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Circulating tumor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719656/phenotypic-characterization-of-circulating-tumor-cells-in-the-peripheral-blood-of-patients-with-small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
Ippokratis Messaritakis, Eleni Politaki, Athanasios Kotsakis, Eleftheria-Kleio Dermitzaki, Filippos Koinis, Eleni Lagoudaki, Anastasios Koutsopoulos, Galatea Kallergi, John Souglakos, Vassilis Georgoulias
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the phenotypic heterogeneity of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) based on the expression of proliferative, apoptotic and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transmission (EMT) markers during front-line treatment in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and to evaluate their clinical relevance. METHODS: CTCs from 108 chemotherapy-naïve patients with SCLC were analyzed by double immunofluorescence staining using anti-Ki67, anti-M30, anti-Vimentin along with anti-CKs antibodies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719022/engineering-the-surface-of-smart-nanocarriers-using-a-ph-thermal-gsh-responsive-polymer-zipper-for-precise-tumor-targeting-therapy-in-vivo
#2
Penghui Zhang, Yan Wang, Jing Lian, Qi Shen, Chen Wang, Bohan Ma, Yuchao Zhang, Tingting Xu, Jianxin Li, Yongping Shao, Feng Xu, Jun-Jie Zhu
Nanocarrier surface chemistry plays a vital role in mediating cell internalization and enhancing delivery efficiency during in vivo chemotherapy. Inspired by the ability of proteins to alter their conformation to mediate functions, a pH-/thermal-/glutathione-responsive polymer zipper consisting of cell-penetrating poly(disulfide)s and thermosensitive polymers bearing guanidinium/phosphate (Gu(+) /pY(-) ) motifs to spatiotemporally tune the surface composition of nanocarriers for precise tumor targeting and efficient drug delivery is developed...
July 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718848/label-free-high-throughput-holographic-screening-and-enumeration-of-tumor-cells-in-blood
#3
Dhananjay Kumar Singh, Caroline C Ahrens, Wei Li, Siva A Vanapalli
We introduce inline digital holographic microscopy (in-line DHM) as a label-free technique for detecting tumor cells in blood. The optimized DHM platform fingerprints every cell flowing through a microchannel at 10 000 cells per second, based on three features - size, maximum intensity and mean intensity. To identify tumor cells in a background of blood cells, we developed robust gating criteria using machine-learning approaches. We established classifiers from the features extracted from 100 000-cell training sets consisting of red blood cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tumor cell lines...
July 18, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718430/liquid-biopsies-in-colorectal-cancer-monitoring-genetic-heterogeneity
#4
Antonios N Gargalionis, Athanasios G Papavassiliou
Dynamic changes in the colorectal cancer (CRC) signalome and tumor genetic heterogeneity underlie acquired drug resistance. Improving treatment-related decisions is facilitated by an emerging consensus in the classification of tumor subtypes as well as by real-time monitoring of predictive biomarkers in circulating tumor cells and DNA.
March 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718360/inflammatory-myopathy-in-horses-with-chronic-piroplasmosis
#5
Maria P Pasolini, Teresa B Pagano, Alessandro Costagliola, Davide De Biase, Barbara Lamagna, Luigi Auletta, Gerardo Fatone, Michele Greco, Pierpaolo Coluccia, Veneziano Veneziano, Claudio Pirozzi, Giuseppina Mattace Raso, Pasquale Santoro, Giuseppe Manna, Serenella Papparella, Orlando Paciello
Horses affected by chronic piroplasmosis may develop poor performance and muscle atrophy. Here we investigate the pathological and immunopathological aspects of myopathy occurring in chronic equine piroplasmosis. The study included 16 horses serologically positive for equine piroplasms presenting with clinical signs and supporting serum biochemical evidence of a myopathy. Skeletal muscle was evaluated by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, indirect immunofluorescence, and molecular detection of piroplasms and inflammatory cytokines in skeletal muscle...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717337/effect-of-surface-modification-on-the-in-vitro-protein-adsorption-and-cell-cytotoxicity-of-vinorelbine-nanoparticles
#6
Nandhakumar Sathyamoorthy, Dhanaraju Dasaratha Magharla, Sundar Devendaran Vankayalu
CONTEXT: Nanocarriers possessing long-circulating abilities could take advantage of the pathophysiology of tumor vasculature to achieve spatial placement. To attain such qualities, the drug carriers should possess suitable physicochemical properties such as size and surface hydrophilicity. AIM: The aim of this study was to prepare poly(ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with vinorelbine bitartrate (VB) and to modify its steric properties using polyethylene glycol and poloxamer...
April 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716896/poor-prognosis-indicated-by-venous-circulating-tumor-cell-clusters-in-early-stage-lung-cancers
#7
Vasudha Murlidhar, Rishindra M Reddy, Shamileh Fouladdel, Lili Zhao, Martin K Ishikawa, Svetlana Grabauskiene, Zhuo Zhang, Jules Lin, Andrew C Chang, Philip W Carrott, William R Lynch, Mark B Orringer, Chandan Kumar-Sinha, Nallasivam Palanisamy, David G Beer, Max S Wicha, Nithya Ramnath, Ebrahim Azizi, Sunitha Nagrath
Early detection of metastasis can be aided by circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which also show potential to predict early relapse. Due to the limited CTC numbers in peripheral blood in early stages, we investigated CTCs in pulmonary vein blood accessed during surgical resection of tumors. Pulmonary vein (PV) and peripheral vein (Pe) blood specimens from patients with lung cancer were drawn during the perioperative period and assessed for CTC burden using a microfluidic device. From 108 blood samples analyzed from 36 patients, PV had significantly higher number of CTCs compared to pre-operative Pe (p<0...
July 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716751/rehmannia-glutinosa-polysaccharide-induced-an-anti-cancer-effect-by-activating-natural-killer-cells
#8
Li Xu, Wei Zhang, Ling Zeng, Jun-O Jin
Rehmannia glutinosa polysaccharide (RGP) has exhibited an immune stimulatory effect, such as dendritic cell activation, but it has not been studied in terms of the activation capacity of natural killer (NK) cells in mice in vivo. In this study, we examined the effect of RGP on the proliferation and activation of NK cells in the spleen, mesenteric lymph node (mLN), and blood in vivo and compared that function with that of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. The administration of RGP to C57BL/6 mice induced the increase in circulating blood NK cell numbers and in the proliferation of NK cells in the spleen, mLN, and blood...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715646/l-form-bacteria-cohabitants-in-human-blood-significance-for-health-and-diseases
#9
Nadya D Markova
From a historical perspective, intriguing assumptions about unknown "live units" in human blood have attracted the attention of researchers, reflecting their desire to define a new class of microorganisms. Thus, the concept of "blood microbiota" brings about many questions about the nature, origin, and biological significance of the "unusual microbial cohabitants" in human blood. In contrast to current views that bloodstream in healthy humans is sterile, the hypothesis about the existence of microbes as L-forms (cell wall deficient bacteria) in human blood has evolved on the basis of known facts about their unique biology, as observed in our studies and those of other authors...
May 2017: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715227/balancing-passive-and-active-targeting-to-different-tumor-compartments-using-riboflavin-functionalized-polymeric-nanocarriers
#10
Yoanna Tsvetkova, Nataliia Beztsinna, Maike Baues, Dionne Klein, Anne Rix, Susanne Katherina Golombek, Wa'el Al Rawashdeh, Felix Gremse, Matthias Barz, Kaloian Koynov, Srinivas Banala, Wiltrud Lederle, Twan Lammers, Fabian Kiessling
Riboflavin Transporters (RFTs) and the Riboflavin Carrier Protein (RCP) are highly upregulated in many tumor cells, tumor stem cells and tumor neovasculature, which makes them attractive targets for nanomedicines. Addressing cells in different tumor compartments requires drug carriers, which are not only able to accumulate via the EPR effect, but also to extravasate, target specific cell populations, and get internalized by cells. Reasoning that antibodies are among the most efficient targeting systems developed by nature, we consider their size (~10-15 nm) to be ideal for balancing passive and active tumor targeting...
July 17, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714519/circulating-regulatory-t-cell-subsets-predict-overall-survival-of-patients-with-unresectable-pancreatic-cancer
#11
Chen Liu, He Cheng, Guopei Luo, Yu Lu, Kaizhou Jin, Meng Guo, Quanxing Ni, Xianjun Yu
Most patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have unresectable cancers with a dismal prognosis, in which cohort chemotherapy is the primary treatment. T cell immune adaption is critical for tumor immune escape and prognosis of this disease. The present study aimed to determine the correlation between peripheral T cell subset distribution in patients with unresectable PDAC and their response to chemotherapy. Two hundred and twelve patients with unresectable PDAC were included whose blood samples were collected for analysis of T cell subsets, including CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD8+CD28+ and CD4+CD25+CD127 T cells by flow cytometry before and after gemcitabine-based chemotherapy...
August 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714192/secreted-tumor-antigens-immune-biomarkers-for-diagnosis-and-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Els N Meeusen, Elgene Lim, Suresh Mathivanan
With the advent of immunotherapies for cancer, there is growing interest in the identification of tumor antigens. Tumor antigens are self-molecules altered through genetic mutations (neoantigens), protein truncation, protein misfolding or abnormal post translational modifications. To induce an immune response, tumor antigens need to be secreted into the tumor environment and presented to the immune system in the draining lymph nodes, resulting in the generation of tumor-specific effector cells and antibodies...
July 17, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714110/poly-vinylpyrollidone-and-selenocysteine-modified-bi2-se3-nanoparticles-enhance-radiotherapy-efficacy-in-tumors-and-promote-radioprotection-in-normal-tissues
#13
Jiangfeng Du, Zhanjun Gu, Liang Yan, Yuan Yong, Xuan Yi, Xiao Zhang, Jing Liu, Renfei Wu, Cuicui Ge, Chunying Chen, Yuliang Zhao
The development of a new generation of nanoscaled radiosensitizers that can not only enhance radiosensitization of tumor tissues, but also increase radioresistance of healthy tissue is highly desirable, but remains a great challenge. Here, this paper reports a new versatile theranostics based on poly(vinylpyrollidone)- and selenocysteine-modified Bi2 Se3 nanoparicles (PVP-Bi2 Se3 @Sec NPs) for simultaneously enhancing radiotherapeutic effects and reducing the side-effects of radiation. The as-prepared nanoparticles exhibit significantly enhanced free-radical generation upon X-ray radiation, and remarkable photothermal effects under 808 nm NIR laser irradiation because of their strong X-ray attenuation ability and high NIR absorption capability...
July 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713478/an-integrated-microfluidic-system-for-the-isolation-and-detection-of-ovarian-circulating-tumor-cells-using-cell-selection-and-enrichment-methods
#14
Sung-Chi Tsai, Lien-Yu Hung, Gwo-Bin Lee
Gynecological cancer is difficult to be diagnosed at early stages. The relatively high mortality rate has been a serious issue accordingly. We herein reported a diagnosis method by using circulating tumor cells (CTCs) which have been extensively explored as a potential tool for diagnostics and prognostics of ovarian cancers. Nonetheless, the detection of CTCs still remains a challenge because of the difficulty in isolating them from whole blood samples since they are shed into the vasculature from primary tumors and circulate irregularly in the bloodstream in extremely low concentrations...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713160/pathogenic-roles-of-microvesicles-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#15
REVIEW
Wei Zhang, Song Chen, Ming-Lin Liu
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common complication of diabetes and has been recognized as the leading cause of blindness in adults. Several interrelated molecular pathways are involved in the development of DR. Microvesicles (MVs) are cell membrane vesicles, which carry many biologic molecules, such as mRNAs, microRNAs, transcription factors, membrane lipids, membrane receptors, and other proteins. They may be involved in intercellular communication that can promote inflammation, angiogenesis, and coagulation...
July 17, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712427/depression-inflammation-and-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-egfr-status-in-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-pilot-study
#16
Jamie M Jacobs, Lara Traeger, Justin Eusebio, Naomi M Simon, Lecia V Sequist, Joseph A Greer, Jennifer S Temel, William F Pirl
OBJECTIVE: Patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have high risk for depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder (MDD); however, those with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations may have decreased risk. The biological underpinning of this relationship is unknown. We examined differences in depression severity and MDD in patients with newly diagnosed stage IV NSCLC based on EGFR mutation status, and examined proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors known to play a role in cancer progression and depression...
August 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711640/recent-advances-in-tpgs-based-nanoparticles-of-docetaxel-for-improved-chemotherapy
#17
REVIEW
Hira Choudhury, Bapi Gorain, Manisha Pandey, Santosh Ashok Kumbhar, Rakesh Kumar Tekade, Arun K Iyer, Prashant Kesharwani
Docetaxel (DTX) is one of the important antitumor drugs, being used in several common chemotherapies to control leading cancer types. Severe toxicities of the DTX are prominent due to sudden parenteral exposure of desired loading dose to maintain the therapeutic concentration. Field of nanotechnology is leading to resist sudden systemic exposure of DTX with more specific delivery to the site of cancer. Further nanometric size range of the formulation aid for prolonged circulation, thereby extensive exposure results better efficacy...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710381/evaluation-and-diagnostic-potential-of-circulating-extracellular-vesicle-associated-micrornas-in-adrenocortical-tumors
#18
Pál Perge, Henriett Butz, Raffaele Pezzani, Irina Bancos, Zoltán Nagy, Krisztina Pálóczi, Gábor Nyírő, Ábel Decmann, Erna Pap, Michaela Luconi, Massimo Mannelli, Edit I Buzás, Miklós Tóth, Marco Boscaro, Attila Patócs, Peter Igaz
There is no available blood marker for the preoperative diagnosis of adrenocortical malignancy. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of extracellular vesicle-associated microRNAs and their diagnostic potential in plasma samples of patients suffering from adrenocortical tumors. Extracellular vesicles were isolated either by using Total Exosome Isolation Kit or by differential centrifugation/ultracentrifugation. Preoperative plasma extracellular vesicle samples of 6 adrenocortical adenomas (ACA) and 6 histologically verified adrenocortical cancer (ACC) were first screened by Taqman Human Microarray A-cards...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710315/shallow-whole-genome-sequencing-on-circulating-cell-free-dna-allows-reliable-non-invasive-copy-number-profiling-in-neuroblastoma-patients
#19
Nadine Van Roy, Malaika Van der Linden, Björn Menten, Annelies Dheedene, Charlotte Vandeputte, Jo Van Dorpe, Geneviève Laureys, Marleen Renard, Tom Sante, Tim Lammens, Bram De Wilde, Frank Speleman, Katleen De Preter
<p>Neuroblastoma (NB) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by distinct clinical features and by the presence of typical copy number alterations (CNAs). Given the strong association of these CNA profiles with prognosis, analysis of the CNA profile at diagnosis is mandatory. Therefore, we tested whether the analysis of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) present in plasma samples of NB patients could offer a valuable alternative to primary tumor DNA for CNA profiling.</p> <br /><br />Experimental Design: <p>In 37 NB patients cfDNA analysis using shallow whole genome sequencing (sWGS) was compared to arrayCGH analysis of primary tumor tissue...
July 14, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710313/ex-vivo-pd-l1-pd-1-pathway-blockade-reverses-dysfunction-of-circulating-cea-specific-t-cells-in-pancreatic-cancer-patients
#20
Yuan Chen, Shao-An Xue, Goran Hamid Mohammad, Stephen P Pereira, Emma Morris, Shahriar Behboudi
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a candidate target for cellular immunotherapy of pancreatic cancer (PC). In this study, we have characterised the antigen-specific function of autologous cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) specific for the HLA-A2 restricted peptide, pCEA691-699, isolated from the peripheral T cell repertoire of PC patients and sought to determine if ex vivo PD-L1 & TIM3 blockade could enhance CTL function. CD8(+) T cell lines were generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 18 HLA-A2(+) patients with PC and from 15 healthy controls...
July 14, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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