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CT scan head imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472093/image-quality-for-radiotherapy-ct-simulators-with-different-scanner-bore-size
#1
Nada Tomic, Pavlos Papaconstadopoulos, Saad Aldelaijan, Juha Rajala, Jan Seuntjens, Slobodan Devic
PURPOSE: We compare image quality parameters derived from phantom images taken on three commercially available radiotherapy CT simulators. To make an unbiased evaluation, we assured images were obtained with the same surface dose measured using XR-QA2 model GafChromic™ film placed at the imaging phantom surface for all three CT-simulators. METHODS: Radiotherapy CT simulators GE LS 16, Philips Brilliance Big Bore, and Toshiba Aquilion LB were compared in terms of spatial resolution, low contrast detectability, image uniformity, and contrast to noise ratio using CATPHAN-504 phantom, scanned with Head and Pelvis protocols...
January 2018: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472080/patient-specific-organ-and-effective-dose-estimates-in-pediatric-oncology-computed-tomography
#2
Yiming Gao, Brian Quinn, Neeta Pandit-Taskar, Gerald Behr, Usman Mahmood, Daniel Long, X George Xu, Jean St Germain, Lawrence T Dauer
PURPOSE: Estimate organ and effective doses from computed tomography scans of pediatric oncologic patients using patient-specific information. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With IRB approval patient-specific scan parameters and patient size obtained from DICOM images and vendor-provided dose monitoring application were obtained for a cross-sectional study of 1250 pediatric patients from 0 through 20 y-olds who underwent head, chest, abdomen-pelvis, or chest-abdomen-pelvis CT scans...
January 2018: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469055/a-head-motion-estimation-algorithm-for-motion-artifact-correction-in-dental-ct-imaging
#3
Daniel Hernandez, Mohamed Elsayed Eldib, Mohamed A A Hegazy, Myung Hye Cho, Min Hyoung Cho, Soo Yeol Lee
A small head motion of the patient can compromise the image quality detrimentally in a dental CT in which a slow cone-beam scan is adopted. We introduce a retrospective head-motion estimation method by which we can estimate the motion waveform from the projection images without employing any external motion monitoring devices. We compute the cross-correlation between every two successive projection images which would result in a sinusoid-like displacement curve over the projection view when there is no patient motion...
February 22, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466047/optimized-computed-tomography-protocol-for-assessment-of-dentition-in-alpacas
#4
Caroline V Fulkerson, Chee Kin Lim, Aubrey N Baird, Ann B Weil, Hock Gan Heng, Beatrice Gutierrez-Crespo, George E Moore
OBJECTIVE To determine the optimal protocol for acquisition of CT images of the dentition in alpacas. ANIMALS 3 healthy adult male alpacas. PROCEDURES Each alpaca was anesthetized with an IM injection of a combination of ketamine, xylazine, and butorphanol and positioned in sternal recumbency on the CT couch with its legs folded in a natural cush position and its head positioned within the isocenter of the gantry of a 64-slice CT scanner. Images were acquired by means of 6 protocols (sequential and helical modes at slice thicknesses of 1...
March 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462065/biomechanical-comparison-of-four-different-atlantoaxial-posterior-fixation-constructs-in-adults-a-finite-element-study
#5
Dong Hyun Chun, Do Heum Yoon, Keung Nyun Kim, Seong Yi, Dong Ah Shin, Yoon Ha
STUDY DESIGN: Finite element analysis. OBJECTIVE: To compare the biomechanical stability imparted to the C1 and C2 vertebrae by the transarticular(TA), C1 lateral mass(LM)-C2 pedicle(PS), C1LM-C2 pars, and C1LM-C2 translaminar screw(TL) fixation techniques. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Cadaveric biomechanical studies of several atlantoaxial posterior fixation techniques have been performed, showing significant heterogeneity in biomechanical properties among the studies...
February 16, 2018: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460063/virtual-modeling-stereolithography-and-intraoperative-ct-guidance-for-the-optimization-of-sagittal-synostosis-reconstruction-a-technical-note
#6
Andrew J Kobets, Adam Ammar, Jonathan Nakhla, Aleka Scoco, Rani Nasser, James T Goodrich, Rick Abbott
INTRODUCTION: Sagittal synostosis affects 1 in 1000 live births and may result in increased intracranial pressure, hindrance of normal neural development, and cosmetic deformity due to scaphocephaly. Historically, several approaches have been utilized for surgical correction and recently, computed tomography (CT)-guided reconstruction procedures are increasingly used. In this report, the authors describe the use of a CT-derived virtual and stereolithographic (3D printed) craniofacial models, which are used to guide intraoperative bone placement, and intraoperative CT guidance for confirmation of bone placement, to ensure the accuracy of surgical correction of scaphocephaly, as demonstrated to parents...
February 19, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458122/regional-variations-of-cortical-bone-in-the-humeral-head-region-a-preliminary-study
#7
Yeming Wang, Jian Li, Jianhua Yang, Jingming Dong
BACKGROUND: Incidence of proximal humeral fractures dramatically increased over the last decade due to demographic changes. The goal of this study was to analyze regional characteristics of cortical bone in the humeral head region using cortical bone mapping (CBM) technique. METHODS: The proximal humerus of 103 healthy volunteers was imaged by clinical computed tomography (CT) scans. Three groups of volunteers were identified according to age: group A (20-39 years), group B (40-59 years), and group C (>60 years)...
February 16, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454128/preoperative-3-dimensional-angiography-data-and-intraoperative-real-time-vascular-data-integrated-in-microscope-based-navigation-by-automatic-patient-registration-applying-intraoperative-computed-tomography
#8
Barbara Carl, Miriam Bopp, Somar Chehab, Siegfried Bien, Christopher Nimsky
OBJECTIVE: To establish a workflow integrating preoperative 3-D angiography data, as well as intraoperative real-time vascular information in microscope-based navigation for aneurysm and arteriovenous malformation surgery. PATIENTS & METHODS: In 7 patients (3 arteriovenous malformations, 4 aneurysms) preoperative 3-D rotational angiography or computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance angiography data were navigated applying a 32-slice movable CT scanner for low-dose registration scanning...
February 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453166/skull-metastasis-revealing-a-renal-tumor-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Mohamed Badri, Ghassen Gader, Kamel Bahri, Ihsen Zammel
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinomas represent 85% of malignant renal tumors. Typically, the tumor remains asymptomatic a long time before the appearance of urologic clinical signs. In some cases, metastasis can precede the manifestations of the primary tumor. Different sites are potential metastatic localizations for renal tumors, including skull metastases who represent a very rare location. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report the case of a 65-year-old man presented after the appearance of a skull mass...
February 10, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449446/improving-accuracy-of-simultaneously-reconstructed-activity-and-attenuation-maps-using-deep-learning
#10
Donghwi Hwang, Kyeong Yun Kim, Seung Kwan Kang, Seongho Seo, Jin Chul Paeng, Dong Soo Lee, Jae Sung Lee
Simultaneous reconstruction of activity and attenuation using the maximum likelihood reconstruction of activity and attenuation (MLAA) augmented by time-of-flight (TOF) information is a promising method for positron emission tomography (PET) attenuation correction. However, it still suffers from several problems, including crosstalk artifacts, slow convergence speed, and noisy attenuation maps (μ-maps). In this work, we developed deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to overcome these MLAA limitations, and we verified their feasibility using a clinical brain PET data set...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449277/modeling-early-postnatal-brain-growth-and-development-with-ct-changes-in-the-brain-radiodensity-histogram-from-birth-to-2-years
#11
K A Cauley, Y Hu, J Och, P J Yorks, S W Fielden
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The majority of brain growth and development occur in the first 2 years of life. This study investigated these changes by analysis of the brain radiodensity histogram of head CT scans from the clinical population, 0-2 years of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred twenty consecutive head CTs with normal findings meeting the inclusion criteria from children from birth to 2 years were retrospectively identified from 3 different CT scan platforms...
February 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448991/paediatric-pelvic-fractures-a-review-of-2-cohorts-over-22-years
#12
Neil Chotai, Sulaiman Alazzawi, Syeda Saman Zehra, Matthew Barry
AIMS: The aim of this retrospective review was to identify all children that presented to our institution with a pelvic or acetabular fracture and to compare these children to a previous cohort of paediatric pelvic fractures that we have reported. PATIENTS: 53 children under the age of 16 were identified over a ten year period. METHODS: We reviewed our trauma database, hospital records and radiological imaging to determine the age, gender, fracture pattern, associated injuries and management of the pelvic fracture...
February 11, 2018: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447888/pathogenesis-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis-in-patients-affected-by-%C3%AE-thalassemia-major-and-sickle-cell-anaemia-post-allogenic-bone-marrow-transplant
#13
F Martino, R Di Mauro, K Paciaroni, J Gaziev, C Alfieri, L Greco, R Floris, S Di Girolamo, M Di Girolamo
OBJECTIVES: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) and β -thalassemia major are well-recognized beta-globin gene disorders of red blood cells associated to mortality and morbidity included bone morbidities due to ineffective erythropoiesis and bone marrow expansion, which affect every part of the skeleton. While there are an abundance of described disease manifestations of the head and neck, the manner of paranasal sinuses involvement and its relations to β-thalassemia and SCA process was not studied yet...
March 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446082/development-of-a-dual-energy-computed-tomography-quality-control-program-characterization-of-scanner-response-and-definition-of-relevant-parameters-for-a-fast-kvp-switching-dect-system
#14
Jessica L Nute, Megan C Jacobsen, Wolfgang Stefan, Wei Wei, Dianna D Cody
PURPOSE: A prototype QC phantom system and analysis process were developed to characterize the spectral capabilities of a fast kV-switching dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) scanner. This work addresses the current lack of quantitative oversight for this technology, with the goal of identifying relevant scan parameters and test metrics instrumental to the development of a dual-energy quality control (DEQC). METHODS: A prototype elliptical phantom (effective diameter: 35 cm) was designed with multiple material inserts for DECT imaging...
February 15, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444315/measurement-of-internal-radiation-dose-distribution-in-ct-examinations-using-polyethylene-terephthalate-resin
#15
C Yamauchi-Kawaura, S Yamamoto, K Fujii, M Komori, M Yamauchi, N Ohzawa, M Kozuka, N Suga, N Ito, A Fukuyama
This study proposes a new dosimetry method for the estimation of the internal radiation dose distribution of a subject undergoing computed tomography (CT) examinations. In this novel method, dose distribution of a subject by CT scans was estimated based on radiophotoluminance distribution with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) resin which was cut to the average head size of a Japanese 1-year-old child. The difference in dose distribution depending on the type of bowtie filter was visualized by imaging luminance distribution with the PET phantom using a charge-coupled device camera...
February 12, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442350/occult-phosphaturic-mesenchymal-tumor-of-femur-cortex-causing-oncogenic-osteomalacia-diagnostic-challenges-and-clinical-outcomes
#16
Deep Dutta, Raghuvansh Kumar Pandey, Rakhee Gogoi, Nagender Solanki, Renu Madan, Anupam Mondal, Shruti Dogra, Pradeep Thapa
BACKGROUND: Tumor induced osteomalacia (TIO) are extremely rare paraneoplastic syndrome with less than 300 reported cases. This report highlights the pitfalls and challenges in diagnosing and localizing TIO in patients with refractory and resistant osteomalacia. PATIENT AND METHODS: 41- year gentleman with 4-year history of musculoskeletal weakness and pathologic fractures presented in wheelchair bound incapacitated state of 1-year duration. Investigations were significant for severe hypophosphatemia, severe phosphaturia, normal serum calcium, reduced 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin-D, elevated ALP, elevated intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), and pseudo-fractures involving pelvis and bilateral femur...
February 14, 2018: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442232/neuroimaging-of-first-seizure-in-the-adult-emergency-patients
#17
Kerem Ozturk, Esra Soylu, Cem Bilgin, Bahattin Hakyemez, Mufit Parlak
The aim is to establish the role of head computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in adults presenting to the emergency department (ED) with first-time seizure (FS) and to analyze the potential predictor variables for the adverse imaging outcome. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all adults who underwent cranial CT or MRI between January 1, 2011, and December 1, 2016, to an academic ED for FS. Patients were excluded if were under 18 years of age, had known recent intracranial pathology, known brain tumor or having a history of trauma...
February 13, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435816/rapid-and-reliable-detection-of-previous-freezing-of-cerebral-tissue-by-computed-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#18
Stephan A Bolliger, Doris Tomasin, Jakob Heimer, Henning Richter, Michael J Thali, Dominic Gascho
Due to slowing or even inhibition of postmortem processes, freezing may make an estimation of the time-since-death very difficult. This is also true in previously frozen and subsequently thawed bodies. Knowledge of prior freezing is important, as it may lead to a different assessment of the time since death. Twelve pig heads were frozen at -20 °C, and 6 heads were either kept at room temperature (approximately 20 °C) or in a cooling cell (approximately 5 °C). The frozen brains and cadavers were thawed at either room temperature or in a cooling cell...
February 12, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432066/evaluation-of-ct-changes-in-the-head-and-neck-after-cancer-treatment-development-of-a-measurement-tool
#19
Joseph M Aulino, Elizabeth M Wulff-Burchfield, Mary S Dietrich, Sheila H Ridner, Kenneth J Niermann, Jie Deng, Bethany A Rhoten, Jennifer K Doersam, Lee Ann Jarrett, Kyle Mannion, Barbara A Murphy
BACKGROUND: The late effect continuum of lymphedema and fibrosis (LEF) affects more than 70% of patients after treatment for head and neck cancer (HNC). LEF is associated with symptom burden and decreased function and quality of life. Although surveillance imaging is common posttreatment, objective assessment of soft tissues is not, likely due to the lack of objective evaluation methods and understanding of the significance of LEF. We undertook the development of a tool to measure LEF using CT scans in HNC patients...
February 2018: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423769/repeat-computed-tomography-scans-among-inter-facility-transferred-major-trauma-patients-in-oklahoma-2009-2015
#20
Yang Wan, Kenneth E Stewart, Martin Q Lansdale
PURPOSE: Computed tomography (CT) scans play a vital role in the diagnosis and evaluation of trauma patients. Repeat CT scans occurred often among transferred trauma patients. The objective was to describe CT use and identify patient- and hospital-level factors associated with repeat CT scans among inter-facility transferred major trauma patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data extracted from the Oklahoma State Trauma Registry between 2009 and 2015...
February 8, 2018: Emergency Radiology
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