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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789927/cellular-components-and-circuitry-of-the-presubiculum-and-its-functional-role-in-the-head-direction-system
#1
REVIEW
Jean Simonnet, Desdemona Fricker
Orientation in space is a fundamental cognitive process relying on brain-wide neuronal circuits. Many neurons in the presubiculum in the parahippocampal region encode head direction and each head direction cell selectively discharges when the animal faces a specific direction. Here, we attempt to link the current knowledge of afferent and efferent connectivity of the presubiculum to the processing of the head direction signal. We describe the cytoarchitecture of the presubicular six-layered cortex and the morphological and electrophysiological intrinsic properties of principal neurons and interneurons...
May 22, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789379/correlated-gene-expression-and-anatomical-communication-support-synchronized-brain-activity-in-the-mouse-functional-connectome
#2
Brian D Mills, David S Grayson, Anandakumar Shunmugavel, Oscar Miranda-Dominguez, Eric Feczko, Eric Earl, Kim Neve, Damien A Fair
Cognition and behavior depend on synchronized intrinsic brain activity that is organized into functional networks across the brain. Research has investigated how anatomical connectivity both shapes and is shaped by these networks, but not how anatomical connectivity interacts with intra-areal molecular properties to drive functional connectivity. Here, we present a novel linear model to explain functional connectivity by integrating systematically obtained measurements of axonal connectivity, gene expression, and resting state functional connectivity MRI in the mouse brain...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789374/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-spontaneously-active-bursty-gabaergic-interneuron-in-the-mouse-striatum
#3
Maxime Assous, Thomas W Faust, Robert Assini, Fulva Shah, Yacouba Sidibe, James M Tepper
The recent availability of different transgenic mouse lines coupled with other modern molecular techniques has led to the discovery of an unexpectedly large cellular diversity and synaptic specificity in striatal interneuronal circuitry. Prior research has described three spontaneously active interneuron types in mouse striatal slices; the cholinergic interneuron, the neuropeptide Y-low threshold spike interneuron, and the tyrosine hydroxylase interneurons (THINs). Using transgenic Htr3a-Cre mice we now characterize a fourth population of spontaneously active striatal GABAergic interneurons termed spontaneously active bursty interneurons (SABI) because of their unique burst-firing pattern in cell-attached recordings...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788295/intrinsic-functional-connectivity-resembles-cortical-architecture-at-various-levels-of-isoflurane-anesthesia
#4
Felix Fischer, Florian Pieper, Edgar Galindo-Leon, Gerhard Engler, Claus C Hilgetag, Andreas K Engel
Cortical single neuron activity and local field potential patterns change at different depths of general anesthesia. Here, we investigate the associated network level changes of functional connectivity. We recorded ongoing electrocorticographic (ECoG) activity from temporo-parieto-occipital cortex of 6 ferrets at various levels of isoflurane/nitrous oxide anesthesia and determined functional connectivity by computing amplitude envelope correlations. Through hierarchical clustering, we derived typical connectivity patterns corresponding to light, intermediate and deep anesthesia...
May 18, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784420/stable-carbon-isotope-ratios-for-sourcing-the-nerve-agent-precursor-methylphosphonic-dichloride-and-its-products
#5
James J Moran, Carlos G Fraga, Megan K Nims
The ability to connect a chemical threat agent to a specific batch of a synthetic precursor can provide a fingerprint to contribute to effective forensic investigations. Stable isotope analysis can leverage intrinsic, natural isotopic variability within the molecules of a threat agent to unlock embedded chemical fingerprints in the material. Methylphosphonic dichloride (DC) is a chemical precursor to the nerve agent sarin. DC is converted to methylphosphonic difluoride (DF) as part of the sarin synthesis process...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782836/dancing-with-the-diva-hsp90-client-interactions
#6
REVIEW
Martina Radli, Stefan G D Rüdiger
The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is involved in the folding, maturation and degradation of a large number structurally and sequentially unrelated clients, often connected to serious diseases. Elucidating the principles of how Hsp90 recognises this large variety of substrates is essential for comprehending the mechanism of this chaperone machinery, as well as it is a prerequisite for the design of client specific drugs targeting Hsp90. Here, we discuss the recent progress in understanding the substrate recognition principles of Hsp90 and its implications for the role of Hsp90 in the lifecycle of (signalling) molecules...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779670/a-connectome-wide-functional-signature-of-transdiagnostic-risk-for-mental-illness
#7
Maxwell L Elliott, Adrienne Romer, Annchen R Knodt, Ahmad R Hariri
BACKGROUND: High rates of comorbidity, shared risk, and overlapping therapeutic mechanisms have led psychopathology research toward transdiagnostic dimensional investigations of clustered symptoms. One influential framework accounts for these transdiagnostic phenomena through a single general factor, sometimes referred to as the "p" factor, associated with risk for all common forms of mental illness. METHODS: We build on previous research identifying unique structural neural correlates of the p factor by conducting a data-driven analysis of connectome-wide intrinsic functional connectivity (n = 605)...
April 10, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776091/modeling-persistence-of-motion-in-a-crowded-environment-the-diffusive-limit-of-excluding-velocity-jump-processes
#8
Enrico Gavagnin, Christian A Yates
Persistence of motion is the tendency of an object to maintain motion in a direction for short time scales without necessarily being biased in any direction in the long term. One of the most appropriate mathematical tools to study this behavior is an agent-based velocity-jump process. In the absence of agent-agent interaction, the mean-field continuum limit of the agent-based model (ABM) gives rise to the well known hyperbolic telegraph equation. When agent-agent interaction is included in the ABM, a strictly advective system of partial differential equations (PDEs) can be derived at the population level...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773611/charlie-gard-and-the-weight-of-parental-rights-to-seek-experimental-treatment
#9
Giles Birchley
The case of Charlie Gard, an infant with a genetic illness whose parents sought experimental treatment in the USA, brought important debates about the moral status of parents and children to the public eye. After setting out the facts of the case, this article considers some of these debates through the lens of parental rights. Parental rights are most commonly based on the promotion of a child's welfare; however, in Charlie's case, promotion of Charlie's welfare cannot explain every fact of the case. Indeed, some seem most logically to extend from intrinsic parental rights, that is, parental rights that exist independent of welfare promotion...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769664/parallel-odor-processing-by-mitral-and-middle-tufted-cells-in-the-olfactory-bulb
#10
Francesco Cavarretta, Shawn D Burton, Kei M Igarashi, Gordon M Shepherd, Michael L Hines, Michele Migliore
The olfactory bulb (OB) transforms sensory input into spatially and temporally organized patterns of activity in principal mitral (MC) and middle tufted (mTC) cells. Thus far, the mechanisms underlying odor representations in the OB have been mainly investigated in MCs. However, experimental findings suggest that MC and mTC may encode parallel and complementary odor representations. We have analyzed the functional roles of these pathways by using a morphologically and physiologically realistic three-dimensional model to explore the MC and mTC microcircuits in the glomerular layer and deeper plexiform layer...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769630/locally-induced-neuronal-synchrony-precisely-propagates-to-specific-cortical-areas-without-rhythm-distortion
#11
Haruo Toda, Keisuke Kawasaki, Sho Sato, Masao Horie, Kiyoshi Nakahara, Asim K Bepari, Hirohito Sawahata, Takafumi Suzuki, Haruo Okado, Hirohide Takebayashi, Isao Hasegawa
Propagation of oscillatory spike firing activity at specific frequencies plays an important role in distributed cortical networks. However, there is limited evidence for how such frequency-specific signals are induced or how the signal spectra of the propagating signals are modulated during across-layer (radial) and inter-areal (tangential) neuronal interactions. To directly evaluate the direction specificity of spectral changes in a spiking cortical network, we selectively photostimulated infragranular excitatory neurons in the rat primary visual cortex (V1) at a supra-threshold level with various frequencies, and recorded local field potentials (LFPs) at the infragranular stimulation site, the cortical surface site immediately above the stimulation site in V1, and cortical surface sites outside V1...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767961/real-time-monitoring-of-tricarboxylic-acid-metabolites-in-exhaled-breath
#12
Alberto Tejero Rioseras, Kapil Dev Singh, Nora Nowak, Martin T Gaugg, Tobias Bruderer, Renato Zenobi, Pablo M-L Sinues
The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is one of the most important metabolic pathway for cellular respiration in aerobic organisms. It provides and collects intermediates for many other interconnecting pathways and acts as a hub connecting metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids. Alteration in intracellular levels of its intermediates has been linked with a wide range of illnesses ranging from cancer to cellular necrosis or liver cirrhosis. Therefore, there exists an intrinsic interest in monitoring such metabolites...
May 16, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767372/bayesian-network-to-infer-drug-induced-apoptosis-circuits-from-connectivity-map-data
#13
Jiyang Yu, Jose M Silva
The Connectivity Map (CMAP) project profiled human cancer cell lines exposed to a library of anticancer compounds with the goal of connecting cancer with underlying genes and potential treatments. As most targeted anticancer therapeutics aim to induce tumor-selective apoptosis, it is critical to understand the specific cell death pathways triggered by drugs. This can help to better understand the mechanism of how cancer cells respond to chemical stimulations and improve the treatment of human tumors. In this study, using Connectivity MAP microarray-based gene expression data, we applied a Bayesian network modeling approach and identified apoptosis as a major drug-induced cellular pathway...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766040/the-midline-axon-crossing-decision-is-regulated-through-an-activity-dependent-mechanism-by-the-nmda-receptor
#14
Jingxia Gao, Tamara J Stevenson, Adam D Douglass, Joshua P Barrios, Joshua L Bonkowsky
Axon guidance in vertebrates is controlled by genetic cascades as well as by intrinsic activity-dependent refinement of connections. Midline axon crossing is one of the best studied pathfinding models and is fundamental to the establishment of bilaterally symmetric nervous systems. However, it is not known whether crossing requires intrinsic activity in axons, and what controls that activity. Further, a mechanism linking neuronal activity and gene expression has not been identified for axon pathfinding. Using embryonic zebrafish, we found that the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) NR1...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765652/cell-wall-microstructure-pore-size-distribution-and-absolute-density-of-hemp-shiv
#15
Y Jiang, M Lawrence, M P Ansell, A Hussain
This paper, for the first time, fully characterizes the intrinsic physical parameters of hemp shiv including cell wall microstructure, pore size distribution and absolute density. Scanning electron microscopy revealed microstructural features similar to hardwoods. Confocal microscopy revealed three major layers in the cell wall: middle lamella, primary cell wall and secondary cell wall. Computed tomography improved the visualization of pore shape and pore connectivity in three dimensions. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) showed that the average accessible porosity was 76...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763584/equation-chapter-1-section-1sequence-to-conformation-relationships-of-disordered-regions-tethered-to-folded-domains-of-proteins
#16
Anuradha Mittal, Alex S Holehouse, Megan C Cohan, Rohit V Pappu
Intrinsically disordered proteins and regions (IDPs / IDRs) are characterized by well-defined sequence-to-conformation relationships (SCRs). These relationships refer to the sequence-specific preferences for average sizes, shapes, residue-specific secondary structure propensities, and amplitudes of multiscale conformational fluctuations. SCRs are discerned from the sequence-specific conformational ensembles of IDPs. A vast majority of IDPs are actually tethered to folded domains (FDs). This raises the question of whether or not SCRs inferred for IDPs are applicable to IDRs tethered to folded domains...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761531/fluctuations-of-the-eeg-fmri-correlation-reflect-intrinsic-strength-of-functional-connectivity-in-default-mode-network
#17
Tuija Keinänen, Seppo Rytky, Vesa Korhonen, Niko Huotari, Juha Nikkinen, Osmo Tervonen, J Matias Palva, Vesa Kiviniemi
Both functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electrophysiological recordings have revealed that resting-state functional connectivity is temporally variable in human brain. Combined full-band electroencephalography-fMRI (fbEEG-fMRI) studies have shown that infraslow (<.1 Hz) fluctuations in EEG scalp potential are correlated with the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI signals and that also this correlation appears variable over time. Here, we used simultaneous fbEEG-fMRI to test the hypothesis that correlation dynamics between BOLD and fbEEG signals could be explained by fluctuations in the activation properties of resting-state networks (RSNs) such as the extent or strength of their activation...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761016/the-effects-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-on-resting-state-functional-brain-network-in-drug-naive-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#18
Ping Li, Xiangyun Yang, Andrew J Greenshaw, Sufang Li, Jia Luo, Haiying Han, Jing Liu, Zhaoxi Zhong, Zhihua Guo, Hongfang Xiong, Shumin Yao, Yunhui Chen, Jing Sun, Zhanjiang Li
Objectives: Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the treatment mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CBT on changes in the intrinsic whole-brain functional network of OCD patients. Materials and Methods: Twenty drug-naive and noncomorbid OCD patients were recruited, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed before and after 12 weeks of CBT...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760100/functional-organization-of-intrinsic-and-feedback-presynaptic-inputs-in-the-primary-visual-cortex
#19
Qing-Fang Zhang, Hao Li, Ming Chen, Aike Guo, Yunqing Wen, Mu-Ming Poo
In the primary visual cortex (V1) of many mammalian species, neurons are spatially organized according to their preferred orientation into a highly ordered map. However, whether and how the various presynaptic inputs to V1 neurons are organized relative to the neuronal orientation map remain unclear. To address this issue, we constructed genetically encoded calcium indicators targeting axon boutons in two colors and used them to map the organization of axon boutons of V1 intrinsic and V2-V1 feedback projections in tree shrews...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759185/a-fast-sample-processing-strategy-for-large-scale-profiling-of-human-urine-phosphoproteome-by-mass-spectrometry
#20
Xinyuan Zhao, Wanjun Zhang, Tong Liu, Hangyan Dong, Junjie Huang, Changqing Sun, Guangshun Wang, Xiaohong Qian, Weijie Qin
Liquid biopsies using body fluids have gained much attention in recent years due to their multiple advantages in clinical diagnosis, such as less/non-invasive collection, suitability for longitudinal disease monitoring, and better representation of tumor heterogeneity. As an attractive choice for liquid biopsy, urine proteins and their post-translational modifications (PTMs) have the potential to offer significant insights into physiological variations and pathological changes in the human body. However, due to the intrinsically large variability of urine proteins and their PTMs among different individuals, there is a high demand for strategies for high-throughput analysis of a large number of samples to obtain a comprehensive view and a reliable reference interval of the urine proteome...
August 1, 2018: Talanta
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