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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448198/boronic-acids-as-tools-to-study-plant-developmental-processes
#1
Michaela Matthes, Ramón A Torres-Ruiz
Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for organisms. In plants, B is known to stabilise the cell wall by crosslinking Rhamnogalacturonan II through ester bonds formed with cis-diols of sugar moieties. However, B is believed to be required for additional functions such as stability and function of (plasma membrane) proteins involved in signal transduction pathways. We have recently shown that boronic acids, competitors of B, efficiently induce perfect phenocopies of monopteros mutants. This effect is enigmatic because like B, boronic acids should find numerous cellular targets and thus disturb many biological processes ending in a spectrum of unspecific embryo phenotypes...
April 27, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446520/obituary-tokindo-s-okada-1927-2017
#2
Hisato Kondoh, Harukazu Nakamura
Hisato Kondoh and Harukazu Nakamura look back at the life and career of their mentor Tokindo S. Okada, a pioneer of Japanese developmental biology.
April 26, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446146/flow-cytometry-sorting-of-nuclei-enables-the-first-global-characterization-of-paramecium-germline-dna-and-transposable-elements
#3
Frédéric Guérin, Olivier Arnaiz, Nicole Boggetto, Cyril Denby Wilkes, Eric Meyer, Linda Sperling, Sandra Duharcourt
BACKGROUND: DNA elimination is developmentally programmed in a wide variety of eukaryotes, including unicellular ciliates, and leads to the generation of distinct germline and somatic genomes. The ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia harbors two types of nuclei with different functions and genome structures. The transcriptionally inactive micronucleus contains the complete germline genome, while the somatic macronucleus contains a reduced genome streamlined for gene expression. During development of the somatic macronucleus, the germline genome undergoes massive and reproducible DNA elimination events...
April 26, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442393/progesterone-receptors-pr-mediate-stat-actions-pr-and-prolactin-receptor-signaling-crosstalk-in-breast-cancer-models
#4
Katherine A Leehy, Thu H Truong, Laura J Mauro, Carol A Lange
Estrogen is the major mitogenic stimulus of mammary gland development during puberty wherein ER signaling acts to induce abundant PR expression. PR signaling, in contrast, is the primary driver of mammary epithelial cell proliferation in adulthood. The high circulating levels of progesterone during pregnancy signal through PR, inducing expression of the prolactin receptor (PRLR). Cooperation between PR and prolactin (PRL) signaling, via regulation of downstream components in the PRL signaling pathway including JAKs and STATs, facilitates the alveolar morphogenesis observed during pregnancy...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442367/d-arcy-thompson-s-on-growth-and-form-from-soap-bubbles-to-tissue-self-organization
#5
REVIEW
Carl-Philipp Heisenberg
Tissues are thought to behave like fluids with a given surface tension. Differences in tissue surface tension (TST) have been proposed to trigger cell sorting and tissue envelopment. D'Arcy Thompson in his seminal book 'On Growth and Form' has introduced this concept of differential TST as a key physical mechanism dictating tissue formation and organization within the developing organism. Over the past century, many studies have picked up the concept of differential TST and analyzed the role and cell biological basis of TST in development, underlining the importance and influence of this concept in developmental biology...
April 22, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442243/abnormal-neural-precursor-cell-regulation-in-the-early-postnatal-fragile-x-mouse-hippocampus
#6
Mary Sourial, Laurie C Doering
The regulation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) is indispensable for a properly functioning brain. Abnormalities in NPC proliferation, differentiation, survival, or integration have been linked to various neurological diseases including Fragile X syndrome. Yet, no studies have examined NPCs from the early postnatal Fragile X mouse hippocampus despite the importance of this developmental time point, which marks the highest expression level of FMRP, the protein missing in Fragile X, in the rodent hippocampus and is when hippocampal NPCs have migrated to the dentate gyrus (DG) to give rise to lifelong neurogenesis...
April 22, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441779/glyoxalase-goes-green-the-expanding-roles-of-glyoxalase-in-plants
#7
REVIEW
Subramanian Sankaranarayanan, Muhammad Jamshed, Abhinandan Kumar, Logan Skori, Sabine Scandola, Tina Wang, David Spiegel, Marcus A Samuel
The ubiquitous glyoxalase enzymatic pathway is involved in the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MG), a cytotoxic byproduct of glycolysis. The glyoxalase system has been more extensively studied in animals versus plants. Plant glyoxalases have been primarily associated with stress responses and their overexpression is known to impart tolerance to various abiotic stresses. In plants, glyoxalases exist as multigene families, and new roles for glyoxalases in various developmental and signaling pathways have started to emerge...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441629/sex-matters-the-effects-of-biological-sex-on-adipose-tissue-biology-and-energy-metabolism
#8
REVIEW
Teresa G Valencak, Anne Osterrieder, Tim J Schulz
Adipose tissue is a complex and multi-faceted organ. It responds dynamically to internal and external stimuli, depending on the developmental stage and activity of the organism. The most common functional subunits of adipose tissue, white and brown adipocytes, regulate and respond to endocrine processes, which then determine metabolic rate as well as adipose tissue functions. While the molecular aspects of white and brown adipose biology have become clearer in the recent past, much less is known about sex-specific differences in regulation and deposition of adipose tissue, and the specific role of the so-called pink adipocytes during lactation in females...
April 13, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441168/a-review-of-caffeine-use-as-a-risk-or-protective-factor-for-women-s-health-and-pregnancy
#9
Amy Peacock, Richard P Mattick, Raimondo Bruno
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a narrative synthesis of recently published studies on caffeine use as a risk or protective factor for health outcomes, with a focus on women's health and pregnancy. RECENT FINDINGS: Based on predominantly observational studies, moderate caffeine intake has been shown to be a protective factor for liver cancer, certain bowel conditions, colorectal cancer, skin cancer, and regular menstrual cycle function. However, heavy consumption is a risk factor for osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, and poorer birth and child developmental outcomes...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440294/next-generation-dna-sequencing-identifies-novel-gene-variants-and-pathways-involved-in-specific-language-impairment
#10
Xiaowei Sylvia Chen, Rose H Reader, Alexander Hoischen, Joris A Veltman, Nuala H Simpson, Clyde Francks, Dianne F Newbury, Simon E Fisher
A significant proportion of children have unexplained problems acquiring proficient linguistic skills despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. Developmental language disorders are highly heritable with substantial societal impact. Molecular studies have begun to identify candidate loci, but much of the underlying genetic architecture remains undetermined. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 43 unrelated probands affected by severe specific language impairment, followed by independent validations with Sanger sequencing, and analyses of segregation patterns in parents and siblings, to shed new light on aetiology...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439089/transcriptome-analysis-on-the-exoskeleton-formation-in-early-developmetal-stages-and-reconstruction-scenario-in-growth-moulting-in-litopenaeus-vannamei
#11
Yi Gao, Jiankai Wei, Jianbo Yuan, Xiaojun Zhang, Fuhua Li, Jianhai Xiang
Exoskeleton construction is an important issue in shrimp. To better understand the molecular mechanism of exoskeleton formation, development and reconstruction, the transcriptome of the entire developmental process in Litopenaeus vannamei, including nine early developmental stages and eight adult-moulting stages, was sequenced and analysed using Illumina RNA-seq technology. A total of 117,539 unigenes were obtained, with 41.2% unigenes predicting the full-length coding sequence. Gene Ontology, Clusters of Orthologous Group (COG), the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis and functional annotation of all unigenes gave a better understanding of the exoskeleton developmental process in L...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438675/integrating-cell-biology-and-proteomic-approaches-in-plants
#12
Tomáš Takáč, Olga Šamajová, Jozef Šamaj
Significant improvements of protein extraction, separation, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics nurtured advancements of proteomics during the past years. The usefulness of proteomics in the investigation of biological problems can be enhanced by integration with other experimental methods from cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, pharmacology, molecular biology and other omics approaches including transcriptomics and metabolomics. This review aims to summarize current trends integrating cell biology and proteomics in plant science...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436587/coparenting-conflict-and-academic-readiness-in-children-of-teen-mothers-effortful-control-as-a-mediator
#13
Laudan B Jahromi, Katharine H Zeiders, Kimberly A Updegraff, Adriana J Umaña-Taylor, Sara Douglass Bayless
Children's exposure to coparenting conflict has important implications for their developmental functioning, yet limited work has focused on such processes in families with diverse structures or ethnically and culturally diverse backgrounds. This longitudinal study examined the processes by which Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' coparenting conflict with their 3-year-old children's grandmothers and biological fathers (N = 133 families) were linked to children's academic and social skills at 5 years of age, and whether children's effortful control at 4 years of age mediated the link between coparenting conflict and indices of children's academic readiness...
April 24, 2017: Family Process
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436127/tip110-deletion-impaired-embryonic-and-stem-cell-development-involving-down-regulation-of-stem-cell-factors-nanog-oct4-and-sox2
#14
Amanda Whitmill, Ying Liu, Khalid Amine Timani, Yinghua Niu, Johnny J He
HIV-1 Tat-interacting protein of 110 kDa, Tip110, plays important roles in multiple biological processes. In this study, we aimed to characterize the function of Tip110 in embryonic development. Transgenic mice lacking expression of a functional Tip110 gene (Tip110(-/-) ) died post-implantation, and Tip110(-/-) embryos exhibited developmental arrest between 8.5 and 9.5 days post coitum. However, in vitro cultures of Tip110(-/-) embryos showed that Tip110 loss did not impair embryo growth from the zygote to the blastocyst...
April 24, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434869/worms-on-the-spectrum-c-elegans-models-in-autism-research
#15
REVIEW
Kathrin Schmeisser, J Alex Parker
The small non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is widely used in neuroscience thanks to its well-understood development and lineage of the nervous system. Furthermore, C. elegans has been used to model many human developmental and neurological conditions to better understand disease mechanisms and identify potential therapeutic strategies. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the most prevalent of all neurodevelopmental disorders, and the C. elegans system may provide opportunities to learn more about this complex disorder...
April 20, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434006/unbiased-quantification-of-subplate-neuron-loss-following-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-in-a-rat-model
#16
Alexandra Mikhailova, Naveena Sunkara, Patrick S McQuillen
BACKGROUND: Cellular targets of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) include both oligodendrocyte and neuronal lineages with differences in the patterns of vulnerable cells depending upon the developmental stage at which the injury occurs. Injury to the developing white matter is a characteristic feature of human preterm brain injury. Data are accumulating, however, for neuronal injury in the developing cerebral cortex. In the most widely used rodent model of preterm HI brain injury, conflicting data have been reported regarding the sensitivity of subplate neurons to early neonatal HI, with some reports of selective vulnerability and others that find no increased loss of subplate neurons in comparison with other cortical layers...
April 22, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433937/perturbation-effect-of-reduced-graphene-oxide-quantum-dots-rgoqds-on-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-ahr-pathway-in-zebrafish
#17
Jing-Hui Zhang, Tai Sun, Aping Niu, Yu-Mei Tang, Shun Deng, Wei Luo, Qun Xu, Dapeng Wei, De-Sheng Pei
Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) has been widely used in enormous fields, however, the inherent molecular mechanism of GQDs for potential risks in biological system is still elusive to date. In this study, the outstanding reduced graphene quantum dots (rGOQDs) with the QY as high as 24.62% were successfully synthesized by the improved Hummers method and DMF hydrothermal treatment approach. The rGOQDs were N-doped photoluminescent nanomaterials with functional groups on the surface. The fluorescent bio-imaging was performed by exposing zebrafish in different concentrations of the as-prepared rGOQDs, and the distribution of rGOQDs was successfully observed...
April 15, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433654/high-molecular-weight-fgf2-isoforms-demonstrate-canonical-receptor-mediated-activity-and-support-human-embryonic-stem-cell-self-renewal
#18
Denis Kole, Alexandra Grella, David Dolivo, Lucia Shumaker, William Hermans, Tanja Dominko
Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) is a highly pleiotropic member of a large family of growth factors with a broad range of activities, including mitogenesis and angiogenesis (Ornitz et al., 1996; Zhang et al., 2006), and it is known to be essential for maintenance of balance between survival, proliferation, and self-renewal in human pluripotent stem cells (Eiselleova et al., 2009; Zoumaro-Djayoon et al., 2011). A single FGF2 transcript can be translated into five FGF2 protein isoforms, an 18kDa low molecular weight (LMW) isoform and four larger high molecular weight (HMW) isoforms (Arese et al...
April 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433458/linking-the-biological-underpinnings-of-depression-role-of-mitochondria-interactions-with-melatonin-inflammation-sirtuins-tryptophan-catabolites-dna-repair-and-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-with-consequences-for-classification-and-cognition
#19
REVIEW
George Anderson
The pathophysiological underpinnings of neuroprogressive processes in recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD) are reviewed. A wide array of biochemical processes underlie MDD presentations and their shift to a recurrent, neuroprogressive course, including: increased immune-inflammation, tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), mitochondrial dysfunction, aryl hydrocarbonn receptor activation, and oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), as well as decreased sirtuins and melatonergic pathway activity. These biochemical changes may have their roots in central, systemic and/or peripheral sites, including in the gut, as well as in developmental processes, such as prenatal stressors and breastfeeding consequences...
April 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433375/mosaicism-between-trophectoderm-and-inner-cell-mass
#20
REVIEW
Antonio Capalbo, Laura Rienzi
Defining the actual incidence and prevalence of mosaicism in human blastocysts still remains a difficult task. The small amount of evidence generated by animal and human studies does not support the existence of mechanisms involved in developmental arrest, clonal depletion, or aneuploidy rescue for abnormal cells in euploid/aneuploid embryos during preimplantation development. However, studies in humans are mainly descriptive and lack functional evidence. Understanding the biological mechanisms that beset preimplantation differentiation holds the potential to reveal the role of aneuploidies and gene dosage imbalances in cell fate decision, providing important clues on the origin and evolution of embryonic mosaicism...
April 19, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
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