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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454289/walking-speed-measurement-with-an-ambient-measurement-system-ams-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-and-walking-impairment
#1
Francois Bethoux, Jonathan S Varsanik, Timothy W Chevalier, Elkan F Halpern, Darlene Stough, Zebadiah M Kimmel
BACKGROUND: Walking speed is an important measure of gait impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS). The clinical assessment of walking speed requires dedicated time, space, and personnel, and may not accurately gauge real-world performance. The term "Ambient Measurement System" (AMS) refers to a new class of device that passively measures walking speed at home, without the need for dedicated space or specialized setup. This study compared an AMS, Echo5D, versus in-clinic standard measures of walking speed on a straight path...
February 8, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454217/morphologies-and-elemental-compositions-of-local-biomass-burning-particles-at-urban-and-glacier-sites-in-southeastern-tibetan-plateau-results-from-an-expedition-in-2010
#2
Tafeng Hu, Junji Cao, Chongshu Zhu, Zhuzi Zhao, Suixin Liu, Daizhou Zhang
Many studies indicate that the atmospheric environment over the southern part of the Tibetan Plateau is influenced by aged biomass burning particles that are transported over long distances from South Asia. However, our knowledge of the particles emitted locally (within the plateau region) is poor. We collected aerosol particles at four urban sites and one remote glacier site during a scientific expedition to the southeastern Tibetan Plateau in spring 2010. Weather and backward trajectory analyses indicated that the particles we collected were more likely dominated by particles emitted within the plateau...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454060/aop-db-a-database-resource-for-the-exploration-of-adverse-outcome-pathways-through-integrated-association-networks
#3
Maureen E Pittman, Stephen W Edwards, Cataia Ives, Holly M Mortensen
The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework describes the progression of a toxicity pathway from molecular perturbation to population-level outcome in a series of measurable, mechanistic responses. The controlled, computer-readable vocabulary that defines an AOP has the ability to, automatically and on a large scale, integrate AOP knowledge with publically available sources of biological high-throughput data and its derived associations. To support the discovery and development of putative (existing) and potential AOPs, we introduce the AOP-DB, an exploratory database resource that aggregates association relationships between genes and their related chemicals, diseases, pathways, species orthology information, ontologies, and gene interactions...
February 14, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454054/genomic-perspectives-of-spider-silk-genes-through-target-capture-sequencing-conservation-of-stabilization-mechanisms-and-homology-based-structural-models-of-spidroin-terminal-regions
#4
Matthew A Collin, Thomas H Clarke, Nadia A Ayoub, Cheryl Y Hayashi
A powerful system for studying protein aggregation, particularly rapid self-assembly, is spider silk. Spider silks are proteinaceous and silk proteins are synthesized and stored within silk glands as liquid dope. As needed, liquid dope is near-instantaneously transformed into solid fibers or viscous adhesives. The dominant constituents of silks are spidroins (spider fibroins) and their terminal domains are vital for the tight control of silk self-assembly. To better understand spidroin termini, we used target capture and deep sequencing to identify spidroin gene sequences from six species representing the araneoid families of Araneidae, Nephilidae, and Theridiidae...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453998/ctl14-a-recognition-receptor-induced-in-late-stage-larvae-modulates-anti-fungal-immunity-in-cotton-bollworm-helicoverpa-armigera
#5
Yang Cheng, Zhe Lin, Ju-Mei Wang, Long-Sheng Xing, Guang-Hua Xiong, Zhen Zou
C-type lectin (CTL) is usually considered as pattern recognition receptors in insect innate immunity. Here we found that CTL14 of Helicoverpa armigera was only activated in the fifth instar larvae not in the second instar by entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana infection. Recombinant CTL14 protein was found to form aggregates with zymosan and B. bassiana in vitro. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that CTL14 interacted with serine proteinases (SP), serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin), prophenoloxidases (PPO) and vitellogenin (Vg) in the larval hemolymph...
February 14, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453994/land-use-change-and-conversion-effects-on-ground-water-quality-trends-an-integration-of-land-change-modeler-in-gis-and-a-new-ground-water-quality-index-developed-by-fuzzy-multi-criteria-group-decision-making-models
#6
Mohammad Reza Shooshtarian, Mansooreh Dehghani, Ferrante Margherita, Oliveri Conti Gea, Shima Mortezazadeh
This study aggregated Land Change Modeller (LCM) as a useful model in GIS with an extended Groundwater Quality Index (GWQI) developed by fuzzy Multi-Criteria Group Decision-Making models to investigate the effect of land use change and conversion on groundwater quality being supplied for drinking. The model's performance was examined through an applied study in Shiraz, Iran, in a five year period (2011 to 2015). Four land use maps including urban, industrial, garden, and bare were employed in LCM model and the impact of change in area and their conversion to each other on GWQI changes was analysed...
February 14, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453960/synaptic-dysfunction-and-altered-excitability-in-c9orf72-als-ftd
#7
Alexander Starr, Rita Sattler
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by a progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in fatal paralysis due to denervation of the muscle. Due to genetic, pathological and symptomatic overlap, ALS is now considered a spectrum disease together with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), the second most common cause of dementia in individuals under the age of 65. Interestingly, in both diseases, there is a large prevalence of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that are mutated and considered disease-causing, or whose dysfunction contribute to disease pathogenesis...
February 14, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453904/synthesis-self-assembly-and-photoresponsive-liquid-crystals-based-on-azobenzene-derivatives
#8
Hongyan Wang, Yi Han, Wei Yuan, Mengjiao Wu, Yulan Chen
A new class of rod-coil-rod molecules with an azobenzene core were synthesized. They were found to form robust organogels in several kinds of organic solvents. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, 1H NMR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that in these organogels, the molecules self-assembled into nanofiber network with an H-type aggregation mode under the joint effect of Pi-Pi stacking, intermolecular hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces...
February 17, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453901/shedding-light-on-aberrant-interactions-a-review-of-modern-tools-for-studying-protein-aggregates
#9
REVIEW
Franziska Kundel, Laura Tosatto, Daniel R Whiten, David C Wirthensohn, Mathew H Horrocks, David Klenerman
The link between protein aggregation and neurodegenerative disease is well established. However, given the heterogeneity of species formed during the aggregation process, it is difficult to delineate details of the molecular events involved in generating pathological aggregates from those producing soluble monomers. As aberrant aggregates are possible pharmacological targets for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, the need to observe and characterise soluble oligomers has pushed traditional biophysical techniques to their limits, leading to the development of a plethora of new tools capable of detecting soluble oligomers with high precision and specificity...
February 17, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453894/organisation-of-lymphocytic-infiltrates-inanca-associated-glomerulonephritis
#10
Silke R Brix, Mercedes Noriega, Elisabeth M Herden, Birgit Goldmann, Ulrike Langbehn, Martin Busch, Wolfram J Jabs, Oliver M Steinmetz, Ulf Panzer, Tobias B Huber, Rolf A K Stahl, Thorsten Wiech
AIMS: Renal involvement in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis contributes to significant morbidity and mortality in patients. In chronic inflammation, B cells are recruited to the inflamed tissue and organised lymphoid structures have been described in several autoimmune diseases. Aim of this study was to correlate the lymphoid organisation in renal biopsies with renal outcome in ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis (GN). METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated 112 renal biopsies from patients with newly diagnosed ANCA-associated necrotizing GN...
February 17, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453800/atomic-structures-of-corkscrew-forming-segments-of-sod1-reveal-varied-oligomer-conformations
#11
Smriti Sangwan, Michael R Sawaya, Kevin A Murray, MichaelP Hughes, David S Eisenberg
The aggregation cascade of disease-related amyloidogenic proteins, terminating in insoluble amyloid fibrils, involves intermediate oligomeric states. The structural and biochemical details of these oligomers have been largely unknown. Here we report crystal structures of variants of the cytotoxic oligomer-forming segment residues 28-38 of the ALS-linked protein, SOD1. The crystal structures reveal three different architectures: corkscrew oligomeric structure, non-twisting curved sheet structure and a steric zipper proto-filament structure...
February 17, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453790/amyloid-beta-1-40-is-associated-with-alterations-in-ng2-pericyte-population-ex-vivo-and-in-vitro
#12
Nina Schultz, Kristoffer Brännström, Elin Byman, Simon Moussaud, Henrietta M Nielsen, Anders Olofsson, Malin Wennström
The population of brain pericytes, a cell type important for vessel stability and blood brain barrier function, has recently been shown altered in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The underlying reason for this alteration is not fully understood, but progressive accumulation of the AD characteristic peptide amyloid-beta (Aβ) has been suggested as a potential culprit. In the current study, we show reduced number of hippocampal NG2+ pericytes and an association between NG2+ pericyte numbers and Aβ1-40 levels in AD patients...
February 17, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453569/assessing-autophagy-in-sertoli-cells
#13
Chao Liu, Jehangir Khan, Wei Li
Autophagy is an important cellular homeostatic process, it degrades most long-lived proteins and some organelles by lysosome to provide raw materials for the survival of the cells during nutrient or energy deprivation condition. Autophagy is active in Sertoli cells and involved in many cellular processes. However, the precise role of autophagy in Sertoli cells is still largely unknown. Thus, the assessment of autophagy in Sertoli cells should be helpful for investigating the functional roles of autophagy in Sertoli cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453544/molecular-and-cellular-toxicology-of-nanomaterials-with-related-to-aquatic-organisms
#14
Mohd Ashraf Rather, Irfan Ahmad Bhat, Niti Sharma, Rupam Sharma
The increasing application of nanomaterials both in commercial and industrial products has led their accumulation in the aquatic ecosystem. The rapid development and large scale production of nanomaterials in the last few decades have stimulated concerns regarding their potential environmental health risks on aquatic biota. Inorganic nanoparticles, due to their unique properties and associated material characteristics resulted in toxicity of these nanomaterials in aquatic organisms. Understanding their novel properties at nanoscale has established to be a significant aspect of their toxicity...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453537/toxicogenomics-a-new-paradigm-for-nanotoxicity-evaluation
#15
Sourabh Dwivedi, Quaiser Saquib, Bilal Ahmad, Sabiha M Ansari, Ameer Azam, Javed Musarrat
The wider applications of nanoparticles (NPs) has evoked a world-wide concern due to their possible risk of toxicity in humans and other organisms. Aggregation and accumulation of NPs into cell leads to their interaction with biological macromolecules including proteins, nucleic acids and cellular organelles, which eventually induce toxicological effects. Application of toxicogenomics to investigate molecular pathway-based toxicological consequences has opened new vistas in nanotoxicology research. Indeed, genomic approaches appeared as a new paradigm in terms of providing information at molecular levels and have been proven to be as a powerful tool for identification and quantification of global shifts in gene expression...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453417/exome-sequencing-has-higher-diagnostic-yield-compared-to-simulated-disease-specific-panels-in-children-with-suspected-monogenic-disorders
#16
Oliver James Dillon, Sebastian Lunke, Zornitza Stark, Alison Yeung, Natalie Thorne, Clara Gaff, Susan M White, Tiong Yang Tan
As test costs decline, whole-exome sequencing (WES) has become increasingly used for clinical diagnosis, and now represents the primary alternative to gene panel testing for patients with a suspected genetic disorder. We sought to compare the diagnostic yield of singleton-WES with simulated application of commercial gene panels in children suspected of having a genetically heterogeneous condition. Recruitment, singleton-WES and phenotype-driven variant analysis was completed for 145 paediatric patients. At recruitment, clinicians were required to propose commercial gene panel tests as an alternative to WES and nominate a phenotype-driven candidate gene list...
February 16, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453371/plasmonic-spherical-heterodimers-reversal-of-optical-binding-force-based-on-the-forced-breaking-of-symmetry
#17
M R C Mahdy, Md Danesh, Tianhang Zhang, Weiqiang Ding, Hamim Mahmud Rivy, Ariful Bari Chowdhury, M Q Mehmood
The stimulating connection between the reversal of near-field plasmonic binding force and the role of symmetry-breaking has not been investigated comprehensively in the literature. In this work, the symmetry of spherical plasmonic heterodimer-setup is broken forcefully by shining the light from a specific side of the set-up instead of impinging it from the top. We demonstrate that for the forced symmetry-broken spherical heterodimer-configurations: reversal of lateral and longitudinal near-field binding force follow completely distinct mechanisms...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453339/a-role-for-tau-in-learning-memory-and-synaptic-plasticity
#18
Fabrizio Biundo, Dolores Del Prete, Hong Zhang, Ottavio Arancio, Luciano D'Adamio
Tau plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders: mutations in the gene encoding for tau (MAPT) are linked to Fronto-temporal Dementia (FTD) and hyper-phosphorylated aggregates of tau forming neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) that constitute a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) and FTD. Accordingly, tau is a favored therapeutic target for the treatment of these diseases. Given the criticality of tau to dementia's pathogenesis and therapy, it is important to understand the physiological function of tau in the central nervous system...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453246/yield-of-the-ryr2-genetic-test-in-suspected-catecholaminergic-polymorphic-ventricular-tachycardia-and-implications-for-test-interpretation
#19
Jamie D Kapplinger, Krishna N Pundi, Nicholas B Larson, Thomas E Callis, David J Tester, Hennie Bikker, Arthur A M Wilde, Michael J Ackerman
BACKGROUND: Pathogenic RYR2 variants account for ≈60% of clinically definite cases of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. However, the rate of rare benign RYR2 variants identified in the general population remains a challenge for genetic test interpretation. Therefore, we examined the results of the RYR2 genetic test among patients referred for commercial genetic testing and examined factors impacting variant interpretability. METHODS: Frequency and location comparisons were made for RYR2 variants identified among 1355 total patients of varying clinical certainty and 60 706 Exome Aggregation Consortium controls...
February 2018: Circ Genom Precis Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453205/co-deficiency-of-lysosomal-mucolipins-3-and-1-in-cochlear-hair-cells-diminishes-outer-hair-cell-longevity-and-accelerates-age-related-hearing-loss
#20
Teerawat Wiwatpanit, Natalie N Remis, Aisha Ahmad, Yingjie Zhou, John C Clancy, Mary Ann Cheatham, Jaime García-Añoveros
Acquired hearing loss is the predominant neurodegenerative condition associated with aging in humans. Although mutations on several genes are known to cause congenital deafness in newborns, few genes have been implicated in age-related hearing loss (ARHL), perhaps because its cause is likely polygenic. Here, we generated mice lacking lysosomal calcium channel mucolipins 3 and 1 and discovered that both male and female mice suffered a polygenic form of hearing loss. While mucolipin 1 is ubiquitously expressed in all cells, mucolipin 3 is expressed in a small subset of cochlear cells -hair cells (HCs) and marginal cells of the stria vascularis- and very few other cell types...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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