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Status Epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345152/the-impact-of-seizures-on-epilepsy-outcomes-a-national-community-based-survey
#1
Colin B Josephson, Scott B Patten, Andrew Bulloch, Jeanne V A Williams, Dina Lavorato, Kirsten M Fiest, Mary Secco, Nathalie Jette
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of seizures on persons living with epilepsy in a national, community-based setting. METHODS: The data source was the Survey of Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada (SLNCC), a cohort derived from a national population-based survey of noninstitutionalized persons aged 15 or more years. Participants had to be on a seizure drug or to have had a seizure in the past 5 years to meet the definition of active epilepsy...
March 27, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343465/academic-outcomes-in-individuals-with-childhood-onset-epilepsy-mediating-effects-of-working-memory
#2
Ashley N Danguecan, Mary Lou Smith
OBJECTIVES: Academic difficulties are common in children with epilepsy, although little is known about the effect of various seizure-related and cognitive variables. Given that persistent seizures may negatively impact academics, and that working memory is predictive of academic abilities, we examined the effects of recent seizures and working memory on word reading, spelling, and arithmetic in pediatric epilepsy. We hypothesized that persistent seizures would be associated with lower working memory ability, which would in turn result in poorer academic performance...
March 27, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343008/electroclinical-features-of-epilepsy-in-patients-with-invdup-15
#3
REVIEW
Alberto Verrotti, Fiammetta Sertorio, Sara Matricardi, Pietro Ferrara, Pasquale Striano
PURPOSE: InvDup(15) syndrome is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities associated with epilepsy. Here we review the seizure types described in InvDup(15) patients and the main electroclinical, therapeutic, and prognostic aspects of the syndrome. METHODS: A literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE was performed to identify papers examining InvDup(15) syndrome and epilepsy. RESULTS: About 65% of the InvDup(15) patients described in the literature had multiple seizure types with a predominance (40...
March 9, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338446/the-use-of-hippocampal-volumetric-measurements-to-improve-diagnostic-accuracy-in-pediatric-patients-with-mesial-temporal-sclerosis
#4
Gloria J Guzmán Pérez-Carrillo, Christopher Owen, Katherine E Schwetye, Spencer McFarlane, Ananth K Vellimana, Soe Mar, Michelle M Miller-Thomas, Joshua S Shimony, Matthew D Smyth, Tammie L S Benzinger
OBJECTIVE Many patients with medically intractable epilepsy have mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS), which significantly affects their quality of life. The surgical excision of MTS lesions can result in marked improvement or even complete resolution of the epileptic episodes. Reliable radiological diagnosis of MTS is a clinical challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of volumetric mapping of the hippocampi for the identification of MTS in a case-controlled series of pediatric patients who underwent resection for medically refractory epilepsy, using pathology as a gold standard...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330972/fatal-cerebral-edema-with-status-epilepticus-in-children-with-dravet-syndrome-report-of-5-cases
#5
Kenneth A Myers, Jacinta M McMahon, Simone A Mandelstam, Mark T Mackay, Renate M Kalnins, Richard J Leventer, Ingrid E Scheffer
Dravet syndrome (DS) is a well-recognized developmental and epileptic encephalopathy associated with SCN1A mutations and 15% mortality by 20 years. Although over half of cases succumb to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy, the cause of death in the remainder is poorly defined. We describe the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic characteristics of a cohort of children with DS and SCN1A mutations who developed fatal cerebral edema causing mass effect after fever-associated status epilepticus. Cases were identified from a review of children with DS enrolled in the Epilepsy Genetics Research Program at The University of Melbourne, Austin Health, who died after fever-associated status epilepticus...
March 22, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325299/potent-anti-seizure-effects-of-locked-nucleic-acid-antagomirs-targeting-mir-134-in-multiple-mouse-and-rat-models-of-epilepsy
#6
Cristina R Reschke, Luiz F Almeida Silva, Braxton A Norwood, Ketharini Senthilkumar, Gareth Morris, Amaya Sanz-Rodriguez, Ronán M Conroy, Lara Costard, Valentin Neubert, Sebastian Bauer, Michael A Farrell, Donncha F O'Brien, Norman Delanty, Stephanie Schorge, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Felix Rosenow, David C Henshall
Current anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) act on a limited set of neuronal targets, are ineffective in a third of patients with epilepsy, and do not show disease-modifying properties. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate levels of proteins by post-transcriptional control of mRNA stability and translation. MicroRNA-134 is involved in controlling neuronal microstructure and brain excitability and previous studies showed that intracerebroventricular injections of locked nucleic acid (LNA), cholesterol-tagged antagomirs targeting microRNA-134 (Ant-134) reduced evoked and spontaneous seizures in mouse models of status epilepticus...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323007/intrathecal-application-of-the-microglial-inhibitor-minocycline-attenuates-sympathoexcitatory-and-proarrhythmogenic-changes-in-rats-with-chronic-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#7
Amol M Bhandare, Komal Kapoor, Kim L Powell, Emma Braine, Pablo Casillas-Espinosa, Terence J O'Brien, Melissa M J Farnham, Paul M Pilowsky
The incidence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is highest in people with chronic and drug-resistant epilepsy. Chronic spontaneous recurrent seizures cause cardiorespiratory autonomic dysfunctions. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is neuroprotective, whereas microglia produce both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects in the CNS. During acute seizures in rats, PACAP and microglia produce sympathoprotective effect at the intermediolateral cell column (IML), whereas their action on the presympathetic rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) neurons mediates proarrhythmogenic changes...
March 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320269/status-epilepticus-impairs-synaptic-plasticity-in-rat-hippocampus-and-is-followed-by-changes-in-expression-of-nmda-receptors
#8
T Y Postnikova, O E Zubareva, A A Kovalenko, K K Kim, L G Magazanik, A V Zaitsev
Cognitive deficits and memory loss are frequent in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Persistent changes in synaptic efficacy are considered as a cellular substrate underlying memory processes. Electrophysiological studies have shown that the properties of short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity in the cortex and hippocampus may undergo substantial changes after seizures. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for these changes are not clear. In this study, we investigated the properties of short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity in rat hippocampal slices 24 h after pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced status epilepticus...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316069/employment-status-and-occupational-level-of-adult-survivors-of-childhood-cancer-in-great-britain-the-british-childhood-cancer-survivor-study
#9
Clare Frobisher, Emma R Lancashire, Helen Jenkinson, David L Winter, Julie Kelly, Raoul C Reulen, Michael M Hawkins
The British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS) provides the first detailed investigation of employment and occupation to be undertaken in a large population-based cohort. Previous studies have been limited by design issues such as using small numbers of survivors with specific diagnoses, and involved limited assessment of employment status and occupational level. The BCCSS includes 17,981 5-year survivors of childhood cancer. Employment status and occupational level were ascertained by questionnaire from eligible survivors (n = 14,836)...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315308/target-specific-alterations-in-the-vip-inhibitory-drive-to-hippocampal-gabaergic-cells-after-status-epilepticus
#10
Linda Suzanne David, Lisa Topolnik
Status epilepticus (SE) is associated with complex reorganization of hippocampal circuits involving a significant loss of specific subtypes of GABAergic interneurons. While adaptive circuit plasticity may increase the chances for recruitment of surviving interneurons, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. We studied the alterations in the inhibitory tone received by the hippocampal CA1 oriens/alveus (O/A) interneurons from the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)- and calretinin (CR)-expressing interneurons using the pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) model of epilepsy...
March 15, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303258/alterations-in-cytosolic-and-mitochondrial-u-13-c-glucose-metabolism-in-a-chronic-epilepsy-mouse-model
#11
Tanya S McDonald, Catalina Carrasco-Pozo, Mark P Hodson, Karin Borges
Temporal lobe epilepsy is a common form of adult epilepsy and shows high resistance to treatment. Increasing evidence has suggested that metabolic dysfunction contributes to the development of seizures, with previous studies indicating impairments in brain glucose metabolism. Here we aim to elucidate which pathways involved in glucose metabolism are impaired, by tracing the hippocampal metabolism of injected [U-(13)C]glucose (i.p.) during the chronic stage of the pilocarpine-status epilepticus mouse model of epilepsy...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292736/increased-metalloproteinase-activity-in-the-hippocampus-following-status-epilepticus
#12
Deepti Dubey, Paulette A McRae, Elyse K Rankin-Gee, Esther Baranov, Luke Wandrey, Stephanie Rogers, Brenda E Porter
Increased neuronal plasticity and neuronal cell loss has been implicated in the development of epilepsy following injury. Parvalbumin fast spiking inhibitory interneurons have a robust extracellular matrix coating their cell bodies and the proximal dendrites called the perineuronal net (PNN). The role of the PNN is not clear but it has been implicated in closing of the critical period, altering seizure thresholds and providing neuronal protection from oxidative stress. The PNN is susceptible to degradation following a prolonged seizure and there is an increase in proteolytic-fragments of the PNN enriched proteoglycan aggrecan (Dzwonek et al...
March 1, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290134/animal-models-of-seizures-and-epilepsy-past-present-and-future-role-for-the-discovery-of-antiseizure-drugs
#13
Wolfgang Löscher
The identification of potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of epilepsy requires the use of seizure models. Except for some early treatments, including bromides and phenobarbital, the antiseizure activity of all clinically used drugs was, for the most part, defined by acute seizure models in rodents using the maximal electroshock and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole seizure tests and the electrically kindled rat. Unfortunately, the clinical evidence to date would suggest that none of these models, albeit useful, are likely to identify those therapeutics that will effectively manage patients with drug resistant seizures...
March 13, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287071/auditory-seizures-in-autoimmune-epilepsy-a-case-with-anti-thyroid-antibodies
#14
Claudia Varrasi, Domizia Vecchio, Luca Magistrelli, Gionata Strigaro, Laura Tassi, Roberto Cantello
In its classic presentation, Hashimoto's encephalopathy is an acute-subacute complex neuropsychiatric syndrome with cognitive impairment, hallucinations, myoclonus, tremor or ataxia, associated with elevated anti-thyroid antibodies. Corticoids and immunotherapy are dramatically effective. However, in some cases, not all the associated features are presented and this delays diagnosis and appropriate treatment. We describe a man with abrupt onset of recurrent auditory seizures resulting in refractory non-convulsive status epilepticus...
March 8, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281500/recent-advances-in-epilepsy-research-in-india
#15
Aparna B Dixit, Jyotirmoy Banerjee, P Sarat Chandra, Manjari Tripathi
There are more than 10 million persons with epilepsy (PWE) in India. Despite availability of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), there is a large treatment gap varying from 50 to 70% among PWE. For treatable epilepsy, this gap can be attributed to poor education, poverty, cultural beliefs, stigma, and poor healthcare infrastructure; whereas for chronic epilepsy, this gap can be attributed to lack of proper diagnosis and treatment. To prevent, treat, and cure epilepsy, researchers worldwide have made exciting advances across all areas of epilepsy research...
2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281491/status-epilepticus-refractory-and-super-refractory
#16
REVIEW
Deepanshu Dubey, Jayantee Kalita, Usha K Misra
Status epilepticus (SE) is an important neurological emergency. It is defined as seizures lasting for 5 minutes or more or recurrent seizures without recovery of consciousness to baseline between the attacks. Refractory SE (RSE) is defined as SE persisting despite sufficient dose of benzodiazepines and at least one antiepileptic drug (AED), irrespective of time. Super refractory SE (SRSE) is defined as SE that continues for 24 hours or more after the use of anesthetic therapy, including cases that recur on weaning of the anesthestic agent...
2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281490/evidence-based-guidelines-for-the-management-of-epilepsy
#17
REVIEW
Sanjay P Singh, Ram Sankaraneni, Arun R Antony
Approximately 50 million people live with epilepsy worldwide. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the current evidence and management recommendations for evaluation and treatment of patients with epilepsy. Systematic literature reviews were undertaken. A review of contemporary published evidence-based guidelines (American Academy of Neurology, American Epilepsy Society, and the Indian Epilepsy Society) and published peer reviewed scientific publications was done. The guideline is addressed to all clinicians who manage epilepsy patients...
2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281034/synergistic-anticonvulsant-effects-of-pregabalin-and-amlodipine-on-acute-seizure-model-of-epilepsy-in-mice
#18
Itefaq Hussain Qureshi, Azra Riaz, Rafeeq Alam Khan, Afaq Ahmed Siddiqui
Status epilepticus is a life threatening neurological medical emergency. It may cause serious damage to the brain and even death in many cases if not treated properly. There is limited choice of drugs for the short term and long term management of status epilepticus and the dugs recommended for status epilepticus possess various side effects. The present study was designed to investigate synergistic anticonvulsant effects of pregabalin with amlodipine on acute seizure model of epilepsy in mice. Pentylenetetrazole was used to induce acute seizures which mimic status epilepticus...
March 9, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279891/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-adjunctive-brivaracetam-in-patients-with-prior-antiepileptic-drug-exposure-a-post-hoc-study
#19
Ali A Asadi-Pooya, Michael R Sperling, Steve Chung, Pavel Klein, Anyzeila Diaz, Sami Elmoufti, Jimmy Schiemann, John Whitesides
Brivaracetam (BRV), a selective, high-affinity ligand for synaptic vesicle protein 2A, is a new antiepileptic drug (AED) for adjunctive treatment of focal (partial-onset) seizures in adults with epilepsy. This post-hoc analysis was conducted to explore the efficacy of adjunctive BRV in patients with prior levetiracetam (LEV) exposure and whether changes in efficacy were related to the similar mechanism of action of these two drugs. Data were pooled from three Phase III studies (NCT00490035; NCT00464269; NCT01261325) of adults with focal seizures taking 1-2 AEDs who received placebo or BRV 50-200mg/day without titration over a 12-week treatment period...
February 27, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275159/enduring-memory-impairments-provoked-by-developmental-febrile-seizures-are-mediated-by-functional-and-structural-effects-of-neuronal-restrictive-silencing-factor
#20
Katelin P Patterson, Jeremy M Barry, Megan M Curran, Akanksha Singh-Taylor, Gary Brennan, Neggy Rismanchi, Matias Page, Yoav Noam, Gregory L Holmes, Tallie Z Baram
In a subset of children experiencing prolonged febrile seizures (FS), the most common type of childhood seizures, cognitive outcomes are compromised. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here we identified significant, enduring spatial memory problems in male rats following experimental prolonged FS (febrile status epilepticus; eFSE). Remarkably, these deficits were abolished by transient, post hoc interference with the chromatin binding of the transcriptional repressor neuron restrictive silencing factor (NRSF or REST)...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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