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Kotaro Suehiro, Noriyasu Morikage, Takasuke Harada, Makoto Samura, Yuriko Takeuchi, Takahiro Mizoguchi, Kaori Nakamura, Kimikazu Hamano
BACKGROUND: We evaluated a modified L-Dex score by using the right arm as a reference (LDSrarm), to determine whether it could be used for the assessment of leg edema in place of the usual L-Dex score calculated by using the contralateral normal leg as a reference (LDScont). METHODS: Bioimpedance analysis was performed in the legs and right arms of 38 patients with unilateral leg edema and in 42 healthy volunteers by using a standard equipotential electrode arrangement...
March 27, 2017: Lymphatic Research and Biology
Langli Luo, Bin Liu, Shidong Song, Wu Xu, Ji-Guang Zhang, Chongmin Wang
The performances of a Li-O2 battery depend on a complex interplay between the reaction mechanism at the cathode, the chemical structure and the morphology of the reaction products, and their spatial and temporal evolution; all parameters that, in turn, are dependent on the choice of the electrolyte. In an aprotic cell, for example, the discharge product, Li2O2, forms through a combination of solution and surface chemistries that results in the formation of a baffling toroidal morphology. In a solid electrolyte, neither the reaction mechanism at the cathode nor the nature of the reaction product is known...
March 27, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
Ghislain M Rupp, Alexander K Opitz, Andreas Nenning, Andreas Limbeck, Jürgen Fleig
Improvement of solid oxide fuel cells strongly relies on the development of cathode materials with high catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction. Excellent activity was found for perovskite-type oxides such as La1-xSrxCoO3-δ (LSC), but performance degradation, probably caused by surface composition changes, hinders exploitation of the full potential of LSC. This study reveals that the potentially very high activity of the LSC surface can be traced back to few very active sites. Already tiny amounts of SrO, for example, 4% of a monolayer, deposited on an LSC surface, lead to severe deactivation...
March 27, 2017: Nature Materials
Hirofumi Nogami, Shozo Arai, Hironao Okada, Lan Zhan, Toshihiro Itoh
Monitoring rumen conditions in cows is important because a dysfunctional rumen system may cause death. Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a typical disease in cows, and is characterized by repeated periods of low ruminal pH. SARA is regarded as a trigger for rumen atony, rumenitis, and abomasal displacement, which may cause death. In previous studies, rumen conditions were evaluated by wireless sensor nodes with pH measurement capability. The primary advantage of the pH sensor is its ability to continuously measure ruminal pH...
March 27, 2017: Sensors
Sung Pil Lee
The electrodes of semiconductor gas sensors are important in characterizing sensors based on their sensitivity, selectivity, reversibility, response time, and long-term stability. The types and materials of electrodes used for semiconductor gas sensors are analyzed. In addition, the effect of interfacial zones and surface states of electrode-semiconductor interfaces on their characteristics is studied. This study describes that the gas interaction mechanism of the electrode-semiconductor interfaces should take into account the interfacial zone, surface states, image force, and tunneling effect...
March 25, 2017: Sensors
Timothy A Su, Haixing Li, Rebekka S Klausen, Nathaniel T Kim, Madhav Neupane, James L Leighton, Michael L Steigerwald, Latha Venkataraman, Colin Nuckolls
This Account provides an overview of our recent efforts to uncover the fundamental charge transport properties of Si-Si and Ge-Ge single bonds and introduce useful functions into group 14 molecular wires. We utilize the tools of chemical synthesis and a scanning tunneling microscopy-based break-junction technique to study the mechanism of charge transport in these molecular systems. We evaluated the fundamental ability of silicon, germanium, and carbon molecular wires to transport charge by comparing conductances within families of well-defined structures, the members of which differ only in the number of Si (or Ge or C) atoms in the wire...
March 27, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Xinghui Liang, Xing Ou, Fenghua Zheng, Qichang Pan, Xunhui Xiong, Renzong Hu, Chenghao Yang, Meilin Liu
Nitrogen and sulfur dual-doped carbon layer wrapped Na3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles (NVP@NSC) have been successfully fabricated by a facile solid-state method. In this hierarchical structure, the Na3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles are well dispersed and closely coated by nitrogen and sulfur dual-doped carbon layer, constructing an effective and interconnected conducting network to reduce the internal resistance. Furthermore, the uniform coating layers alleviate the agglomeration of Na3V2(PO4)3, as well as mitigate the side reaction between electrode and electrolyte...
March 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Edgar Mijangos, Souvik Roy, Sonja Pullen, Reiner Lomoth, Sascha Ott
The development of a reliable platform for the electrochemical characterization of a redox-active molecular diiron complex, [FeFe], immobilized in a non-conducting metal organic framework (MOF), UiO-66, based on glassy-carbon electrodes is reported. Voltammetric data with appreciable current responses can be obtained by the use of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) or mesoporous carbon (CB) additives that function as conductive scaffolds to interface the MOF crystals in "three-dimensional" electrodes. In the investigated UiO-66-[FeFe] sample, the low abundance of [FeFe] in the MOF and the intrinsic insulating properties of UiO-66 prevent charge transport through the framework, and consequently, only [FeFe] units that are in direct physical contact with the electrode material are electrochemically addressable...
March 27, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Yingda Jiang, Jingtai Li, Guirong Su, Nicola Ferri, Wei Liu, Alexandre Tkatchenko
Understanding the binding mechanisms for aromatic molecules on transition-metal surfaces, especially with defects such as vacancies, steps, and kinks, is a major challenge in designing functional interfaces for organic devices. One important parameter in the performance of organic/inorganic devices is the barrier of charge carrier injection. In case of a metallic electrode, tuning the electronic interface potential or the work function for electronic level alignment is crucial. Here, we use density-functional theory (DFT) calculations with van der Waals (vdW) interactions treated with both screened pairwise and many-body dispersion (MBD) methods, to systematically study the interactions of benzene with a variety of stepped surfaces...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Eric M Hudak, Doe Kumsa, Heidi Martin, J Mortimer
<i>Objective.</i> Neural prostheses employing platinum electrodes are often constrained by a charge/charge-density parameter known as the Shannon limit. In examining the relationship between charge injection and observed tissue damage, the electrochemistry at the electrode-tissue interface should be considered. The charge-storage capacity (CSC) is often used as a predictor of how much charge an electrode can inject during stimulation, but calculating charge from a steady-state i-E curve (cyclic voltammogram) over the water window misrepresents how electrodes operate during stimulation...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
Katarzyna Siuzdak, Mateusz Ficek, Michal Sobaszek, Jacek Ryl, Marcin Gnyba, Paweł Niedziałkowski, Natalia Malinowska, Jakub Karczewski, Robert Bogdanowicz
In this study we have demonstrated the fabrication of novel material called boron-doped carbon nanowalls (B:CNW) which is characterized by remarkable electrochemical properties like high standard rate constant k°, low peak to peak separation value (ΔE) for oxidation and reduction processes of [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- redox system and low surface resistivity. The B:CNW samples were deposited by the microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using a gas mixture of H2:CH4:B2H6 and N2. Growth results in sharp edge, flat and long carbon nanowalls rich in sp2 as well as sp3 hybridized phases...
March 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Likai Hou, Yukun Ren, Yankai Jia, Xiaokang Deng, Weiyu Liu, Xiangsong Feng, Hongyuan Jiang
Microfluidically-generated double emulsions are promising templates for microreactions, which protect the reaction from external disturbance and enable in vitro analyses with large-scale samples. Controlled combination of their inner droplets in a continuous manner is an essential requirement toward truly applications. Here, we first generate dual-cored double-emulsion drops with different inner encapsulants using a capillary microfluidic device; then, we transfer the emulsion drops into another electrode integrated PDMS microfluidic device and utilize external AC electric field to continuously trigger the coalescence of inner cores inside these emulsion drops in continuous flow...
March 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Minghao Yu, Dun Lin, Haobin Feng, Yinxiang Zeng, Yexiang Tong, Xihong Lu
The voltage of carbon-based aqueous supercapacitors is limited by the water splitting reaction occurring in one electrode, generally resulting in the promising but unused potential range of the other electrode. Exploiting this unused potential range provides the possibility for further boosting their energy density. An efficient surface charge control strategy was developed to remarkably enhance the energy density of multiscale porous carbon (MSPC) based aqueous symmetric supercapacitors (SSCs) by controllably tuning the operating potential range of MSPC electrodes...
March 27, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Tatsuya Shinagawa, Marcus Tze-Kiat Ng, Kazuhiro Takanabe
The development of cost-effective and active water-splitting electrocatalysts that work at mild pH is an essential step towards the realization of sustainable energy and material circulation in our society. Its success requires a drastic improvement in the kinetics of the anodic half-reaction of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), which determines the overall system efficiency to a large extent. A simple electrochemical protocol has been developed to activate Ni electrodes, by which a stable NiOOH phase was formed, which could weakly bind to alkali-metal cations...
March 27, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Li Liu, Limin Zhang, Zhihui Dai, Yang Tian
Nitric oxide (NO) is key free-radical messenger and neuronal signal which is closely related to many brain diseases. It is a challenge to develop a sensitive and reliable biosensor for in vivo monitoring of NO in the brain. In this research, a simple ratiometric electrochemical biosensor for NO monitoring in rat brain following cerebral ischemia was developed using a carbon nanotube fiber (CNF) modified with hemin, in which the CNF not only served as a platform to assemble the hemin molecule, but greatly facilitated the electron transfer of hemin on to the electrode surface...
March 27, 2017: Analyst
Mirza Saquib Sarwar, Yuta Dobashi, Claire Preston, Justin K M Wyss, Shahriar Mirabbasi, John David Wyndham Madden
The development of bendable, stretchable, and transparent touch sensors is an emerging technological goal in a variety of fields, including electronic skin, wearables, and flexible handheld devices. Although transparent tactile sensors based on metal mesh, carbon nanotubes, and silver nanowires demonstrate operation in bent configurations, we present a technology that extends the operation modes to the sensing of finger proximity including light touch during active bending and even stretching. This is accomplished using stretchable and ionically conductive hydrogel electrodes, which project electric field above the sensor to couple with and sense a finger...
March 2017: Science Advances
Yongbo Yuan, Tao Li, Qi Wang, Jie Xing, Alexei Gruverman, Jinsong Huang
Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs) have been demonstrated to be highly successful photovoltaic materials yielding very-high-efficiency solar cells. We report the room temperature observation of an anomalous photovoltaic (APV) effect in lateral structure OIHP devices manifested by the device's open-circuit voltage (VOC) that is much larger than the bandgap of OIHPs. The persistent VOC is proportional to the electrode spacing, resembling that of ferroelectric photovoltaic devices. However, the APV effect in OIHP devices is not caused by ferroelectricity...
March 2017: Science Advances
Andrew P Scafaro, A Clarissa A Negrini, Brendan O'Leary, F Azzahra Ahmad Rashid, Lucy Hayes, Yuzhen Fan, You Zhang, Vincent Chochois, Murray R Badger, A Harvey Millar, Owen K Atkin
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial respiration in the dark (Rdark) is a critical plant physiological process, and hence a reliable, efficient and high-throughput method of measuring variation in rates of Rdark is essential for agronomic and ecological studies. However, currently methods used to measure Rdark in plant tissues are typically low throughput. We assessed a high-throughput automated fluorophore system of detecting multiple O2 consumption rates. The fluorophore technique was compared with O2-electrodes, infrared gas analysers (IRGA), and membrane inlet mass spectrometry, to determine accuracy and speed of detecting respiratory fluxes...
2017: Plant Methods
Lisa A Sudek, Greg Wanger, Alexis S Templeton, Hubert Staudigel, Bradley M Tebo
Phylogenetically and metabolically diverse bacterial communities have been found in association with submarine basaltic glass surfaces. The driving forces behind basalt colonization are for the most part unknown. It remains ambiguous if basalt provides ecological advantages beyond representing a substrate for surface colonization, such as supplying nutrients and/or energy. Pseudomonas stutzeri VS-10, a metabolically versatile bacterium isolated from Vailulu'u Seamount, was used as a model organism to investigate the physiological responses observed when biofilms are established on basaltic glasses...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xiao Meng, Andrey V Gorbunov, W S Christian Roelofs, Stefan C J Meskers, René A J Janssen, Martijn Kemerink, Rint P Sijbesma
We explore a new approach to organic ferroelectric diodes using a benzene-tricarboxamide (BTA) core connected with C10 alkyl chains to pyrrole groups, which can be polymerized to provide a semiconducting ferroelectric material. The compound possesses a columnar hexagonal liquid crystalline (LC) phase and exhibits ferroelectric switching. At low switching frequencies, an additional process occurs, which leads to a high hysteretic charge density of up to ∼1000 mC/m(2). Based on its slow rate, the formation of gas bubbles, and the emergence of characteristic polypyrrole absorption bands in the UV-Vis-NIR, the additional process is identified as the oxidative polymerization of pyrrole groups, enabled by the presence of amide groups...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics
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