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CT scan head imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214640/management-of-head-and-neck-primary-unknown-squamous-cell-carcinoma-using-combined-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-and-transoral-laser-microsurgery
#1
Victoria Kuta, Blair Williams, Matthew Rigby, Robert Hart, Jonathan Trites, Colin MacKay, S Mark Taylor
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The unknown primary of the neck is commonly encountered by the head and neck surgeon. Despite the exhaustive diagnostic tools employed in traditional detection protocols, many unknown primaries are not found, and the patient is subjected to wide-field radiation and chemotherapy during treatment. Localizing the primary tumor has demonstrated therapeutic benefits, improved quality of life, and overall survival. The authors' objective was to determine the efficacy of a new management protocol for unknown primaries of the head and neck...
December 7, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210354/neurocysticercosis-among-people-living-nearby-pigs-heavily-infected-with-cysticercosis-in-rural-endemic-peru
#2
Brian T Garvey, Luz M Moyano, Viterbo Ayvar, Silvia Rodriguez, Robert H Gilman, Armando E Gonzalez, Hector H Garcia, Seth E O'Neal, For The Cysticercosis Working Group In Peru
Neurocysticercosis causes substantial neurologic morbidity in endemic regions around the world. In this cross-sectional study, we describe the frequency of neurocysticercosis among a presumed high-risk group of people in an endemic community in northern Peru. Participants who screened positive on a nine-question seizure survey were evaluated clinically to diagnose epilepsy using International League Against Epilepsy criteria. Those with epilepsy were offered a noncontrast computerized tomography (CT) of the head...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209885/neuroimaging-findings-associated-with-congenital-zika-virus-syndrome-case-series-at-the-time-of-first-epidemic-outbreak-in-pernambuco-state-brazil
#3
Pedro Pires, Patricia Jungmann, Jully Moura Galvão, Adriano Hazin, Luiza Menezes, Ricardo Ximenes, Gabriele Tonni, Edward Araujo Júnior
PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe the prenatal and postnatal neuroimaging and clinical findings in a clinical series following congenital Zika virus syndrome during the first epidemic Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: We (the authors) conducted a retrospective study of a prospectively collected case series of fetuses and neonates with microcephaly born to mothers with presumed/confirmed congenital ZIKV syndrome. Prenatal ultrasound findings were reviewed to identify potential central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities...
December 5, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194656/head-motion-correction-based-on-filtered-backprojection-for-x-ray-ct-imaging
#4
Seokhwan Jang, Seungeon Kim, Mina Kim, Jong Beom Ra
PURPOSE: For head x-ray CT imaging, the head needs to remain motionless during the scan. In clinical practice, however, head motion is sometimes unavoidable depending on the patient. The motion can occur abruptly during the scan and can be unpredictable. It thereby causes motion artifacts such as tissue blurring or doubled edges around the skull area. To mitigate this problem, we propose a 3D head motion estimation (ME) and compensation algorithm based on filtered backprojection. METHODS: If a patient moves his or her head during the scan, a motion-corrupted sinogram is obtained...
November 30, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189489/utility-of-whole-body-head-to-toe-pet-ct-in-the-evaluation-of-melanoma-and-sarcoma-patients
#5
Heather R Webb, Hamid R Latifi, Landis K Griffeth
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the added benefit of whole-body (head-to-toes) PET/CT versus routine 'eyes-to-thighs' PET/CT of melanoma and sarcoma patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of consecutive whole-body PET/CT scans from January 2006 through December 2010 in patients with melanoma or sarcoma. PET abnormalities in the brain, distal thighs, and legs were recorded and clinical significance was assessed on the basis of pathology, imaging studies, and clinical follow-up...
November 17, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188151/arachnoid-cyst-and-psychosis
#6
Afaque H Khan, Syed E Ahmed
Few case reports discuss suspected psychiatric disturbances secondary to arachnoid cysts. To the best of our knowledge, psychosis from arachnoid cysts has not been reported in the recent literature. This case report discusses our experience with a 55-year-old male patient who manifested multiple psychotic episodes suspected in association with an arachnoid cyst. During the initial examinations, a computed tomography (CT) scan of his head revealed a relatively large left anterior superior arachnoid cyst with a mass effect on the frontal lobe...
September 21, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178486/developing-and-characterizing-mr-ct-visible-materials-used-in-qa-phantoms-for-mrgrt-systems
#7
Angela Steinmann, R Jason Stafford, Gabriel Sawakuchi, Zhifei Wen, Laurence Court, Clifton D Fuller, David Followill
PURPOSE: Synthetic tissue equivalent (STE) materials currently used to simulate tumor and surrounding tissues for IROC-Houston's anthropomorphic head and thorax QA phantoms cannot be visualized using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The purpose of this study was to characterize dual MR/CT visible STE materials that can be used in an end-to-end QA phantom for MR guided radiotherapy (MRgRT) modalities. METHODS: Over 80 materials' MR, CT, and dosimetric STE properties were investigated for use in MRgRT QA phantoms...
November 27, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164301/changes-in-multimodality-functional-imaging-parameters-early-during-chemoradiation-predict-treatment-response-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-head-and-neck-cancer
#8
Kee H Wong, Rafal Panek, Alex Dunlop, Dualta Mcquaid, Angela Riddell, Liam C Welsh, Iain Murray, Dow-Mu Koh, Martin O Leach, Shreerang A Bhide, Christopher M Nutting, Wim J Oyen, Kevin J Harrington, Kate L Newbold
OBJECTIVE: To assess the optimal timing and predictive value of early intra-treatment changes in multimodality functional and molecular imaging (FMI) parameters as biomarkers for clinical remission in patients receiving chemoradiation for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS: Thirty-five patients with stage III-IVb (AJCC 7th edition) HNSCC prospectively underwent (18)F-FDG-PET/CT, and diffusion-weighted (DW), dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and susceptibility-weighted MRI at baseline, week 1 and week 2 of chemoradiation...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160113/superficial-siderosis-of-central-nervous-system-with-unknown-cause-report-of-2-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Hao Chen, Hafiz Khuram Raza, Jia Jing, Xinchun Ye, Zuohui Zhang, Fang Hua, Guiyun Cui
OBJECTIVE: To report 2 cases of superficial siderosis of central nervous system (SS-CNS) and a review of the literature. METHODS: We have analyzed the clinical data and relevant features of two patients with SS-CNS who were presented with ataxia and slurred speech. Both patients undertook blood tests, lumbar puncture, head CT (computer tomography) scans, and brain and spinal cord magnetic resonance (MR) scans. In addition, the first patient also undewent enhanced susceptibility-weighted angiography (ESWAN) and the second patient undertook susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) scan...
November 21, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159958/evaluation-of-a-low-risk-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-and-intracranial-hemorrhage-emergency-department-observation-protocol
#10
Brian J Yun, Pierre Borczuk, Lulu Wang, Stephen Dorner, Benjamin A White, Ali S Raja
OBJECTIVES: Among emergency physicians, there is wide variation in admitting practices for patients who suffered a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) with an intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of implementing a protocol in the emergency department (ED) observation unit for patients with mild TBI and ICH. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. Study subjects were patients ≥18 years of age with an International Classification of Diseases (ICD) code corresponding to a traumatic IC, and admitted to an ED observation unit (EDOU) of an urban, academic level 1 trauma center between February 1, 2015 and January 31, 2017...
November 20, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154259/evaluation-of-coefficients-to-derive-organ-and-effective-doses-from-cone-beam-ct-cbct-scans-a-monte-carlo-study
#11
Abdullah Abuhaimed, Colin J Martin
Regular imaging is used throughout image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) to improve treatment delivery. In order for treatment procedures to be optimized, the doses delivered by imaging exposures should be taken into account. CT dosimetry methods based on the CT dose index (CTDI), measured with a 100 mm long pencil ionization chamber (CTDI<sub>100</sub>) in standard phantoms, are not designed for the cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging systems used in radiotherapy, therefore a modified version has been proposed for CBCT by the International Electrotechnical Commission (CTDI<sub>IEC</sub>)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152838/commissioning-of-the-world-s-first-compact-pencil-beam-scanning-proton-therapy-system
#12
Rajesh Pidikiti, Bijal C Patel, Matthew R Maynard, Joseph P Dugas, Joseph Syh, Narayan Sahoo, Hsinshun Terry Wu, Lane R Rosen
This paper summarizes clinical commissioning of the world's first commercial, clinically utilized installation of a compact, image-guided, pencil-beam scanning, intensity-modulated proton therapy system, the IBA Proteus(®) ONE, at the Willis-Knighton Cancer Center (WKCC) in Shreveport, LA. The Proteus(®) ONE is a single-room, compact-gantry system employing a cyclotron-generated proton beam with image guidance via cone-beam CT as well as stereoscopic orthogonal and oblique planar kV imaging. Coupling 220° of gantry rotation with a 6D robotic couch capable of in plane patient rotations of over 180° degrees allows for 360° of treatment access...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144605/assessing-the-clinical-applicability-of-prior-head-imaging-in-patients-with-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#13
Vidur Bhalla, Adam McCann, Kevin Sykes, Larry Hoover, D David Beahm, Alexander Chiu
BACKGROUND: Patients often have received some modality of head imaging prior to being evaluated for chronic sinonasal complaints, and the clinical significance of these scans on current sinonasal symptomatology is unknown. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, cohort study of 578 patients with chronic sinonasal indications for maxillofacial computed tomography scans (CTs) in 2016. Patients were included if previous head cross-sectional imaging had been performed...
November 16, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136757/muscone-exerts-protective-roles-on-alcohol-induced-osteonecrosis-of-the-femoral-head
#14
Yan-Jie Guo, Shi-Hua Luo, Ming-Jie Tang, Zu-Bin Zhou, Jun-Hui Yin, You-Shui Gao, Xiao-Qian Dang
Long-term alcohol abuse causes musculoskeletal disorders, among of which, alcohol-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is of concern due to its significant and severe complications. A variety of methods have been attempted to prevent alcohol-induced ONFH, and monomers extracted from Chinese herbs might benefit the disease profoundly. In the current study, muscone, the main ingredient of musk, was used to prevent alcohol-induced ONFH. In vitro, ethanol was used to affect the potential of osteogenesis and proliferation of human bone mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs), and beneficial role of muscone was investigated on hBMSCs...
November 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119104/usefulness-of-computed-tomography-image-processing-by-osirix-software-in-detecting-wooden-and-bamboo-foreign-bodies
#15
Shinpei Matsuda, Hitoshi Yoshimura, Hisato Yoshida, Takashi Ryoke, Takashi Yoshida, Naoyuki Aikawa, Kazuo Sano
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of reconstructed computed tomography (CT) images using OsiriX software in detecting wooden and bamboo foreign bodies. Methods: Four sizes of wet and dry wooden and bamboo foreign bodies were selected to be analyzed. Those in the air and in the head of edible swine were scanned with a multidetector row CT scanner. The images were evaluated with OsiriX software in the bone and the abdomen window setting as unprocessed images...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116058/a-line-fiducial-method-for-geometric-calibration-of-cone-beam-ct-systems-with-diverse-scan-trajectories
#16
Matthew W Jacobson, Michael Daniel Ketcha, Sarah Capostagno, Alexander Martin, Ali Uneri, Joseph Goerres, Tharindu De Silva, Sureerat Reaungamornrat, Runze Han, Amir Manbachi, Joseph Webster Stayman, Sebastian Vogt, Gerhard Kleinszig, Jeffrey H Siewerdsen
Modern cone-beam CT systems, especially C-arms, are capable of diverse source-detector orbits. However, geometric calibration of these systems using conventional configurations of spherical fiducials (BBs) may be challenged for novel source-detector orbits and system geometries. In part, this is because the BB configurations are designed with careful forethought regarding the intended orbit so that BB marker projections do not overlap in projection views. Examples include helical arrangements of BBs (Rougee et al Proc...
November 8, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114618/orthogonal-image-pairs-coupled-with-osms-for-noncoplanar-beam-angle-intracranial-single-isocenter-srs-treatments-with-multiple-targets-on-the-varian-edge-radiosurgery-system
#17
Jasmine A Oliver, Patrick Kelly, Sanford L Meeks, Twyla R Willoughby, Amish P Shah
Purpose: To characterize the accuracy of noncoplanar image guided radiation therapy with the Varian Edge radiosurgery system for intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatments by assessing the accuracy of kV/kV orthogonal pair registration with Optical Surface Monitoring System (OSMS) monitoring relative to cone beam computed tomography (CT). Methods and materials: A Computerized Imaging Reference System head phantom and Encompass SRS Immobilization System were used to determine collision-free space for orthogonal image pairs (kV/kV) for couch rotations (CRs) of 45°, 30°, 15°, 345°, 330°, and 315°...
July 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112522/implementing-the-national-institute-for-health-and-clinical-excellence-head-injury-2014-guidelines-in-a-major-children-s-hospital-emergency-department
#18
Natalie Ramjeeawon, Fiona Lecky, Derek P Burke, Shammi Ramlakhan
OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND: Head injury is a common paediatric emergency department presentation. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence updated its guidance in January 2014 regarding imaging required for adults and children following a head injury (CG176). This study looked at the rates of computed tomography (CT) head scans performed and adherence rates to CG176. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A single-centre audit was carried out, examining imaging practice in children with head injuries...
November 6, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108364/the-impact-of-post-radioiodine-therapy-spect-ct-on-early-risk-stratification-in-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-a-bi-institutional-study
#19
Szabina Szujo, Livia Sira, Laszlo Bajnok, Beata Bodis, Ferenc Gyory, Orsolya Nemes, Karoly Rucz, Peter Kenyeres, Zsuzsanna Valkusz, Krisztian Sepp, Erzsebet Schmidt, Zsuszanna Szabo, Sarolta Szekeres, Katalin Zambo, Sandor Barna, Endre V Nagy, Emese Mezosi
Objective: SPECT/CT has numerous advantages over planar and traditional SPECT images. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of post-radioiodine therapy SPECT/CT of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in early risk classification and in prediction of late prognosis. Patients and methods: 323 consecutive patients were investigated after their first radioiodine treatment (1100-3700 MBq). Both whole body scan and SPECT/CT images of the head, neck, chest and abdomen regions were taken 4-6 days after radioiodine therapy...
October 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102859/three-dimensional-mammalian-tooth-development-using-dicect
#20
Qamariya Nasrullah, Marilyn B Renfree, Alistair R Evans
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to develop the Diffusible Iodine-based Contrast-Enhanced CT (diceCT) method for non-destructive imaging of both soft and mineralised tissues. We sought to document the 3D spatio-temporal pattern of mammalian tooth development including multiple tooth classes and generations, using the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) as a model species. DESIGN: We took microCT scans of developing fetuses and pouch young stained using Lugol's Iodine (I2KI) contrast agent...
October 20, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
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