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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812350/green-solvent-processable-dopant-free-hole-transporting-materials-for-robust-and-efficient-perovskite-solar-cells
#1
Junwoo Lee, Mahdi Malekshahi Byranvand, Gyeongho Kang, Sung Y Son, Seulki Song, Guan-Woo Kim, Taiho Park
In addition to having proper energy levels and high hole mobility (μh) without the use of dopants, hole-transporting materials (HTMs) used in n-i-p-type perovskite solar cells (PSCs) should be processed using green solvents to enable environmentally friendly device fabrication. Although many HTMs have been assessed, owing to the limited solubility of HTMs in green solvents, no green-solvent-processable HTM has been reported to date. Here we report on a green-solvent-processable HTM, an asymmetric D-A polymer (asy-PBTBDT) that exhibits superior solubility even in the green solvent, 2-methylanisole, which is a known food additive...
August 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809535/ternary-organic-solar-cells-with-coumarin7-as-the-donor-exhibiting-over-10-power-conversion-efficiency-and-a-high-fill-factor-of-75
#2
Xinwei Chen, Si-Lu Tao, Cong Fan, Dongcheng Chen, Ling Zhou, Hui Lin, Cai-Jun Zheng, Shi-Jian Su
Ternary bulk heterojunction (BHJ) is a brilliant photovoltaic technology for improving the performance of organic solar cells (OSCs), since the light absorption range can be significantly extended by using multiple donors or acceptor materials. In this paper, coumarin7 (C7), a small organic molecule typical led used in organic light-emitting diodes, was initially exploited as second electron-donor component in ternary bulk heterojunction OSCs along with conventional blend system spolythieno[3,4-b]-thiophene/benzodithiophene(PTB7) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71 -butyric acid methyl(PC71 BM)...
August 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805062/ultrafast-electron-dynamics-in-solar-energy-conversion
#3
Carlito S Ponseca, Pavel Chábera, Jens Uhlig, Petter Persson, Villy Sundström
Electrons are the workhorses of solar energy conversion. Conversion of the energy of light to electricity in photovoltaics, or to energy-rich molecules (solar fuel) through photocatalytic processes, invariably starts with photoinduced generation of energy-rich electrons. The harvesting of these electrons in practical devices rests on a series of electron transfer processes whose dynamics and efficiencies determine the function of materials and devices. To capture the energy of a photogenerated electron-hole pair in a solar cell material, charges of opposite sign have to be separated against electrostatic attractions, prevented from recombining and being transported through the active material to electrodes where they can be extracted...
August 14, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802153/a-theoretical-exploration-of-the-effect-of-fluorine-and-cyano-substitutions-in-diketopyrrolopyrrole-based-polymer-donor-for-organic-solar-cells
#4
Zhi-Wen Zhao, Qing-Qing Pan, Shuang-Bao Li, Yu-Ai Duan, Yun Geng, Min Zhang, Zhong-Min Su
A series of polymer donor materials 1-5 based on diketopyrrolopyrrole and thiophene unit which have been widely used in organic solar cells (OSCs) were investigated based on quantum chemical calculations. The effect of fluorine and cyano substitutions in polymer donor materials was focused on. Based on the investigation on electronic structures and optical properties of the reported molecules 1 and 2 and the analysis on some parameters relevant to charge dissociation ability at donor/acceptor interface constituted by 1 and 2 with PC61BM such as intermolecular charge transfer and recombination, driving force and Coulombic bound energy, we explained why fluorine substitution can improve OPV efficiency through strengthening eletron-withdrawing ability from a theoretical perspective...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800216/cross-stacking-of-nanopatterned-pedot-films-for-use-as-soft-electrodes
#5
Chihyun Park, Jongbeom Na, Eunkyoung Kim
Cross stacking of nanopatterned conductive polymer film was explored using a sacrificial soft template made of nanopatterned polystyrene (PS) film as a guide for nanopatterned conductive polymer film. For use as a conductive film, the PS pattern was filled with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), and then completely removed, to generate single-patterned PEDOT (SPDOT) film having a conductivity of 1079 S/cm, which was comparable to the pristine unpatterned PEDOT (UPDOT) film on a glass slide. SPDOT layers were stacked across each other to form double-layered (DPDOT) and multiple-layered patterned PEDOT film on a glass slide or polymeric substrate...
August 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795715/spin-dynamics-of-light-induced-charge-separation-in-composites-of-semiconducting-polymers-and-pc60bm-revealed-using-q-band-pulse-epr
#6
E A Lukina, E Suturina, E Reijerse, W Lubitz, L V Kulik
Light-induced processes in composites of semiconducting polymers and fullerene derivatives have been widely studied due to their usage as active layers of organic solar cells. However the process of charge separation under light illumination - the key process of an organic solar cell is not well understood yet. Here we report a Q-band pulse electron paramagnetic resonance study of composites of the fullerene derivative PC60BM ([6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) with different p-type semiconducting polymers regioregular and regiorandom P3HT (poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl), MEH-PPV (poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene]), PCDTBT (poly[N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)]), PTB7 (poly({4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl}))), resulting in a detailed description of the in-phase laser flash-induced electron spin echo (ESE) signal...
August 10, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792202/wide-band-gap-and-highly-conjugated-copolymers-incorporating-2-triisopropylsilylethynyl-thiophene-substituted-benzodithiophene-for-efficient-non-fullerene-organic-solar-cells
#7
Lixin Wang, Haifen Liu, Zhaoxiang Huai, Shaopeng Yang
Recent years have seen a rapid progress in the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of non-fullerene polymer solar cells (NF PSCs). However, the donor materials accordingly used are typical low or medium band gap polymers, some of which possess badly overlapped absorption spectra relative to the low band gap n-type acceptors, for example, 3,9-bis(2-methylene-(3-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)indanone)-5,5,11,11-tetrakis(4-hexylphenyl)dithieno[2,3-d:2',3'-d']-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophene) (ITIC). To obtain polymers simultaneously owning a wide band gap, a highly extended π-conjugation system, and a low-lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), a polymer (PBDTSi-TA) incorporating 2-(triisopropylsilylethynyl)thiophene substituted benzodithiophene (BDTSi) and fluorinated benzotriazole (FTAZ) units was designed and synthesized...
August 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777583/intercalated-vs-nonintercalated-morphologies-in-donor-acceptor-bulk-heterojunction-solar-cells-pbttt-fullerene-charge-generation-and-recombination-revisited
#8
Elisa Collado-Fregoso, Samantha N Hood, Safa Shoaee, Bob C Schroeder, Iain McCulloch, Ivan Kassal, Dieter Neher, James R Durrant
In this Letter, we study the role of the donor:acceptor interface nanostructure upon charge separation and recombination in organic photovoltaic devices and blend films, using mixtures of PBTTT and two different fullerene derivatives (PC70BM and ICTA) as models for intercalated and nonintercalated morphologies, respectively. Thermodynamic simulations show that while the completely intercalated system exhibits a large free-energy barrier for charge separation, this barrier is significantly lower in the nonintercalated system and almost vanishes when energetic disorder is included in the model...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772878/fabrication-processes-to-generate-concentration-gradients-in-polymer-solar-cell-active-layers
#9
REVIEW
Shusei Inaba, Varun Vohra
Polymer solar cells (PSCs) are considered as one of the most promising low-cost alternatives for renewable energy production with devices now reaching power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) above the milestone value of 10%. These enhanced performances were achieved by developing new electron-donor (ED) and electron-acceptor (EA) materials as well as finding the adequate morphologies in either bulk heterojunction or sequentially deposited active layers. In particular, producing adequate vertical concentration gradients with higher concentrations of ED and EA close to the anode and cathode, respectively, results in an improved charge collection and consequently higher photovoltaic parameters such as the fill factor...
May 9, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766650/a-new-strategy-to-engineer-polymer-bulk-heterojunction-solar-cells-with-thick-active-layers-via-self-assembly-of-the-tertiary-columnar-phase
#10
Hongfei Li, Zhenhua Yang, Cheng Pan, Naisheng Jiang, Sushil K Satija, Di Xu, Dilip Gersappe, Chang-Yong Nam, Miriam H Rafailovich
We report that the addition of a non-photoactive tertiary polymer phase in the binary bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cell leads to a self-assembled columnar nanostructure, enhancing the charge mobilities and photovoltaic efficiency with surprisingly increased optimal active blend thicknesses over 300 nm, 3-4 times larger than that of the binary counterpart. Using the prototypical poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):fullerene blend as a model BHJ system, we discover that the inert poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) added in the binary BHJ blend self-assembles into vertical columns, which not only template the phase segregation of electron acceptor fullerenes but also induce the out-of-plane rotation of the edge-on-orientated crystalline P3HT phase...
August 2, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762728/high-performing-ternary-solar-cells-through-f%C3%A3-rster-resonance-energy-transfer-between-nonfullerene-acceptors
#11
Lei Yang, Wenxing Gu, Ling Hong, Yang Mi, Feng Liu, Ming Liu, Yufei Yang, Bigyan Sharma, Xinfeng Liu, Hui Huang
Nonradiative Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is an important mechanism of organic solar cells, which can improve the exciton migration over a long distance, resulting in improvement of efficiency of solar cells. However, the current observations of FRET are very limited, and the efficiencies are less than 9%. In this study, FRET effect was first observed between two nonfullerene acceptors in ternary solar cells, which improved both the absorption range and exciton harvesting, leading to the dramatic enhancement in the short circuit current and power conversion efficiency...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754611/transdermal-delivery-of-gentamicin-using-dissolving-microneedle-arrays-for-potential-treatment-of-neonatal-sepsis
#12
Patricia González-Vázquez, Eneko Larrañeta, Maelíosa T C McCrudden, Courtney Jarrahian, Annie Rein-Weston, Manjari Quintanar-Solares, Darin Zehrung, Helen McCarthy, Aaron J Courtenay, Ryan F Donnelly
Neonatal infections are a leading cause of childhood mortality in low-resource settings. World Health Organization guidelines for outpatient treatment of possible serious bacterial infection (PSBI) in neonates and young infants when referral for hospital treatment is not feasible include intramuscular gentamicin (GEN) and oral amoxicillin. GEN is supplied as an aqueous solution of gentamicin sulphate in vials or ampoules and requires health care workers to be trained in dose calculation or selection of an appropriate dose based on the patient's weight band and to have access to safe injection supplies and appropriate sharps disposal...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749650/interface-electrode-morphology-effect-on-carrier-concentration-and-trap-defect-density-in-an-organic-photovoltaic-device
#13
Arul Varman Kesavan, Arun Dhumal Rao, Praveen Chandrashekarapura Ramamurthy
Formation of Schottky barrier contact (SBC) leads reconstruction of charges at the metal/semiconductor (MS) interface because of the wave function overlap between semiconductor and metal contact. The Schottky barrier contact formation is not only a signature of material's work function but it also sensitive to the interface trap states, the crystal orientation of the interacting materials and other interface properties. In this work, the effect of aluminum cathode morphology on the polymer Schottky diode and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic device performance is studied...
July 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745051/high-performance-polymer-solar-cells-employing-rhodamines-as-cathode-interfacial-layers
#14
Wang Li, Zhiyang Liu, Rongjuan Yang, Qian Guan, Weigang Jiang, Amjad Islam, Tao Lei, Ling Hong, Ruixiang Peng, Ziyi Ge
The development of simple and water-/alcohol-soluble interfacial materials is crucial for the cost-effective fabrication process of polymer solar cells (PSCs). Herein, highly efficient PSCs are reported employing water-/alcohol-soluble and low-cost rhodamines as cathode interfacial layers (CILs). The results reveal that rhodamine-based CILs can reduce the work function of the Al cathode and simultaneously increase the open-circuit voltage, current density, fill factor, and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PSCs...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742324/simple-microwave-assisted-synthesis-of-amphiphilic-carbon-quantum-dots-from-a3-b2-polyamidation-monomer-set
#15
Yujin Choi, Seongho Jo, Ari Chae, Young Kwang Kim, Jeong Eun Park, Donggun Lim, Sung Young Park, Insik In
Highly fluorescent and amphiphilic carbon quantum dots (CQDs) were prepared by microwave-assisted pyrolysis of citric acid and 4,7,10-trioxa-1,13-tridecanediamine (TTDDA), which functioned as an A3 and B2 polyamidation type monomer set. Gram quantities of fluorescent CQDs were easily obtained within 5 min of microwave heating using a household microwave oven. Because of the dual role of TTDDA, both as a constituting monomer and as a surface passivation agent, TTDDA-based CQDs showed a high fluorescence quantum yield of 29% and amphiphilic solubility in various polar and non-polar solvents...
July 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737255/efficient-organic-solar-cells-with-non-fullerene-acceptors
#16
REVIEW
Shuixing Li, Wenqing Liu, Chang-Zhi Li, Minmin Shi, Hongzheng Chen
Fullerene-free OSCs employing n-type small molecules or polymers as the acceptors have recently experienced a rapid rise with efficiencies exceeding 12%. Owing to the good optoelectronic and morphological tunabilities, non-fullerene acceptors exhibit great potential for realizing high-performance and practical OSCs. In this Review, recent exciting progress made in developing highly efficient non-fullerene acceptors is summarized, mainly correlating factors like absorption, energy loss and morphology of new materials to their correspondent photovoltaic performance...
July 24, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737017/high-efficiency-nonfullerene-polymer-solar-cells-with-thick-active-layer-and-large-area
#17
Bing Guo, Wanbin Li, Xia Guo, Xiangyi Meng, Wei Ma, Maojie Zhang, Yongfang Li
In this work, high-efficiency nonfullerene polymer solar cells (PSCs) are developed based on a thiazolothiazole-containing wide bandgap polymer PTZ1 as donor and a planar IDT-based narrow bandgap small molecule with four side chains (IDIC) as acceptor. Through thermal annealing treatment, a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of up to 11.5% with an open circuit voltage (Voc ) of 0.92 V, a short-circuit current density (Jsc ) of 16.4 mA cm(-2) , and a fill factor of 76.2% is achieved. Furthermore, the PSCs based on PTZ1:IDIC still exhibit a relatively high PCE of 9...
July 24, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733664/charge-injection-carriers-recombination-and-homo-energy-level-relationship-in-perovskite-solar-cells
#18
Jesús Jiménez-López, Werther Cambarau, Lydia Cabau, Emilio Palomares
We present a comparative study between a series of well-known semiconductor polymers, used in efficient organic solar cells as hole transport materials (HTM), and the state-of-the art material used as hole transport material in perovskite solar cells: the spiro-OMeTAD. The observed differences in solar cell efficiencies are studied in depth using advanced photoinduced spectroscopic techniques under working illumination conditions. We have observed that there is no correlation between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels of the organic semiconductors and the measured open-circuit voltage (VOC)...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731343/-roller-wheel-pt-containing-small-molecules-and-the-impact-of-rollers-on-material-crystallinity-electronic-properties-and-solar-cell-performance
#19
Wenhan He, Maksim Y Livshits, Diane A Dickie, Zhen Zhang, Luis E Mejiaortega, Jeffrey J Rack, Qin Wu, Yang Qin
We report the synthesis, characterization and detailed comparison of a series of novel Pt-bisacetylide containing conjugated small molecules possessing an unconventional "roller-wheel" shaped structure that is distinctly different from the "dumbbell" designs in traditional Pt-bisacetylide containing conjugated polymers and small molecules. The relationship between the chemical nature and length of the "rollers" and the electronic and physical properties of the materials are carefully studied by steady state spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, differential scanning calorimetry, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, transient absorption spectroscopy, theoretical calculation and device application...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731322/large-scale-stretchable-semiembedded-copper-nanowire-transparent-conductive-films-by-an-electrospinning-template
#20
Xia Yang, Xiaotian Hu, Qingxia Wang, Jian Xiong, Hanjun Yang, Xiangchuan Meng, Licheng Tan, Lie Chen, Yiwang Chen
With recent emergence of wearable electronic devices, flexible and stretchable transparent electrodes are the core components to realize innovative devices. The copper nanowire (CuNW) network is commonly chosen because of its high conductivity and transparency. However, the junction resistances and low aspect ratios still limit its further stretchable performance. Herein, a large-scale stretchable semiembedded CuNW transparent conductive film (TCF) was fabricated by electrolessly depositing Cu on the electrospun poly(4-vinylpyridine) polymer template semiembedded in polydimethylsiloxane...
August 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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