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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345920/tuning-the-continuum-of-structural-states-in-the-native-ensemble-of-a-regulatory-protein
#1
Abhishek Narayan, Athi N Naganathan
The mesoscale nature of proteins allows for an efficient coupling between environmental cues and conformational changes enabling their function as molecular transducers. Delineating the precise structural origins of such a connection and the expected spectroscopic response has however been challenging. In this work, we perform a combination of urea-temperature double perturbation experiments and theoretical modeling to probe the conformational landscape of Cnu, a natural thermosensor protein. We observe unique ensemble signatures that point to a continuum of conformational sub-states in the native ensemble and that respond intricately to perturbations upon monitoring secondary-, tertiary-structures, distances between an intrinsic FRET pair and hydrodynamic volumes...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345881/silane-and-germane-molecular-electronics
#2
Timothy A Su, Haixing Li, Rebekka S Klausen, Nathaniel T Kim, Madhav Neupane, James L Leighton, Michael L Steigerwald, Latha Venkataraman, Colin Nuckolls
This Account provides an overview of our recent efforts to uncover the fundamental charge transport properties of Si-Si and Ge-Ge single bonds and introduce useful functions into group 14 molecular wires. We utilize the tools of chemical synthesis and a scanning tunneling microscopy-based break-junction technique to study the mechanism of charge transport in these molecular systems. We evaluated the fundamental ability of silicon, germanium, and carbon molecular wires to transport charge by comparing conductances within families of well-defined structures, the members of which differ only in the number of Si (or Ge or C) atoms in the wire...
March 27, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345275/abnormal-frontoparietal-synaptic-gain-mediating-the-p300-in-patients-with-psychotic-disorder-and-their-unaffected-relatives
#3
Álvaro Díez, Siri Ranlund, Dimitris Pinotsis, Stella Calafato, Madiha Shaikh, Mei-Hua Hall, Muriel Walshe, Ángel Nevado, Karl J Friston, Rick A Adams, Elvira Bramon
The "dysconnection hypothesis" of psychosis suggests that a disruption of functional integration underlies cognitive deficits and clinical symptoms. Impairments in the P300 potential are well documented in psychosis. Intrinsic (self-)connectivity in a frontoparietal cortical hierarchy during a P300 experiment was investigated. Dynamic Causal Modeling was used to estimate how evoked activity results from the dynamics of coupled neural populations and how neural coupling changes with the experimental factors...
March 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345197/attenuated-intrinsic-connectivity-within-cognitive-control-network-among-individuals-with-remitted-depression-temporal-stability-and-association-with-negative-cognitive-styles
#4
Jonathan P Stange, Katie L Bessette, Lisanne M Jenkins, Amy T Peters, Claudia Feldhaus, Natania A Crane, Olusola Ajilore, Rachel H Jacobs, Edward R Watkins, Scott A Langenecker
Many individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience cognitive dysfunction including impaired cognitive control and negative cognitive styles. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging studies of individuals with current MDD have documented altered resting-state connectivity within the default-mode network and across networks. However, no studies to date have evaluated the extent to which impaired connectivity within the cognitive control network (CCN) may be present in remitted MDD (rMDD), nor have studies examined the temporal stability of such attenuation over time...
March 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342970/not-in-one-metric-neuroticism-modulates-different-resting-state-metrics-within-distinctive-brain-regions
#5
Claudio Gentili, Ioana Alina Cristea, Emiliano Ricciardi, Nicola Vanello, Cristian Popita, Daniel David, Pietro Pietrini
INTRODUCTION: Neuroticism is a complex personality trait encompassing diverse aspects. Notably, high levels of neuroticism are related to the onset of psychiatric conditions, including anxiety and mood disorders. Personality traits are stable individual features; therefore, they can be expected to be associated with stable neurobiological features, including the Brain Resting State (RS) activity as measured by fMRI. Several metrics have been used to describe RS properties, yielding rather inconsistent results...
March 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341847/apoe-genotype-effects-on-intrinsic-brain-network-connectivity-in-patients-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#6
Zan Wang, Zhengjia Dai, Hao Shu, Xuhong Liao, Chunxian Yue, Duan Liu, Qihao Guo, Yong He, Zhijun Zhang
Whether and how the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 genotype specifically modulates brain network connectivity in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) remain largely unknown. Here, we employed resting-state ('task-free') functional MRI and network centrality approaches to investigate local (degree centrality, DC) and global (eigenvector centrality, EC) functional integrity in the whole-brain connectome in 156 older adults, including 66 aMCI patients (27 ε4-carriers and 39 non-carriers) and 90 healthy controls (45 ε4-carriers and 45 non-carriers)...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341164/expectation-violation-and-attention-to-pain-jointly-modulate-neural-gain-in-somatosensory-cortex
#7
Francesca Fardo, Ryszard Auksztulewicz, Micah Allen, Martin J Dietz, Andreas Roepstorff, Karl J Friston
The neural processing and experience of pain are influenced by both expectations and attention. For example, the amplitude of event-related pain responses is enhanced by both novel and unexpected pain, and by moving the focus of attention towards a painful stimulus. Under predictive coding, this congruence can be explained by appeal to a precision-weighting mechanism, which mediates bottom-up and top-down attentional processes by modulating the influence of feedforward and feedback signals throughout the cortical hierarchy...
March 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340447/fronto-limbic-disconnection-in-depressed-patients-with-suicidal-ideation-a-resting-state-functional-connectivity-study
#8
Lian Du, Jinkun Zeng, Huan Liu, Dejian Tang, Huaqing Meng, Yongmei Li, Yixiao Fu
BACKGROUND: Suicidal ideation (SI) is highly prevalent and a known symptom of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), but its underlying biological mechanisms are relatively unknown. Several studies linked suicidal ideation to dysfunctional brain circuits, specifically fronto-limbic connections. The purpose of this work was to investigate fronto-limbic disconnection in MDD patients with or without SI. METHODS: MDD patients with SI (SI, n=28) or without SI (NSI, n=20), identified by the Scale for Suicide Ideation and healthy controls (HCs, n=30) underwent resting-state functional MRI scanning...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338327/analysis-of-the-acting-forces-in-a-theory-of-catalysis-and-mechanochemistry
#9
Wolfgang Quapp, Josep Maria Bofill, Jordi Ribas-Ariño
The theoretical description of a chemical process resulting from the application of mechanical or catalytical stress to a molecule is performed by the generation of an effective potential energy surface (PES). Changes for minima and saddle points by the stress are described by Newton trajectories (NTs) on the original PES. From the analysis of the acting forces we postulate the existence of pulling corridors build by families of NTs which connect the same stationary points. For different exit saddles of different height we discuss the corresponding pulling corridors; mainly by simple two-dimensional surfaces models...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338267/disrupted-intrinsic-connectivity-of-the-periaqueductal-gray-in-patients-with-functional-dyspepsia-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#10
P Liu, G Wang, Y Liu, F Zeng, D Lin, X Yang, F Liang, V D Calhoun, W Qin
BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder. Accumulating evidence suggests the crucial role of central nervous system in the development and maintenance of FD. In particular, periaqueductal gray (PAG) has demonstrated an important role in modulation of pain and emotion, which may be related to FD. However, the study of the PAG in FD is still limited. This study aimed to assess intrinsic connectivity of the PAG in FD patients. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) data were collected from 66 FD patients and 42 healthy controls (HCs)...
March 24, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337409/network-degeneration-and-dysfunction-in-presymptomatic-c9orf72-expansion-carriers
#11
Suzee E Lee, Ana C Sias, Maria Luisa Mandelli, Jesse A Brown, Alainna B Brown, Anna M Khazenzon, Anna A Vidovszky, Theodore P Zanto, Anna M Karydas, Mochtar Pribadi, Deepika Dokuru, Giovanni Coppola, Dan H Geschwind, Rosa Rademakers, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Howard J Rosen, Bruce L Miller, William W Seeley
Hexanucleotide repeat expansions in C9ORF72 are the most common known genetic cause of familial and sporadic frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Previous work has shown that patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia due to C9ORF72 show salience and sensorimotor network disruptions comparable to those seen in sporadic behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, but it remains unknown how early in the lifespan these and other changes in brain structure and function arise...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336497/intrinsic-disruption-of-white-matter-microarchitecture-in-first-episode-drug-naive-major-depressive-disorder-a-voxel-based-meta-analysis-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#12
REVIEW
Guangxiang Chen, Yi Guo, Hongyan Zhu, Weihong Kuang, Feng Bi, Hua Ai, Zhongwei Gu, Xiaoqi Huang, Su Lui, Qiyong Gong
Previous studies have demonstrated the influences of episodes and antidepressant drugs on white matter (WM) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies included highly heterogeneous individuals with different numbers of depressive episodes or medication status. To exclude the confounding effects of multiple episodes or medication, we conducted a quantitative voxel-based meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) in patients with first-episode, drug-naive MDD to identify the intrinsic WM alterations involved in the pathogenesis of MDD...
March 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334971/expanding-glycosaminoglycan-chemical-space-towards-the-creation-of-sulfated-analogs-novel-polymers-and-chimeric-constructs
#13
Rachel S Lane, Kalib St Ange, Behnam Zolghadr, Xinyue Liu, Christina Schäffer, Robert J Linhardt, Paul L DeAngelis
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have therapeutic potential in areas ranging from angiogenesis, inflammation, hemostasis and cancer. GAG bioactivity is conferred by intrinsic structural features, such as disaccharide composition, glycosidic linkages and sulfation pattern. Unfortunately, the in vitro enzymatic synthesis of defined GAGs is quite restricted by a limited understanding of current GAG synthases and modifying enzymes. Our work provides insights into GAG-active enzymes through the creation of sulfated oligosaccharides, a new polysaccharide and chimeric polymers...
March 17, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334965/photosensitive-epilepsy-is-associated-with-reduced-inhibition-of-alpha-rhythm-generating-networks
#14
Anna Elisabetta Vaudano, Andrea Ruggieri, Pietro Avanzini, Giuliana Gessaroli, Gaetano Cantalupo, Antonietta Coppola, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Stefano Meletti
Photosensitivity is a condition in which lights induce epileptiform activities. This abnormal electroencephalographic response has been associated with hyperexcitability of the visuo-motor system. Here, we evaluate if intrinsic dysfunction of this network is present in brain activity at rest, independently of any stimulus and of any paroxysmal electroencephalographic activity. To address this issue, we investigated the haemodynamic correlates of the spontaneous alpha rhythm, which is considered the hallmark of the brain resting state, in photosensitive patients and in people without photosensitivity...
February 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334939/association-between-tau-deposition-and-antecedent-amyloid-%C3%AE-accumulation-rates-in-normal-and-early-symptomatic-individuals
#15
Duygu Tosun, Susan Landau, Paul S Aisen, Ronald C Petersen, Mark Mintun, William Jagust, Michael W Weiner
A long-term goal of our field is to determine the sequence of pathological events, which ultimately lead to cognitive decline and dementia. In this study, we first assessed the patterns of brain tau tangle accumulation (measured with the positron emission tomography tracer 18F-AV-1451) associated with well-established Alzheimer's disease factors in a cohort including cognitively healthy elderly individuals and individuals at early symptomatic stages of Alzheimer's disease. We then explored highly associated patterns of greater 18F-AV-1451 binding and increased annualized change in cortical amyloid-β plaques measured as florbetapir positron emission tomography binding antecedent to 18F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography scans, and to what extent these multimodal pattern associations explained the variance in cognitive performance and clinical outcome measures, independently and jointly...
March 17, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334075/intrinsic-brain-hub-connectivity-underlies-individual-differences-in-spatial-working-memory
#16
Jin Liu, Mingrui Xia, Zhengjia Dai, Xiaoying Wang, Xuhong Liao, Yanchao Bi, Yong He
Spatial working memory (SWM) is an important component of working memory and plays an essential role in driving high-level cognitive abilities. Recent studies have demonstrated that individual SWM is associated with global brain communication. However, whether specific network nodal connectivity, such as brain hub connectivity, is involved in individual SWM performances remains largely unknown. Here, we collected resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) data from a large group of 130 young healthy participants and evaluated their SWM performances...
October 13, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331800/altered-functional-brain-connectivity-in-patients-with-visually-induced-dizziness
#17
Angelique Van Ombergen, Lizette Heine, Steven Jillings, R Edward Roberts, Ben Jeurissen, Vincent Van Rompaey, Viviana Mucci, Stefanie Vanhecke, Jan Sijbers, Floris Vanhevel, Stefan Sunaert, Mohamed Ali Bahri, Paul M Parizel, Paul H Van de Heyning, Steven Laureys, Floris L Wuyts
BACKGROUND: Vestibular patients occasionally report aggravation or triggering of their symptoms by visual stimuli, which is called visually induced dizziness (VID). These patients therefore experience dizziness, discomfort, disorientation and postural unsteadiness. The underlying pathophysiology of VID is still poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current explorative study was to gain a first insight in the underlying neural aspects of VID. METHODS: We included 10 VID patients and 10 healthy matched controls, all of which underwent a resting state fMRI scan session...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329458/type-iv-total-anomalous-pulmonary-venous-connection
#18
James D St Louis, Elizabeth M Turk, Jeffrey P Jacobs, James E O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Mortality associated with correction of type IV total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) is generally reported in combination with other anatomic types. The objective of this study is to review surgical outcomes associated with the repair of type IV TAPVC by analyzing a multi-institutional cohort specific for this group. We also analyze patient-specific variables that may contribute to poor operative outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective review of the Pediatric Cardiac Care Consortium (PCCC) registry identified patients who underwent repair of type IV TAPVC between 1982 and 2007...
March 2017: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327626/altered-resting-state-hippocampal-functional-networks-associated-with-chemotherapy-induced-prospective-memory-impairment-in-breast-cancer-survivors
#19
Huaidong Cheng, Wen Li, Liang Gong, Han Xuan, Zhonglian Huang, Hong Zhao, Long Sheng Wang, Kai Wang
In this study, we aimed to investigate the intrinsic hippocampal functional connectivity (FC) network and its relationship with prospective memory in patients with breast cancer suffering from chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI). Thirty-four breast cancer patients before and after adjuvant chemotherapy (CB and CC, respectively) and 31 age- and education-matched cognitively normal (CN) women were recruited and subjected to a prospective memory task and a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325028/tracking-intrinsic-connectivity-brain-network-features-during-successive-pseudo-resting-states-and-interoceptive-task-fmri
#20
Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini
Advanced multivariate analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data based on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contras have revealed that the human brain organizes its activities into multiple intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs). Several fMRI studies have evaluated the modulations of these networks during different cognitive or emotional tasks using blind source separation techniques particularly the independent component analysis (ICA). In this exploratory study, we applied ICA methodology to examine ICN modulations under different interoceptive conditions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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