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Maryam Askaravi, Seyedeh Elham Rezatofighi, Saadat Rastegarzadeh, Masoud Reza Seifi Abad Shapouri
A simple colorimetric assay is presented for detecting bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-RNA based on aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the presence of charge-neutral peptide nucleic acids (PNA). Free charge-neutral PNA oligomers tended to be adsorbed onto AuNPs and act as a coagulant, whereas hybridizing complementary RNA with PNA disrupted PNA-induced AuNP aggregation, and the NPs remained stable. However, non-complementary RNA did not have this effect, and PNA induced aggregation of the AuNPs that resulted in a color change of the reaction from red to blue...
December 2017: AMB Express
Moritz Hess, Stefan Lenz, Tamara J Blätte, Lars Bullinger, Harald Binder
Motivation: Learning the joint distributions of measurements, and in particular identification of an appropriate low-dimensional manifold, has been found to be a powerful ingredient of deep leaning approaches. Yet, such approaches have hardly been applied to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data, probably due to the high number of features typically exceeding the number of studied individuals. Results: After a brief overview of how deep Boltzmann machines (DBMs), a deep learning approach, can be adapted to SNP data in principle, we specifically present a way to alleviate the dimensionality problem by partitioned learning...
June 26, 2017: Bioinformatics
Jeremy D Baker, Lindsey B Shelton, Dali Zheng, Filippo Favretto, Bryce A Nordhues, April Darling, Leia E Sullivan, Zheying Sun, Parth K Solanki, Mackenzie D Martin, Amirthaa Suntharalingam, Jonathan J Sabbagh, Stefan Becker, Eckhard Mandelkow, Vladimir N Uversky, Markus Zweckstetter, Chad A Dickey, John Koren, Laura J Blair
The accumulation of amyloidogenic proteins is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative disorders. The aberrant accumulation of the microtubule associating protein tau (MAPT, tau) into toxic oligomers and amyloid deposits is a primary pathology in tauopathies, the most common of which is Alzheimer's disease (AD). Intrinsically disordered proteins, like tau, are enriched with proline residues that regulate both secondary structure and aggregation propensity. The orientation of proline residues is regulated by cis/trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PPIases)...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
Paul F Cook, Sarah J Schmiege, Whitney Starr, Jane M Carrington, Lucy Bradley-Springer
BACKGROUND: Many persons living with HIV (PLWH) are nonadherent to medication. Trait level measures that ask about predictors of adherence in the abstract may not adequately capture state level daily variability that more directly impacts adherence. OBJECTIVES: This preliminary study was designed to test six predictors of electronically monitored adherence at both the state and trait levels and to compare their relative effects. METHODS: Using a smartphone, 87 PLWH completed randomly cued daily surveys on thoughts, mood, stress, coping, social support, and treatment motivation...
July 2017: Nursing Research
Ying Wang, Suchada Rajca, Andrzej Rajca
We report the synthesis and kinetic study of PEGylated, water soluble aminyl radical 2. The radical possesses four mPEG-3 groups replacing four methyl groups in the tert-butyl groups at the 3- and 6-positions of 1,3,6,8-Tetra-tert-butyl carbazyl (TTBC). This structure is designed to mitigate the rapid decomposition of the radical via intramolecular 1,5-hydrogen atom transfer (1,5-HAT) that was observed in its constitutional isomer 1-H with four mPEG-3 groups in the vicinity of the nitrogen-centered radical (1- and 8-positions of TTBC)...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Luca C Gobbi, Henner Knust, Matthias Körner, Michael Honer, Christian Czech, Sara Belli, Dieter Muri, Martin R Edelmann, Thomas Hartung, Isabella Erbsmehl, Sandra Grall-Ulsemer, Andreas Koblet, Marianne Rueher, Sandra Steiner, Hayden T Ravert, William B Mathews, Daniel P Holt, Hiroto Kuwabara, Heather Valentine, Robert F Dannals, Dean F Wong, Edilio Borroni
Aggregates of tau and beta amyloid (Aβ) plaques constitute the histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease and are prominent targets for novel therapeutics as well as for biomarkers for diagnostic in vivo imaging. In recent years much attention has been devoted to the discovery and development of new PET tracers to image tau aggregates in the living human brain. Access to a selective PET tracer to image and quantify tau aggregates represents a unique tool to support the development of any novel therapeutic agent targeting pathological forms of tau...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Hong Yan, Deshuang Tu, Pakkin Leong, Song Guo, Changsheng Lu, Qiang Zhao
The development of organic single-molecule solid-state white emitters holds a great promise for advanced lighting and display applications. Here we report a novel molecular engineering for highly-emissive single-molecule white emitters by design and synthesis of a series of o-carborane-based luminophores. These luminophores are able to induce multiple emissions to directly emit high-purity white light in solid state. By tuning both molecular and aggregate structures, a significantly improved white-light efficiency has been realized (absolute quantum yield 67%), which is the highest value among the known organic single-molecule white emitters in solid state...
June 27, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Ruei-Yu He, Shu-Han Chao, Yu-Ju Tsai, Chi-Chang Lee, Chu-Yi Yu, Hua-De Gao, Yung-An Huang, Eric Hwang, Hsien-Ming Lee, Joseph Jen-Tse Huang
The abnormal assembly of misfolded proteins into neurotoxic aggregates is the hallmark associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Herein, we establish a photocontrollable platform to trigger amyloidogenesis to recapitulate the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by applying a chemically engineered probe as a "switch" in live cells. This probe is composed of an amyloidogenic peptide from TDP-43, a photolabile linker, a polycationic sequence both to mask amyloidogenicity and for cell penetration, and a fluorophore for visualization...
June 27, 2017: ACS Nano
Tarek R Mansour, Yasaman Alam, Layth Dahbour, Ahmed Alnemari, Mouhammad Jumaa, Jason L Schroeder
Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death and is responsible for approximately nine percent of all deaths worldwide. Cases of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans)-induced intracerebral hemorrhage as a result of bloodstream infections have seldom been reported. New reports show that bacteria with specific collagen binding proteins (CBPs), such as the Cnm type produced by S. mutans, may inhibit platelet aggregation and cause bleeding. In this article, we report on a 62-year-old man with a recent history of left frontal intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) who presented to the emergency department after a fall due to suspected seizure while in rehabilitation...
May 19, 2017: Curēus
Po-Jung Huang, Haley L Marks, Gerard L Coté, Jun Kameoka
A microfluidic device utilizing magnetically activated nickel (Ni) micropads has been developed for controlled localization of plasmonic core-shell magnetic nanoparticles, specifically for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) applications. Magnetic microfluidics allows for automated washing steps, provides a means for easy reagent packaging, allows for chip reusability, and can even be used to facilitate on-chip mixing and filtration towards full automation of biological sample processing and analysis...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Madhur Nayan, Robert J Hamilton, Antonio Finelli, Peter C Austin, Girish S Kulkarni, David N Juurlink
INTRODUCTION: Variables, such as smoking and obesity, are rarely available in administrative databases. We explored the added value of including these data in an administrative database study evaluating the association of statin use with survival in kidney cancer. METHODS: We linked administrative data with chart-abstracted data on smoking and obesity for 808 patients undergoing nephrectomy for kidney cancer. Base models consisted of variables from administrative databases (age, sex, year of surgery, and different measures of comorbidity [to compare their sensitivity to smoking and obesity data]); extended models added chart-abstracted data...
June 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
Jens Lutz, Kerstin Jurk, Helmut Schinzel
Many patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) receive anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy due to atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, thromboembolic disease, or peripheral artery disease. The treatment usually includes vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and/or platelet aggregation inhibitors. The direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) inhibiting factor Xa or thrombin represent an alternative for VKAs. In patients with acute and chronic kidney disease, caution is warranted, as DOACs can accumulate as they are partly eliminated by the kidneys...
2017: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Ryo Morimoto, Yoshikiyo Ono, Yuta Tezuka, Masataka Kudo, Sachiko Yamamoto, Toshiaki Arai, Celso E Gomez-Sanchez, Hironobu Sasano, Sadayoshi Ito, Fumitoshi Satoh
Measurement of plasma aldosterone and renin concentration, or activity, is useful for selecting antihypertensive agents and detecting hyperaldosteronism in hypertensive patients. However, it takes several days to get results when measured by radioimmunoassay and development of more rapid assays has been long expected. We have developed chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays enabling the simultaneous measurement of both aldosterone and renin concentrations in 10 minutes by a fully automated assay using antibody-immobilized magnetic particles with quick aggregation and dispersion...
June 26, 2017: Hypertension
John T Schroeder, Anja P Bieneman
Evidence for epithelial cell (EC)-derived cytokines (e.g., thymic stromal lymphopoietin [TSLP]) activating human basophils remains controversial. We therefore hypothesize that ECs can directly activate basophils via cell-to-cell interaction. Basophils in medium alone or with IL-3 ± anti-IgE were coincubated with TSLP, IL-33, or IL-25. Analogous experiments cocultured basophils (1-72 h) directly with EC lines. Supernatants were tested for mediators and cytokines. Abs targeting receptors were tested for neutralizing effects...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Rishika Kundra, Prajwal Ciryam, Richard I Morimoto, Christopher M Dobson, Michele Vendruscolo
Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia. A hallmark of this disease is the presence of aberrant deposits containing by the Aβ peptide (amyloid plaques) and the tau protein (neurofibrillary tangles) in the brains of affected individuals. Increasing evidence suggests that the formation of these deposits is closely associated with the age-related dysregulation of a large set of highly expressed and aggregation-prone proteins, which make up a metastable subproteome. To understand in more detail the origins of such dysregulation, we identify specific components of the protein homeostasis system associated with these metastable proteins by using a gene coexpression analysis...
June 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Anna Lange-Consiglio, Claudia Perrini, Giulia Albini, Silvia Modina, Valentina Lodde, Eleonora Orsini, Paola Esposti, Fausto Cremonesi
The effect of conditioned medium (CM) or microvesicles (MVs), secreted by multicellular spheroids of oviductal cells, and the involvement of some microRNAs (miRNAs) were investigated in canine oocyte maturation. To generate CM, spheroids were cultured for 3 days. MVs were obtained by ultracentrifugation of CM at 100,000 g and measured for size and concentration by NanoSight instrument. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured at 38.5°C with 5% CO2 and 5% of O2 in synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) in biphasic systems: for 24 h, with 5...
August 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Sheetal Sharma, Bimla Nehru, Avneet Saini
BACKGROUND: The major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the formation of amyloid aggregates, which are formed due to improper folding of proteins leading to the aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ) 42 peptide. Inhibition of Aβ 42 aggregation using a drug such as carbenoxolone (Cbx), which has already been stated as neuroprotective, appears to be an effective approach against AD. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to investigate the anti-fibrillation activity of Cbx against the Aβ 42 aggregation...
June 23, 2017: Neurochemistry International
Giancarlo Pepeu, Maria Grazia Giovannini
The aims of this review are: 1) to describe which cholinergic neurons are affected in brain neurodegenerative diseases leading to dementia; 2) to discuss the possible causes of the degeneration of the cholinergic neurons, 3) to summarize the functional consequences of the cholinergic deficit. The brain cholinergic system is basically constituted by three populations of phenotypically similar neurons forming a series of basal forebrain nuclei, the midpontine nuclei and a large population of striatal interneurons...
June 23, 2017: Brain Research
Dmitriy A Kara, Vera A Borzova, Kira A Markossian, Sergey Yu Kleymenov, Boris I Kurganov
When studying the anti-aggregation activity of chemical chaperones, a kinetic regime of the aggregation process for selected test systems should be established. To elucidate the mechanism of suppression of protein aggregation by polyamines (putrescine, spermidine) and arginine, we used a test system based on dithiothreitol (DTT)-induced aggregation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) at 45°C (0.1M Na-phosphate buffer, pH 7.0; [DTT]=2mM). The rate-limiting stage of DTT-induced aggregation of BSA under the studied conditions is that of unfolding of the protein molecule...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Zia-Ud-Din, Hanguo Xiong, Zhenjiong Wang, Peng Fei, Ikram Ullah, Allah Bakhsh Javaid, Yajie Wang, Wensi Jin, Lei Chen
A facile approach was developed to dramatically boost the performance of high amylose starch-based wood adhesive (HASWA) by addition of sucrose fatty acid esters (SEs). The results showed that the addition of 6% (w/w, dry starch basis) SEs significantly improved the bonding strength in both dry and wet states as well as the mobility and storage stability of the adhesive. The formation of amylose-SEs complexes were proved by blue value or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The results also indicated that the incorporation of SEs into the HASWA hindered the aggregation of latex particles and enhanced the thermal stability of starch molecules...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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