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polymer solar cell

Nemal S Gobalasingham, Jon E Carlé, Frederik C Krebs, Barry C Thompson, Eva Bundgaard, Martin Helgesen
Continuous flow methods are utilized in conjunction with direct arylation polymerization (DArP) for the scaled synthesis of the roll-to-roll compatible polymer, poly[(2,5-bis(2-hexyldecyloxy)phenylene)-alt-(4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl)-benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole)] (PPDTBT). PPDTBT is based on simple, inexpensive, and scalable monomers using thienyl-flanked benzothiadiazole as the acceptor, which is the first β-unprotected substrate to be used in continuous flow via DArP, enabling critical evaluation of the suitability of this emerging synthetic method for minimizing defects and for the scaled synthesis of high-performance materials...
October 13, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Benjamin D Datko, Alan K Thomas, Zhuping Fei, Martin Heeney, John K Grey
Triplet formation and interactions with emissive singlet excitons are investigated in poly(3-hexylselenophene) (P3HS) using single molecule spectroscopy. P3HS is a heavy atom analog of the more commonly studied poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), a benchmark polymer for solar cells. P3HS tends to aggregate strongly which necessitates dilution to ultra-low levels within a solid inert host in order to resolve photophysical responses of single chains. Fluorescence excitation intensity modulation is performed on isolated P3HS chains using a sequence of rectangular pulses of varying intensities to probe the presence of spin-forbidden triplet excitons...
October 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Bing Cao, Xiaoming He, Jason Sorge, Abeed Lalany, Kaveh Ahadi, Amir Afshar, Brian C Olsen, Tate C Hauger, Md Hosnay Mobarok, Peng Li, Kenneth C Cadien, Michael J Brett, Erik J Luber, Jillian M Buriak
Organic solar cells (OSCs) are a complex assembly of disparate materials, each with a precise function within the device. Typically, the electrodes are flat, and the device is fabricated through a layering approach of the interfacial layers and photoactive materials. This work explores the integration of high surface area transparent electrodes to investigate the possible role(s) a three-dimensional electrode could take within an OSC, with a BHJ composed of a donor-acceptor combination with a high degree of electron and hole mobility mismatch...
October 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xugang Guo, Yingfeng Wang, Zhenglong Yan, Han Guo, Mohammad Afsar Uddin, Shaohua Ling, Xin Zhou, Huimin Su, Junfeng Dai, Han Young Woo
Two new bithiophene imide (BTI)-based n-type polymers are synthesized. The fused BTI dimer-based f-BTI2-FT shows a smaller bandgap, lower LUMO, and higher crystallinity than s-BTI2-FT containing a single bond connected BTI dimer. s-BTI2-FT exhibits a remarkable electron mobility of 0.82 cm2 V-1 s-1 and f-BTI2-FT shows a further improved mobility of 1.13 cm2 V-1 s-1 in transistors. When blended with a polymer donor PTB7-Th, the f-BTI2-FT-based all-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs) achieve a PCE of 6.85%, the highest value for all-PSCs not based on naphthalene (or perylene) diimide polymer acceptors...
October 10, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Eric F Manley, Joseph Strzalka, Thomas J Fauvell, Nicholas E Jackson, Matthew J Leonardi, Nicholas D Eastham, Tobin J Marks, Lin X Chen
The influence of solvent and processing additives on the pathways and rates of crystalline morphology formation for spin-coated semiconducting PTB7 (poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)-carbonyl]-thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl]]) thin films is investigated by in situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) and optical reflectance, to better understand polymer solar cell (PSC) optimization approaches. In situ characterization of PTB7 film formation from chloroform (CF), chlorobenzene (CB), and 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB) solutions, as well as CB solutions with 1% and 3% v/v of the processing additives 1-chloronapthalene (CN), diphenylether (DPE), and 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), reveals multiple crystallization pathways with: (i) single-solvent systems exhibiting rapid (<3 s) crystallization after a solvent boiling point-dependent film thinning transition, (ii) solvent + additive systems exhibiting different crystallization pathways and crystallite formation times from minutes (CN, DPE) to 1...
October 9, 2017: Advanced Materials
Wenkai Zhong, Baobing Fan, Jing Cui, Lei Ying, Feng Liu, Junbiao Peng, Fei Huang, Yong Cao, Guillermo C Bazan
We designed and synthesized two isomeric nonfullerene acceptors, IFBR-p and IFBR-d. These molecular semiconductors contain indacenodithiophene (IDT) as the central unit, adjacent asymmetric 5-fluorobenzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole units, and are flanked with rhodanine as the peripheral units. The orientation of the two fluorine atoms (proximal, p, or distal, d), relative to IDT impacts most severely the film morphologies when blended with the electron-donating polymer PTzBI. Polymer solar cells based on PTzBI:IFBR-p give rise to a power conversion efficiency (7...
October 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zhen Wang, Lingyun Zhu, Zhigang Shuai, Zhixiang Wei
Organic solar cells based on semiconducting polymers and small molecules have attracted considerable attention in the last two decades. Moreover, the power conversion efficiencies for solution-processed solar cells containing A-π-D-π-A-type small molecules and fullerenes have reached 11%. However, the method for designing high-performance, photovoltaic small molecules still remains unclear. In this review, recent studies on A-π-D-π-A electron-donating small molecules for organic solar cells are introduced...
October 5, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Yong Cui, Chenyi Yang, Huifeng Yao, Jie Zhu, Yuming Wang, Guoxiao Jia, Feng Gao, Jianhui Hou
Semitransparent organic solar cells (OSCs) show attractive potential in power-generating windows. However, the development of semitransparent OSCs is lagging behind opaque OSCs. Here, an ultralow-bandgap nonfullerene acceptor, "IEICO-4Cl", is designed and synthesized, whose absorption spectrum is mainly located in the near-infrared region. When IEICO-4Cl is blended with different polymer donors (J52, PBDB-T, and PTB7-Th), the colors of the blend films can be tuned from purple to blue to cyan, respectively. Traditional OSCs with a nontransparent Al electrode fabricated by J52:IEICO-4Cl, PBDB-T:IEICO-4Cl, and PTB7-Th:IEICO-4Cl yield power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of 9...
October 4, 2017: Advanced Materials
Dan Li, Chen Sun, Hao Li, Hui Shi, Xuxia Shai, Qiang Sun, Junbo Han, Yan Shen, Hin-Lap Yip, Fei Huang, Mingkui Wang
In this study, for the first time, we report a solution-processed amino-functionalized copolymer semiconductor (PFN-2TNDI) with a conjugated backbone composed of fluorine, naphthalene diimide, and thiophene spacers as the electron transporting layer (ETL) in n-i-p planar structured perovskite solar cells. Using this copolymer semiconductor in conjunction with a planar n-i-p heterojunction, we achieved an unprecedented efficiency of ∼16% under standard illumination test conditions. More importantly, the perovskite devices using this polymer ETL have shown good stability under constant ultra violet (UV) light soaking during 3000 h of accelerated tests...
June 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Xiang Cai, Tao Yuan, Xiangfu Liu, Guoli Tu
Solid alcohol 1-pyrenemethanol (PyM) was first introduced to modify the zinc oxide (ZnO) layer which is used in the inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) as a cathode buffer layer (CBL). As a low-cost industrial product, the PyM can modify the surface defects and improve the electron mobility of ZnO CBL, which can be attributed to the self-assembly of PyM on the ZnO surface due to the hydrogen bonds and the conjugated structure in PyM. With a blend of PTB7:PC71BM as active layer, the device with ZnO/PyM CBL exhibited a notable power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8...
October 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yue Wu, Yan Zou, Hang Yang, Yaowen Li, Hongkun Li, Chaohua Cui, Yongfang Li
Nowadays, most of the solution-processed high-efficiency polymer solar cell (PSC) devices are fabricated by halogenated solvents (such as chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, chloroform, etc.) which are harmful to people and the environment. Therefore, it is essential to develop high-efficiency PSC devices processed by environmentally friendly solvent processing for their industrialization. In this regard, we report a new alkylthio chain-based conjugated polymer PBDB-TS as donor material for environmentally friendly solvent-processed PSCs...
October 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kakaraparthi Kranthiraja, Sang Ho Park, Hyunji Kim, Kumarasamy Gunasekar, Gibok Han, Bumjoon J Kim, Chang Su Kim, Soohyun Kim, Hyunjung Lee, Ryosuke Nishikubo, Akinori Saeki, Sung-Ho Jin, Myungkwan Song
We present an efficient approach to develop a series of multifunctional π-conjugated polymers (P1-P3) by controlling the degree of fluorination (0F, 2F, and 4F) on the side chain linked to the benzodithiophene unit of the π-conjugated polymer. The most promising changes were noticed in optical, electrochemical, and morphological properties upon varying the degree of fluorine atoms on the side chain. The properly aligned energy levels with respect to the perovskite and PCBM prompted us to use them in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) as hole-transporting materials (HTMs) and in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ OSCs) as photoactive donors...
October 4, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tao Jia, Chen Sun, Rongguo Xu, Zhiming Chen, Qingwu Yin, Yaocheng Jin, Hin-Lap Yip, Fei Huang, Yong Cao
A series of naphthalene diimide (NDI) based n-type conjugated polymers with amino-functionalized side groups and backbones were synthesized and used as cathode interlayers (CILs) in polymer and perovskite solar cells. Because of controllable amine side groups, all the resulting polymers exhibited distinct electronic properties such as oxidation potential of side chains, charge carrier mobilities, self-doping behaviors, and interfacial dipoles. The influences of the chemical variation of amine groups on the cathode interfacial effects were further investigated in both polymer and perovskite solar cells...
October 5, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Haiying Jiang, Zhen Wang, Lianjie Zhang, Anxing Zhong, Xuncheng Liu, Feilong Pan, Wanzhu Cai, Olle Inganäs, Yi Liu, Junwu Chen, Yong Cao
A new wide-band-gap conjugated polymer PBODT was successfully synthesized that showed high crystallinity and was utilized as the active material in nonfullerene bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells (PSCs). The photovoltaic devices based on the as-cast blend films of PBODT with ITIC and IDIC acceptors showed notable power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 7.06% and 9.09%, with high open-circuit voltages of 1.00 and 0.93 V that correspond to low energy losses of 0.59 and 0.69 eV, respectively. In the case of PBODT:ITIC, lower exciton quenching efficiency and monomolecular recombination are found for devices with small driving force...
October 5, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Mingyan Yang, Tsz-Ki Lau, Shengqiang Xiao, Jianhong Gao, Wei Wang, Xinhui Lu, Shoujie Zhang, Jiansheng Wu, Chun Zhan, Wei You
Ladder-type electron-donating units for D-A copolymers applied in polymer solar cells usually comprise multiple tetrahedral carbon bridges bonded with out-of-plane alkyl chains for desirable solubility for device processing. However, molecular packing of resultant copolymers in the solid state and charge transport within devices are also impeded in spite of with multiple fused aromatic backbones. To mitigate this issue, a structurally well-defined ladder-type electron-donating heteroheptacene, 12H-dithieno[2',3':4,5]thieno[3,2-b:2',3'-h]fluorene (DTTF) with an extended conjugated backbone and a single tetrahedral carbon bridge attached with two bulky alkyl chains was designed and synthesized...
October 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xiaodong Liu, L Jay Guo, Yonghao Zheng
Lithium fluoride (LiF) is an efficient and widely used cathode buffer layer (CBL) in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (PSCs). The LiF thickness is normally limited to 1 nm due to its insulting property. Such small thickness is difficult to precise control during thermal deposition, and more importantly, 1-nm-thick LiF cannot provide sufficient protection for the underlying active layer. Herein, we demonstrated the application of a very thick LiF as CBL without sacrificing the device efficiency by simply inserting a C60 layer between the active layer and LiF layer...
September 21, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Ramesh K Kokal, Melepurath Deepa, Ankarao Kalluri, Shrishti Singh, Isaac Macwan, Prabir K Patra, Jeff Gilarde
Novel approaches to boost quantum dot solar cell (QDSC) efficiencies are in demand. Herein, three strategies are used: (i) a hydrothermally synthesized TiO2-multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite instead of conventional TiO2, (ii) a counter electrode (CE) that has not been applied to QDSCs until now, namely, tin sulfide (SnS) nanoparticles (NPs) coated over a conductive carbon (C)-fabric, and (iii) a quasi-solid-state gel electrolyte composed of S(2-), an inert polymer and TiO2 nanoparticles as opposed to a polysulfide solution based hole transport layer...
October 4, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Abhishek Sharma, Mihirsinh Chauhan, Vishal Bharti, Manoj Kumar, Suresh Chand, Brijesh Tripathi, J P Tiwari
The design and fabrication of better excitonic solar cells are the need of the hour for futuristic energy solutions. This designing needs a better understanding of the charge transport properties of excitonic solar cells. One of the popular methods of understanding the charge transport properties is the analysis of the J-V characteristics of a device through theoretical simulation at varied illumination intensity. Herein, a J-V characteristic of a polymer:fullerene based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs) of structure ITO/PEDOT:PSS (∼40 nm)/PTB7:PC71BM (∼100 nm)/Al (∼120 nm) is analyzed using one- and two-diode models at varied illumination intensity in the range of 0...
October 4, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yang Wang, Miao Hong, Travis S Bailey, Eugene Y-X Chen
A synthetic method that taps into the facile Lewis base (LB)→Lewis acid (LA) adduct forming reaction between the semiconducting polymeric LB and all carbon LA C60 for the construction of covalently linked donor-acceptor dyads and brush polymer of dyads is reported. The polymeric LB is built on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) macromers containing either an alkyl or vinyl imidazolium end group that can be readily converted into the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) LB site, while the brush polymer architecture is conveniently constructed via radical polymerization of the macromer P3HT with the vinyl imidazolium chain end...
September 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Alexander Grupp, Philipp Ehrenreich, Julian Kalb, Arne Budweg, Lukas Schmidt-Mende, Daniele Brida
In this work, we investigate the exciton dissociation dynamics occurring at the donor:acceptor interface in organic and hybrid blends employed in the realization of photovoltaic cells. Fundamental differences in the charge separation process are studied with the organic semiconductor polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and either [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) or titanium dioxide (TiO2) acting as the acceptor. By using ultrafast broad-band transient absorption spectroscopy with few-fs temporal resolution, we observe that in both cases the incoherent formation of free charges dominates the charge generation process...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
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