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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937233/new-perspectives-in-the-model-of-stress-response
#1
I Tonhajzerova, M Mestanik
The reactions of human organism to changes of internal or external environment termed as stress response have been at the center of interest during recent decades. Several theories were designed to describe the regulatory mechanisms which maintain the stability of vital physiological functions under conditions of threat or other environmental challenges. However, most of the models of stress reactivity were focused on specific aspects of the regulatory outcomes - physiological (e.g. neuroendocrine), psychological or behavioral regulation...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937015/chronic-noise-exposure-in-the-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#2
Anne T M Konkle, Stephen E Keith, James P McNamee, David Michaud
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between the relative risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and long-term exposure to elevated levels of transportation noise. The contention is that this association is largely owing to an increase in stress-related biomarkers that are thought to be associated with CVD. Animal models have demonstrated that acute noise exposure is capable of triggering a stress response; however, similar studies using chronic noise models are less common...
September 2017: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936664/analysis-of-proteins-enriched-in-rice-gamete
#3
Takashi Okamoto
In angiosperms, female gamete differentiation, fertilization, and subsequent zygotic development occur in embryo sacs deeply embedded in the ovaries. Despite their importance in plant reproduction and development, how the egg cell is specialized, fuses with the sperm cell, and converts into an active zygote for early embryogenesis remains unclear. Proteins enriched in each cell type are thought to reflect the biological function of the cells, since the composition of cellular proteins generally differs depending on cell type...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935957/modulation-of-cyclic-nucleotide-mediated-cellular-signaling-and-gene-expression-using-photoactivated-adenylyl-cyclase-as-an-optogenetic-tool
#4
Meenakshi Tanwar, Lohit Khera, Nemneineng Haokip, Rajeev Kaul, Aruna Naorem, Suneel Kateriya
Cyclic nucleotide signaling pathway plays a significant role in various biological processes such as cell growth, transcription, inflammation, in microbial pathogenesis, etc. Modulation of cyclic nucleotide levels by optogenetic tools has overcome certain limitations of studying transduction cascade by pharmacological agents and has allowed several ways to modulate biological processes in a spatiotemporal manner. Here, we have shown the optogenetic modulation of the cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) gene expression and their downstream effector molecule (PGE2) in HEK-293T cells and the development process of Dictyostelium discoideum via modulating the cyclic nucleotide (cAMP) signaling pathway utilizing photoactivated adenylyl cyclases (PACs) as an optogenetic tool...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935341/conduct-problems-in-youth-and-the-rdoc-approach-a-developmental-evolutionary-based-view
#5
REVIEW
Peter Fonagy, Patrick Luyten
Problems related to aggression in young people are traditionally subsumed under the header of conduct problems, which include conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. Such problems in children and adolescents are an important societal and mental health problem. In this paper we present an evolutionarily informed developmental psychopathology view of conduct problems inspired by the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative. We assume that while there are many pathways to conduct problems, chronic or temporary impairments in the domain of social cognition or mentalizing are a common denominator...
September 8, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935103/profiling-of-sugar-nucleotides
#6
Martin Rejzek, Lionel Hill, Edward S Hems, Sakonwan Kuhaudomlarp, Ben A Wagstaff, Robert A Field
Sugar nucleotides are essential building blocks for the glycobiology of all living organisms. Detailed information on the types of sugar nucleotides present in a particular cell and how they change as a function of metabolic, developmental, or disease status is vital. The extraction, identification, and quantification of sugar nucleotides in a given sample present formidable challenges. In this chapter, currently used techniques for sugar nucleotide extraction from cells, separation from complex biological matrices, and detection by optical and mass spectrometry methods are discussed...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932250/evidences-of-the-low-implication-of-mosquitoes-in-the-transmission-of-mycobacterium-ulcerans-the-causative-agent-of-buruli-ulcer
#7
REVIEW
Rousseau Djouaka, Francis Zeukeng, Jude Daiga Bigoga, David N'golo Coulibaly, Genevieve Tchigossou, Romaric Akoton, Sylla Aboubacar, Sodjinin Jean-Eudes Tchebe, Clavella Nantcho Nguepdjo, Razack Adeoti, Innocent Djegbe, Manuele Tamo, Wilfred Fon Mbacham, Solange E Kakou-Ngazoa, Anthony Ablordey
BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU) continues to be a serious public health threat in wet tropical regions and the mode of transmission of its etiological agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), remains poorly understood. In this study, mosquito species collected in endemic villages in Benin were screened for the presence of MU. In addition, the ability of mosquitoes larvae to pick up MU from their environment and remain colonized through the larval developmental stages to the adult stage was investigated...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931493/homarus-gammarus-crustacea-decapoda-larvae-under-an-ocean-acidification-scenario-responses-across-different-levels-of-biological-organization
#8
Lénia D Rato, Sara C Novais, Marco F L Lemos, Luís M F Alves, Sérgio M Leandro
The present study evaluated the effects of exposure to different target pCO2 levels: control (C: 370μatm, pH = 8.15) and ocean acidification (OA: 710μatm, pH=7.85) on development and biochemical responses related with oxidative stress and energy metabolism during the crustacean Homarus gammarus (L.) larval development, integrating different levels of biological organization. After hatching in the laboratory, larvae from the same female brood were exposed to the described conditions from hatching until reaching Stage III (last larval stage - 11 days)...
September 17, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931159/isolation-and-molecular-characterization-of-the-transformer-gene-from-bactrocera-cucurbitae-diptera-tephritidae
#9
Ya Luo, Santao Zhao, Jiahui Li, Peizheng Li, Rihui Yan
transformer (tra) is a switch gene of sex determination in many insects, particularly in Dipterans. However, the sex determination pathway in Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), a very destructive pest on earth, remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, we have isolated and characterized one female-specific and two male-specific transcripts of the tra gene (Bcutra) of B. cucurbitae. The genomic structure of Bcutra has been determined and the presence of multiple conserved Transformer (TRA)/TRA-2 binding sites in Bcutra has been found...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931004/the-logic-of-the-floral-transition-reverse-engineering-the-switch-controlling-the-identity-of-lateral-organs
#10
Jean-Louis Dinh, Etienne Farcot, Charlie Hodgman
Much laboratory work has been carried out to determine the gene regulatory network (GRN) that results in plant cells becoming flowers instead of leaves. However, this also involves the spatial distribution of different cell types, and poses the question of whether alternative networks could produce the same set of observed results. This issue has been addressed here through a survey of the published intercellular distribution of expressed regulatory genes and techniques both developed and applied to Boolean network models...
September 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930980/immunostaining-for-dna-modifications-computational-analysis-of-confocal-images
#11
Ashley H Ramsawhook, Lara C Lewis, Maria Eleftheriou, Abdulkadir Abakir, Paulina Durczak, Robert Markus, Seema Rajani, Nicholas R F Hannan, Beth Coyle, Alexey Ruzov
For several decades, 5-methylcytosine (5mC) has been thought to be the only DNA modification with a functional significance in metazoans. The discovery of enzymatic oxidation of 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) as well as detection of N6-methyladenine (6mA) in the DNA of multicellular organisms provided additional degrees of complexity to the epigenetic research. According to a growing body of experimental evidence, these novel DNA modifications may play specific roles in different cellular and developmental processes...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930602/molecular-biology-of-tick-acetylcholinesterases
#12
Kevin Bruce Temeyer
Ticks vector many pathogens with major health and economic impacts and have developed resistance to most acaricides used for tick control. Organophosphate (OP) acaricides target acetylcholinesterase (AChE) critical to tick central nervous system function. Mutations producing tick AChEs resistant to OPs were characterized; but tick OP-resistance is not fully elucidated, due to remarkable complexity of tick cholinergic systems. Three paralogous tick AChEs exhibiting differences in primary structure and biochemical kinetics are encoded by amplified genes with developmentally regulated expression...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930553/fetal-nucleic-acids-in-maternal-plasma-from-biology-to-clinical-translation
#13
Neha Bunkar, Arpit Bhargava, Koel Chaudhury, Radhey Shyam Sharma, Nirmal Kumar Lohiya, Pradyumna Kumar Mishra
Exposure to environmental contaminants during the critical window of pregnancy results in deregulation of highly coordinated genetic and epigenetic mechanisms involved in prenatal growth. Such disturbances significantly alter the fetal programming, and lead to various developmental disorders immediately, over the lifetime, or transgenerationally. During the process of placental development, fetal nucleic acids enter maternal plasma as a result of necrotic, apoptotic, and inflammatory mechanisms. These nucleic acids reflect normal or abnormal ongoing cellular changes during prenatal fetal development...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929407/gibbs-free-energy-as-a-measure-of-complexity-correlates-with-time-within-c-elegans-embryonic-development
#14
Samuel H McGuire, Edward A Rietman, Hava Siegelmann, Jack A Tuszynski
We investigate free energy behavior in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans during embryonic development. Our approach utilizes publicly available gene expression data, which gives us a picture of developmental changes in protein concentration and, resultantly, chemical potential and free energy. Our results indicate a clear global relationship between Gibbs free energy and time spent in development and provide thermodynamic indicators of the large-scale biological events of cell division and differentiation...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928762/novel-protein-protein-inhibitor-based-approach-to-control-plant-ethylene-responses-synthetic-peptides-for-ripening-control
#15
Mareike Kessenbrock, Simone M Klein, Lena Müller, Mauricio Hunsche, Georg Noga, Georg Groth
Ethylene signaling is decisive for many plant developmental processes. Among these, control of senescence, abscission and fruit ripening are of fundamental relevance for global agriculture. Consequently, detailed knowledge of the signaling network along with the molecular processes of signal perception and transfer are expected to have high impact on future food production and agriculture. Recent advances in ethylene research have demonstrated that signaling of the plant hormone critically depends on the interaction of the ethylene receptor family with the NRAMP-like membrane protein ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 2 (EIN2) at the ER membrane, phosphorylation-dependent proteolytic processing of ER-localized EIN2 and subsequent translocation of the cleaved EIN2 C-terminal polypeptide (EIN2-CEND) to the nucleus...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928279/metabolism-in-time-and-space-exploring-the-frontier-of-developmental-biology
#16
REVIEW
Alena Krejci, Jason M Tennessen
Despite the fact that metabolic studies played a prominent role in the early history of developmental biology research, the field of developmental metabolism was largely ignored following the advent of modern molecular biology. Metabolism, however, has recently re-emerged as a focal point of biomedical studies and, as a result, developmental biologists are once again exploring the chemical and energetic forces that shape growth, development and maturation. In May 2017, a diverse group of scientists assembled at the EMBO/EMBL Symposium 'Metabolism in Time and Space' to discuss how metabolism influences cellular and developmental processes...
September 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927530/an-insight-into-the-genotoxicity-assessment-studies-in-dipterans
#17
REVIEW
Nidhi Mishra, Rashmi Srivastava, Uma Rani Agrawal, Raghav Ram Tewari
The dipterans have been widely utilized in genotoxicity assessment studies. Short life span, easy maintenance, production of large number of offspring in a single generation and the tissues with appropriate cell populations make these flies ideal for studies associated to developmental biology, diseases, genetics, genetic toxicology and stress biology in the group. Moreover, their cosmopolitan presence makes them suitable candidate for ecological bio-monitoring. An attempt has been made in the present review to reveal the significance of dipteran flies for assessing alterations in genetic content through various genotoxicity biomarkers and to summarize the gradual advancement in these studies...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924694/developmental-origins-of-biological-explanations-the-case-of-infants-internal-property-bias
#18
Hernando Taborda-Osorio, Erik W Cheries
People's explanations about the biological world are heavily biased toward internal, non-obvious properties. Adults and children as young as 5 years of age find internal properties more causally central than external features for explaining general biological processes and category membership. In this paper, we describe how this 'internal property bias' may be grounded in two different developmental precursors observed in studies with infants: (1) an early understanding of biological agency that is apparent in infants' reasoning about animals, and (2) the acquisition of kind-based representations that distinguish between essential and accidental properties, spanning from animals to artifacts...
September 18, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924499/genome-wide-identification-of-the-mads-box-transcription-factor-family-in-pear-pyrus-bretschneideri-reveals-evolution-and-functional-divergence
#19
Runze Wang, Meiling Ming, Jiaming Li, Dongqing Shi, Xin Qiao, Leiting Li, Shaoling Zhang, Jun Wu
MADS-box transcription factors play significant roles in plant developmental processes such as floral organ conformation, flowering time, and fruit development. Pear (Pyrus), as the third-most crucial temperate fruit crop, has been fully sequenced. However, there is limited information about the MADS family and its functional divergence in pear. In this study, a total of 95 MADS-box genes were identified in the pear genome, and classified into two types by phylogenetic analysis. Type I MADS-box genes were divided into three subfamilies and type II genes into 14 subfamilies...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924459/genetic-code-optimization-for-cotranslational-protein-folding-codon-directional-asymmetry-correlates-with-antiparallel-betasheets-trna-synthetase-classes
#20
Hervé Seligmann, Ganesh Warthi
A new codon property, codon directional asymmetry in nucleotide content (CDA), reveals a biologically meaningful genetic code dimension: palindromic codons (first and last nucleotides identical, codon structure XZX) are symmetric (CDA = 0), codons with structures ZXX/XXZ are 5'/3' asymmetric (CDA = - 1/1; CDA = - 0.5/0.5 if Z and X are both purines or both pyrimidines, assigning negative/positive (-/+) signs is an arbitrary convention). Negative/positive CDAs associate with (a) Fujimoto's tetrahedral codon stereo-table; (b) tRNA synthetase class I/II (aminoacylate the 2'/3' hydroxyl group of the tRNA's last ribose, respectively); and (c) high/low antiparallel (not parallel) betasheet conformation parameters...
2017: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
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