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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777730/understanding-facial-expressivity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-inside-out-review-of-the-biological-basis-and-clinical-implications
#1
REVIEW
Stephen I Deutsch, C Teal Raffaele
Deficits in decoding and understanding facially expressed emotions occur commonly in persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which contribute to the impairment of social communication that serves as one of its core diagnostic criteria. Research suggests that abnormalities of visual scanning of the face, activation of key nodes within the "social brain" by facially expressed emotions, functional connectivity within and between nodes of the "social brain", and transduction of specific neurotransmitter/neuromodulatory signals contribute to the pathogenesis of these deficits in at least some persons with ASD...
May 16, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777716/probability-of-viral-labeling-of-neural-stem-cells-in-vivo
#2
Gregory W Kirschen, Shaoyu Ge, Il Memming Park
In the neuroscience field over the past several decades, viral vectors have become powerful gene delivery systems to study neural populations of interest. For neural stem cell (NSC) biology, such viruses are often used to birth-date and track NSCs over developmental time in lineage tracing experiments. Yet, the probability of successful infection of a given stem cell in vivo remains unknown. This information would be helpful to inform investigators interested in titrating their viruses to selectively target sparsely-populated clusters of cells in the nervous system...
May 16, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776969/identifying-genetic-players-in-cell-sheet-morphogenesis-using-a-drosophila-deficiency-screen-for-genes-on-chromosome-2r-involved-in-dorsal-closure
#3
Richard D Mortensen, Regan P Moore, Stephanie M Fogerson, Hellen Y Chiou, Chimdindu V Obinero, Neel K Prabhu, Angela H Wei, Janice M Crawford, Daniel P Kiehart
Cell sheet morphogenesis characterizes key developmental transitions and homeostasis, in vertebrates and throughout phylogeny, including gastrulation, neural tube formation and wound healing. Dorsal closure, a process during Drosophila embryogenesis, has emerged as a model for cell sheet morphogenesis. ∼140 genes are currently known to affect dorsal closure and new genes are identified each year. Many of these genes were identified in screens that resulted in arrested development. Dorsal closure is remarkably robust and many questions regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in this complex biological process remain...
May 18, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776965/developmentally-inspired-human-organs-on-chips
#4
Donald E Ingber
Although initially developed to replace animal testing in drug development, human 'organ on a chip' (organ chip) microfluidic culture technology offers a new tool for studying tissue development and pathophysiology, which has brought us one step closer to carrying out human experimentation in vitro In this Spotlight article, I discuss the central role that developmental biology played in the early stages of organ-chip technology, and how these models have led to new insights into human physiology and disease mechanisms...
May 18, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776592/response-to-metals-treatment-of-fra1-a-member-of-the-ap-1-transcription-factor-family-in-p-lividus-sea-urchin-embryos
#5
Roberta Russo, Rosa Bonaventura, Marco Chiaramonte, Caterina Costa, Valeria Matranga, Francesca Zito
Lithium (Li), Nickel (Ni), and Zinc (Zn) are metals normally present in the seawater, although they can have adverse effects on the marine ecosystem at high concentrations by interfering with many biological processes. These metals are toxic for sea urchin embryos, affecting their morphology and developmental pathways. In particular, they perturb differently the correct organization of the embryonic axes (animal-vegetal, dorso-ventral): Li is a vegetalizing agent and Ni disrupts the dorso-ventral axis, while Zn has an animalizing effect...
May 5, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776339/differential-gene-transcription-across-the-life-cycle-in-daphnia-magna-using-a-new-all-genome-custom-made-microarray
#6
Bruno Campos, Danielle Fletcher, Benjamín Piña, Romà Tauler, Carlos Barata
BACKGROUND: Unravelling the link between genes and environment across the life cycle is a challenging goal that requires model organisms with well-characterized life-cycles, ecological interactions in nature, tractability in the laboratory, and available genomic tools. Very few well-studied invertebrate model species meet these requirements, being the waterflea Daphnia magna one of them. Here we report a full genome transcription profiling of D. magna during its life-cycle. The study was performed using a new microarray platform designed from the complete set of gene models representing the whole transcribed genome of D...
May 18, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776334/swi-snf-regulates-half-of-its-targets-without-the-need-of-atp-driven-nucleosome-remodeling-by-brahma
#7
Antonio Jordán-Pla, Simei Yu, Johan Waldholm, Thomas Källman, Ann-Kristin Östlund Farrants, Neus Visa
BACKGROUND: Brahma (BRM) is the only catalytic subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex of Drosophila melanogaster. The function of SWI/SNF in transcription has long been attributed to its ability to remodel nucleosomes, which requires the ATPase activity of BRM. However, recent studies have provided evidence for a non-catalytic function of BRM in the transcriptional regulation of a few specific genes. RESULTS: Here we have used RNA-seq and ChIP-seq to identify the BRM target genes in S2 cells, and we have used a catalytically inactive BRM mutant (K804R) that is unable to hydrolyze ATP to investigate the magnitude of the non-catalytic function of BRM in transcription regulation...
May 18, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776156/realizations-of-highly-heterogeneous-collagen-networks-via-stochastic-reconstruction-for-micromechanical-analysis-of-tumor-cell-invasion
#8
Hanqing Nan, Long Liang, Guo Chen, Liyu Liu, Ruchuan Liu, Yang Jiao
Three-dimensional (3D) collective cell migration in a collagen-based extracellular matrix (ECM) is among one of the most significant topics in developmental biology, cancer progression, tissue regeneration, and immune response. Recent studies have suggested that collagen-fiber mediated force transmission in cellularized ECM plays an important role in stress homeostasis and regulation of collective cellular behaviors. Motivated by the recent in vitro observation that oriented collagen can significantly enhance the penetration of migrating breast cancer cells into dense Matrigel which mimics the intravasation process in vivo [Han et al...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775754/effects-of-micrornas-on-skeletal-muscle-development
#9
REVIEW
J Wang, L Z Yang, J S Zhang, J X Gong, Y H Wang, C L Zhang, H Chen, X T Fang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (about 22 nucleotides) noncoding RNAs, which were highly conserved among mammals. They have ushered in a new era in molecular biology over twenty years. They can negatively regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level through the principle of complementary base pairing with the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of their target mRNAs and induce their degradation. They involve in tissue morphogenesis, cellular processes like apoptosis, and major signaling pathways. Previous studies have promoted our understanding that miRNAs play an important role in myogenesis and have a big impact on muscle mass, muscle fiber type and muscle diseases...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775459/on-the-role-of-sparseness-in-the-evolution-of-modularity-in-gene-regulatory-networks
#10
Carlos Espinosa-Soto
Modularity is a widespread property in biological systems. It implies that interactions occur mainly within groups of system elements. A modular arrangement facilitates adjustment of one module without perturbing the rest of the system. Therefore, modularity of developmental mechanisms is a major factor for evolvability, the potential to produce beneficial variation from random genetic change. Understanding how modularity evolves in gene regulatory networks, that create the distinct gene activity patterns that characterize different parts of an organism, is key to developmental and evolutionary biology...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775245/subunits-of-the-dna-polymerase-alpha-primase-complex-promote-notch-mediated-proliferation-with-discrete-and-shared-functions-in-c-elegans-germline
#11
Dong Suk Yoon, Dong Seok Cha, Mohammad A Alfhili, Brett D Keiper, Myon-Hee Lee
Notch receptor signaling is a highly conserved cell communication system in most multicellular organisms and plays a critical role at several junctures in animal development. In C. elegans, GLP-1/Notch signaling is essential for both germline stem cell maintenance and germ cell proliferation during gonad development. Here, we show that subunits (POLA-1, DIV-1, PRI-1, and PRI-2) of the DNA polymerase alpha-primase complex are required for germ cell proliferation in response to GLP-1/Notch signaling in different tissues at different developmental stages...
May 18, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774131/methylation-of-dna-and-chromatin-as-a-mechanism-of-oncogenesis-and-therapeutic-target-in-neuroblastoma
#12
REVIEW
Ram Mohan Ram Kumar, Nina Felice Schor
Neuroblastoma (NB), a developmental cancer, is often fatal, emphasizing the need to understand its pathogenesis and identify new therapeutic targets. The heterogeneous pathological and clinical phenotype of NB underscores the cryptic biological and genetic features of this tumor that result in outcomes ranging from rapid progression to spontaneous regression. Despite recent genome-wide mutation analyses, most primary NBs do not harbor driver mutations, implicating epigenetically-mediated gene regulatory mechanisms in the initiation and maintenance of NB...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773552/a-temperature-adjusted-developmental-timer-for-precise-embryonic-staging
#13
Konner Winkley, Michael Veeman
Developmental biology research depends on careful staging of developing embryos, but the rate of development is extremely sensitive to the temperature at which embryos are raised. It is not always practical to grow embryos at a precisely controlled temperature, so here we describe a simple, inexpensive device based on an Arduino-compatible microprocessor and temperature sensor that provides a metric of developmental time that is compensated for changes in temperature. The underlying assumption is that the rate of development will be linear with respect to temperature over an organism's thermal tolerance range...
May 17, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773518/developmental-trajectories-of-brain-maturation-and-behavior-relevance-to-major-mental-illnesses
#14
REVIEW
Sedona Lockhart, Akira Sawa, Minae Niwa
Adverse events in childhood and adolescence, such as social neglect or drug abuse, are known to lead to behavioral changes in young adulthood. This is particularly true for the subset of people who are intrinsically more vulnerable to stressful conditions. Yet the underlying mechanisms for such developmental trajectory from early life insult to aberrant adult behavior remains elusive. Adolescence is a period of dynamic physiological, psychological, and behavioral changes, encompassing a distinct neurodevelopmental stage called the 'critical period'...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772090/lcm-seq-reveals-the-crucial-role-of-lssoc1-in-heat-promoted-bolting-of-lettuce-lactuca-sativa-l
#15
Zijing Chen, Wensheng Zhao, Danfeng Ge, Yingyan Han, Kang Ning, Chen Luo, Shenglin Wang, Renyi Liu, Xiaolan Zhang, Qian Wang
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most economically important vegetables. The floral transition in lettuce is accelerated under high temperatures, which can significantly decrease yields. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the floral tranition in lettuce is poorly known. Using laser capture microdissection coupled with RNA sequencing, we isolated shoot apical meristem cells from the bolting-sensitive lettuce line S39 at four critical stages of development. Subsequently, we screened specifically for the flowering-related gene LsSOC1 during the floral transition through comparative transcriptomic analysis...
May 17, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769793/a-marker-of-biological-ageing-predicts-adult-risk-preference-in-european-starlings-sturnus-vulgaris
#16
Clare Andrews, Daniel Nettle, Sophie Reichert, Tom Bedford, Pat Monaghan, Melissa Bateson
Why are some individuals more prone to gamble than others? Animals often show preferences between 2 foraging options with the same mean reward but different degrees of variability in the reward, and such risk preferences vary between individuals. Previous attempts to explain variation in risk preference have focused on energy budgets, but with limited empirical support. Here, we consider whether biological ageing, which affects mortality and residual reproductive value, predicts risk preference. We studied a cohort of European starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris ) in which we had previously measured developmental erythrocyte telomere attrition, an established integrative biomarker of biological ageing...
May 2018: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769218/simulation-of-melanoblast-displacements-reveals-new-features-of-developmental-migration
#17
Pascal Laurent, Valérie Petit, Zackie Aktary, Stuart Gallagher, Luke Tweedy, Laura Machesky, Lionel Larue
To distribute and establish the melanocyte lineage throughout the skin and other developing organs, melanoblasts undergo several rounds of proliferation, accompanied by migration through complex environments and differentiation. Melanoblast migration requires interaction with extracellular matrix of the epidermal basement membrane and with surrounding keratinocytes in the developing skin. Migration has been characterized by measuring speed, trajectory and directionality of movement, but there are many unanswered questions about what motivates and defines melanoblast migration...
May 16, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768072/an-integrated-developmental-four-year-medical-school-curriculum-in-palliative-care-a-longitudinal-content-evaluation-based-on-national-competency-standards
#18
Erin M Denney-Koelsch, Robert Horowitz, Timothy Quill, Constance D Baldwin
BACKGROUND: While palliative care (PC) competencies for medical school graduates have been defined, the lack of established curriculum models and assessment tools hampers curricular evaluation. OBJECTIVE: To describe the scope and content of the University of Rochester's longitudinal, integrated four-year PC curriculum after 17 years of implementation, review student evaluative responses, and compare the curriculum to national competency standards. DESIGN AND SETTING: Combining and reorganizing a published PC curriculum assessment tool and a list of medical school PC competencies, we created a novel nine-topic framework to assess the content coverage of our curriculum...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767731/development-and-reproduction-of-neoseiulus-californicus-acari-phytoseiidae-and-tetranychus-urticae-acari-tetranychidae-under-simulated-natural-temperature
#19
Noureldin Abuelfadl Ghazy, Takeshi Suzuki, Hiroshi Amano
Although laboratory observations provide basic knowledge of the development and reproduction of predacious and phytophagous mites, little is known of their behavior under natural conditions. Using a closed system designed to simulate natural climate patterns, we investigated the development and reproduction of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and the pest mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) at air temperatures typical of June to October at three latitudes (Aomori, Tottori, and Naha) in Japan...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765696/behavioural-divergence-during-biological-invasions-a-study-of-cane-toads-rhinella-marina-from-contrasting-environments-in-hawai-i
#20
Jodie Gruber, Gregory Brown, Martin J Whiting, Richard Shine
Invasive species must deal with novel challenges, both from the alien environment and from pressures arising from range expansion per se (e.g. spatial sorting). Those conditions can create geographical variation in behaviour across the invaded range, as has been documented across regions of Australia invaded by cane toads; range-edge toads are more exploratory and willing to take risks than are conspecifics from the range-core. That behavioural divergence might be a response to range expansion and invasion per se , or to the different environments encountered...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
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