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CT scan head imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621627/factors-associated-with-shunt-dependent-hydrocephalus-after-decompressive-craniectomy-for-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Aditya Vedantam, Jose-Miguel Yamal, Hyunsoo Hwang, Claudia S Robertson, Shankar P Gopinath
OBJECTIVE Posttraumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) affects 11.9%-36% of patients undergoing decompressive craniectomy (DC) and is an important cause of morbidity after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Early diagnosis and treatment of PTH can prevent further neurological compromise in patients who are recovering from TBI. There is limited data on predictors of shunting for PTH after DC for TBI. METHODS Prospectively collected data from the erythropoietin severe TBI randomized controlled trial were studied. Demographic, clinical, and imaging data were analyzed for enrolled patients who underwent a DC...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607789/unilateral-enlarged-vestibular-aqueduct-syndrome-and-bilateral-endolymphatic-hydrops
#2
Massimo Ralli, Giuseppe Nola, Luca Sparvoli, Giovanni Ralli
Enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) syndrome is a common congenital inner ear malformation characterized by a vestibular aqueduct with a diameter larger than 1.5 mm, mixed or sensorineural hearing loss that ranges from mild to profound, and vestibular disorders that may be present with a range from mild imbalance to episodic objective vertigo. In our study, we present the case of a patient with unilateral enlarged vestibular aqueduct and bilateral endolymphatic hydrops (EH). EH was confirmed through anamnestic history and audiological exams; EVA was diagnosed using high-resolution CT scans and MRI images...
2017: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601333/variability-in-ct-imaging-of-blunt-trauma-among-ed-physicians-surgical-residents-and-trauma-surgeons
#3
Melissa K James, Shi-Wen Lee, Jennifer A Minneman, Maureen D Moore, Taylor R Klein, R Jonathan Robitsek, Phillip S Barie, Sebastian D Schubl
BACKGROUND: Trauma triage decisions can be influenced by both knowledge and experience. Consequently, there may be substantial variability in computed tomography (CT) scans desired by emergency medicine physicians, surgical chief residents, and attending trauma surgeons. We quantified this difference and studied the effects of each group's decisions on missed injuries, cost, and radiation exposure. METHODS: All blunt trauma activations at an urban level 1 trauma center were studied over a 6-mo period...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593386/prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-pet-imaging-and-immunohistochemistry-in-adenoid-cystic-carcinoma-%C3%AF-a-preliminary-analysis
#4
Thomas J W Klein Nulent, Robert J J van Es, Gerard C Krijger, Remco de Bree, Stefan M Willems, Bart de Keizer
BACKGROUND: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) of the head and neck is an uncommon malignant epithelial tumour of the secretory glands. Many patients develop slowly growing local recurrence and/or distant metastasis, for which treatment options are limited. A retrospective analysis of 9 AdCC patients was conducted to analyse the visualization of AdCC on PSMA PET/CT and to investigate the expression of PSMA on primary, recurrent and metastatic AdCC tumour tissue using immunohistochemistry...
June 7, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589641/the-yield-of-head-computed-tomography-in-patients-with-new-onset-of-transient-headaches
#5
Niamh Hammond, Annemarei Ranta
BACKGROUND: Headache is a common patient complaint. The threshold for brain imaging in headache is debated, especially when the headache is transient, although even if the headache has resolved at presentation a sentinel bleed heralding a subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) often remains a concern. AIMS: To assess the yield of computed tomography (CT) head scan referrals for patients with transient headache symptoms. METHODS: This study looked at six months of CT results assessing for brain pathology with a particular focus on subarachnoid haemorrhage...
June 7, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578511/cranial-ultrasound-is-a-reliable-first-step-imaging-in-children-with-suspected-craniosynostosis
#6
L Pogliani, G V Zuccotti, M Furlanetto, V Giudici, A Erbetta, L Chiapparini, L Valentini
PURPOSE: Skull radiography (SR) and Computed Tomography (CT) are still proposed as the first-line imaging choice for the diagnosis of craniosynostosis (CS) in children with abnormal head shape, but both techniques expose infants to ionizing radiation. Several studies shown that ultrasound may play an important role in the diagnosis of craniosynostosis. The aim of our study is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cranial ultrasound scan (CUS) and confirm if it is a reliable first step imaging evaluation for the diagnosis of craniosynostosis in newborn...
June 3, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574318/pediatric-abusive-head-trauma-and-stroke
#7
Nickalus R Khan, Brittany D Fraser, Vincent Nguyen, Kenneth Moore, Scott Boop, Brandy N Vaughn, Paul Klimo
OBJECTIVE Despite established risk factors, abusive head trauma (AHT) continues to plague our communities. Cerebrovascular accident (CVA), depicted as areas of hypodensity on CT scans or diffusion restriction on MR images, is a well-known consequence of AHT, but its etiology remains elusive. The authors hypothesize that a CVA, in isolation or in conjunction with other intracranial injuries, compounds the severity of a child's injury, which in turn leads to greater health care utilization, including surgical services, and an increased risk of death...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572489/head-to-head-comparison-of-chest-x-ray-head-and-neck-mri-chest-ct-head-and-neck-mri-and-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-for-detection-of-distant-metastases-and-synchronous-cancer-in-oral-pharyngeal-and-laryngeal-cancer
#8
Max Rohde, Anne L Nielsen, Jørgen Johansen, Jens A Sørensen, Anabel Diaz, Jon T Asmussen, Mie K Nielsen, Anders Thomassen, Janus M Christiansen, Nina Nguyen, Oke Gerke, Abass Alavi, Poul Flemming Høilund-Carlsen, Christian Godballe
Purpose: To determine the detection rate of distant metastasis and synchronous cancer comparing clinically used imaging strategies based on a) chest X-ray + head and neck magnetic resonance imaging (CXR/MRI) and b) chest computed tomography + head and neck MRI (CHCT/MRI) to c) (18)F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) upfront in the diagnostic work-up of patients with oral, pharyngeal, or laryngeal cancer. Methods: A prospective cohort study based on paired data. Consecutive patients with histologically verified primary head and squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) at Odense University Hospital from September 2013 to March 2016 were offered participation...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567378/capsule-retention-prevention-diagnosis-and-management
#9
REVIEW
Emanuele Rondonotti
Capsule retention (CR) has been defined as capsule remaining in the digestive tract for a minimum of two weeks. CR occurs approximately in 2% of all patients undergoing small bowel capsule endoscopy (CE). Prompt diagnosis of CR is important, as it has relevant clinical implications. CR should be suspected in (I) all asymptomatic patients who do not report capsule excretion within 15 days from capsule ingestion; and (II) patients with obstructive or perforation-related symptoms in which the capsule has not been excreted, regardless of the time between the onset of symptoms and capsule ingestion...
May 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562465/occult-head-injury-in-children-less-than-2-years-with-suspected-child-abuse-in-the-emergency-department
#10
Huma Shaikh, Brian H Wrotniak, Paula M Mazur
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the frequency of clinically significant findings requiring emergent neurosurgical intervention on computed tomography (CT) in neurologically intact children admitted to the hospital with suspected abuse. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of neurologically stable children (0-24 months) in whom both skeletal survey and CT head were performed for child abuse evaluation from 2000 to 2011. RESULTS: A total of 132 patients met inclusion criteria (mean age, 7...
May 30, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560796/postoperative-evaluation-of-reduction-loss-in-proximal-humeral-fractures-a-comparison-of-plain-radiographs-and-computed-tomography
#11
Xiao-Yang Jia, Yan-Xi Chen, Min-Fei Qiang, Kun Zhang, Hao-Bo Li, Yu-Chen Jiang, Yi-Jie Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To compare postoperative CT images with plain radiographs for measuring prognostic factors of reduction loss of fractures of the proximal part of the humerus. METHODS: A total of 65 patients who sustained fractures of the proximal humerus treated with locking plates from June 2012 to October 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 24 men and 41 women, with a mean age of 60.0 years (range, 22-76 years). According to the Neer classification system of proximal humeral fracture, there were 26 two-part, 27 three-part and 12 four-part fractures of the proximal part of the humerus, and all fractures were treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) using locked plating...
May 30, 2017: Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556204/optimal-combination-of-anti-scatter-grids-and-software-correction-for-cbct-imaging
#12
Uros Stankovic, Lennert S Ploeger, Marcel van Herk, Jan-Jakob Sonke
PURPOSE: CBCT has been widely adopted in clinical practice for image-guided radiotherapy. Soft tissue contrast and Hounsfield units are impaired to presence of scattered radiation. In our previous work we proposed a high selectivity anti-scatter grid (ASG) as a possible solution to the problem. An alternative approach is the application of iterative scatter correction using deconvolution with scatter point spread function (PSF). The purpose of this work was to compare the performance of ASGs with different selectivity with and without the iterative and uniform scatter corrections in terms of CBCT image quality...
May 29, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554552/orbital-and-orbitocranial-trauma-from-pencil-fragments-role-of-timely-diagnosis-and-management
#13
Won-Kyung Cho, Audrey C Ko, Habibullah Eatamadi, Abdelqadir Al-Ali, Jean-Paul Abboud, Don O Kikkawa, Bobby S Korn
PURPOSE: To emphasize the importance of early detection and radiologic evaluation of retained organic foreign bodies (FBs) in orbital or orbitocranial penetrating injuries by pencil. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients who had penetrating orbital or orbitocranial trauma at two tertiary hospitals was conducted. Patients whose mechanism of injury was penetrating trauma by pencil were included...
May 26, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552698/a-novel-approach-for-percutaneous-vertebroplasty-based-on-preoperative-ct-based-3-dimensional-model-design-technical-note
#14
Jian Li, JiSheng Lin, JunChuan Xu, Hai Meng, Nan Su, ZiHan Fan, JinJun Li, Yong Yang, Dong Li, BingQiang Wang, Qi Fei
OBJECTIVE: To describe a new technique for the efficient use of preoperative planning based on preoperative CT-based 3-Dimensional model design for percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) in a patient with osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF). METHODS: A 76-year-old woman with acute OVCF (L1 level) accepted a novel precise PVP. A 3D model of thoracolumbar vertebrae (T12-L2) based on preoperative CT scanning data and a simulative PVP (via bilateral transpedicular approach) were built in Materiaise's interactive medical image control system (MIMICS) software...
May 24, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545887/how-to-identify-high-radiation-burden-from-computed-tomography-an-example-in-obese-children
#15
Daniel L Lodwick, Jennifer N Cooper, Brent Adler, Choonsik Lee, Kelly Kelleher, Peter C Minneci, Katherine J Deans
BACKGROUND: Radiation burden from the use of computed tomography (CT) imaging may not be evenly distributed. We tested whether overweight and obese children receive higher radiation burden from CT imaging. METHODS: An automated software tool (DoseWizard) assessed patient-level radiation dose from CT and merged results with clinical data from the electronic health record. CT scans of the head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis (A/P) performed at our institution from January 2013 to August 2015 on patients aged <16 y were processed using this software...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542331/the-feasibility-of-endoscopy-ct-image-registration-in-the-head-and-neck-without-prospective-endoscope-tracking
#16
W Scott Ingram, Jinzhong Yang, Beth M Beadle, Richard Wendt, Arvind Rao, Xin A Wang, Laurence E Court
PURPOSE: Endoscopic examinations are frequently-used procedures for patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy, but radiation treatment plans are created on computed tomography (CT) scans. Image registration between endoscopic video and CT could be used to improve treatment planning and analysis of radiation-related normal tissue toxicity. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of endoscopy-CT image registration without prospective physical tracking of the endoscope during the examination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541855/rate-and-reasons-for-repeat-ct-scanning-in-transferred-trauma-patients
#17
James F Holmes, Blake G Siglock, Michael T Corwin, Michael A Johnson, Edgardo S Salcedo, Gabriel S Espinoza, Ramit Lamba
To describe the reasons and additional radiation for CT scans repeated after transfer to a trauma center. Retrospective study of patients transferred to a trauma center. Patients had repeat CT if a CT of the same region was repeated at the trauma center's emergency department. Indications for repeat CT scanning were abstracted. Radiation dosage was calculated in millisieverts. A total of 370 had CT scans and were transferred. Mean age was 39.1 ± 28.0 years. Seventy-four [20.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 16...
May 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530261/a-rare-case-of-embryonal-rhabdomyosarcoma-of-the-parapharyngeal-space
#18
G Iannella, M De Vincentiis, A Corsi, A Greco, G Magliulo
A 24-year-old man was admitted to our Otolaryngology Department following a head and neck CT scan performed for cranial trauma that showed a bulky neoformation in the right parapharyngeal space. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of an oval formation with sharp margins and colliquative areas of necrosis involving the right parapharyngeal space. The mass was completely excised by a latero-cervical approach. Based on histological features and immunohistochemical analysis, a diagnosis of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the parapharyngeal space was made...
May 22, 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530209/reproducible-3d-printed-head-tanks-for-electrical-impedance-tomography-with-realistic-shape-and-conductivity-distribution
#19
James Avery, Kirill Aristovich, Barney Low, David Holder
OBJECTIVE: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has many promising applications in brain injury monitoring. To evaluate both instrumentation and reconstruction algorithms, experiments are first performed in head tanks. Existing methods, whilst accurate, produce a discontinuous conductivity, and are often made by hand, making it hard for other researchers to replicate. APPROACH: We have developed a method for constructing head tanks directly in a 3D printer. Conductivity was controlled through perforations in the skull surface, which allow for saline to pass through...
May 22, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526235/zero-echo-time-mri-only-treatment-planning-for-radiation-therapy-of-brain-tumors-after-resection
#20
C Boydev, B Demol, D Pasquier, H Saint-Jalmes, G Delpon, N Reynaert
Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the sole imaging modality for patient modeling in radiation therapy (RT) is a challenging task due to the need to derive electron density information from MRI and construct a so-called pseudo-computed tomography (pCT) image. We have previously published a new method to derive pCT images from head T1-weighted (T1-w) MR images using a single-atlas propagation scheme followed by a post hoc correction of the mapped CT numbers using local intensity information. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of our method with head zero echo time (ZTE) MR images...
May 16, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
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