoptosis in a neonatal rodent model...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564613/high-dose-tetrabromobisphenol-a-impairs-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-memory-retention
#17
Ah Hyun Kim, Hye Jeong Chun, Seulah Lee, Hyung Sik Kim, Jaewon Lee
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a brominated flame retardant that is commonly used in commercial and household products, such as, computers, televisions, mobile phones, and electronic boards. TBBPA can accumulate in human body fluids, and it has been reported that TBBPA possesses endocrine disruptive activity. However, the neurotoxic effect of TBBPA on hippocampal neurogenesis has not yet been investigated. Accordingly, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of TBBPA on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive function...
May 28, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552059/the-role-of-saffron-in-attenuating-age-related-oxidative-damage-in-rat-hippocampus
#18
Saeed Samarghandian, Mohsen Azimi Nezhad, Fariborz Samini, Tahereh Farkhondeh
BACKGROUND: Using antioxidant diets may be a good strategy for the inhibition of oxidative stress connected to age-related disease. Saffron is a dried stigmas of with antioxidant properties. This investigation was done to study the effects of saffron administration on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in hippocampus of male aged rats. The rats were treated with the ethanolic extract of saffron for 4 weeks. At the end of our investigation, the hippocampi of rats were removed. The homogenate was used for evaluation of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxides (GPx), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH)...
May 28, 2017: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551776/targeted-deletion-of-aqp4-promotes-the-formation-of-astrocytic-gap-junctions
#19
Shirin Katoozi, Nadia Skauli, Soulmaz Rahmani, Laura M A Camassa, Henning B Boldt, Ole P Ottersen, Mahmood Amiry-Moghaddam
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the predominant water channel in the brain and is expressed in high density in astrocytes. By fluxing water along osmotic gradients, AQP4 contributes to brain volume and ion homeostasis. Here we ask whether deletion of Aqp4 leads to upregulation of the gap junctional proteins connexin-43 (Cx43) and connexin-30 (Cx30). These molecules couple adjacent astrocytes to each other and allow water and ions to redistribute within the astrocyte syncytium. Immunogold analysis of parietal cortex and hippocampus showed that the number of gap junctions per capillary profile is increased in AQP4 knockout (AQP4 KO) mice...
May 27, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538087/total-brain-and-hippocampal-volumes-and-cognition-in-older-american-indians-the-strong-heart-study
#20
Brenna Cholerton, Adam Omidpanah, Tara M Madhyastha, Thomas J Grabowski, Astrid M Suchy-Dicey, Dean K Shibata, Lonnie A Nelson, Steven P Verney, Barbara V Howard, William T Longstreth, Thomas J Montine, Dedra Buchwald
BACKGROUND: Estimates of hippocampal volume by magnetic resonance imaging have clinical and cognitive correlations and can assist in early Alzheimer disease diagnosis. However, little is known about the relationship between global or regional brain volumes and cognitive test performance in American Indians. MATERIALS AND METHODS: American Indian participants (N=698; median age, 72 y) recruited for the Cerebrovascular Disease and its Consequences in American Indians study, an ancillary study of the Strong Heart Study cohort, were enrolled...
April 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
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