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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938143/contribution-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-assessment-of-brain-connectivity-and-networks
#1
REVIEW
Mark Hallett, Riccardo Di Iorio, Paolo Maria Rossini, Jung E Park, Robert Chen, Pablo Celnik, Antonio P Strafella, Hideyuki Matsumoto, Yoshikazu Ugawa
The goal of this review is to show how transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) techniques can make a contribution to the study of brain networks. Brain networks are fundamental in understanding how the brain operates. Effects on remote areas can be directly observed or identified after a period of stimulation, and each section of this review will discuss one method. EEG analyzed following TMS is called TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs). A conditioning TMS can influence the effect of a test TMS given over the motor cortex...
September 5, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938076/fabrication-of-robust-reference-tips-and-reference-electrodes-for-kelvin-probe-applications-in-changing-atmospheres
#2
Matthias Uebel, Ashokanand Vimalanandan, Abdelaziz Laaboudi, Stefan Evers, Martin Stratmann, Detlef Diesing, Michael Rohwerder
The scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) is a versatile method for the measurement of the Volta potential difference between a sample and the SKP tip (Δψsample, SKP-tip). Based on suitable calibration, this technique is highly suited for the application in corrosion science due to its ability to serve as a very sensitive non-contact and non-destructive method for determining the electrode potential, even at buried interfaces beneath coatings or on surfaces covered by ultra-thin electrolyte layers, which are not accessible by standard reference electrodes...
September 22, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937959/prenatal-fluoride-exposure-and-cognitive-outcomes-in-children-at-4-and-6-12-years-of-age-in-mexico
#3
Morteza Bashash, Deena Thomas, Howard Hu, E Angeles Martinez-Mier, Brisa N Sanchez, Niladri Basu, Karen E Peterson, Adrienne S Ettinger, Robert Wright, Zhenzhen Zhang, Yun Liu, Lourdes Schnaas, Adriana Mercado-García, Martha María Téllez-Rojo, Mauricio Hernández-Avila
BACKGROUND: Some evidence suggests that fluoride may be neurotoxic to children. Few of the epidemiologic studies have been longitudinal, had individual measures of fluoride exposure, addressed the impact of prenatal exposures or involved more than 100 participants. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to estimate the association of prenatal exposure to fluoride with offspring neurocognitive development. METHODS: We studied participants from the Early Life Exposures in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) project...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937738/mussel-inspired-coating-and-adhesion-for-rechargeable-batteries-a-review
#4
You Kyeong Jeong, Sung Hyeon Park, Jang Wook Choi
A significant effort is currently being invested to improve the electrochemical performance of classical lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) or to accelerate the advent of new chemistry-based post-LIBs. Regardless of governing chemistry associated with charge storage, stable electrode-electrolyte interface and wet-adhesion among the electrode particles are universally desired for rechargeable batteries adopting liquid electrolytes. In this regard, recent studies have witnessed the usefulness of mussel-inspired polydopamine or catechol functional group in modifying the key battery components, such as active material, separator, and binder...
September 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937737/hollow-pd-ag-composite-nanowires-for-fast-responding-and-transparent-hydrogen-sensors
#5
Ji-Soo Jang, Shaopeng Qiao, Seon-Jin Choi, Gaurav Jha, Alana F Ogata, Won-Tae Koo, Dong-Ha Kim, Il-Doo Kim, Reginald M Penner
Pd based alloy materials with hollow nanostructures are ideal hydrogen (H2) sensor building blocks because of the ultra-high surface area afforded by this architecture. In this work, for the first time, we report a simple fabrication process for preparing hollow Pd-Ag alloy nanowires (Pd@Ag HNWs) by using the electrodeposition of lithographically patterned silver nanowires and followed galvanic replacement reaction (GRR) to form palladium. By controlling the GRR time of aligned Ag NWs within an aqueous Pd2+-containing solution, the compositional transition and morphological evolution from Ag NWs to Pd@Ag HNWs simultaneously occurred, and the relative atomic ratio between Pt and Ag was controlled...
September 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937733/surface-engineering-of-graphene-composite-transparent-electrodes-for-high-performance-flexible-triboelectric-nanogenerators-and-self-powered-sensors
#6
Jun Yang, Peibo Liu, Xingzhan Wei, Wei Luo, Jin Yang, Hao Jiang, Dapeng Wei, Ruiying Shi, Haofei Shi
A high performance transparent and flexible triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) based on graphene composite electrodes via surface engineering is proposed and demonstrated. Through modifying the CVD-grown graphene by conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS), the composite electrodes with excellent optoelectronic performances were fabricated, which exhibited a high transmittance up to 85% and sheet resistance of 85 Ω/□ decreasing from the initial value of 725 Ω/□...
September 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937731/two-dimensional-porous-sandwich-like-c-si-graphene-si-c-nanosheets-for-superior-lithium-storage
#7
Weiqi Yao, Jie Chen, Liang Zhan, Yanli Wang, Shubin Yang
A novel two-dimensional porous sandwich-like Si/carbon nanosheets are designed and successfully fabricated as anode for superior lithium storage, where porous Si nanofilm grows on the two sides of reduced grahene oxide (rGO) and then coated with a carbon layer (denoted as C/Si-rGO-Si/C). The coexistence of micropores and mesopores in C/Si-rGO-Si/C nanosheets offer a rapid Li+ diffusion rate, and the porous Si provides a short pathway for electric transportation. Meanwhile, the coated carbon layer not only can promote to form stable SEI layer, but also can improve the electric conductivity of nanoscale Si coupled with rGO...
September 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937161/cold-sprayed-wo3-and-tio2-electrodes-for-photoelectrochemical-water-and-methanol-oxidation-in-renewable-energy-applications
#8
Christoph Haisch, Jenny Schneider, Manuel Fleisch, Henning Gutzmann, Thomas Klassen, Detlef W Bahnemann
Films prepared by cold spray have potential applications as photoanodes in electrochemical water splitting and waste water purification. In the present study cold sprayed photoelectrodes produced with WO3 (active under visible light illumination) and TiO2 (active under UV illumination) on titanium metal substrates were investigated as photoanodes for the oxidation of water and methanol, respectively. Methanol was chosen as organic model pollutant in acidic electrolytes. Main advantages of the cold sprayed photoelectrodes are the improved metal-semiconductor junctions and the superior mechanical stability...
September 22, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936623/acute-renal-metabolic-effect-of-metformin-assessed-with-hyperpolarised-mri-in-rats
#9
Haiyun Qi, Per M Nielsen, Marie Schroeder, Lotte B Bertelsen, Fredrik Palm, Christoffer Laustsen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Metformin inhibits hepatic mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase, thereby increasing cytosolic lactate and suppressing gluconeogenesis flux in the liver. This inhibition alters cytosolic and mitochondrial reduction-oxidation (redox) potential, which has been reported to protect organ function in several disease states including diabetes. In this study, we investigated the acute metabolic and functional changes induced by metformin in the kidneys of both healthy and insulinopenic Wistar rats used as a model of diabetes...
September 21, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936599/influences-of-operational-parameters-on-phosphorus-removal-in-batch-and-continuous-electrocoagulation-process-performance
#10
Dinh Duc Nguyen, Yong Soo Yoon, Xuan Thanh Bui, Sung Su Kim, Soon Woong Chang, Wenshan Guo, Huu Hao Ngo
Performance of an electrocoagulation (EC) process in batch and continuous operating modes was thoroughly investigated and evaluated for enhancing wastewater phosphorus removal under various operating conditions, individually or combined with initial phosphorus concentration, wastewater conductivity, current density, and electrolysis times. The results revealed excellent phosphorus removal (72.7-100%) for both processes within 3-6 min of electrolysis, with relatively low energy requirements, i.e., less than 0...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936577/highly-efficient-electro-oxidation-catalyst-under-ultra-low-voltage-for-degradation-of-aspirin
#11
Xiaolei Kang, Wei Sun, Limei Cao, Ji Yang
A novel cryptomelane-Ir (cry-Ir) electrode is prepared for Ir to enter into the cryptomelane (named as cry-Mn) structure and used for aspirin degradation. This catalyst can efficiently reduce the Ir usage from 85 to 34%. Also, the onset potential of cry-Ir is about 1.40 V and the over potential is about 0.34 V at 10 mA cm(-2), indicating that cry-Ir has an excellent oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity to produce oxidizing species and can decrease electrolytic voltage during the electro-oxidation process...
September 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936526/modeling-the-impedance-spectra-of-mixed-conducting-thin-films-with-exposed-and-embedded-current-collectors
#12
Jiapeng Liu, Francesco Ciucci
In this article, we develop a new finite-element-based model for the simulation of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) response of mixed ionic electronic conducting (MIEC) thin films. We first validated the model against experimental data for Sm-doped CeO2 (SDC) symmetrical films deposited on an yittria-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) substrate, a pure ionic conductor. We first studied the configuration where the patterned electrodes are placed on top of the MIEC ("exposed" configuration). Our model is capable of correctly reproducing the EIS response and the total capacitance, together with their dependence on the oxygen partial pressure...
September 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936521/a-first-principles-study-of-spinel-znfe2o4-for-electrode-materials-in-lithium-ion-batteries
#13
Haoyue Guo, Yiman Zhang, Amy C Marschilok, Kenneth J Takeuchi, Esther S Takeuchi, Ping Liu
Zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) is a prospective lithium ion battery (LIB) material, owing to its large theoretical capacity (1000 mA h g(-1)). Here, we report a density functional study of the discharge process at an early stage from ZnFe2O4 up to LixZnFe2O4 (x = 2), aiming to provide a fundamental understanding of the mechanism. According to our calculations, with x increasing up to 1 the intercalation of Li(+) ions prefers octahedral 16c sites, which is accompanied by Zn(2+) ion displacement from tetrahedral 8a sites to 16c sites starting at x = 0...
September 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936513/solar-cells-with-pbs-quantum-dot-sensitized-tio2-multiwalled-carbon-nanotube-composites-sulfide-titania-gel-and-tin-sulfide-coated-c-fabric
#14
Ramesh K Kokal, Melepurath Deepa, Ankarao Kalluri, Shrishti Singh, Isaac Macwan, Prabir K Patra, Jeff Gilarde
Novel approaches to boost quantum dot solar cell (QDSC) efficiencies are in demand. Herein, three strategies are used: (i) a hydrothermally synthesized TiO2-multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite instead of conventional TiO2, (ii) a counter electrode (CE) that has not been applied to QDSCs until now, namely, tin sulfide (SnS) nanoparticles (NPs) coated over a conductive carbon (C)-fabric, and (iii) a quasi-solid-state gel electrolyte composed of S(2-), an inert polymer and TiO2 nanoparticles as opposed to a polysulfide solution based hole transport layer...
September 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936507/a-pyrene-modified-cobalt-salophen-complex-immobilized-on-multiwalled-carbon-nanotubes-acting-as-a-precursor-for-efficient-electrocatalytic-water-oxidation
#15
Ting-Ting Li, Jinjie Qian, Qianqian Zhou, Jian-Li Lin, Yue-Qing Zheng
Immobilization of earth-abundant water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) on carbon supports to produce functional electrodes for electrochemical water splitting is a crucial approach for future clean energy production. Herein we report the non-covalent immobilization of a pyrene-bearing cobalt(ii) Schiff base complex (2) on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to form a hybrid anode for electrocatalytic water oxidation. The 2/MWCNT anode displayed excellent catalytic activity and durability in neutral aqueous solution, and a catalytic current density of 1...
September 22, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936506/anomalous-electroless-deposition-of-less-noble-metals-on-cu-in-ionic-liquids-and-its-application-towards-battery-electrodes
#16
Abhishek Lahiri, Natalia Borisenko, Mark Olschewski, Giridhar Pulletikurthi, Frank Endres
Electroless deposition can be triggered by the difference in the redox potentials between two metals in an electrolyte. In aqueous electrochemistry, galvanic displacement takes place according to the electrochemical series wherein a more noble metal can displace a less noble metal. Herein we show anomalous behaviour in ionic liquids wherein less noble metals such as Fe and Sb were deposited on Cu at temperatures from 25 to 60 °C. Fe formed spherical structures whereas Cu2Sb/Sb formed nanoplates. A multistep process during the electroless deposition of Sb on Cu took place which was discerned from in situ XPS, and mass spectrometry...
September 22, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936498/biredox-ionic-liquids-new-opportunities-toward-high-performance-supercapacitors
#17
C Bodin, E Mourad, D Zigah, S Le Vot, S A Freunberger, F Favier, O Fontaine
Nowadays commercial supercapacitors are based on purely capacitive storage at the porous carbons that are used for the electrodes. However, the limits that capacitive storage imposes on energy density calls to investigate new materials to improve the capacitance of the device. This new type of electrodes (e.g., RuO2, MnO2…) involves pseudo-capacitive faradaic redox processes with the solid material. Ion exchange with solid materials is, however, much slower than the adsorption process in capacitive storage and inevitably leads to significant loss of power...
September 22, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936497/the-au-111-il-interfacial-nanostructure-in-the-presence-of-precursors-and-its-influence-on-the-electrodeposition-process
#18
Natalia Borisenko, Abhishek Lahiri, Giridhar Pulletikurthi, Tong Cui, Timo Carstens, Janine Zahlbach, Rob Atkin, Frank Endres
Ionic liquids have attracted significant interest as electrolytes for the electrodeposition of metals and semiconductors, but the details of the deposition processes are not yet well understood. In this paper, we give an overview of how the addition of various precursors (TaF5, SiCl4, and GaCl3) affects the solid/IL interfacial structure. In situ Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and vibrational spectroscopy have been employed to study the changes of the Au(111)/IL interface and in the electrolytes, respectively...
September 22, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935942/oxygen-evolution-reaction-dynamics-monitored-by-an-individual-nanosheet-based-electronic-circuit
#19
Peiyao Wang, Mengyu Yan, Jiashen Meng, Gengping Jiang, Longbing Qu, Xuelei Pan, Jefferson Zhe Liu, Liqiang Mai
The oxygen evolution reaction involves complex interplay among electrolyte, solid catalyst, and gas-phase and liquid-phase reactants and products. Monitoring catalysis interfaces between catalyst and electrolyte can provide valuable insights into catalytic ability. But it is a challenging task due to the additive solid supports in traditional measurement. Here we design a nanodevice platform and combine on-chip electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement, temporary I-V measurement of an individual nanosheet, and molecular dynamic calculations to provide a direct way for nanoscale catalytic diagnosis...
September 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935824/effects-of-expiratory-muscle-activation-via-high-frequency-spinal-cord-stimulation
#20
Krzysztof E Kowalski, Jaroslaw Richard Romaniuk, Tomasz Kowalski, Anthony F DiMarco
In persons with spinal cord injury, lower thoracic low frequency spinal cord stimulation (LF-SCS, 50Hz,15mA) is a useful method to restore an effective cough. Unfortunately, the high stimulus amplitude requirements and potential activation of pain fibers significantly limits this application in persons with intact sensation. In this study, the mechanism of the expiratory muscle activation, via high frequency SCS (HF-SCS;500Hz,1mA) was evaluated in dogs. In group one, the effects of electrode placement on airway pressure generation (P) was evaluated...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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