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CT scan head imaging

Felipe P Andrade, Roberto Montoro, Renan Oliveira, Gabriela Loures, Luana Flessak, Roberta Gross, Camille Donnabella, Andrea Puchnick, Lisa Suzuki, Rodrigo Regacini
OBJECTIVES: 1) To verify clinical signs correlated with appropriate cranial computed tomography scan indications and changes in the therapeutic approach in pediatric minor head trauma scenarios. 2) To estimate the radiation exposure of computed tomography scans with low dose protocols in the context of trauma and the additional associated risk. METHODS: Investigators reviewed the medical records of all children with minor head trauma, which was defined as a Glasgow coma scale ≥13 at the time of admission to the emergency room, who underwent computed tomography scans during the years of 2013 and 2014...
October 1, 2016: Clinics
Robert T Granata, Edward M Castillo, Gary M Vilke
BACKGROUND: Patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with altered mental status and alcohol intoxication can clinically resemble patients with an intracranial hemorrhage. Although intracranial hemorrhage is quickly excluded with a head computed tomographic (CT) scan, it is common practice to defer imaging and allow the patient to metabolize to spare ED resources and minimize radiation exposure to the patient. Although this reduces unnecessary scans, it may delay treatment in patients with occult intracranial hemorrhage, which some fear may increase morbidity and mortality...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Ming Li, Cheng Zhang, Chengtao Peng, Yihui Guan, Pin Xu, Mingshan Sun, Jian Zheng
Low-dose computed tomography (CT) reconstruction is a challenging problem in medical imaging. To complement the standard filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction, sparse regularization reconstruction gains more and more research attention, as it promises to reduce radiation dose, suppress artifacts, and improve noise properties. In this work, we present an iterative reconstruction approach using improved smoothed l0 (SL0) norm regularization which is used to approximate l0 norm by a family of continuous functions to fully exploit the sparseness of the image gradient...
2016: BioMed Research International
Jessyca Couto Otoni, Julia Noschang, Thábata Yaedu Okamoto, Diego Rosseman Vieira, Michel Souto Mayor Petry, Lucas de Araujo Ramos, Paula Nicole Vieira Pinto Barbosa, Almir Galvão Vieira Bitencourt, Rubens Chojniak
To evaluate the imaging methods used at the emergency department (ED) of a cancer center, with emphasis on computed tomography (CT). A descriptive, retrospective, single-center study was conducted by reviewing imaging exams and medical records, after approval of the institution's Ethics Review Board. The demographic data, cancer history, and imaging exam requested were evaluated for all patients and the indications and results of head, chest, and abdominopelvic CT scans were also evaluated. During the study period, there were 8710 visits to the ED, and 5999 imaging studies were requested in 3788 patients (43...
October 8, 2016: Emergency Radiology
Evelyn Bohrer, Stefan Schäfer, Ulf Mäder, Peter B Noël, Gabriele A Krombach, Martin Fiebich
INTRODUCTION: The trend towards submillisievert CT scans leads to a higher dose fraction of localizer radiographs in CT examinations. The already existing technical capabilities make dose optimization of localizer radiographs worthwhile. Modern CT scanners apply automatic exposure control (AEC) based on attenuation data in such a localizer. Therefore not only this aspect but also the detectability of anatomical landmarks in the localizer for the desired CT scan range adjustment needs to be considered...
October 6, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
Vikas Acharya, Suresh Chandrasekaran, Sujit Nair
INTRODUCTION: The authors present an interesting case of a 19-year-old male who presented as a polytrauma patient following a fall from a height. PRESENTATION OF CASE: He was initially managed on the intensive care unit with intracranial pressure bolt monitoring after being intubated and sedated and having his other traumatic injuries stabilized. Upon attempting to wean sedation and extubation a repeat CT scan of the head was undertaken and showed a new area suggested of cerebral infarction, this was a new finding...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Maureen van Eijnatten, Juha Koivisto, Kalle Karhu, Tymour Forouzanfar, Jan Wolff
PURPOSE: Medical additive manufacturing requires standard tessellation language (STL) models. Such models are commonly derived from computed tomography (CT) images using thresholding. Threshold selection can be performed manually or automatically. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of manual and default threshold selection on the reliability and accuracy of skull STL models using different CT technologies. METHOD: One female and one male human cadaver head were imaged using multi-detector row CT, dual-energy CT, and two cone-beam CT scanners...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Karen Moore, Claire Paterson, Jonathan Hicks, Stephen Harrow, Mark McJury
OBJECTIVES: A clinical evaluation of the intrafraction and interfraction set up accuracy of a novel thermoplastic mould immobilisation device and patient position in early stage lung cancer being treated with stereotactic radiotherapy at the Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre. METHODS: 35 patients were immobilised in a novel, arms-down position, with a 4 point Klarity clear thermoplastic mould fixed to a SinMed head and neck board. A knee support was also used for patient comfort and support...
October 6, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Haishan Zhang, Shi Gao, Bin Chen, Guanghui Cheng
The aim of the present study was to compare technetium-99m-(polyethylene glycol-4)3-(Arg-Gly-Asp)2 (99mTc-3P4-RGD2) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and computed tomography (CT) in the noninvasive differentiation of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs). The present study prospectively investigated a consecutive series of 24 patients with SPN, who were newly diagnosed using radiography between September 2012 and January 2014. All patients underwent 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT and CT scans using a dual-head variable-angle γ-camera equipped with high-resolution collimators...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Sandra G J Boccard, Pedro Rebelo, Binith Cheeran, Alexander Green, James J FitzGerald, Tipu Z Aziz
BACKGROUND: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a well-established treatment to reduce tremor, notably in Parkinson Disease. DBS may also be effective in posttraumatic tremor, one of the most common movement disorders caused by head injury. However, these cohorts of patients often have multiple lesions that may impact the outcome depending on which fibre tracts are affected. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 20-year-old man presented after road traffic accident with severe closed head injury and polytrauma...
September 29, 2016: World Neurosurgery
G C Ginesu, M Barmina, P Paliogiannis, M Trombetta, M L Cossu, C F Feo, F Addis, A Porcu
BACKGROUND: Paragangliomas are rare neoplasms that originate from the neural crest. They are malignant in approximately 10% of cases, with a 50% survival rate at 5 years from diagnosis. In most cases, manifestations of malignancy (such as metastasis) are lacking, and paragangliomas are considered benign lesions. Pancreatic paragangliomas are extremely rare, with only 31 cases described in the scientific literature to date. CASE SUMMARY: Here we describe a case of a 55-year-old Caucasian male patient referred to our institution in September 2013 for lumbar pain lasting five months...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Christopher E Bauer, Julie Brefczynski-Lewis, Gary Marano, Mary-Beth Mandich, Alexander Stolin, Peter Martone, James W Lewis, Gangadhar Jaliparthi, Raymond R Raylman, Stan Majewski
BACKGROUND: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is traditionally used to image patients in restrictive positions, with few devices allowing for upright, brain-dedicated imaging. Our team has explored the concept of wearable PET imagers which could provide functional brain imaging of freely moving subjects. To test feasibility and determine future considerations for development, we built a rudimentary proof-of-concept prototype (Helmet_PET) and conducted tests in phantoms and four human volunteers...
September 2016: Brain and Behavior
Shadi Asadollahi, Ali Vafaei, Kamran Heidari
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To define the prognostic value of head computed tomography (CT) in patients suffering from SICH after 3 years of follow-up. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Between January 2011 and May 2012, consecutive patients with SICH who underwent brain CT scans within the first 12 hours of presentation were prospectively included. Independent predictors of 30-day mortality and unfavourable functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale = 4-6 and Barthel Index ≤ 60) at 36 months were identified by univariable and multivariable regression analysis...
September 28, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Fadilah S Hussain, Namath S Hussain
Intracranial mucormycosis is a very unusual presentation of an infection after a depressed skull fracture due to an assault. Only sporadic cases have been reported in the literature previously. A 30-year-old male with a traumatic brain injury following an assault, status-post debridement and elevation of a depressed skull fracture, was discharged home several weeks postoperatively. A CT scan of the head with contrast was obtained due to mental status changes and revealed an enhancing ring-shaped lesion in the right frontal lobe consistent with a brain abscess...
2016: Curēus
Camilla Bardram Johnbeck, Ulrich Knigge, Annika Loft, Anne Kiil Berthelsen, Jann Mortensen, Peter Oturai, Seppo Langer, Dennis Elema, Andreas Kjaer
: Somatostatin receptor imaging is a valuable tool in the diagnosis, follow-up and treatment planning of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) patients. Positron emission tomography (PET) based tracers using (68)Ga as the radioisotope have in most centers replaced single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) based tracers as the gold standard. (64)Cu-DOTATATE is a new PET tracer that has been shown to be far superior compared to the SPECT tracer (111)In-DTPA-octreotide. Due to advantages of (64)Cu compared to (68)Ga, we hypothesize that the tracer could have a higher sensitivity than (68)Ga-based tracers...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Marcel T H Oei, Frederick J A Meijer, Willem-Jan van der Woude, Ewoud J Smit, Bram van Ginneken, Rashindra Manniesing, Mathias Prokop
OBJECTIVES: Feasibility evaluation of the One-Step Stroke Protocol, which is an interleaved cerebral computed tomography perfusion (CTP) and neck volumetric computed tomography angiography (vCTA) scanning technique using wide-detector computed tomography, and to assess the image quality of vCTA. METHODS: Twenty patients with suspicion of acute ischaemic stroke were prospectively scanned and evaluated with a head and neck CTA and with the One-Step Stroke Protocol...
September 21, 2016: European Radiology
Kyo Noguchi, Toshihide Itoh, Norihito Naruto, Shutaro Takashima, Kortaro Tanaka, Satoshi Kuroda
BACKGROUND: We evaluated whether X-map, a novel imaging technique, can visualize ischemic lesions within 20 hours after the onset in patients with acute ischemic stroke, using noncontrast dual-energy computed tomography (DECT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six patients with acute ischemic stroke were included in this study. Noncontrast head DECT scans were acquired with 2 X-ray tubes operated at 80 kV and Sn150 kV between 32 minutes and 20 hours after the onset. Using these DECT scans, the X-map was reconstructed based on 3-material decomposition and compared with a simulated standard (120 kV) computed tomography (CT) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Marcin Fraczek, Maciej Guzinski, Monika Morawska-Kochman, Kamil H Nelke, Tomasz Krecicki
OBJECTIVES: The growing awareness of increased X-ray exposure to the public has led to the propagation of several methods for reducing the radiation dose during CT examination. Low-dose CT protocols do not, however, have an established role in pre-operative evaluation. The aim of this article was to assess the usefulness of nasal endoscopy in the selection of patients under pre-operative care for low-dose CT examination. METHODS: A cadaver head was used to discover institutional minimum acceptable CT image quality and scanning settings...
October 17, 2016: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
Michael J Gelfand, Jennifer M Harris, Amanda C Rich, Chelsea S Kist
OBJECTIVES: For PET/CT imaging in children, (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of video goggles for patient distraction, and (2) to evaluate CT and PET artifacts caused by the video goggles. METHODS: Video goggles with small amounts of internal radioopaque material were used in this study. During whole body PET/CT imaging, 30 unsedated patients age 4 to 13 years watched videos of their choice using video goggles. 15 patient studies were performed on a PET/CT scanner installed in 2006 and 15 were performed on a PET/CT scanner installed in 2013...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
Domenico Tamburrino, Deniece Riviere, Mohammad Yaghoobi, Brian R Davidson, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: Periampullary cancer includes cancer of the head and neck of the pancreas, cancer of the distal end of the bile duct, cancer of the ampulla of Vater, and cancer of the second part of the duodenum. Surgical resection is the only established potentially curative treatment for pancreatic and periampullary cancer. A considerable proportion of patients undergo unnecessary laparotomy because of underestimation of the extent of the cancer on computed tomography (CT) scanning. Other imaging methods such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), PET-CT, and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) have been used to detect local invasion or distant metastases not visualised on CT scanning which could prevent unnecessary laparotomy...
September 15, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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