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Status Epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645087/ep2-receptor-agonist-ono-ae1-259-01-attenuates-pentylenetetrazole-and-pilocarpine-induced-seizures-but-causes-hippocampal-neurotoxicity
#1
Aline Carré Santos, Fernanda Rossatto Temp, Joseane Righes Marafiga, Micheli Mainardi Pillat, Amanda Titzel Hessel, Leandro Rodrigo Ribeiro, Lígia Gomes Miyazato, Mauro Schneider Oliveira, Carlos Fernando Mello
Epilepsy is a common and devastating neurological disease affecting more than 50 million people worldwide. Accumulating experimental and clinical evidence suggests that inflammatory pathways contribute to the development of seizures in various forms of epilepsy. In this context, while the activation of the PGE2 EP2 receptor causes early neuroprotective and late neurotoxic effects, the role of EP2 receptor in seizures remains unclear. We investigated whether the systemic administration of the highly selective EP2 agonist ONO-AE1-259-01 prevented acute pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- and pilocarpine-induced seizures...
June 20, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643873/increased-expression-of-immuno-proteasome-subunits-during-epileptogenesis-is-attenuated-by-inhibition-of-the-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-pathway
#2
Diede W M Broekaart, Jackelien van Scheppingen, Karlijne W Geijtenbeek, Mark R J Zuidberg, Jasper J Anink, Johannes C Baayen, Angelika Mühlebner, Eleonora Aronica, Jan A Gorter, Erwin A van Vliet
OBJECTIVE: Inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway reduces epileptogenesis in various epilepsy models, possibly by inhibition of inflammatory processes, which may include the proteasome system. To study the role of mTOR inhibition in the regulation of the proteasome system, we investigated (immuno)proteasome expression during epileptogenesis, as well as the effects of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. METHODS: The expression of constitutive (β1, β5) and immunoproteasome (β1i, β5i) subunits was investigated during epileptogenesis using immunohistochemistry in the electrical post-status epilepticus (SE) rat model for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)...
June 23, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637637/alternating-hemiplegia-of-childhood-and-a-pathogenic-variant-of-atp1a3-a-case-report-and-pathophysiological-considerations
#3
Elena Pavlidis, Peter Uldall, Camilla Gøbel Madsen, Marina Nikanorova, Martin Fabricius, Hans Høgenhaven, Francesco Pisani, Rikke S Møller, Elena Gardella, Guido Rubboli
We describe a case of a child suffering from alternating hemiplegia with a heterozygous p. E815K pathogenic variant of ATP1A3. The patient started to present abnormal eye movements in the first days of life, followed by the appearance at 2 months of dystonic episodes, and later on, by recurrent episodes of alternating hemiplegia more often on the right side. A severe epilepsy started at the age of 2 years with episodes of status epilepticus since the onset which frequently recurred, requiring admission to the intensive care unit...
June 19, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637636/epilepsy-after-cerebral-infection-review-of-the-literature-and-the-potential-for-surgery
#4
Georgia Ramantani, Hans Holthausen
The risk of unprovoked seizures in population-based cohorts of cerebral infection survivors is 7-8% in developed countries, rising to considerably higher rates in resource-poor countries. The main risk factors for epilepsy after cerebral infection, besides acute seizures, are infection-associated brain lesions and status epilepticus during the acute phase. Despite the high prevalence of pharmacoresistant epilepsies after cerebral infections, especially in patients with MRI-identifiable lesions, only a small minority undergoes epilepsy surgery...
June 19, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632525/clozapine-safety-and-efficacy-for-interictal-psychotic-disorder-in-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy
#5
Vincent Jetté Pomerleau, François Dubeau, Simon Ducharme
Since the middle of the 19th century, both neurologists and psychiatrists have linked psychosis and epilepsy. Clozapine, the most effective antipsychotic drug, alters electroencephalographic activity and carries a significant risk of causing seizures. Unfortunately, this risk limits the drug's potential use in treating pharmacoresistant psychosis in patients with epilepsy. We present a unique case in which we used clozapine successfully as a last resort treatment for chronic interictal psychosis in a 43-year-old woman with severe pharmacoresistant epilepsy and recurrent status epilepticus...
June 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627626/hmgb1-regulates-p-glycoprotein-expression-in-status-epilepticus-rat-brains-via-the-rage-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#6
Yuan Xie, Nian Yu, Yan Chen, Kang Zhang, Hai-Yan Ma, Qing Di
Overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the brain is an important mechanism involved in drug‑resistant epilepsy (DRE). High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), an inflammatory cytokine, significantly increases following seizures and may be involved in upregulation of P‑gp. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of HMGB1 and its downstream signaling components, receptor for advanced glycation end‑product (RAGE) and nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB), on P‑gp expression in rat brains during status epilepticus (SE)...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624573/plasticity-of-intrinsic-firing-response-gain-in-principal-hippocampal-neurons-following-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#7
Idit Tamir, Moshe Daninos, Yoel Yaari
OBJECTIVE: In experimental models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), brain neurons manifest multiple changes in intrinsic excitability that contribute to neuronal network hyperexcitability. We have investigated whether the intrinsic firing response gain, quantified by the slope of the function relating the number of evoked spikes (Ns) to input excitatory current intensity (I), is modified in principal rat hippocampal neurons in the pilocarpine-status epilepticus (SE) model of TLE. METHODS: Intracellular recordings were made in CA3 and CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs) and dentate granule cells (GCs) in acute hippocampal slices obtained 7-36days after pilocarpine-SE...
June 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623755/effects-of-adjunctive-lacosamide-on-mood-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#8
Luba Nakhutina, Saroj D Kunnakkat, Madeleine Coleman, Catherine Lushbough, Vanessa Arnedo, Nirali Soni, Arthur C Grant
We examined the effects of adjunctive lacosamide (LCM) on mood and quality of life (QOL) in adult patients with partial-onset seizures in a prospective, controlled, single-blind study. Patients in whom LCM was added to their AED regimen for clinical indications comprised the LCM group (n=18), while the control group (n=32) comprised patients on ≥2 AEDs with anticipated stable dosing for the duration of the study. Profile of Mood States (POMS) and QOLIE-89 were used to assess mood and QOL at enrollment and 12-16weeks later...
June 14, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623754/quality-of-life-mood-and-seizure-control-in-patients-with-brain-tumor-related-epilepsy-treated-with-lacosamide-as-add-on-therapy-a-prospective-explorative-study-with-a-historical-control-group
#9
Marta Maschio, Alessia Zarabla, Andrea Maialetti, Alessandra Fabi, Antonello Vidiri, Veronica Villani, Diana Giannarelli
OBJECTIVE: Brain tumor-related epilepsy (BTRE) is often drug resistant and patients can be forced to take polytherapy that can adversely affect their quality of life (QoL). Lacosamide (LCM) is a new antiepileptic drug (AED) used as adjunctive therapy in patients with partial seizures with or without secondary generalization, with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile that seems to be effective and well tolerated. Therefore it represents a possible therapeutic choice for patients with BTRE...
June 14, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618377/ring-and-peg-electrodes-for-minimally-invasive-and-long-term-sub-scalp-eeg-recordings
#10
Y B Benovitski, A Lai, C C McGowan, O Burns, V Maxim, D A X Nayagam, R Millard, G D Rathbone, M A le Chevoir, R A Williams, D B Grayden, C N May, M Murphy, W J D'Souza, M J Cook, C E Williams
OBJECTIVE: Minimally-invasive approaches are needed for long-term reliable Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to assist with epilepsy diagnosis, investigation and more naturalistic monitoring. This study compared three methods for long-term implantation of sub-scalp EEG electrodes. METHODS: Three types of electrodes (disk, ring, and peg) were fabricated from biocompatible materials and implanted under the scalp in five ambulatory ewes for 3months. Disk electrodes were inserted into sub-pericranial pockets...
June 12, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612538/-risk-factors-and-prognosis-of-secondary-epilepsy-in-children-with-viral-encephalitis
#11
Liang Huang, Dan Yu, Rong Luo, Min Li, Hui Zhou, Xiao-Tang Cai, Zhi-Ling Wang
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical features of viral encephalitis in children at acute stage, and the relationship of these clinical features with post viral encephalitic epilepsy. METHODS: The children with viral encephalitis treated in West China Second University Hospital between January 2010 and January 2014 were enrolled. The clinical features included general conditions, clinical manifestations, video electroencephalogram (VEEG), neuroimaging, virology, prognosis and antiepileptic drugs...
March 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611277/association-of-rasgrf1-methylation-with-epileptic-seizures
#12
Xiaoni Chen, Xi Peng, Liang Wang, Xinwei Fu, Ji Xiu Zhou, Binglin Zhu, Jing Luo, Xuefeng Wang, Zheng Xiao
DNA methylation, one of the mechanisms of epigenetic regulation, has been suggested to be related with epilepsy. RASgrf1 is a paternally imprinted gene and has a differentially methylated region (DMR) at the promoter that can silence gene expression. We have previously observed the down-regulation of RASgrf1 in the temporal neocortex of epilepsy patients and in the hippocampus of epileptic animals. Here, we further explored the dynamic change (1-day acute period, 10-day latent period and 45-day chronic phase) of DNA methylation and RASgrf1 expression after acute epileptic seizures in kainic acid (KA)-treated mice, and we observed the impact of N-phthalyl-L-tryptophan (RG108), a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor, on an acute epileptic model by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), western blotting, and bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP)...
May 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608989/seizure-severity-dependent-selective-vulnerability-of-the-granule-cell-layer-and-aberrant-neurogenesis-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#13
Takeshi Uemori, Keiko Toda, Tatsunori Seki
The pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) rodent model has been commonly used to analyze the mechanisms of human temporal lobe epilepsy. Recent studies using this model have demonstrated that epileptic seizures lead to increased adult neurogenesis of the dentate granule cells, and cause abnormal cellular organization in dentate neuronal circuits. In this study, we examined these structural changes in rats with seizures of varying severity. In rats with frequent severe seizures, we found a clear loss of Prox1 and NeuN expression in the dentate granule cell layer (GCL), which was confined mainly to the suprapyramidal blade of the GCL at the septal and middle regions of the septo-temporal axis of the hippocampus...
June 13, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607431/cerebrospinal-fluid-micrornas-are-potential-biomarkers-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-status-epilepticus
#14
Rana Raoof, Eva M Jimenez-Mateos, Sebastian Bauer, Björn Tackenberg, Felix Rosenow, Johannes Lang, Müjgan Dogan Onugoren, Hajo Hamer, Tessa Huchtemann, Peter Körtvélyessy, Niamh M C Connolly, Shona Pfeiffer, Jochen H M Prehn, Michael A Farrell, Donncha F O'Brien, David C Henshall, Catherine Mooney
There is a need for diagnostic biomarkers of epilepsy and status epilepticus to support clinical examination, electroencephalography and neuroimaging. Extracellular microRNAs may be potentially ideal biomarkers since some are expressed uniquely within specific brain regions and cell types. Cerebrospinal fluid offers a source of microRNA biomarkers with the advantage of being in close contact with the target tissue and sites of pathology. Here we profiled microRNA levels in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy or status epilepticus, and compared findings to matched controls...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601603/enhanced-classical-complement-pathway-activation-and-altered-phagocytosis-signaling-molecules-in-human-epilepsy
#15
Season K Wyatt, Thomas Witt, Nicholas M Barbaro, Aaron A Cohen-Gadol, Amy L Brewster
Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is widely associated with seizures and epilepsy. Although microglial cells are professional phagocytes, less is known about the status of this phenotype in epilepsy. Recent evidence supports that phagocytosis-associated molecules from the classical complement (C1q-C3) play novel roles in microglia-mediated synaptic pruning. Interestingly, in human and experimental epilepsy, altered mRNA levels of complement molecules were reported. Therefore, to identify a potential role for complement and microglia in the synaptodendritic pathology of epilepsy, we determined the protein levels of classical complement proteins (C1q-C3) along with other phagocytosis signaling molecules in human epilepsy...
June 7, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601110/health-behaviors-related-to-the-use-of-drugs-among-patients-with-epilepsy
#16
Anna Staniszewska, Elwira Smoleńska, Urszula Religioni
OBJECTIVES: We assessed self-medication behaviors and identified factors associated with self-treatment among adults with epilepsy. METHODS: We carried out this study on 380 patients with epilepsy using an author-designed questionnaire. RESULTS: Patients who took medication more than once a day were more likely to comply with times of taking medication (p = .009); people using polytherapy were more likely to forget to take their medication (p < ...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600446/long-term-efficacy-of-imepitoin-in-the-treatment-of-naive-dogs-affected-by-idiopathic-epilepsy
#17
A Gallucci, T Gagliardo, M Menchetti, E Bianchi, D Bucci, G Gandini
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term (12 months) efficacy and tolerability of imepitoin as first-choice treatment in 56 dogs suffering from idiopathic epilepsy and identify possible factors affecting the outcome. Primary treatment success (PTS) was defined as the achievement of a seizure-free interval three times longer than the pretreatment interictal interval (at least three months). Secondary treatment success (STS) was achieved by a decrease in seizure frequency ≥50 per cent compared with the pretreatment frequency...
June 9, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600359/ictal-pain-in-focal-non-convulsive-status-epilepticus
#18
Sara Casciato, Alessandra Morano, Jinane Fattouch, Martina Fanella, Mariarita Albini, Anna Teresa Giallonardo, Carlo Di Bonaventura
We report an adult with acute unilateral pain as isolated manifestation of acute symptomatic focal non-convulsive status epilepticus. Pain is rarely a manifestation of epileptic seizures. Traditionally, painful seizures have been thought to originate in either the parietal or temporal lobes, but their localising value is debatable. Recent functional neuroimaging studies and electrophysiological findings obtained by using intracerebral recordings have shown the involvement of the insular cortex along with several other brain structures in the processing of painful inputs, comprising a more widespread anatomo-functional network...
June 9, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597918/inflammation-in-the-developing-rat-modulates-astroglial-reactivity-to-seizures-in-the-mature-brain
#19
Zuzanna Setkowicz, Emilia Kosonowska, Krzysztof Janeczko
Astrocytes participate in neuronal development and excitability, and produce factors enhancing or suppressing inflammatory processes occurring due to neurodegenerative diseases, such as epilepsy. Seizures, in turn, trigger the release of inflammatory mediators, causing structural and functional changes in the brain. Therefore, it appears reasonable to determine whether generalized inflammation at developmental periods can affect astrocyte reactivity to epileptic seizures occurring in the adult brain. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected in 6- or 30-day-old rats (P6 or P30, respectively)...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597913/inherent-vulnerabilities-in-monoaminergic-pathways-predict-the-emergence-of-depressive-impairments-in-an-animal-model-of-chronic-epilepsy
#20
Jesús-Servando Medel-Matus, Don Shin, Raman Sankar, Andrey Mazarati
The objective was to determine whether the depression comorbid with epilepsy could be predicted based on inherent premorbid patterns of monoaminergic transmission. In male Wistar rats, despair-like and anhedonia-like behaviors were examined using forced swimming and taste preference tests, respectively. Serotonergic raphe nucleus (RN)-prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA)-nucleus accumbens (NAcc) pathways were interrogated by fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV). The assays were performed before and 2 months after pilocarpine status epilepticus...
June 9, 2017: Epilepsia
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