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developmental biology

Irene Salamon, Gloria Saccani Jotti, Gianluigi Condorelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we summarize new knowledge on long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) linked to cardiovascular disease, in particular to heart failure. RECENT FINDINGS: LncRNAs are dysregulated in specific developmental and pathological conditions and regulate critical responses to stress. LncRNAs are being recognized as molecules regulating myocardial remodeling during disease, participating for instance in the regulation of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and function and fibroblast proliferation...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Christina D Cota
Ascidians are increasingly being used as a system for investigating cell biology during development. The extreme genetic and cellular simplicity of ascidian embryos in combination with superior experimental tractability make this an ideal system for in vivo analysis of dynamic cellular processes. Transgenic approaches to cellular and sub-cellular analysis of ascidian development have begun to yield new insights into the mechanisms regulating developmental signaling and morphogenesis. This chapter focuses on the targeted expression of fusion proteins in ascidian embryos and how this technique is being deployed to garner new insights into the cell biology of development...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Julie E Maguire, Aakarsha Pandey, Yushi Wu, Anna Di Gregorio
Ascidian embryos have been employed as model systems for studies of developmental biology for well over a century, owing to their desirable blend of experimental advantages, which include their rapid development, traceable cell lineage, and evolutionarily conserved morphogenetic movements. Two decades ago, the development of a streamlined electroporation method drastically reduced the time and cost of transgenic experiments, and, along with the elucidation of the complete genomic sequences of several ascidian species, propelled these simple chordates to the forefront of the model organisms available for studies of regulation of gene expression...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Gaku Kumano
Exogenous gene expression assays during development, including reporters under the control of 5' upstream enhancer regions of genes, constitute a powerful technique for understanding the mechanisms of tissue-specific gene expression regulation and determining the characteristics, behaviors, and functions of cells that express these genes. The simple marine chordate Halocynthia roretzi has been used for these transgenic analyses for a long time and is an excellent model system for such studies, especially in comparative analyses with other ascidians...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Sarah E Kohe, Christopher D Bennett, Simrandip K Gill, Martin Wilson, Carmel McConville, Andrew C Peet
The rare pediatric embryonal tumors retinoblastoma, medulloblastoma and neuroblastoma derive from neuroectodermal tissue and share similar histopathological features despite different anatomical locations and diverse clinical outcomes. As metabolism can reflect genetic and histological features, we investigated whether the metabolism of embryonal tumors reflects their similar histology, shared developmental and neural origins, or tumor location. We undertook metabolic profiling on 50 retinoblastoma, 39 medulloblastoma and 70 neuroblastoma using high resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS)...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Julian Cespedes-Guevara, Tuomas Eerola
Basic Emotion theory has had a tremendous influence on the affective sciences, including music psychology, where most researchers have assumed that music expressivity is constrained to a limited set of basic emotions. Several scholars suggested that these constrains to musical expressivity are explained by the existence of a shared acoustic code to the expression of emotions in music and speech prosody. In this article we advocate for a shift from this focus on basic emotions to a constructionist account. This approach proposes that the phenomenon of perception of emotions in music arises from the interaction of music's ability to express core affects and the influence of top-down and contextual information in the listener's mind...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Yanchen Tian, Min Fan, Zhaoxia Qin, Hongjun Lv, Minmin Wang, Zhe Zhang, Wenying Zhou, Na Zhao, Xiaohui Li, Chao Han, Zhaojun Ding, Wenfei Wang, Zhi-Yong Wang, Ming-Yi Bai
Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is an important signaling molecule in plant developmental processes and stress responses. However, whether H2 O2 -mediated signaling crosstalks with plant hormone signaling is largely unclear. Here, we show that H2 O2 induces the oxidation of the BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1) transcription factor, which functions as a master regulator of brassinosteroid (BR) signaling. Oxidative modification enhances BZR1 transcriptional activity by promoting its interaction with key regulators in the auxin-signaling and light-signaling pathways, including AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR6 (ARF6) and PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4)...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Richard S Marshall, Richard D Vierstra
Plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to recycle intracellular constituents, which are essential for developmental and metabolic transitions; for efficient nutrient reuse; and for the proper disposal of proteins, protein complexes, and even entire organelles that become obsolete or dysfunctional. One major route is autophagy, which employs specialized vesicles to encapsulate and deliver cytoplasmic material to the vacuole for breakdown. In the past decade, the mechanics of autophagy and the scores of components involved in autophagic vesicle assembly have been documented...
March 14, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Tiandong Che, Diyan Li, Long Jin, Yuhua Fu, Yingkai Liu, Pengliang Liu, Yixin Wang, Qianzi Tang, Jideng Ma, Xun Wang, Anan Jiang, Xuewei Li, Mingzhou Li
Genome-wide transcriptomic studies in humans and mice have become extensive and mature. However, a comprehensive and systematic understanding of protein-coding genes and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) expressed during pig spleen development has not been achieved. LncRNAs are known to participate in regulatory networks for an array of biological processes. Here, we constructed 18 RNA libraries from developing fetal pig spleen (55 days before birth), postnatal pig spleens (0, 30, 180 days and 2 years after birth), and the samples from the 2-year-old Wild Boar...
2018: PloS One
Jun Ding, James S Hagood, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Naftali Kaminski, Ziv Bar-Joseph
The Dynamic Regulatory Events Miner (DREM) software reconstructs dynamic regulatory networks by integrating static protein-DNA interaction data with time series gene expression data. In recent years, several additional types of high-throughput time series data have been profiled when studying biological processes including time series miRNA expression, proteomics, epigenomics and single cell RNA-Seq. Combining all available time series and static datasets in a unified model remains an important challenge and goal...
March 14, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Lucia Negri, Napoleone Ferrara
The mammalian prokineticins family comprises two conserved proteins, EG-VEGF/PROK1 and Bv8/PROK2, and their two highly related G protein-coupled receptors, PKR1 and PKR2. This signaling system has been linked to several important biological functions, including gastrointestinal tract motility, regulation of circadian rhythms, neurogenesis, angiogenesis and cancer progression, hematopoiesis, and nociception. Mutations in PKR2 or Bv8/PROK2 have been associated with Kallmann syndrome, a developmental disorder characterized by defective olfactory bulb neurogenesis, impaired development of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons, and infertility...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Josef Davidsson, Andreas Puschmann, Ulf Tedgård, David Bryder, Lars Nilsson, Jörg Cammenga
Germline mutations in the SAMD9 and SAMD9L genes, located in tandem on chromosome 7, are associated with a clinical spectrum of disorders including the MIRAGE syndrome, ataxia-pancytopenia syndrome and myelodysplasia and leukemia syndrome with monosomy 7 syndrome. Germline gain-of-function mutations increase SAMD9 or SAMD9L's normal antiproliferative effect. This causes pancytopenia and generally restricted growth and/or specific organ hypoplasia in non-hematopoietic tissues. In blood cells, additional somatic aberrations that reverse the germline mutation's effect, and give rise to the clonal expansion of cells with reduced or no antiproliferative effect of SAMD9 or SAMD9L include complete or partial chromosome 7 loss or loss-of-function mutations in SAMD9 or SAMD9L...
February 25, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Marek Marzec, Ahmad M Alqudah
The development and growth of plant organs is regulated by phytohormones, which constitute an important area of plant science. The last decade has seen a rapid increase in the unravelling of the pathways by which phytohormones exert their influence. Phytohormones function as signalling molecules that interact through a complex network to control development traits. They integrate metabolic and developmental events and regulate plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress factors. As such, they influence the yield and quality of crops...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Anamaria Balic
The tooth is an intricate composition of precisely patterned, mineralized matrices and soft tissues. Mineralized tissues include enamel (produced by the epithelial cells called ameloblasts), dentin and cementum (produced by mesenchymal cells called odontoblasts and cementoblasts, respectively), and soft tissues, which include the dental pulp and the periodontal ligament along with the invading nerves and blood vessels. It was perceived for a very long time that teeth primarily serve an esthetical function. In recent years, however, the role of healthy teeth, as well as the impact of oral health on general well-being, became more evident...
March 13, 2018: Gerontology
Chanchan Liu, Narayanan Srividya, Amber N Parrish, Wei Yue, Mingqiu Shan, Qinan Wu, B Markus Lange
Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briquet, commonly known as Japanese catnip, is used for the treatment of colds, headaches, fevers, and skin rashes in traditional Asian medicine (China, Japan and Korea). The volatile oil and its constituents have various demonstrated biological activities, but there is currently limited information regarding the site of biosynthesis. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated the presence of three distinct glandular trichome types which, based on their morphological features, are referred to as peltate, capitate and digitiform glandular trichomes...
March 10, 2018: Phytochemistry
Sonoko Kinjo, Masato Kiyomoto, Takashi Yamamoto, Kazuho Ikeo, Shunsuke Yaguchi
To understand the mystery of life, it is important to accumulate genomic information for various organisms because the whole genome encodes the commands for all the genes. Since the genome of Strongylocentrotus purpratus was sequenced in 2006 as the first sequenced genome in echinoderms, the genomic resources of other North American sea urchins have gradually been accumulated, but no sea urchin genomes are available in other areas, where many scientists have used the local species and reported important results...
March 13, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Jinjin Zhu, Alison Ordway, Lena Weber, Kasun Buddika, Justin P Kumar
How different cells and tissues commit and determine their fates has been a central question in developmental biology since the seminal embryological experiments conducted by Wilhelm Roux and Hans Driesch in sea urchins and frogs. Here, we demonstrate that Polycomb group (PcG) proteins maintain Drosophila eye specification by suppressing the activation of alternative fate choices. The loss of PcG in the developing eye results in a cellular reprogramming event in which the eye is redirected to a wing fate. This fate transformation occurs with either the individual loss of Pc or the simultaneous reduction of PhoRC and Pax6...
March 12, 2018: Development
L A Kirby, D Moraczewski, K Warnell, K Velnoskey, E Redcay
The ability to perceive others' actions and goals from human motion (i.e., biological motion perception) is a critical component of social perception and may be linked to the development of real-world social relationships. Adult research demonstrates two key nodes of the brain's biological motion perception system-amygdala and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS)-are linked to variability in social network properties. The relation between social perception and social network properties, however, has not yet been investigated in middle childhood-a time when individual differences in social experiences and social perception are growing...
March 6, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Ayelet Alpert, Lindsay S Moore, Tania Dubovik, Shai S Shen-Orr
Single-cell RNA sequencing and high-dimensional cytometry can be used to generate detailed trajectories of dynamic biological processes such as differentiation or development. Here we present cellAlign, a quantitative framework for comparing expression dynamics within and between single-cell trajectories. By applying cellAlign to mouse and human embryonic developmental trajectories, we systematically delineate differences in the temporal regulation of gene expression programs that would otherwise be masked.
March 12, 2018: Nature Methods
Katherine E Manning, Roger Tait, John Suckling, Anthony J Holland
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of genomic imprinting, presenting with a characteristic overeating disorder, mild to moderate intellectual disability, and a variable range of social and behavioral difficulties. Consequently, widespread alterations in neural structure and developmental and maturational trajectory would be expected. To date, there have been few quantitative and systematic studies of brain morphology in PWS, although alterations of volume and of cortical organisation have been reported...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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