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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150759/from-experiment-to-theory-what-can-we-learn-from-growth-curves
#1
Irina Kareva, Georgy Karev
Finding an appropriate functional form to describe population growth based on key properties of a described system allows making justified predictions about future population development. This information can be of vital importance in all areas of research, ranging from cell growth to global demography. Here, we use this connection between theory and observation to pose the following question: what can we infer about intrinsic properties of a population (i.e., degree of heterogeneity, or dependence on external resources) based on which growth function best fits its growth dynamics? We investigate several nonstandard classes of multi-phase growth curves that capture different stages of population growth; these models include hyperbolic-exponential, exponential-linear, exponential-linear-saturation growth patterns...
November 17, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150311/functional-connectivity-of-the-vigilant-attention-network-in-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#2
Florian D Zepf, Sarah Bubenzer-Busch, Kevin C Runions, Pradeep Rao, Janice W Y Wong, Simone Mahfouda, Hugo A E Morandini, Richard M Stewart, Julia K Moore, Caroline S Biskup, Simon B Eickhoff, Gereon R Fink, Robert Langner
The ability to maintain attention to simple tasks (i.e., vigilant attention, VA) is often impaired in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms at the brain network level are not clear yet. We therefore investigated ADHD-related differences in resting-state functional connectivity within a meta-analytically defined brain network of 14 distinct regions subserving VA (comprising 91 connections in total), as well as the association of connectivity with markers of behavioural dysfunction in 17 children (age range: 9-14 years) with a diagnosis of ADHD and 21 age-matched neurotypical controls...
November 14, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148892/impact-of-prognostic-discussions-on-the-patient-physician-relationship-prospective-cohort-study
#3
Joshua J Fenton, Paul R Duberstein, Richard L Kravitz, Guibo Xing, Daniel J Tancredi, Kevin Fiscella, Supriya Mohile, Ronald M Epstein
Purpose Some research has suggested that discussion of prognosis can disrupt the patient-physician relationship. This study assessed whether physician discussion of prognosis is associated with detrimental changes in measures of the strength of the patient-physician relationship. Methods This was a longitudinal cohort study of 265 adult patients with advanced cancer who visited 38 oncologists within community- and hospital-based cancer clinics in Western New York and Northern California. Prognostic discussion was assessed by coding transcribed audio-recorded visits using the Prognostic and Treatment Choices (PTCC) scale and by patient survey at 3 months after the clinic visit...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141413/single-reference-coupled-cluster-theory-for-multi-reference-problems
#4
Johannes T Margraf, Ajith Perera, Jesse J Lutz, Rodney J Bartlett
Coupled cluster (CC) theory is widely accepted as the most accurate and generally applicable approach in quantum chemistry. CC calculations are usually performed with single Slater-determinant references, e.g., canonical Hartree-Fock (HF) wavefunctions, though any single determinant can be used. This is an attractive feature because typical CC calculations are straightforward to apply, as there is no potentially ambiguous user input required. On the other hand, there can be concern that CC approximations give unreliable results when the reference determinant provides a poor description of the system of interest, i...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141120/biotinylated-photopolymers-for-3d-printed-unibody-lab-on-a-chip-optical-platforms
#5
Caterina Credi, Gianmarco Griffini, Marinella Levi, Stefano Turri
The present work reports the first demonstration of straightforward fabrication of monolithic unibody lab-on-a-chip (ULOCs) integrating bioactive micrometric 3D scaffolds by means of multimaterial stereolithography (SL). To this end, a novel biotin-conjugated photopolymer is successfully synthesized and optimally formulated to achieve high-performance SL-printing resolution, as demonstrated by the SL-fabrication of biotinylated structures smaller than 100 µm. By optimizing a multimaterial single-run SL-based 3D-printing process, such biotinylated microstructures are incorporated within perfusion microchambers whose excellent optical transparency enables real-time optical microscopy analyses...
November 15, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141024/quantifying-indices-of-short-and-long-range-white-matter-connectivity-at-each-cortical-vertex
#6
Maria Carmela Padula, Marie Schaer, Elisa Scariati, A Kadir Mutlu, Daniela Zöller, Maude Schneider, Stephan Eliez
Several neurodevelopmental diseases are characterized by impairments in cortical morphology along with altered white matter connectivity. However, the relationship between these two measures is not yet clear. In this study, we propose a novel methodology to compute and display metrics of white matter connectivity at each cortical point. After co-registering the extremities of the tractography streamlines with the cortical surface, we computed two measures of connectivity at each cortical vertex: the mean tracts' length, and the proportion of short- and long-range connections...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140585/timap-the-versatile-protein-phosphatase-1-regulator-in-endothelial-cells
#7
REVIEW
Anita Boratkó, Csilla Csortos
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β inhibited membrane associated protein, TIMAP, is the member of the myosin phosphatase targeting protein (MYPT) family of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) regulatory subunits. The N-terminal part of TIMAP has a typical MYPT family structure with a sequence element called MyPhone (myosin phosphatase N-terminal element), a putative bipartite nuclear localization signal, a PP1 catalytic subunit binding motif, and five ankyrin repeats. The C-terminal half of TIMAP is intrinsically disordered, but ends with a functional CAAX box for lipid modification which allows localization of TIMAP at the plasma membrane...
November 15, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139210/timing-of-neuronal-plasticity-in-development-and-aging
#8
REVIEW
Evguenia Ivakhnitskaia, Ryan Weihsiang Lin, Kana Hamada, Chieh Chang
Molecular oscillators are well known for their roles in temporal control of some biological processes like cell proliferation, but molecular mechanisms that provide temporal control of differentiation and postdifferentiation events in cells are less understood. In the nervous system, establishment of neuronal connectivity during development and decline in neuronal plasticity during aging are regulated with temporal precision, but the timing mechanisms are largely unknown. Caenorhabditis elegans has been a preferred model for aging research and recently emerges as a new model for the study of developmental and postdevelopmental plasticity in neurons...
November 15, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136125/effective-connectivity-measured-using-optogenetically-evoked-hemodynamic-signals-exhibits-topography-distinct-from-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-the-mouse
#9
Adam Q Bauer, Andrew W Kraft, Grant A Baxter, Patrick W Wright, Matthew D Reisman, Annie R Bice, Jasmine J Park, Michael R Bruchas, Abraham Z Snyder, Jin-Moo Lee, Joseph P Culver
Brain connectomics has expanded from histological assessment of axonal projection connectivity (APC) to encompass resting state functional connectivity (RS-FC). RS-FC analyses are efficient for whole-brain mapping, but attempts to explain aspects of RS-FC (e.g., interhemispheric RS-FC) based on APC have been only partially successful. Neuroimaging with hemoglobin alone lacks specificity for determining how activity in a population of cells contributes to RS-FC. Wide-field mapping of optogenetically defined connectivity could provide insights into the brain's structure-function relationship...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131427/optimal-fabrication-methods-for-miniature-coplanar-ion-traps
#10
Trevor K Decker, Yuan Tian, Joshua S McClellan, Linsey Bennett, Stephen A Lammert, Daniel E Austin, Aaron R Hawkins
RATIONALE: Ion trap mass spectrometers are beneficial due to their intrinsic sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, a portable version for in situ analysis of various compounds is very attractive. Miniaturization of ion traps is paramount to the portability of said mass spectrometers. METHODS: We developed an optimized design for a planar linear ion trap mass spectrometer, consisting of two trapping plates with photolithographically patterned electrodes. Each plate is constructed using a machined glass substrate and standard microfabrication procedures...
November 13, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128784/insular-subdivisions-functional-connectivity-dysfunction-within-major-depressive-disorder
#11
Xiaolong Peng, Pan Lin, Xiaoping Wu, Ruxue Gong, Rui Yang, Jue Wang
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mental disorder characterized by cognitive and affective deficits. Previous studies suggested that insula is a crucial node of the salience network for initiating network switching, and dysfunctional connection to this region may be related to the mechanism of MDD. In this study, we systematically investigated and quantified the altered functional connectivity (FC) of the specific insular subdivisions and its relationship to psychopathology of MDD...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128543/high-frequency-neurons-determine-effective-connectivity-in-neuronal-networks
#12
Aref Pariz, Zahra G Esfahani, Shervin S Parsi, Alireza Valizadeh, Santiago Canals, Claudio R Mirasso
The emergence of flexible information channels in brain networks is a fundamental question in neuroscience. Understanding the mechanisms of dynamic routing of information would have far-reaching implications in a number of disciplines ranging from biology and medicine to information technologies and engineering. In this work, we show that the presence of a node firing at a higher frequency in a network with local connections, leads to reliable transmission of signals and establishes a preferential direction of information flow...
November 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125287/anion-recognition-in-aqueous-media-by-cyclopeptides-and-other-synthetic-receptors
#13
Stefan Kubik
Anion receptors often rely on coordinative or multiple ionic interactions to be active in water. In the absence of such strong interactions, anion binding in water can also be efficient, however, as demonstrated by a number of anion receptors developed in recent years. The cyclopeptide-derived receptors comprising an alternating sequence of l-proline and 6-aminopicolinic acid subunits are an example. These cyclopeptides are neutral and, at first sight, can only engage in hydrogen-bond formation with an anionic substrate...
November 10, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124504/variable-synaptic-strengths-controls-the-firing-rate-distribution-in-feedforward-neural-networks
#14
Cheng Ly, Gary Marsat
Heterogeneity of firing rate statistics is known to have severe consequences on neural coding. Recent experimental recordings in weakly electric fish indicate that the distribution-width of superficial pyramidal cell firing rates (trial- and time-averaged) in the electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL) depends on the stimulus, and also that network inputs can mediate changes in the firing rate distribution across the population. We previously developed theoretical methods to understand how two attributes (synaptic and intrinsic heterogeneity) interact and alter the firing rate distribution in a population of integrate-and-fire neurons with random recurrent coupling...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122018/dominance-as-a-competence-domain-and-the-evolutionary-origins-of-respect-and-contempt
#15
Bernard Chapais
The hypothesis of a phylogenetic connection between protorespect in primate dominance hierarchies and respect in human prestige hierarchies lies in the principle that dominance is a domain of competence like others and, hence, that high-ranking primates have protoprestige. The idea that dominant primates manifest protocontempt to subordinates suggests that "looking down on" followers is intrinsic to leadership in humans, but that the expression of contempt varies critically in relation to the socioecological context...
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121332/frontostriatal-and-dopamine-markers-of-individual-differences-in-reinforcement-learning-a-multi-modal-investigation
#16
Roselinde H Kaiser, Michael T Treadway, Dustin W Wooten, Poornima Kumar, Franziska Goer, Laura Murray, Miranda Beltzer, Pia Pechtel, Alexis Whitton, Andrew L Cohen, Nathaniel M Alpert, Georges El Fakhri, Marc D Normandin, Diego A Pizzagalli
Prior studies have shown that dopamine (DA) functioning in frontostriatal circuits supports reinforcement learning (RL), as phasic DA activity in ventral striatum signals unexpected reward and may drive coordinated activity of striatal and orbitofrontal regions that support updating of action plans. However, the nature of DA functioning in RL is complex, in particular regarding the role of DA clearance in RL behavior. Here, in a multi-modal neuroimaging study with healthy adults, we took an individual differences approach to the examination of RL behavior and DA clearance mechanisms in frontostriatal learning networks...
October 31, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117549/prefrontal-cortex-drives-distinct-projection-neurons-in-the-basolateral-amygdala
#17
Laura M McGarry, Adam G Carter
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) regulates emotional behavior via top-down control of the basolateral amygdala (BLA). However, the influence of PFC inputs on the different projection pathways within the BLA remains largely unexplored. Here, we combine whole-cell recordings and optogenetics to study these cell-type specific connections in mouse BLA. We characterize PFC inputs onto three distinct populations of BLA neurons that project to the PFC, ventral hippocampus, or nucleus accumbens. We find that PFC-evoked synaptic responses are strongest at amygdala-cortical and amygdala-hippocampal neurons and much weaker at amygdala-striatal neurons...
November 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116660/increased-hippocampus-to-ventromedial-prefrontal-connectivity-during-the-construction-of-episodic-future-events
#18
Karen L Campbell, Kevin P Madore, Roland G Benoit, Preston P Thakral, Daniel L Schacter
Both the hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) appear to be critical for episodic future simulation. Damage to either structure affects one's ability to remember the past and imagine the future, and both structures are commonly activated as part of a wider core network during future simulation. However, the precise role played by each of these structures and, indeed, the direction of information flow between them during episodic simulation, is still not well understood. In this study, we scanned participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging while they imagined future events in response to object cues...
November 8, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116453/the-role-of-the-pulvinar-in-spatial-visual-attention
#19
Ricardo Gattass, Juliana G M Soares, Bruss Lima
This chapter deals with the role of the pulvinar in spatial visual attention. There are at least two aspects in which the pulvinar seems to be instrumental for selective visual processes. The first aspect concerns pulvinar connectivity pattern. The pulvinar is connected with brain regions known to be playing a role in attentional mechanisms, such as area V4, the superior colliculus (SC), and the inferior parietal cortex (IP). Additionally, the pulvinar is richly interconnected with multiple cortical areas. This enables the pulvinar to serve as a hub for brain communication, potentially gating the flow of information across different regions...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114050/structure-and-function-of-yeast-atg20-a-sorting-nexin-that-facilitates-autophagy-induction
#20
Hana Popelka, Alejandro Damasio, Jenny E Hinshaw, Daniel J Klionsky, Michael J Ragusa
The Atg20 and Snx4/Atg24 proteins have been identified in a screen for mutants defective in a type of selective macroautophagy/autophagy. Both proteins are connected to the Atg1 kinase complex, which is involved in autophagy initiation, and bind phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate. Atg20 and Snx4 contain putative BAR domains, suggesting a possible role in membrane deformation, but they have been relatively uncharacterized. Here we demonstrate that, in addition to its function in selective autophagy, Atg20 plays a critical role in the efficient induction of nonselective autophagy...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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