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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331233/a-biophysical-modelling-platform-of-the-cochlear-nucleus-and-other-auditory-circuits-from-channels-to-networks
#1
Paul B Manis, Luke Campagnola
Models of the auditory brainstem have been an invaluable tool for testing hypotheses about auditory information processing and for highlighting the most important gaps in the experimental literature. Due to the complexity of the auditory brainstem, and indeed most brain circuits, the dynamic behavior of the system may be difficult to predict without a detailed, biologically realistic computational model. Despite the sensitivity of models to their exact construction and parameters, most prior models of the cochlear nucleus have incorporated only a small subset of the known biological properties...
December 28, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330955/intrinsic-constraints-on-the-diversification-of-neotropical-cichlid-adductor-mandibulae-size
#2
Jessica Arbour, Hernán López-Fernández
The diversification of functional traits may be constrained by intrinsic factors, such as structural, mechanical, developmental, or physiological limitations. We explored the biomechanical and constructional constraints on the size of the major jaw closing muscles, the adductor mandibulae complex (AM), in a diverse clade of freshwater fish - the Neotropical cichlids. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we contrasted patterns of size variation and diversification rates of three AM divisions with variables describing head size and biomechanical coefficients describing force and velocity transmission...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330480/anti-correlated-cortical-networks-arise-from-spontaneous-neuronal-dynamics-at-slow-timescales
#3
Nathan X Kodama, Tianyi Feng, James J Ullett, Hillel J Chiel, Siddharth S Sivakumar, Roberto F Galán
In the highly interconnected architectures of the cerebral cortex, recurrent intracortical loops disproportionately outnumber thalamo-cortical inputs. These networks are also capable of generating neuronal activity without feedforward sensory drive. It is unknown, however, what spatiotemporal patterns may be solely attributed to intrinsic connections of the local cortical network. Using high-density microelectrode arrays, here we show that in the isolated, primary somatosensory cortex of mice, neuronal firing fluctuates on timescales from milliseconds to tens of seconds...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330137/the-intersection-of-stress-and-reward-bnst-modulation-of-aversive-and-appetitive-states
#4
REVIEW
Sarah Ch'ng, Jingjing Fu, Robyn M Brown, Stuart J McDougall, Andrew J Lawrence
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is widely acknowledged as a brain structure that regulates stress and anxiety states, as well as aversive and appetitive behaviours. The diverse roles of the BNST are afforded by its highly modular organisation, neurochemical heterogeneity, and complex intrinsic and extrinsic circuitry. There has been growing interest in the BNST in relation to psychopathologies such as anxiety and addiction. Although research on the human BNST is still in its infancy, there have been extensive preclinical studies examining the molecular signature and hodology of the BNST and their involvement in stress and reward seeking behaviour...
January 9, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329248/performance-analysis-of-millimeter-wave-multi-hop-machine-to-machine-networks-based-on-hop-distance-statistics
#5
Haejoon Jung, In-Ho Lee
As an intrinsic part of the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem, machine-to-machine (M2M) communications are expected to provide ubiquitous connectivity between machines. Millimeter-wave (mmWave) communication is another promising technology for the future communication systems to alleviate the pressure of scarce spectrum resources. For this reason, in this paper, we consider multi-hop M2M communications, where a machine-type communication (MTC) device with the limited transmit power relays to help other devices using mmWave...
January 12, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327340/shank3-deficient-thalamocortical-neurons-show-hcn-channelopathy-and-alterations-in-intrinsic-electrical-properties
#6
Mengye Zhu, VinayKumar Idikuda, Jianbing Wang, Fusheng Wei, Virang Kumar, Nikhil Shah, Christopher B Waite, Qinglian Liu, Lei Zhou
Shank3 is a scaffolding protein that is highly enriched in excitatory synapses. Mutations in Shank3 gene have been linked to neuropsychiatric disorders especially the Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Shank3 deficiency is known to cause impairments in synaptic transmission, but its effects on basic neuronal electrical properties that are more localized to the soma and proximal dendrites remain unclear. Here we confirmed that in heterologous expression systems two different Shank3 isoforms, Shank3A and Shank3C, significant increase the surface expression of the hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic-nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325627/epigenetic-mechanisms-underlying-nervous-system-diseases
#7
Irfan A Qureshi, Mark F Mehler
Epigenetic mechanisms act as control systems for modulating genomic structure and activity in response to evolving profiles of cell-extrinsic, cell-cell, and cell-intrinsic signals. These dynamic processes are responsible for mediating cell- and tissue-specific gene expression and function and gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions. The major epigenetic mechanisms include DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation; histone protein posttranslational modifications, nucleosome remodeling/repositioning, and higher-order chromatin reorganization; noncoding RNA regulation; and RNA editing...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323675/a-systematic-examination-of-classical-and-multi-center-bonding-in-heteroborane-clusters
#8
Petr Melichar, Drahomír Hnyk, Jindřich Fanfrlík
This paper presents a systematic study of multicenter and classical bonding on a broad series of experimentally known heteroboranes covering closo, nido, arachno and hypho types of cages with incorporated tetrel, pnictogen or chalcogen heterovertices up to the third-row elements. The nature of bonding is studied using a novel quantum-chemical tool, the intrinsic atomic/bond orbital (IAO/IBO) approach, which provides a direct connection between quantum chemistry and chemical concepts. We also discuss how the computed IBO properties are related to molecular observables such as interatomic distances, molecular electrostatic potential surfaces and dipole moments...
January 11, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322397/overlapping-and-distinct-neural-metabolic-patterns-related-to-impulsivity-and-hypomania-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Frank Schwartz, Masoud Tahmasian, Franziska Maier, Luisa Rochhausen, Kim L Schnorrenberg, Fateme Samea, Joseph Seemiller, Mojtaba Zarei, Christian Sorg, Alexander Drzezga, Lars Timmermann, Thomas D Meyer, Thilo van Eimeren, Carsten Eggers
Impulsivity and hypomania are common non-motor features in Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to find the overlapping and distinct neural correlates of these symptoms in PD. Symptoms of impulsivity and hypomania were assessed in 24 PD patients using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and Self-Report Manic Inventory (SRMI), respectively. In addition, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging for each individual was performed. We conducted two separate multiple regression analyses for BIS-11 and SRMI scores with FDG-PET data to identify the brain regions that are associated with both impulsivity and hypomania scores, as well as those exclusive to each symptom...
January 10, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319523/temperature-ph-and-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-are-potent-inhibitors-of-biofilm-formation-by-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-clinical-isolates
#10
Marjan Biočanin, Haowa Madi, Zorica Vasiljević, Milan Kojić, Branko Jovčić, Jelena Lozo
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, an opportunistic pathogen usually connected with healthcare-associated infections, is an environmental bacterium. Intrinsic resistance to multiple antibiotics, with different virulence determinants in the last decade classified this bacterium in the group of global multiple drug resistant (MDR) organism. S. maltophilia clinical isolates, were collected from tertiary care pediatric hospital in Belgrade, Serbia to investigate influence of different factors on biofilm formation, kinetics of biofilm formation for strong biofilm producers and effect of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) on formed biofilm...
December 4, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307002/unified-understanding-of-folding-and-binding-mechanisms-of-globular-and-intrinsically-disordered-proteins
#11
REVIEW
Munehito Arai
Extensive experimental and theoretical studies have advanced our understanding of the mechanisms of folding and binding of globular proteins, and coupled folding and binding of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). The forces responsible for conformational changes and binding are common in both proteins; however, these mechanisms have been separately discussed. Here, we attempt to integrate the mechanisms of coupled folding and binding of IDPs, folding of small and multi-subdomain proteins, folding of multimeric proteins, and ligand binding of globular proteins in terms of conformational selection and induced-fit mechanisms as well as the nucleation-condensation mechanism that is intermediate between them...
January 6, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299380/higher-extrinsic-and-lower-intrinsic-connectivity-in-resting-state-networks-for-professional-baduk-go-players
#12
William S Sohn, Tae Young Lee, Seoyeon Kwak, Youngwoo Bryan Yoon, Jun Soo Kwon
Introduction: Dedication and training to a profession results in a certain level of expertise. This expertise, like any other skill obtained in our lifetime, is encoded in the brain and may be reflected in our brain's connectome. This property can be observed by mapping resting state connectivity. In this study, we examine the differences in resting state functional connectivity in four major networks between professional "Baduk" (Go) players and normal subjects. Methods: Resting state fMRI scans were acquired for professional "Baduk" (Go) players and normal controls...
December 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299280/senescence-and-carryover-effects-of-reproductive-performance-influence-migration-condition-and-breeding-propensity-in-a-small-shorebird
#13
Chelsea Weithman, Daniel Gibson, Kelsi Hunt, Meryl Friedrich, James Fraser, Sarah Karpanty, Daniel Catlin
Breeding propensity, the probability that an animal will attempt to breed each year, is perhaps the least understood demographic process influencing annual fecundity. Breeding propensity is ecologically complex, as associations among a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic factors may interact to affect an animal's breeding decisions. Individuals that opt not to breed can be more difficult to detect than breeders, which can (1) lead to difficulty in estimation of breeding propensity, and (2) bias other demographic parameters...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287243/individual-variation-in-the-propensity-for-prospective-thought-is-associated-with-functional-integration-between-visual-and-retrosplenial-cortex
#14
Mario Villena-Gonzalez, Hao-Ting Wang, Mladen Sormaz, Giovanna Mollo, Daniel S Margulies, Elizabeth A Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
It is well recognized that the default mode network (DMN) is involved in states of imagination, although the cognitive processes that this association reflects are not well understood. The DMN includes many regions that function as cortical "hubs", including the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, anterior temporal lobe and the hippocampus. This suggests that the role of the DMN in cognition may reflect a process of cortical integration. In the current study we tested whether functional connectivity from uni-modal regions of cortex into the DMN is linked to features of imaginative thought...
December 5, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284140/effective-connectivity-during-working-memory-and-resting-states-a-dcm-study
#15
Kyesam Jung, Karl J Friston, Chongwon Pae, Hanseul Choi, Sungho Tak, Yoon Kyoung Choi, Bumhee Park, Chan-A Park, Chaejoon Cheong, Hae-Jeong Park
Although the relationship between resting-state functional connectivity and task-related activity has been addressed, the relationship between task and resting-state directed or effective connectivity - and its behavioral concomitants - remains elusive. We evaluated effective connectivity under an N-back working memory task in 24 participants using stochastic dynamic causal modelling (DCM) of 7 Tesla fMRI data. We repeated the analysis using resting-state data, from the same subjects, to model connectivity among the same brain regions engaged by the N-back task...
December 25, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280306/sex-commonalities-and-differences-in-obesity-related-alterations-in-intrinsic-brain-activity-and-connectivity
#16
Arpana Gupta, Emeran A Mayer, Jennifer S Labus, Ravi R Bhatt, Tiffany Ju, Aubrey Love, Amanat Bal, Kirsten Tillisch, Bruce Naliboff, Claudia P Sanmiguel, Lisa A Kilpatrick
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterize obesity-related sex differences in the intrinsic activity and connectivity of the brain's reward networks. METHODS: Eighty-six women (n = 43) and men (n = 43) completed a 10-minute resting functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Sex differences and commonalities in BMI-related frequency power distribution and reward seed-based connectivity were investigated by using partial least squares analysis. RESULTS: For whole-brain activity in both men and women, increased BMI was associated with increased slow-5 activity in the left globus pallidus (GP) and substantia nigra...
December 27, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280156/the-many-roles-of-type-ii-phosphatidylinositol-4-kinases-in-membrane-trafficking-new-tricks-for-old-dogs
#17
Shane Minogue
The type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4KIIs) produce the lipid phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) and participate in a confusing variety of membrane trafficking and signaling roles. This review argues that both historical and contemporary evidence supports the function of the PI4KIIs in numerous trafficking pathways, and that the key to understanding the enzymatic regulation is through membrane interaction and the intrinsic membrane environment. By summarizing new research and examining the trafficking roles of the PI4KIIs in the context of recently solved molecular structures, I highlight how mechanisms of PI4KII function and regulation are providing insights into the development of cancer and in neurological disease...
December 27, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277114/developing-a-falls-prevention-program-for-community-dwelling-stroke-survivors-in-singapore-client-and-caregiver-perspectives
#18
Tianma Xu, Kate O'Loughlin, Lindy Clemson, Natasha A Lannin, Catherine Dean, Gerald Koh
PURPOSE: Drawing on the perspectives of stroke survivors, family members and domestic helpers, this study explores participants' experiences of self-perceived fall risk factors after stroke, common fall prevention strategies used, and challenges to community participation after a fall. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Singapore with community-dwelling stroke survivors with a previous fall (n = 9), family caregivers (n = 4), and domestic helpers (n = 4) who have cared for a stroke survivor with a previous fall...
December 25, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259549/frequency-specific-functional-connectivity-density-as-an-effective-biomarker-for-adolescent-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#19
Zhe Zhang, Mei Liao, Zhijun Yao, Bin Hu, Yuanwei Xie, Weihao Zheng, Tao Hu, Yu Zhao, Fan Yang, Yan Zhang, Linyan Su, Lingjiang Li, Jürg Gutknecht, Dennis Majoe
Several neuropsychiatric diseases have been found to influence the frequency-specific spontaneous functional brain organization (SFBO) in resting state, demonstrating that the abnormal brain activities of different frequency bands are associated with various physiological and psychological dysfunctions. However, little is known about the frequency specificities of SFBO in adolescent generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Here, a novel complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise method was applied to decompose the time series of each voxel across all participants (31 adolescent patients with GAD and 28 matched healthy controls; HCs) into four frequency-specific bands with distinct intrinsic oscillation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242787/foot-deformities-in-hajdu-cheney-syndrome-a-rare-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Ashish B Shah, Breann K Tisano, Osama Elattar, Jackson Rucker Staggers, Sameer Naranje
Introduction: Hajdu-Cheney syndrome (HCS) is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by acroosteolysis, wormian skull bones with persistent skull sutures, premature loss of teeth, micrognathia, short stature, hypermobility of the joints, neurologic manifestations such as basilar invagination with subsequent paresthesia, hearing loss, and speech alterations, and osteoporosis with tendency to pathologic fractures of long bones and vertebrae as well as painful hands and feet. Very few cases have been earlier reported in the literature...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
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