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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053316/nucleon-spin-and-momentum-decomposition-using-lattice-qcd-simulations
#1
C Alexandrou, M Constantinou, K Hadjiyiannakou, K Jansen, C Kallidonis, G Koutsou, A Vaquero Avilés-Casco, C Wiese
We determine within lattice QCD the nucleon spin carried by valence and sea quarks and gluons. The calculation is performed using an ensemble of gauge configurations with two degenerate light quarks with mass fixed to approximately reproduce the physical pion mass. We find that the total angular momentum carried by the quarks in the nucleon is J_{u+d+s}=0.408(61)_{stat}(48)_{syst} and the gluon contribution is J_{g}=0.133(11)_{stat}(14)_{syst}, giving a total of J_{N}=0.54(6)_{stat}(5)_{syst} that is consistent with the spin sum...
October 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051283/hsp90-inhibition-disrupts-jak-stat-signaling-and-leads-to-reductions-in-splenomegaly-in-patients-with-mpns
#2
Gabriella S Hobbs, Amritha Varshini Hanasoge Somasundara, Maria Kleppe, Rivka Litvin, Maria Arcila, Jihae Ahn, Anna Sophia Mckenney, Kristina Knapp, Ryan Ptashkin, Howard Weinstein, Murk-Hein Heinemann, Jasmine Francis, Suzanne Chanel, Ellin Berman, Michael Mauro, Martin S Tallman, Mark L Heaney, Ross L Levine, Raajit K Rampal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050862/jak-stat-signaling-pathway-gene-expression-is-reduced-following-nelf-knockdown-in-gnrh-neurons
#3
Eun Kyung Ko, Lynn P Chorich, Megan E Sullivan, Richard S Cameron, Lawrence C Layman
Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is crucial for the proper function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, subsequent puberty, and reproduction. When GnRH neuron migration or GnRH regulation is impaired, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism results. Mutations in the gene for nasal embryonic luteinizing hormone-releasing factor (NELF) have been identified in GnRH-deficient humans. NELF is a predominantly nuclear protein that may participate in gene transcription, but the genes NELF regulates are unknown...
October 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050694/the-biology-of-philadelphia-chromosome-like-all
#4
REVIEW
Kathryn G Roberts
Philadelphia chromosome-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-like ALL) is a recently described subtype of B-cell precursor ALL with a gene expression profile similar to Ph-positive ALL and a high frequency of IKZF1 alterations. The prevalence of Ph-like ALL increases with age, ranging from 10-15% of children to over 25% of young adults with ALL. It occurs more frequently in males and is associated with adverse clinical features including elevated minimal residual disease levels and poor survival in both children and adults...
September 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050480/the-effect-of-leptin-and-resveratrol-on-jak-stat-pathways-and-sirt-1-gene-expression-in-the-renal-tissue-of-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-rats
#5
S Erkasap, N Erkasap, B Bradford, L Mamedova, O Uysal, M Ozkurt, R Ozyurt, O Kutlay, B Bayram
OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to investigate the possible modifying effects of leptin and combined use of resveratrol on rat renal I/R injury and their relationship on signal pathways and apoptosis-related mechanisms. BACKGROUND: Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is an important cause of acute renal failure. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups: Control, I/R, I/R+leptin, I/R+resveratrol and I/R+leptin+resveratrol...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050360/immunomodulatory-and-antitumor-effects-of-type-i-interferons-and-their-application-in-cancer-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Ruan F V Medrano, Aline Hunger, Samir Andrade Mendonça, José Alexandre M Barbuto, Bryan E Strauss
During the last decades, the pleiotropic antitumor functions exerted by type I interferons (IFNs) have become universally acknowledged, especially their role in mediating interactions between the tumor and the immune system. Indeed, type I IFNs are now appreciated as a critical component of dendritic cell (DC) driven T cell responses to cancer. Here we focus on IFN-α and IFN-β, and their antitumor effects, impact on immune responses and their use as therapeutic agents. IFN-α/β share many properties, including activation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway and induction of a variety of cellular phenotypes...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050337/comprehensive-immune-transcriptomic-analysis-in-bladder-cancer-reveals-subtype-specific-immune-gene-expression-patterns-of-prognostic-relevance
#7
Runhan Ren, Kathrin Tyryshkin, Charles H Graham, Madhuri Koti, D Robert Siemens
Recent efforts on genome wide profiling of muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) have led to its classification into distinct genomic and transcriptomic molecular subtypes that exhibit variability in prognosis. Evolving evidence from recent immunotherapy trials has demonstrated the significance of pre-existing tumour immune profiles that could guide treatment decisions. To identify immune gene expression patterns associated with the molecular subtypes, we performed a comprehensive in silico immune transcriptomic profiling, utilizing transcriptomic data from 347 MIBC cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049413/microrna-expression-analysis-of-feline-and-canine-parvovirus-infection-in-vivo-felis
#8
Pei Zhou, Xin Zhang, Weijie Zeng, Qingxu Zheng, Xiangqi Hao, Xi Lin, Yun Zheng, Lifang Wang, Guihong Zhang, Shoujun Li
Feline panleukopenia is a common contagious disease with high morbidity and mortality. At present, feline parvovirus (FPV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) variants are the pathogens of feline panleukopenia. Many studies have shown that miRNAs are involved in virus-host interactions. Nevertheless, miRNA expression profiling of FPV (original virus) or CPV-2b (new virus) in cats has not been reported. To investigate these profiles, three 10-week-old cats were orally inoculated with 106 TCID50 of the viruses (FPV and CPV-2b), and the jejunums of one cat in each group were sectioned for miRNA sequencing at 5 days post-inoculation (dpi)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049295/inferring-gene-and-protein-interactions-using-pubmed-citations-and-consensus-bayesian-networks
#9
Anthony Deeter, Mark Dalman, Joseph Haddad, Zhong-Hui Duan
The PubMed database offers an extensive set of publication data that can be useful, yet inherently complex to use without automated computational techniques. Data repositories such as the Genomic Data Commons (GDC) and the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) offer experimental data storage and retrieval as well as curated gene expression profiles. Genetic interaction databases, including Reactome and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, offer pathway and experiment data analysis using data curated from these publications and data repositories...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044509/comprehensive-transcriptome-analysis-of-fluid-shear-stress-altered-gene-expression-in-renal-epithelial-cells
#10
Steven J Kunnen, Tareq B Malas, Cornelis M Semeins, Astrid D Bakker, Dorien J M Peters
Renal epithelial cells are exposed to mechanical forces due to flow-induced shear stress within the nephrons. Shear stress is altered in renal diseases caused by tubular dilation, obstruction and hyperfiltration, which occur to compensate for lost nephrons. Fundamental in regulation of shear stress are primary cilia and other mechano-sensors, and defects in cilia formation and function have profound effects on development and physiology of kidneys and other organs. We applied RNA sequencing to get a comprehensive overview of fluid-shear regulated genes and pathways in renal epithelial cells...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042952/protective-effect-of-ulinastatin-on-severe-pulmonary-infection-under-immunosuppression-and-its-molecular-mechanism
#11
Wenshuai Liu, Guozhong Pang, Shengyan Wang, Aiqin Sun
The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of ulinastatin on severe pulmonary infection under immunosuppression, and its molecular mechanism. Mice were treated with methylprednisolone and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to establish the model of severe pulmonary infection under immunosuppression. Mice were randomly divided into group A (model group; treated with equal volumes of saline), group B (treated with 1×10(5) U/kg ulinastatin), and group C (normal control group). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected, and the concentrations of cytokines in BALF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040919/functional-analyses-of-the-interaction-of-chicken-interleukin-23-subunit-p19-with-il-12-subunit-p40-to-form-the-il-23-complex
#12
Anh Duc Truong, Cong Thanh Hoang, Yeojin Hong, Janggeun Lee, Kyungbaek Lee, Hyun S Lillehoj, Yeong Ho Hong
This study represents the first description of the cloning of chicken IL-23p19 (ChIL-23α) and the function of the IL-23 complex in birds. Multiple alignment of ChIL-23α with other known IL-23α amino acid sequences revealed regions of amino acid conservation. The homologies of ChIL-23α, IL-12p35, and similar mammalian subunits ranged between 26% and 42%. ChIL-23α consisted of four exons and three introns; similar to those in humans and mice, and limited conservation of synteny between the human and chicken genomes was observed...
October 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040382/generalized-correlation-measure-using-count-statistics-for-gene-expression-data-with-ordered-samples
#13
Y X Rachel Wang, Ke Liu, Elizabeth Theusch, Jerome I Rotter, Marisa W Medina, Michael S Waterman, Haiyan Huang
Motivation: Capturing association patterns in gene expression levels under different conditions or time points is important for inferring gene regulatory interactions. In practice, temporal changes in gene expression may result in complex association patterns that require more sophisticated detection methods than simple correlation measures. For instance, the effect of regulation may lead to time-lagged associations and interactions local to a subset of samples. Furthermore, expression profiles of interest may not be aligned or directly comparable (e...
October 12, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038465/nmi-and-ifp35-serve-as-proinflammatory-damps-during-cellular-infection-and-injury
#14
Zhikai Xiahou, Xiangli Wang, Juan Shen, Xiaoxiao Zhu, Feng Xu, Rong Hu, Deyin Guo, Henan Li, Yong Tian, Yingfang Liu, Huanhuan Liang
Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMP) trigger innate immune response and exacerbate inflammation to combat infection and cellular damage. Identifying DAMPs and revealing their functions are thus of crucial importance. Here we report that two molecules, N-myc and STAT interactor (NMI) and interferon-induced protein 35 (IFP35) act as DAMPs and are released by activated macrophages during lipopolysaccharide-induced septic shock or acetaminophen-induced liver injury. We show that extracellular NMI and IFP35 activate macrophages to release proinflammatory cytokines by activating nuclear factor-κB through the Toll-like receptor 4 pathway...
October 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038451/tc-ptp-regulates-the-il-7-transcriptional-response-during-murine-early-t-cell-development
#15
K A Pike, T Hatzihristidis, S Bussières-Marmen, F Robert, N Desai, D Miranda-Saavedra, J Pelletier, M L Tremblay
Cytokines play a critical role in directing the discrete and gradual transcriptional changes that define T cell development. The interleukin-7 receptor (IL-7R), via its activation of the JAK-STAT pathway, promotes gene programs that change dynamically as cells progress through T cell differentiation. The molecular mechanism(s) directing differential gene expression downstream of the IL-7R are not fully elucidated. Here, we have identified T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TC-PTP), also known as PTPN2, as a negative regulator of IL-7R-STAT signaling in T cell progenitors, contributing to both the quantitative and qualitative nature of STAT-gene targeting...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038115/the-common-cytokine-receptor-%C3%AE-chain-family-of-cytokines
#16
Jian-Xin Lin, Warren J Leonard
Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15, and IL-21 form a family of cytokines based on their sharing the common cytokine receptor γ chain (γc), which was originally discovered as the third receptor component of the IL-2 receptor, IL-2Rγ. The IL2RG gene is located on the X chromosome and is mutated in humans with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID). The breadth of the defects in XSCID could not be explained solely by defects in IL-2 signaling, and it is now clear that γc is a shared receptor component of the six cytokines noted above, making XSCID a disease of defective cytokine signaling...
October 16, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037480/linking-energy-sensing-to-suppression-of-jak-stat-signalling-a-potential-route-for-repurposing-ampk-activators
#17
REVIEW
Claire Speirs, Jamie J L Williams, Kirsten Riches, Ian P Salt, Timothy M Palmer
Exaggerated Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signalling is key to the pathogenesis of pro-inflammatory disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and cardiovascular diseases. Mutational activation of JAKs is also responsible for several haematological malignancies, including myeloproliferative neoplasms and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Accumulating evidence links adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor and regulator of organismal and cellular metabolism, with the suppression of immune and inflammatory processes...
October 13, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034543/pd-l1-expression-is-mainly-regulated-by-ifn-%C3%AE-associated-with-jak-stat-pathway-in-gastric-cancer
#18
Kousaku Mimura, Jun Liang Teh, Hirokazu Okayama, Kensuke Shiraishi, Ley-Fang Kua, Vivien Koh, Duane T Smoot, Hassan Ashktorab, Takahiro Oike, Yoshiyuki Suzuki, Zul Fazreen, Bernadette R Asuncion, Asim Shabbir, Wei-Peng Yong, Jimmy So, Richie Soong, Koji Kono
Despite multidisciplinary treatment for patients with advanced gastric cancer, their prognosis still remains poor. Therefore, the development of novel therapeutic strategies is urgently needed, and immunotherapy utilizing anti-programmed death 1/-programmed death ligand-1 mAb is an attractive approach. However, as there is limited information on how programmed death ligand-1 is upregulated on tumor cells within the tumor microenvironment, we examined the mechanism of programmed death ligand-1 regulation with a particular focus on interferon gamma in in-vitro setting and in clinical samples...
October 16, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034237/proteomics-of-eosinophil-activation
#19
REVIEW
Deane F Mosher, Emily M Wilkerson, Keren B Turton, Alexander S Hebert, Joshua J Coon
We recently identified and quantified >7,000 proteins in non-activated human peripheral blood eosinophils using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and described phosphoproteomic changes that accompany acute activation of eosinophils by interleukin-5 (IL5) (1). These data comprise a treasure trove of information about eosinophils. We illustrate the power of label-free LC-MS/MS quantification by considering four examples: complexity of eosinophil STATs, contribution of immunoproteasome subunits to eosinophil proteasomes, complement of integrin subunits, and contribution of platelet proteins originating from platelet-eosinophil complexes to the overall proteome...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034071/apigenin-in-cancer-therapy-anti-cancer-effects-and-mechanisms-of-action
#20
REVIEW
Xiaohui Yan, Miao Qi, Pengfei Li, Yihong Zhan, Huanjie Shao
Apigenin is a common dietary flavonoid that is abundantly present in many fruits, vegetables and Chinese medicinal herbs and serves multiple physiological functions, such as strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial and antiviral activities and blood pressure reduction. Therefore, apigenin has been used as a traditional medicine for centuries. Recently, apigenin has been widely investigated for its anti-cancer activities and low toxicity. Apigenin was reported to suppress various human cancers in vitro and in vivo by multiple biological effects, such as triggering cell apoptosis and autophagy, inducing cell cycle arrest, suppressing cell migration and invasion, and stimulating an immune response...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
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