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developmental biology

Erin L Rutherford, Laura Anne Lowery
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by mental retardation, craniofacial malformation, and defects in skeletal and heart development. The syndrome is associated with irregularities on the short arm of chromosome 4, including deletions of varying sizes and microduplications. Many of these genotypic aberrations in humans have been correlated with the classic WHS phenotype, and animal models have provided a context for mapping these genetic irregularities to specific phenotypes; however, there remains a significant knowledge gap concerning the cell biological mechanisms underlying these phenotypes...
October 21, 2016: Developmental Biology
Sarah Raz, Jamie C Piercy, Andrew M Heitzer, Brittany N Peters, Julie Bapp Newman, Angela K DeBastos, Noa Ofen, Beau Batton, Daniel G Batton
OBJECTIVES: A limited body of research is available on the relationships between multiplicity of birth and neuropsychological functioning in preterm children who were conceived in the age of assisted reproductive technology and served by the modern neonatal intensive care unit. Our chief objective was to evaluate whether, after adjustment for sociodemographic factors and perinatal complications, twin birth accounted for a unique portion of developmental outcome variance in children born at-risk in the surfactant era...
October 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Lin Shan, Xing Zhou, Xinhua Liu, Yue Wang, Dongxue Su, Yongqiang Hou, Na Yu, Chao Yang, Beibei Liu, Jie Gao, Yang Duan, Jianguo Yang, Wanjin Li, Jing Liang, Luyang Sun, Kexin Chen, Chenghao Xuan, Lei Shi, Yan Wang, Yongfeng Shang
Although clinically associated with severe developmental defects, the biological function of FOXK2 remains poorly explored. Here we report that FOXK2 interacts with transcription corepressor complexes NCoR/SMRT, SIN3A, NuRD, and REST/CoREST to repress a cohort of genes including HIF1β and EZH2 and to regulate several signaling pathways including the hypoxic response. We show that FOXK2 inhibits the proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells and suppresses the growth and metastasis of breast cancer. Interestingly, FOXK2 is transactivated by ERα and transrepressed via reciprocal successive feedback by HIF1β/EZH2...
October 14, 2016: Cancer Cell
Monika S Brill, Tatjana Kleele, Laura Ruschkies, Mengzhe Wang, Natalia A Marahori, Miriam S Reuter, Torben J Hausrat, Emily Weigand, Matthew Fisher, Andrea Ahles, Stefan Engelhardt, Derron L Bishop, Matthias Kneussel, Thomas Misgeld
Developmental axon remodeling is characterized by the selective removal of branches from axon arbors. The mechanisms that underlie such branch loss are largely unknown. Additionally, how neuronal resources are specifically assigned to the branches of remodeling arbors is not understood. Here we show that axon branch loss at the developing mouse neuromuscular junction is mediated by branch-specific microtubule severing, which results in local disassembly of the microtubule cytoskeleton and loss of axonal transport in branches that will subsequently dismantle...
October 18, 2016: Neuron
Rebekah S Decker
Within each synovial joint, the articular cartilage is uniquely adapted to bear dynamic compressive loads and shear forces throughout the joint's range of motion. Injury and age-related degeneration of the articular cartilage often lead to significant pain and disability, as the intrinsic repair capability of the tissue is extremely limited. Current surgical and biological treatment options have been unable to restore cartilage de novo. Before successful clinical cartilage restoration strategies can be developed, a better understanding of how the cartilage forms during normal development is essential...
October 20, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Dimosthenis A Sarigiannis, Spyros P Karakitsios, Evangelos Handakas, Konstantina Simou, Ermioni Solomou, Alberto Gotti
The current study aims at a comprehensive risk characterization of bisphenol A (BPA) supported by an integrated exposure modelling framework that comprises far field and near field exposure modelling coupled to a dynamic lifetime PBTK model. Exposure analysis was done on European data of BPA food residues and human biomonitoring (HBM). The latter were further assimilated through an advanced exposure reconstruction modelling framework to estimate the corresponding external and internal systemic dose of BPA and its metabolites...
October 18, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
J J Paredes, Nelly Andarawis-Puri
Tendon injuries, known as tendinopathies, are common musculoskeletal injuries that affect a wide range of the population. Canonical tendon healing is characterized by fibrosis, scar formation, and the loss of tissue mechanical and structural properties. Understanding the regenerative tendon environment is an area of increasing interest in the field of musculoskeletal research. Previous studies have focused on utilizing individual elements from the fields of biomechanics, developmental biology, cell and growth factor therapy, and tissue engineering in an attempt to develop regenerative tendon therapeutics...
October 21, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Liangliang Chen, Yuancheng Peng, Juan Tian, Xiaohong Wang, Zhaosheng Kong, Tonglin Mao, Ming Yuan, Yunhai Li
How cell shape is controlled is a fundamental question in developmental biology, but the genetic and molecular mechanisms that determine cell shape are largely unknown. Arabidopsis trichomes have been used as a good model system to investigate cell shape at the single-cell level. Here we describe the trichome cell shape 1 (tcs1) mutants with the reduced trichome branch number in Arabidopsis. TCS1 encodes a coiled-coil domain-containing protein. Pharmacological analyses and observations of microtubule dynamics show that TCS1 influences the stability of microtubules...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Divya Singh, Ghanshyam Upadhyay, Ananya Sengupta, Mohammed A Biplob, Shaleen Chakyayil, Tiji George, Shireen Saleque
Understanding the production and differentiation of megakaryocytes from progenitors is crucial for realizing the biology and functions of these vital cells. Previous gene ablation studies demonstrated the essential role of the transcriptional repressor Gfi1b (growth factor independence 1b) in the generation of both erythroid and megakaryocytic cells. However, our recent work has demonstrated the down-regulation of this factor during megakaryocytic differentiation. In this study we identify two new gene targets of Gfi1b, the cytoskeletal proteins Kindlin3 and Talin1, and demonstrate the inverse expression and functions of these cytoskeletal targets relative to Gfi1b, during megakaryocytic differentiation...
2016: PloS One
Ruben Perez-Carrasco, Pilar Guerrero, James Briscoe, Karen M Page
During tissue development, patterns of gene expression determine the spatial arrangement of cell types. In many cases, gradients of secreted signalling molecules-morphogens-guide this process by controlling downstream transcriptional networks. A mechanism commonly used in these networks to convert the continuous information provided by the gradient into discrete transitions between adjacent cell types is the genetic toggle switch, composed of cross-repressing transcriptional determinants. Previous analyses have emphasised the steady state output of these mechanisms...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Arathi Kizhedath, Simon Wilkinson, Jarka Glassey
Biopharmaceuticals, monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based therapeutics in particular, have positively impacted millions of lives. MAbs and related therapeutics are highly desirable from a biopharmaceutical perspective as they are highly target specific and well tolerated within the human system. Nevertheless, several mAbs have been discontinued or withdrawn based either on their inability to demonstrate efficacy and/or due to adverse effects. Approved monoclonal antibodies and derived therapeutics have been associated with adverse effects such as immunogenicity, cytokine release syndrome, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, intravascular haemolysis, cardiac arrhythmias, abnormal liver function, gastrointestinal perforation, bronchospasm, intraocular inflammation, urticaria, nephritis, neuropathy, birth defects, fever and cough to name a few...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Thomas Freour, Rita Vassena
: The study of oocyte and preimplantation embryo biology has been regarded with great curiosity throughout scientific history, but it is not until the development of robust methods for in vitro observation and manipulation of animal gametes that developmental biology has flourished as a discipline. By far the biggest technical challenge in studying transcription in oocytes and early embryo has been the necessity of developing techniques that retain a high level of accuracy when starting from small amount of material...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Catherine Rabouille, Jacqueline Deschamps
One hundred years of the Hubrecht Institute were celebrated in May 2016 with the organization of a one-day symposium "From embryos to stem cells" on the Uithof Campus, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Nine distinguished speakers were invited. They all represent a research branch originating from the passion of Institute founder, Ambrosius Hubrecht, for embryology:, regulation of gene expression, genome structure and function, embryonic and adult stem cells, nuclear reprogramming, and understanding cancer and other diseases using model organisms...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Biology
Julio Fernandez-Mendoza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It was first proposed in the late 1990s that objective markers of sleep disturbance could serve as an index of the biological severity of insomnia. In 2013, a heuristic model of two insomnia phenotypes based on objective sleep duration was proposed. Herein, we review the studies conducted in the past 3 years on the insomnia with short sleep duration phenotype and its implications for a clinical research agenda. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have shown that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with physiologic hyperarousal and cardiometabolic and neurocognitive morbidity, whereas insomnia with normal sleep duration is not...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Ashley Winning, M Maria Glymour, Marie C McCormick, Paola Gilsanz, Laura D Kubzansky
OBJECTIVES: Prior research on the relationship between early adversity and adult chronic disease has often relied on retrospective reports of a limited range of exposures and has not considered childhood psychological distress as a mediator. We investigate whether distress in childhood is one pathway by which early social disadvantage leads to greater cardiometabolic risk in middle adulthood. METHODS: Data are from the 1958 British Birth Cohort study (sample n = 6027)...
October 19, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Colin Crist
Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in our body, is responsible for generating the force required for movement and is also an important thermogenic organ. Skeletal muscle is an enigmatic tissue because, while on one hand, skeletal muscle regeneration after injury is arguably one of the best studied stem cell dependent regenerative processes, on the other hand, skeletal muscle is still subject to many degenerative disorders with few therapeutic options in the clinic. It is important to develop new regenerative medicine based therapies for skeletal muscle...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Chao-Jun Lu, Bao-Yu Tian, Yi Cao, Cheng-Gang Zou, Ke-Qin Zhang
Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a diverse class of transcription factors, which are involved in regulating a large number of physiological events in metazoans. However, the function of NRs is poorly understood in plant-parasitic nematodes. Here, members of the NR1J+K group of NRs in nematodes, including the free-living and plant parasites, were examined and phylogenetically analyzed. We found that the number of members of the NR1J+K group in plant-parasitic nematodes was less than that in the free-living nematodes, suggesting this reduction of NR1J+K group members in plant parasites maybe arose during the separation of the free-living and intermediately plant parasitic nematodes (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shuangshuang Zhao, Lei Zhao, Fengxia Liu, Yongzhen Wu, Zuofeng Zhu, Chuanqing Sun, Lubin Tan
Grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is closely related to leaf and flower development. Coordinative regulation of leaf, pollen, and seed development in rice as a critical biological and agricultural question should to be addressed. Here we identified two allelic rice mutants with narrow and semi-rolled leaves, named narrow and rolled leaf 2-1 (nrl2-1) and nrl2-2. Map-based molecular cloning revealed that NRL2 encodes a novel protein with unknown biochemical function. The mutation of NRL2 caused pleiotropic effects, including a reduction in the number of longitudinal veins, defective abaxial sclerenchymatous cell differentiation, abnormal tapetum degeneration and microspore development, and the formation of more slender seeds compared with the wild type (WT)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Christine N El Ouardani
Based on 9 months of ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. mental health clinic focused on the treatment of preschool-aged children who exhibited extremely disruptive behavior, this article examines the contradictions clinicians faced when trying to identify and attribute "intentionality" to very young children. Disruptive, aggressive behavior is one of the central symptoms involved in a wide-range of childhood psychopathology and the number one reason young children are referred to mental health clinics in the United States...
October 19, 2016: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Atsuo Ogura
Reproductive engineering techniques are essential for assisted reproduction of animals and generation of genetically modified animals. They may also provide invaluable research models for understanding the mechanisms involved in the developmental and reproductive processes. At the RIKEN BioResource Center (BRC), I have sought to develop new reproductive engineering techniques, especially those related to cryopreservation, microinsemination (sperm injection), nuclear transfer, and generation of new stem cell lines and animals, hoping that they will support the present and future projects at BRC...
October 19, 2016: Experimental Animals
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