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Status Epilepsy

Shiny Thomas, Mary E Hovinga, Dheeraj Rai, Brian K Lee
Epilepsy is reported to co-occur in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous studies across the world have found prevalence estimates ranging from 4 to 38 %. We examined parent-reported prevalence of co-occurring epilepsy and ASD in the most recent U.S. National Survey of Children's Health, 2011-2012. All analyses accounted for survey weights to account for the complex sampling design. In the overall analytic sample of 85,248 children ages 2-17, there were 1604 children with ASD (prevalence of 1...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Kazuhiro Muramatsu, Noriko Sawaura, Tomomi Ogata, Nishiki Makioka, Keiko Tomita, Toshino Motojima, Kuniko Ida, Kyoko Hazama, Hirokazu Arakawa
INTRODUCTION: Levetiracetam has a high tolerability and is effective against various seizure types and epilepsy syndromes. However, no study has specifically evaluated the efficacy of levetiracetam in children with refractory epilepsy based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and the presence of intellectual disability (ID). METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated levetiracetam efficacy and safety in 49 pediatric patients who met the following inclusion criteria: (1) diagnosis of refractory epilepsy with first-line antiepileptic (AED) treatment ⩾2years, (2) younger than 20years old, and (3) received oral levetiracetam treatment for ⩾6months...
October 13, 2016: Brain & Development
Xiaodong Cai, Ling Long, Libai Yang, Ziyi Chen, Guanzhong Ni, Jiaming Qin, Jueqian Zhou, Liemin Zhou
OBJECTIVES: Mossy fiber sprouting is involved in the pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. But the exact mechanism of formation of mossy fiber sprouting is still unclear. Semaphorin-3f protein could inhibit the growth of neuron axons. The aim of this research is to evaluate the association between semaphorin-3f expression and mossy fiber sprouting. METHODS: We established pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (PISE) models firstly. Then, mossy fiber sprouting in the hippocampus of PISE models was examined by Timm staining...
October 17, 2016: Neurological Research
Luiz Fernando Almeida Silva, Tobias Engel, Cristina R Reschke, Ronan M Conroy, Elena Langa, David C Henshall
Animal models of status epilepticus are important tools to understand the pathogenesis of epileptic brain injury and evaluate potential seizure-suppressive, neuroprotective, and antiepileptogenic treatments. Focal elicitation of status epilepticus by intraamygdala kainic acid in mice produces unilateral hippocampal damage and the emergence of spontaneous recurrent seizures after a short latent period. The model has been characterized in C57BL/6, BALB/c, and SJL mice where strain-specific differences were found in the extent of hippocampal damage...
October 13, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Hui Shao, Yang Yang, Ai-Ping Qi, Pian Hong, Guang-Xi Zhu, Xin-Yu Cao, Wei-Gang Ji, Zhi-Ru Zhu
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is one of the most refractory types of adult epilepsy, and treatment options remain unsatisfactory. Gastrodin (GAS), a phenolic glucoside used in Chinese herbal medicine and derived from Gastrodia elata Blume, has been shown to have remarkable anticonvulsant effects on various models of epilepsy in vivo. However, the mechanisms of GAS as an anticonvulsant drug remain to be established. By utilizing a combination of behavioral surveys, immunofluorescence and electrophysiological recordings, the present study characterized the anticonvulsant effect of GAS in a pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) rat model of TLE and explored the underlying cellular mechanisms...
October 14, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Isabel Vieira de Assis Lima, Alline Cristina de Campos, Paula Maria Quaglio Bellozi, Juliana Guimaraes Doria, Fabiola Mara Ribeiro, Marcio Flavio Dutra Moraes, Antonio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of epilepsy in adults. The pilocarpine (PILO) experimental model of TLE portrays behavioral and pathophysiological changes in rodents that are very similar to those found in humans with TLE. However, this model is associated with an unfortunate high mortality rate. Studies have shown that intrahippocampal injection of PILO, while having a much smaller mortality rate, induces status epilepticus (SE) that secondarily leads to TLE. To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to evaluate the cognitive and histological alterations 72h after intrahippocampal microinjection of PILO in C57BL/6 mice...
October 10, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Emel Oğuz-Akarsu, Zeynep Aydin-Özemir, Nerses Bebek, Candan Gürses, Ayşen Gökyiğit, Betül Baykan
Status epilepticus (SE) is rarely described in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), and little is known about its frequency, subtypes, and predictors and the prognosis of these patients. In this retrospective study, we aimed to analyze the incidence of SE in patients with JME and emphasize the risk factors and long-term outcome of SE in an epilepsy outpatient-based cohort. We included patients with JME with a history of predominant myoclonic seizures and at least one diagnostic EEG with normal background activity and bursts of typical ≥3-Hz generalized spike-polyspike and waves...
October 10, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Alla Guekht, Maria Mizinova, Igor Kaimovsky, Oksana Danilenko, Elisa Bianchi, Ettore Beghi
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate prospectively the direct costs of epilepsy in Russia, taking a patient perspective and a bottom-up approach. METHODS: The study was conducted in adolescents and adults with epilepsy seen in the ambulatory services of a city hospital in Moscow. Patients were assigned to different prognostic categories: newly diagnosed epilepsy; epilepsy in remission for 2+years; epilepsy in remission for <2years or with occasional seizures; active, nondrug-resistant epilepsy; drug-resistant epilepsy; and drug-resistant epilepsy in surgical candidates...
October 10, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Adam Strzelczyk, Arnfin Bergmann, Valeria Biermann, Stefan Braune, Lienhard Dieterle, Bernhard Forth, Lena-Marie Kortland, Michael Lang, Thomas Peckmann, Oliver Schöffski, Karl-Otto Sigel, Felix Rosenow
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate physician adherence to the German Neurological Society guidelines of 2008 regarding initial monotherapy and to determine the cost-of-illness in epilepsy. METHODS: This was an observational cohort study using health data routinely collected at 55 outpatient neurology practices throughout Germany (NeuroTransData network). Data on socioeconomic status, course of epilepsy, anticonvulsive treatment, and direct and indirect costs were recorded using practice software-based questionnaires...
October 9, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Sharon Shmuely, Sanjay M Sisodiya, W Boudewijn Gunning, Josemir W Sander, Roland D Thijs
INTRODUCTION: Premature mortality is a major issue in Dravet syndrome (DS). To improve understanding of DS premature mortality, we conducted a comprehensive literature search with a particular emphasis on SUDEP. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, CENTRAL, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Academic Search Premier, and ScienceDirect on the following terms: "Dravet syndrome", "severe myoclonic epilepsy", "SMEI", "mortality", "survivors", "prognosis", and "death"...
October 9, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Walid A Alsharafi, Bo Xiao, Jing Li
OBJECTIVES: Regulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subunits NR2A and NR2B expression during status epilepticus (SE) remains incompletely understood. Here we explored the role of brain-enriched microRNA (miR)-139-5p in this process. METHODS: miRNA microarray was performed to examine changes in miRNA expression in the rat pilocarpine model following NMDA-receptor blockade. The dynamic expression patterns of miR-139-5p, NR2A, and NR2B levels were measured in rats during the three phases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) development using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot...
October 12, 2016: Epilepsia
Klajdi Puka, Mary Lou Smith
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the long-term cognitive outcomes following pediatric epilepsy surgery. Although the evidence for change within the first 2 years is not compelling, the plasticity of the immature brain may allow for improvements in the long term. This study examined memory function in a cohort of surgical and nonsurgical patients at baseline and 4-11 years after. METHOD: Participants were 88 patients (mean age 20.05, standard deviation [SD] 4.21 years) with childhood-onset intractable epilepsy; 53 had undergone resective epilepsy surgery...
October 12, 2016: Epilepsia
Kayam Chak, Biswajoy Roy-Chaudhuri, Hak Kyun Kim, Kayla C Kemp, Brenda E Porter, Mark A Kay
MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is consistently up-regulated in various neurological disorders, including epilepsy. Here, we show that the biogenesis of miR-21 is altered following pilocarpine status epilepticus (SE) with an increase in precursor miR-21 (pre-miR-21) in rats. We demonstrate that pre-miR-21 has an energetically favorable site overlapping with the miR-21 binding site and competes with mature miR-21 for binding in the 3'UTR of TGFBR2 mRNA, but not NT-3 mRNA in vitro. This binding competition influences miR-21-mediated repression in vitro and correlates with the increase in TGFBR2 and decrease in NT-3 following SE...
October 7, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Emel Oguz Akarsu, Pınar Tekturk, Zuhal Yapici, Fatih Tepgec, Z Oya Uyguner, Betul Baykan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 23, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Nathan A Illman, Steven Kemp, Céline Souchay, Robin G Morris, Chris J A Moulin
Previous research has pointed to a deficit in associative recognition in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Associative recognition tasks require discrimination between various combinations of words which have and have not been seen previously (such as old-old or old-new pairs). People with TLE tend to respond to rearranged old-old pairs as if they are "intact" old-old pairs, which has been interpreted as a failure to use a recollection strategy to overcome the familiarity of two recombined words into a new pairing...
2016: Epilepsy Research and Treatment
Ezhilarasi Krishnamoorthy, Sameer Hassan, Luke Elizabeth Hanna, Indira Padmalayam, Rama Rajaram, Vijay Viswanathan
Lipoic acid synthase (LIAS) is an iron-sulfur cluster mitochondrial enzyme which catalyzes the final step in the de novo pathway for the biosynthesis of lipoic acid, a potent antioxidant. Recently there has been significant interest in its role in metabolic diseases and its deficiency in LIAS expression has been linked to conditions such as diabetes, atherosclerosis and neonatal-onset epilepsy, suggesting a strong inverse correlation between LIAS reduction and disease status. In this study we use a bioinformatics approach to predict its structure, which would be helpful to understanding its role...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Sarah Aminoff Kelley, Eric Heath Kossoff
Electrical status epilepticus of sleep (ESES), with the activation of profuse amounts of epileptiform discharges in sleep, may lead to intractable epilepsy and neurocognitive decline in children. Numerous varied treatments including antiseizure medications, steroids, and surgery have been investigated as possible treatment options. The ketogenic diet (KD) is an additional treatment option which may add to our treatment armamentarium for ESES. The KD may theoretically improve ESES by affecting GABA systems and reducing inflammation...
September 23, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Jacques Theitler, Daniella Dassa, Revital Gandelman-Marton
BACKGROUND: The electroencephalogram (EEG) can support the diagnosis of epilepsy, diagnose nonconvulsive status epilepticus, and aid in the classification of epileptic seizures. Its contribution to the diagnosis of other medical conditions or to decision making in other clinical situations was not established. Practically, EEG labs frequently encounter EEG referrals that are not based on current recommendations. OBJECTIVES: To assess the value of inpatient EEG in medical decision making...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Liliana Carmona-Aparicio, Cecilia Zavala-Tecuapetla, María Eva González-Trujano, Aristides Iii Sampieri, Hortencia Montesinos-Correa, Leticia Granados-Rojas, Esaú Floriano-Sánchez, Elvia Coballase-Urrutía, Noemí Cárdenas-Rodríguez
The epileptic state, or status epilepticus (SE), is the most serious situation manifested by individuals with epilepsy, and SE events can lead to neuronal damage. An understanding of the molecular, biochemical and physiopathological mechanisms involved in this type of neurological disease will enable the identification of specific central targets, through which novel agents may act and be useful as SE therapies. Currently, studies have focused on the association between oxidative stress and SE, the most severe epileptic condition...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Mykaella Andrade de Araújo, Thalita Ewellyn Batista Sales Marques, Shirley Octacílio-Silva, Carmem Lúcia de Arroxelas-Silva, Marília Gabriella Alves Goulart Pereira, José Eduardo Peixoto-Santos, Ludmyla Kandratavicius, João Pereira Leite, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Olagide Wagner Castro, Marcelo Duzzioni, Geraldo Aleixo Passos, Maria Luisa Paçó-Larson, Daniel Leite Góes Gitaí
The involvement of miRNA in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) pathogenesis has increasingly become a focus of epigenetic studies. Despite advances, the number of known miRNAs with a consistent expression response during epileptogenesis is still small. Addressing this situation requires additional miRNA profiling studies coupled to detailed individual expression analyses. Here, we perform a miRNA microarray analysis of the hippocampus of Wistar rats 24 hours after intra-hippocampal pilocarpine-induced Status Epilepticus (H-PILO SE)...
2016: PloS One
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