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Wen-Yu Cheng, Chiung-Chyi Shen, Ming-Tsang Chiao, Yea-Jiuan Liang, Tsuo-Fei Mao, Bai-Shuan Liu, Jun-Peng Chen
INTRODUCTION: A previous study confirmed that a novel splicing variant of large vascular endothelial growth factor (L-VEGF) termed L-VEGF144, a nucleolus protein, is found in glioblastoma cells and specimens, but the actual biological function and clinical significance of L-VEGF144 remain unclear. METHODS: In this study, we analyzed the expression of L-VEGF144 in 68 glioblastoma multiforme specimens using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Simon E Wawra, Martin Thoma, Johannes Walter, Christian Lübbert, Thaseem Thajudeen, Cornelia Damm, Wolfgang Peukert
By combining analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) in liquid phase and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) in the gas phase, additional information on the particle size and morphology has been obtained for rigid particles. In this paper, we transfer this concept to soft particles, allowing us to analyze the size and molar mass of the short side chain perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer Aquivion® in a dilute aqueous suspension. The determination of the primary size and exact molar mass of this class of polymers is challenging since they are optically transparent and due to the formation of different aggregate structures depending on the concentration and solvent properties...
June 16, 2018: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
Glaucia M S Pinheiro, Carlos H I Ramos
Chaperones belonging to the small heat shock protein (sHSP) family are ubiquitous and exhibit elevated expression under stresses conditions to protect proteins against aggregation, thereby contributing to the stress tolerance of the organism. Tropical plants are constantly exposed to high temperatures, and the mechanisms by which these plants tolerate heat stress are of foremost importance to basic science as well as applied agrobiotechnology. Therefore, this study aims to characterize sHSPs from different organelles from sugarcane, an important crop that is associated with sugar and bioenergy production...
June 4, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Takeyuki Tsuchida, Tatsuo Mano, Kagari-Koshi-Mano, Taro Bannai, Tomoyasu Matsubara, Satoshi Yamashita, Toshikazu Ushijima, Kenichi Nagata, Shigeo Murayama, Tatsushi Toda, Shoji Tsuji, Atsushi Iwata
Lewy body disease (LBD) is characterized by accumulation of aggregated α-synuclein in the central nervous system as eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions called Lewy bodies. According to their distribution pattern, it is classified into brainstem LBD, limbic LBD and diffuse neocortical LBD. It has been reported that α-synuclein affects various points in the MAPK cascade but its relationship with FGF receptors, which are the most upstream of the pathway, has not been previously investigated. We discovered that among the four FGFRs, FGFR3 showed neuronal upregulation in LBD brains histopathologically...
June 14, 2018: Brain Research
Hitomi Nakamura, Naoko Oda-Ueda, Tadashi Ueda, Takatoshi Ohkuri
The production of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies is costly; therefore, antibody-binding fragments (Fabs) can be used instead. However, their tendency toward aggregation can reduce the half-life in the plasma and the therapeutic effectiveness. To examine the effect of glycosylation on the properties of the Fab of a therapeutic antibody, an N-glycosylation site was introduced at position 178 of the H-chain constant region of adalimumab Fab through site-directed mutagenesis of L178 N (H:L178 N Fab), and then the mutant H:L178 N Fab was expressed in Pichia pastoris...
June 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
B Sobolewska, J Golenko, S Poeschel, C Grimmel, A Gatsiou, K Sopova, T Biedermann, K Schenke-Layland, K Stellos, F Ziemssen
Aflibercept appears to accumulate in systemic circulation following intravitreal injections in therapy of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. This gives raise to the question of whether aflibercept affects platelets and their function such as activation and aggregation, which are substantial in the pathogenesis of an arterial thromboembolic event (ATE). In order to determine the effect of aflibercept in platelet activation, platelets from healthy volunteers were treated with aflibercept and its solvents at equal concentrations (0...
June 14, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Manuela D'Eletto, Federica Rossin, Olga Fedorova, Maria Grazia Farrace, Mauro Piacentini
The maintenance of protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is a fundamental aspect of cell physiology that is essential for the survival of organisms under a variety of environmental and/or intracellular stress conditions. Acute and/or persistent stress exceeding the capacity of the intracellular homeostatic systems results in protein aggregation and/or damaged organelles that leads to pathological cellular states often resulting in cell death. These events are continuously suppressed by a complex macromolecular machinery that uses different intracellular pathways to maintain the proteome integrity in the various subcellular compartments ensuring a healthy cellular life span...
June 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Mozhgan Aghajanzadeh, Mostafa Zamani, Hamid Rashidzadeh, Kobra Rostamizadeh, Ali Sharafi, Hossein Danafar
In this project, a core-shell Polymersome based on miktoarm star-copolymer: methoxy Poly Ethylene Glycol-Lysine-(Poly Caprolactone)2 (PEG-Lys-PCL2 ) was synthesized by a new method as controlled targeted drug delivery systems for co-delivery of the chemotherapeutic methotrexate (MTX) and curcumin (CUR). Some properties of these nano carriers (NCs) such as surface morphology, structure, surface charge, stability and biocompatibility were evaluated by Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 HNMR), dynamic scanning colorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Critical aggregation concentration (CAC), hemolysis test, MTT assay and lethal dose 50 (LD50)...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Nannan Gu, Shunpeng Xing, Sihan Chen, Yuxi Zhou, Tao Jiang, Yingfu Jiao, Yuan Gao, Weifeng Yu, Zhengyu He, Daxiang Wen
Aberrant aggregation and activation of lung fibroblasts is a key process in pulmonary fibrosis, but the underlying mechanism remains enigmatic. Forkhead Box O3a (FoxO3a) is considered to be an important transcription factor that could regulate both cell cycle and cell viability. To investigate the role of FoxO3a on LPS-induced lung fibroblast proliferation, we transfected FoxO3a-SiRNA or FoxO3a-OE lentivirus into cultured mouse lung fibroblasts to knockdown or overexpress FoxO3a and pretreated mouse lung fibroblasts with gefitinib to enhance FoxO3a activity...
June 16, 2018: Cell Biology International
Richard T Wang, Florian Barthelemy, Ann S Martin, Emilie D Douine, Ascia Eskin, Ann Lucas, Jenifer Lavigne, Holly Peay, Negar Khanlou, Lee Sweeney, Rita M Cantor, M Carrie Miceli, Stanley F Nelson
Antisense oligonucleotide (AON) mediated exon skipping is an emerging therapeutic for individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Skipping of exons adjacent to common exon deletions in DMD using AONs can produce in-frame transcripts and functional protein. Targeted skipping of DMD exons 8, 44, 45, 50, 51, 52, 53, and 55 are predicted to benefit 47% of affected individuals. We observed a correlation between mutation subgroups and age at loss of ambulation in DuchenneConnect, a large database of phenotypic and genetic data for DMD (N = 765)...
June 16, 2018: Human Mutation
He-Jin Lee, Ye-Seul Yoon, Seung-Jae Lee
Trehalose is a non-reducing disaccharide with two glucose molecules linked through an α, α-1,1-glucosidic bond. Trehalose has received attention for the past few decades for its role in neuroprotection especially in animal models of various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson and Huntington diseases. The mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of trehalose remains elusive. The prevailing hypothesis is that trehalose protects neurons by inducing autophagy, thereby clearing protein aggregates...
June 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Chan Choo Yap, Laura Digilio, Lloyd P McMahon, A Denise R Garcia, Bettina Winckler
Neurons are large and long lived, creating high needs for regulating protein turnover. Disturbances in proteostasis lead to aggregates and cellular stress. We characterized the behavior of the short-lived dendritic membrane proteins Nsg1 and Nsg2 to determine whether these proteins are degraded locally in dendrites or centrally in the soma. We discovered a spatial heterogeneity of endolysosomal compartments in dendrites. Early EEA1-positive and late Rab7-positive endosomes are found throughout dendrites, whereas the density of degradative LAMP1- and cathepsin (Cat) B/D-positive lysosomes decreases steeply past the proximal segment...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Alexander C Bertalovitz, Marika L Osterbur Badhey, Thomas V McDonald
Synonymous nucleotide variation is increasingly recognized as a factor than can affect protein expression, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we investigated whether synonymous changes could affect expression of the potassium voltage gated channel subfamily H member 2 (KCNH2) gene, encoding the human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) ion channel which is linked to hereditary cardiac arrhythmia. We examined a previously described synthetic version (hERG-CM) with synonymous substitutions designed to reduce GC content, rare codons, and mRNA secondary structure relative to the native construct (hERG-NT)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ravi Kiran Munnur, James D Cameron, Liam M McCormick, Peter J Psaltis, Nitesh Nerlekar, Brian S H Ko, Ian T Meredith, Sujith Seneviratne, Dennis T L Wong
BACKGROUND: Visual assessment of diameter-stenosis on Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography (CTCA) lacks specificity to determine functional significance of coronary artery stenosis. Percent-aggregate plaque volume (%APV) and ASLA score, which incorporates Area of Stenosis, Lesion length, and area of myocardium subtended estimated by APPROACH score (Alberta Provincial Project for Outcome Assessment in Coronary Heart Disease) have been described to predict lesion specific ischaemia in focal lesions with intermediate stenosis...
June 8, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Young-Ji Kim, Hong-Seok Kim, Jung-Whan Chon, Dong-Hyeon Kim, Ji-Yeon Hyeon, Kun-Ho Seo
Campylobacter is the most common cause of infectious intestinal disease, with nearly all cases caused by two species: C. jejuni and C. coli. We recently reported a gold nanoparticle-based two-stage aptasensing platform, which was improved in the present study for the rapid and on-site detection of both C. jejuni and C. coli in food samples. Compared to the previous platform, the improved platform yielded a more obvious colour change from red to purple due to the aggregation of gold nanoparticles, and does not require additional time or a pH optimization step for the aptamers to be adsorbed onto the gold nanoparticles...
October 31, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Marialore Sulpizi, Johannes Lützenkirchen
Although they have been widely used as models for oxide surfaces, the deprotonation behaviors of the Keggin-ions (MeAl12 7+ ) and typical oxide surfaces are very different. On Keggin-ions, the deprotonation occurs over a very narrow pH range at odds with the broad charging curve of larger oxide surfaces. Depending on the Me concentration, the deprotonation curve levels off sooner (high Me concentration) or later (for low Me concentration). The leveling off shows the onset of aggregation before which the Keggin-ions are present as individual units...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Sebastian Schöttl, Dominik Horinek
The weakly associated micellar aggregates found in the so-called "pre-ouzo region" of the surfactant-free microemulsion water/ethanol/1-octanol are sensitive to changes in the system composition and also to the presence of additives like salt. In this work, we study the influence of two salts, sodium iodide and lithium chloride, on aggregates in water/ethanol/1-octanol by molecular dynamics simulations. In both cases, ethanol concentration in the nonpolar phase and at the interface is increased due to a salting out effect on ethanol in the aqueous pseudo-phase...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Diego Luis González, Manuel Camargo, Julián A Sánchez
We study the effect of hindered aggregation on the island formation processes for a one-dimensional model of epitaxial growth with arbitrary nucleus size i. In the proposed model, the attachment of monomers to islands is hindered by an aggregation barrier, ε_{a}, which decreases the hopping rate of monomers to the islands. As ε_{a} increases, the system exhibits a crossover between two different regimes; namely, from diffusion-limited aggregation to attachment-limited aggregation. The island size distribution, P(s), is calculated for different values of ε_{a} by a self-consistent approach involving the nucleation and aggregation capture kernels...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Lorin S Matthews, Babak Shotorban, Truell W Hyde
Dust particles immersed in a plasma environment become charged through the collection of electrons and ions at random times, causing the dust charge to fluctuate about an equilibrium value. Small grains (with radii less than 1 μm) or grains in a tenuous plasma environment are sensitive to single additions of electrons or ions. Here we present a numerical model that allows examination of discrete stochastic charge fluctuations on the surface of aggregate grains and determines the effect of these fluctuations on the dynamics of grain aggregation...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Yunfei Tang, Yun Chai, Xiaoqiang Liu, Lele Li, Liwei Yang, Peipei Liu, Yanmei Zhou, Huangxian Ju, Yunzhi Cheng
In this work, a CuS-TiO2 heterojunction composite was prepared by dispersedly depositing CuS nanoparticles on TiO2 nanospheres surface with a hydrothermal method, and was then used to construct a photoelectrochemical (PEC) aptasensor for sensitive detection of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in aquatic environment. The energy bands of CuS nanoparticles and spherical anatase TiO2 were well matched, which enhanced the photo-to-current conversion efficiency. The composite exhibited the enhanced visible light absorption, the improved separation of photo-generated charges, and the reduced self-aggregation of CuS nanoparticles, leading to the enhanced photocurrent response...
June 5, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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