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CT scan head imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910797/staging-practice-for-prostate-cancer-varies-and-is-not-in-line-with-clinical-guidelines
#1
Lars J Petersen, Yuliya Shuytsky, Helle D Zacho
INTRODUCTION: The objective was to describe regional variations in M-staging in patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer within a Danish county and to compare clinical practice with guideline recommendations. METHODS: Data were as captured from 1) a prospective, non-interventional study counting 635 consecutive patients referred for M-staging in the 2008-2009 period at three regional hospitals within one county, and 2) a questionnaire on M-staging practice completed by the five sites performing M-staging in the same county in 2015...
December 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902687/limb-bone-structural-proportions-and-locomotor-behavior-in-a-l-288-1-lucy
#2
Christopher B Ruff, M Loring Burgess, Richard A Ketcham, John Kappelman
While there is broad agreement that early hominins practiced some form of terrestrial bipedality, there is also evidence that arboreal behavior remained a part of the locomotor repertoire in some taxa, and that bipedal locomotion may not have been identical to that of modern humans. It has been difficult to evaluate such evidence, however, because of the possibility that early hominins retained primitive traits (such as relatively long upper limbs) of little contemporaneous adaptive significance. Here we examine bone structural properties of the femur and humerus in the Australopithecus afarensis A...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895878/evaluation-of-visibility-of-foreign-bodies-in-the-maxillofacial-region-comparison-of-computed-tomography-cone-beam-computed-tomography-ultrasound-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#3
Solmaz Valizadeh, Hamidreza Pouraliakbar, Leila Kiani, Yaser Safi, Leila Alibakhshi
BACKGROUND: Detection of foreign bodies (FBs) is challenging. Selection of a fast and affordable imaging modality to locate the FB with minimal patient radiation dose is imperative. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to compare four commonly used imaging modalities namely cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and ultrasound (US) for detection of FBs in the head and neck region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this in vitro study, iron, glass, stone, wood, asphalt, and tooth samples measuring 0...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Radiology: a Quarterly Journal Published By the Iranian Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891826/ct-brain-perfusion-a-static-phantom-study-of-contrast-to-noise-ratio-and-radiation-dose
#4
Stewart M Midgley, Damien L Stella, Bruce Cv Campbell, Francesca Langenberg, Paul F Einsiedel
INTRODUCTION: Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) is increasingly employed in the diagnosis and management of ischaemic stroke but radiation dose can be significant and optimising contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) is challenging. This study aimed to quantify and optimise the balance between CNR as a surrogate for image quality and radiation dose. METHODS: A perspex head phantom with vials of dilute contrast agent was scanned using a Siemens Definition Flash 128-slice scanner...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866218/prevalence-of-negative-ct-scans-in-a-level-one-trauma-center
#5
C K Hansen, R J Strayer, B D Shy, S Kessler, S Givre, K H Shah
PURPOSE: The rise of computed tomography (CT) use in trauma has become the subject of concern given the harms of CT including radiation, cost, over diagnosis and identification of incidental lesions. We developed a novel metric, the Negative CT Score, (∑CT-) which quantifies how often CT imaging identifies important injuries. Our objective was to describe the pattern of CT utilization in trauma at an urban academic level one trauma center using this novel metric. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of intermediate level trauma patients who received CT imaging over a 1-year study period at an urban level one trauma center...
November 19, 2016: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865369/feasibility-of-using-head-and-neck-ct-imaging-to-assess-skeletal-muscle-mass-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients
#6
Justin E Swartz, Ajit J Pothen, Inge Wegner, Ernst J Smid, Karin M A Swart, Remco de Bree, Loek P H Leenen, Wilko Grolman
OBJECTIVES: Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) have a higher risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia, which is associated with adverse clinical outcome. As abdominal CT-imaging is often used to detect sarcopenia, such scans are rarely available in HNC patients, possibly explaining why no studies investigate the effect of sarcopenia in this population. We correlated skeletal muscle mass assessed on head and neck CT-scans with abdominal CT-imaging. METHODS: Head and neck, and abdominal CT-scans of trauma (n=51) and HNC-patients (n=52) were retrospectively analyzed...
November 2016: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848124/reversible-cerebral-vasoconstriction-syndrome-and-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-associated-with-intracranial-hypotension
#7
Katharina Feil, Robert Forbrig, Franziska S Thaler, Julian Conrad, Suzette Heck, Franziska Dorn, Hans-Walter Pfister, Andreas Straube
BACKGROUND: Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) are both rare disorders. The pathophysiology of both diseases is not yet fully understood. METHODS: We report the unique case of a 19-year-old comatose woman who was brought to the ER after a series of generalized tonic-clonic seizures 6 days post peridural anesthesia for cesarean section. Vital signs and initial laboratory testing including urine analysis and drug screening were unremarkable...
November 15, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843739/a-case-of-complete-abscopal-response-in-high-grade-pleiomorphic-sarcoma-treated-with-radiotherapy-alone
#8
Andrew Orton, Jennifer Wright, Luke Buchmann, Lor Randall, Ying J Hitchcock
BACKGROUND: "Abscopal response" refers to the spontaneous involution of untreated metastatic disease following local primary tumor-directed therapy. We report a case of an abscopal response of untreated lung metastasis in a man with pleomorphic sarcoma of the head and neck treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy. METHODS: An inoperable pleomorphic sarcoma of the postauricular soft tissue was treated with 40 Gy of radiation in eight fractions. Untreated disease in the lungs was followed with CT scans...
October 7, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837185/quantitative-estimation-of-a-ratio-of-intracranial-cerebrospinal-fluid-volume-to-brain-volume-based-on-segmentation-of-ct-images-in-patients-with-extra-axial-hematoma
#9
Ha Son Nguyen, Mohit Patel, Luyuan Li, Shekar Kurpad, Wade Mueller
BACKGROUND: Diminishing volume of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with space-occupying masses have been attributed to unfavorable outcome associated with reduction of cerebral perfusion pressure and subsequent brain ischemia. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to employ a ratio of CSF volume to brain volume for longitudinal assessment of space-volume relationships in patients with extra-axial hematoma and to determine variability of the ratio among patients with different types and stages of hematoma...
November 11, 2016: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833352/adaptive-radiotherapy-for-head-neck-cancer
#10
Shrikant Balasaheb Mali
Changes in patient anatomy may occur either from a tumour volume, position or function of a specific organ at risk, or target volume, weight loss or a reduction in postoperative oedema, and may vary between patients. Adaptive radiotherapy aims to correct morphological variations by realizing one or more plans during the treatment course. Imaging is used to detect these variations, thereby deciding on a potential replanning. At present, adaptive radiotherapy for head neck cancer (HNC) mainly deals with treatment response, such as weight loss or tumor shrinkage...
December 2016: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826941/circumportal-pancreas-a-must-know-pancreatic-anomaly-for-the-pancreatic-surgeon
#11
Andreas Minh Luu, C Braumann, T Herzog, M Janot, W Uhl, A M Chromik
PURPOSE: Circumportal pancreas is a rare congenital pancreatic anomaly with encasement of the portal vein and/or the superior mesenteric vein by pancreatic tissue. It is often overlooked on cross-sectional imaging studies and can be encountered during pancreatic surgery. Pancreatic head resection with circumportal pancreas is technically difficult and bears an increased risk of postoperative pancreatic fistula. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review of our data base for all patients who had undergone pancreatic head resection between 2004 and 2015 was performed...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824812/projected-cancer-risks-potentially-related-to-past-current-and-future-practices-in-paediatric-ct-in-the-united-kingdom-1990-2020
#12
Neige M Y Journy, Choonsik Lee, Richard W Harbron, Kieran McHugh, Mark S Pearce, Amy Berrington de González
BACKGROUND: To project risks of developing cancer and the number of cases potentially induced by past, current, and future computed tomography (CT) scans performed in the United Kingdom in individuals aged <20 years. METHODS: Organ doses were estimated from surveys of individual scan parameters and CT protocols used in the United Kingdom. Frequencies of scans were estimated from the NHS Diagnostic Imaging Dataset. Excess lifetime risks (ELRs) of radiation-related cancer were calculated as cumulative lifetime risks, accounting for survival probabilities, using the RadRAT risk assessment tool...
November 8, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818559/operation-of-the-preclinical-head-scanner-for-proton-ct
#13
H F-W Sadrozinski, T Geoghegan, E Harvey, R P Johnson, T E Plautz, A Zatserklyaniy, V Bashkirov, R F Hurley, P Piersimoni, R W Schulte, P Karbasi, K E Schubert, B Schultze, V Giacometti
We report on the operation and performance tests of a preclinical head scanner developed for proton computed tomography (pCT). After extensive preclinical testing, pCT is intended to be employed in support of proton therapy treatment planning and pre-treatment verification in patients undergoing particle-beam therapy. In order to assess the performance of the scanner, we have performed CT scans with 200 MeV protons from both the synchrotron of the Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) and the cyclotron of the Northwestern Medicine Chicago Proton Center (NMCPC)...
September 21, 2016: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814768/impact-of-3t-multiparametric-mri-and-fdg-pet-ct-in-the-evaluation-of-occult-primary-cancer-with-cervical-node-metastasis
#14
Mária Gődény, Zsolt Lengyel, Gábor Polony, Zoltán Takácsi Nagy, Gergely Léránt, Orsolya Zámbó, Éva Remenár, László Tamás, Miklós Kásler
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the ability of multimodal evaluation with multiparametric 3T-MRI (MPMRI) and positron emission tomography - computed tomography (PET/CT) to detect cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP) with neck lymph node (LN) metastasis. METHODS: The study group comprised 38 retrospectively analysed consecutive patients with LN metastasis in the head and neck (HN) region without known primary tumours (PTs). Statistical values of 3T-MRI and of FDG-PET/CT scans were evaluated...
November 4, 2016: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813710/usefulness-of-three-dimensional-modeling-in-surgical-planning-resident-training-and-patient-education
#15
Ciro Andolfi, Alejandro Plana, Patrick Kania, P Pat Banerjee, Stephen Small
BACKGROUND: Imaging has a critical impact on surgical decision making and three-dimensional (3D) digital models of patient pathology can now be made commercially. We developed a 3D digital model of a cancer of the head of the pancreas by integrating actual CT data with 3D modeling process. After this process, the virtual pancreatic model was also produced using a high-quality 3D printer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 56-year-old female with pancreatic head adenocarcinoma presented with biliary obstruction and jaundice...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800485/clinical-application-of-cone-beam-computed-tomography-of-the-rabbit-head-part-1-normal-dentition
#16
G G Riggs, Boaz Arzi, Derek D Cissell, David C Hatcher, Philip H Kass, Amy Zhen, Frank J M Verstraete
Domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are increasingly popular as household pets; therefore, veterinarians need to be familiar with the most common diseases afflicting rabbits including dental diseases. Diagnostic approaches for dental disease include gross oral examination, endoscopic oral examination, skull radiography, and computed tomography (CT). CT overcomes many limitations of standard radiography by permitting cross-sectional images of the rabbit head in multiple planes without superimposition of anatomic structures...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795771/-role-of-biliary-mri-in-etiological-diagnosis-of-cholestatic-icteruses-in-dakar
#17
Nfally Badji, Geraud Akpo, Hamidou Deme, Mouhamadou Hamine Toure, Mamadou Ly, Boucar Ndong, El Hadji Niang
Biliary MRI is a relatively new diagnostic test in the arsenal of exploration techniques in biliopancreatic pathology. This is a reproducible and reliable non invasive technique for direct visualization of biliary and pancreatic ducts. This study aims to evaluate the morphological features of major abnormalities and the role of biliary MRI in the etiological diagnosis of cholestatic icteruses. This is a retrospective study of 17 patients conducted in the Imaging Unit of the University Hospital of Fann and of the Principal hospital of Dakar over a period of 4 years and six months (January 2008 at July 2012)...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792251/the-effect-of-aging-on-the-anatomic-position-of-the-thyroid-gland
#18
Darrin V Bann, Yesul Kim, Thomas Zacharia, David Goldenberg
Thyroid disease is common among elderly patients, frequently necessitating thyroid gland examination, imaging, and surgery. However, no prior studies have determined the effect of age on the anatomic position of the thyroid gland in the anterior neck. We hypothesized that the thyroid gland resides at a more caudal position in the neck in elderly patients as compared to younger patients. Head and neck CT scans were collected from 122 atraumatic patients without thyroid disease aged 18-39 years, 40-59 years, 60-79 years, and 80+ years...
October 28, 2016: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790515/cystic-dystrophy-of-the-duodenum-due-to-heterotopic-pancreas-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#19
Gunjan Shailesh Desai, Aniruddha Phadke, Dattaprasanna Kulkarni
Cystic Dystrophy and Heterotopic Pancreas (CDHP) is a rare cause of chronic pancreatitis, duodenal obstruction and obstructive jaundice. The diagnosis is often delayed and requires multimodal imaging with Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Cholangio-Pancreatography (MRCP) and Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS). The treatment is not standardized but Pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) provides long-term relief in some cases. The present case is about a 47-year-old male with history of alcohol abuse for 10 years who presented with a history of recurrent acute pancreatitis...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788231/the-population-effective-dose-of-medical-computed-tomography-examinations-in-taiwan-for-2013
#20
Da-Ming Yeh, Hui-Yu Tsai, Yen-Sheng Tyan, Yu-Cheng Chang, Lung-Kwang Pan, Tou-Rong Chen
PURPOSE: To evaluate the annual effective dose per capita attributed to computed tomography (CT) examinations in 2013 and to predict the population effective dose from 2000 to 2013 in Taiwan. METHODS: A CT examination database collected from 30 hospitals was divided into 22 procedures and classified into six regions: head, neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, and other, respectively. The effective doses in different regions were evaluated by dose-length product (DLP) multiplied by conversion factors...
2016: PloS One
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