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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535409/mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-diminishes-functional-connectivity-during-emotion-perception
#1
Bettina K Steiger, Angela M Muller, Esther Spirig, Gianina Toller, Hennric Jokeit
OBJECTIVES: Unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) has been associated with impaired recognition of emotional facial expressions. Correspondingly, imaging studies showed decreased activity of the amygdala and cortical face processing regions in response to emotional faces. However, functional connectivity among regions involved in emotion perception has not been studied so far. METHODS: To address this, we examined intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) modulated by the perception of dynamic fearful faces among the amygdala and limbic, frontal, temporal and brainstem regions...
May 10, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534043/familiarity-detection-is-an-intrinsic-property-of-cortical-microcircuits-with-bidirectional-synaptic-plasticity
#2
Xiaoyu Zhang, Han Ju, Trevor B Penney, Antonius M J VanDongen
Humans instantly recognize a previously seen face as "familiar." To deepen our understanding of familiarity-novelty detection, we simulated biologically plausible neural network models of generic cortical microcircuits consisting of spiking neurons with random recurrent synaptic connections. NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent synaptic plasticity was implemented to allow for unsupervised learning and bidirectional modifications. Network spiking activity evoked by sensory inputs consisting of face images altered synaptic efficacy, which resulted in the network responding more strongly to a previously seen face than a novel face...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531975/chemical-manipulation-of-oxygen-vacancy-and-antibacterial-activity-in-zno
#3
Lakshmi Prasanna V, Rajagopalan Vijayaraghavan
Pure and doped ZnO (cation and anion doping) compositions have been designed in order to manipulate oxygen vacancy and antibacterial activity of ZnO. In this connection, we have synthesized and characterized micron sized ZnO, N doped micron sized ZnO, nano ZnO, nano Na and La doped ZnO. The intrinsic vacancies in pure ZnO and the vacancies created by N and Na doping in ZnO have been confirmed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy(XPS) and Photoluminiscence Spectroscopy(PL). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals and H2O2 responsible for antibacterial activity have been estimated by PL, UV-Vis spectroscopy and KMnO4 titrations respectively...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531141/eyes-of-things
#4
Oscar Deniz, Noelia Vallez, Jose L Espinosa-Aranda, Jose M Rico-Saavedra, Javier Parra-Patino, Gloria Bueno, David Moloney, Alireza Dehghani, Aubrey Dunne, Alain Pagani, Stephan Krauss, Ruben Reiser, Martin Waeny, Matteo Sorci, Tim Llewellynn, Christian Fedorczak, Thierry Larmoire, Marco Herbst, Andre Seirafi, Kasra Seirafi
Embedded systems control and monitor a great deal of our reality. While some "classic" features are intrinsically necessary, such as low power consumption, rugged operating ranges, fast response and low cost, these systems have evolved in the last few years to emphasize connectivity functions, thus contributing to the Internet of Things paradigm. A myriad of sensing/computing devices are being attached to everyday objects, each able to send and receive data and to act as a unique node in the Internet. Apart from the obvious necessity to process at least some data at the edge (to increase security and reduce power consumption and latency), a major breakthrough will arguably come when such devices are endowed with some level of autonomous "intelligence"...
May 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527787/neural-correlates-of-believing
#5
Xiaochun Han, Ting Zhang, Shiyu Wang, Shihui Han
Beliefs provide a fundamental cognitive basis for human behavior. But how the brain believes remains a mystery. We investigated the neural underpinnings of believing by scanning healthy adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging when they made yes/no responses to the questions whether they believe or think that a trait adjective describes themselves or a celebrity. We found that, relative to thinking, believing was characterized with better memory of self-related adjectives. Moreover, believing (vs...
May 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527108/increased-expression-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-transcripts-i-and-vi-camp-response-element-binding-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-the-cortex-of-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#6
G A Martínez-Levy, L Rocha, F Rodríguez-Pineda, M A Alonso-Vanegas, A Nani, R M Buentello-García, M Briones-Velasco, D San-Juan, J Cienfuegos, C S Cruz-Fuentes
A body of evidence supports a relevant role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Magnetic resonance data reveal that the cerebral atrophy extends to regions that are functionally and anatomically connected with the hippocampus, especially the temporal cortex. We previously reported an increased expression of BDNF messenger for the exon VI in the hippocampus of temporal lobe epilepsy patients compared to an autopsy control group. Altered levels of this particular transcript were also associated with pre-surgical use of certain psychotropic...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525877/functional-network-connectivity-predicts-treatment-outcome-during-treatment-of-nicotine-use-disorder
#7
Claire E Wilcox, Vince D Calhoun, Srinivas Rachakonda, Eric D Claus, Rae A Littlewood, Jessica Mickey, Pamela B Arenella, Kent E Hutchison
Altered resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) and functional network connectivity (FNC), which is a measure of coherence between brain networks, may be associated with nicotine use disorder (NUD). We hypothesized that higher connectivity between insula and 1) dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and 2) dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) would predict better treatment outcomes. We also performed an exploratory analysis of the associations between FNC values between additional key frontal and striatal regions and treatment outcomes...
April 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524925/how-is-charge-transport-different-in-ionic-liquids-the-effect-of-high-pressure
#8
Z Wojnarowska, E Thoms, B Blanchard, S N Tripathy, P Goodrich, J Jacquemin, J Knapik-Kowalczuk, M Paluch
Modern ionic liquids (ILs) are considered green solvents for the future applications due to their inherited advantages and remarkable transport properties. One of the ubiquitous properties of ILs is their intrinsic ionic conductivity. However, understanding of the super-Arrhenius behavior of the ionic conductivity process at elevated pressure still remains elusive and crucial in glass science. In this work, we investigate the ion transport properties of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide: [C4mim][NTf2], 1-butylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)-sulfonyl]imide: [C4Him][NTf2] and 1-butylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate: [C4Him][HSO4] ILs in the supercooled liquid state using dielectric spectroscopy at ambient and high pressure...
May 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523217/relation-between-patterns-of-intrinsic-network-connectivity-cognitive-functioning-and-symptom-presentation-in-trauma-exposed-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#9
Melissa Parlar, Maria Densmore, Geoffrey B Hall, Paul A Frewen, Ruth A Lanius, Margaret C McKinnon
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated resting fMRI connectivity within the default mode (DMN), salience (SN), and central executive (CEN) networks in relation to neurocognitive performance and symptom severity in trauma-exposed patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHOD: Group independent component analysis was conducted among patients with MDD (n = 21), examining DMN, SN, and CEN connectivity in relation to neurocognitive performance and symptom severity...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522986/retinal-ganglion-cells-and-circadian-rhythms-in-alzheimer-s-disease-parkinson-s-disease-and-beyond
#10
REVIEW
Chiara La Morgia, Fred N Ross-Cisneros, Alfredo A Sadun, Valerio Carelli
There is increasing awareness on the role played by circadian rhythm abnormalities in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The characterization of the circadian dysfunction parallels the mounting evidence that the hallmarks of neurodegeneration also affect the retina and frequently lead to loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and to different degrees of optic neuropathy. In the RGC population, there is the subgroup of cells intrinsically photosensitive and expressing the photopigment melanopsin [melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs)], which are now well known to drive the entrainment of circadian rhythms to the light-dark cycles...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518111/using-enzyme-based-biosensors-to-measure-tonic-and-phasic-glutamate-in-alzheimer-s-mouse-models
#11
Holly C Hunsberger, Sharay E Setti, Ryan T Heslin, Jorge E Quintero, Greg A Gerhardt, Miranda N Reed
Neurotransmitter disruption is often a key component of diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), playing a role in the pathology underlying Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, and anxiety. Traditionally, microdialysis has been the most common (lauded) technique to examine neurotransmitter changes that occur in these disorders. But because microdialysis has the ability to measure slow 1-20 minute changes across large areas of tissue, it has the disadvantage of invasiveness, potentially destroying intrinsic connections within the brain and a slow sampling capability...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511899/signaling-pathways-to-and-from-the-hypophysial-pars-tuberalis-an-important-center-for-the-control-of-seasonal-rhythms
#12
REVIEW
Horst-Werner Korf
Seasonal (circannual) rhythms play an important role for the control of body functions (reproduction, metabolism, immune responses) in nearly all living organisms. Also humans are affected by the seasons with regard to immune responses and mental functions, the seasonal affective disorder being one of the most prominent examples. The hypophysial pars tuberalis (PT), an important interface between the hypophysial pars distalis and neuroendocrine centers in the brain, plays an essential role in the regulation of seasonal functions and may even be the seat of the circannual clock...
May 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508034/laminar-localization-and-projection-specific-properties-of-presubicular-neurons-targeting-the-lateral-mammillary-nucleus-thalamus-or-medial-entorhinal-cortex
#13
Li-Wen Huang, Jean Simonnet, Mérie Nassar, Louis Richevaux, Roxanne Lofredi, Desdemona Fricker
The presubiculum (PrS) is part of an interconnected network of distributed brain regions where individual neurons signal the animals heading direction. PrS sends axons to medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), it is reciprocally connected with anterior thalamic nuclei (ATNs), and it sends feedback projections to the lateral mammillary nucleus (LMN), involved in generating the head direction signal. The intrinsic properties of projecting neurons will influence the pathway-specific transmission of activity. Here, we used projection-specific labeling of presubicular neurons to identify MEC-, LMN-, and ATN-projecting neurons in mice...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507720/in-vivo-imaging-of-leucine-aminopeptidase-activity-in-drug-induced-liver-injury-and-liver-cancer-via-a-near-infrared-fluorescent-probe
#14
Xinyuan He, Lihong Li, Yu Fang, Wen Shi, Xiaohua Li, Huimin Ma
The liver, a main detoxification organ, has evolved a complex enzymatic system to respond to multiple pathological conditions, in which leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) has been reported to participate in detoxifying cisplatin in hepatoma cells and contribute to the intrinsic drug resistance. In vivo imaging of LAP activity in liver disease models is thus helpful to further understand the function of LAP in detoxification and medicine, but such an imaging approach is still lacking. Herein, we develop a selective and sensitive near-infrared fluorescent probe (HCAL) for this purpose...
May 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507140/linkage-disequilibrium-matches-forensic-genetic-records-to-disjoint-genomic-marker-sets
#15
Michael D Edge, Bridget F B Algee-Hewitt, Trevor J Pemberton, Jun Z Li, Noah A Rosenberg
Combining genotypes across datasets is central in facilitating advances in genetics. Data aggregation efforts often face the challenge of record matching-the identification of dataset entries that represent the same individual. We show that records can be matched across genotype datasets that have no shared markers based on linkage disequilibrium between loci appearing in different datasets. Using two datasets for the same 872 people-one with 642,563 genome-wide SNPs and the other with 13 short tandem repeats (STRs) used in forensic applications-we find that 90-98% of forensic STR records can be connected to corresponding SNP records and vice versa...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506079/the-neural-correlates-of-emotional-lability-in-children-with-asd
#16
Randi Bennett, Krishna Somandapalli, Adriana Di Martino, Amy Roy
OBJECTIVE: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is exceptionally heterogeneous in both clinical and physiopathological presentations. Clinical variability applies to ASD-specific symptoms as well as frequent comorbid psychopathology such as emotional lability (EL). To date, the physiopathological underpinnings of the co-occurrence of EL and ASD are unknown. As a first step, we examined within-ASD inter-individual variability of EL and its neuronal correlates using resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI)...
May 15, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505845/thermodynamics-of-complexity-and-pattern-manipulation
#17
Andrew J P Garner, Jayne Thompson, Vlatko Vedral, Mile Gu
Many organisms capitalize on their ability to predict the environment to maximize available free energy and reinvest this energy to create new complex structures. This functionality relies on the manipulation of patterns-temporally ordered sequences of data. Here, we propose a framework to describe pattern manipulators-devices that convert thermodynamic work to patterns or vice versa-and use them to build a "pattern engine" that facilitates a thermodynamic cycle of pattern creation and consumption. We show that the least heat dissipation is achieved by the provably simplest devices, the ones that exhibit desired operational behavior while maintaining the least internal memory...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505127/variability-of-dna-methylation-within-schizophrenia-risk-loci-across-subregions-of-human-hippocampus
#18
W Brad Ruzicka, Sivan Subburaju, Francine M Benes
Identification of 108 genomic regions significantly associated with schizophrenia risk by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium was a milestone for the field, and much work is now focused on determining the mechanism of risk associated with each locus. Within these regions, we investigated variability of DNA methylation, a low-level cellular phenotype closely linked to genotype, in two highly similar cellular populations sampled from the human hippocampus, to draw inferences about the elaboration of genotype to phenotype within these loci enriched for schizophrenia risk...
May 15, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502845/foundations-of-layer-specific-fmri-and-investigations-of-neurophysiological-activity-in-the-laminarized-neocortex-and-olfactory-bulb-of-animal-models
#19
REVIEW
Alexander John Poplawsky, Mitsuhiro Fukuda, Seong-Gi Kim
Laminar organization of neuronal circuits is a recurring feature of how the brain processes information. For instance, different layers compartmentalize different cell types, synaptic activities, and have unique intrinsic and extrinsic connections that serve as units for specialized signal processing. Functional MRI is an invaluable tool to investigate laminar processing in the in vivo human brain, but it measures neuronal activity indirectly by way of the hemodynamic response. Therefore, the accuracy of high-resolution laminar fMRI depends on how precisely it can measure localized microvascular changes nearest to the site of evoked activity...
May 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502610/functional-connectivity-alterations-in-a-murine-model-of-optic-neuritis
#20
Patrick W Wright, Angela S Archambault, Stacey Peek, Adam Q Bauer, Susan M Culican, Beau M Ances, Joseph P Culver, Gregory F Wu
The basis for neuronal dysfunction following inflammatory demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS) remains poorly understood. We characterized the network response to white matter injury in the anterior visual pathway using an experimental model of optic neuritis (ON), as ON is often an early manifestation of immune-mediated CNS demyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS). Optical intrinsic signal imaging was performed before and after the induction of ON in mice to measure changes in cortical network functional connectivity...
May 11, 2017: Experimental Neurology
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