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developmental biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230786/sex-specificity-of-mineralocorticoid-target-gene-expression-during-renal-development-and-long-term-consequences
#1
Laurence Dumeige, Caroline Storey, Lyvianne Decourtye, Melanie Nehlich, Christophe Lhadj, Say Viengchareun, Laurent Kappeler, Marc Lombès, Laetitia Martinerie
Sex differences have been identified in various biological processes, including hypertension. The mineralocorticoid signaling pathway is an important contributor to early arterial hypertension, however its sex-specific expression has been scarcely studied, particularly with respect to the kidney. Basal systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) were measured in adult male and female mice. Renal gene expression studies of major players of mineralocorticoid signaling were performed at different developmental stages in male and female mice using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), and were compared to those of the same genes in the lung, another mineralocorticoid epithelial target tissue that regulates ion exchange and electrolyte balance...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228513/shape-matters-animal-colour-patterns-as-signals-of-individual-quality
#2
REVIEW
Lorenzo Pérez-Rodríguez, Roger Jovani, Martin Stevens
Colour patterns (e.g. irregular, spotted or barred forms) are widespread in the animal kingdom, yet their potential role as signals of quality has been mostly neglected. However, a review of the published literature reveals that pattern itself (irrespective of its size or colour intensity) is a promising signal of individual quality across species of many different taxa. We propose at least four main pathways whereby patterns may reliably reflect individual quality: (i) as conventional signals of status, (ii) as indices of developmental homeostasis, (iii) by amplifying cues of somatic integrity and (iv) by amplifying individual investment in maintenance activities...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224202/germline-specific-dgcr8-knockout-in-zebrafish-using-a-back-approach
#3
Yun Liu, Zeyao Zhu, Idy H T Ho, Yujian Shi, Yuxin Xie, Jianzhen Li, Yong Zhang, Matthew T V Chan, Christopher H K Cheng
Zebrafish is an important model to study developmental biology and human diseases. However, an effective approach to achieve spatial and temporal gene knockout in zebrafish has not been well established. In this study, we have developed a new approach, namely bacterial artificial chromosome-rescue-based knockout (BACK), to achieve conditional gene knockout in zebrafish using the Cre/loxP system. We have successfully deleted the DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8 (dgcr8) in zebrafish germ line and demonstrated that the maternal-zygotic dgcr8 (MZdgcr8) embryos exhibit MZdicer-like phenotypes with morphological defects which could be rescued by miR-430, indicating that canonical microRNAs play critical role in early development...
February 21, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222982/ecotoxicological-assessment-of-cobalt-using-hydra-model-ros-oxidative-stress-dna-damage-cell-cycle-arrest-and-apoptosis-as-mechanisms-of-toxicity
#4
Mohammed Zeeshan, Anbazhagan Murugadas, Surendra Ghaskadbi, Babu Rajendran Ramaswamy, Mohammad Abdulkader Akbarsha
The mechanisms underlying cobalt toxicity in aquatic species in general and cnidarians in particular remain poorly understood. Herein we investigated cobalt toxicity in a Hydra model from morphological, histological, developmental, and molecular biological perspectives. Hydra, exposed to cobalt (0-60 mg/L), were altered in morphology, histology, and regeneration. Exposure to standardized sublethal doses of cobalt impaired feeding by affecting nematocytes, which in turn affected reproduction. At the cellular level, excessive ROS generation, as the principal mechanism of action, primarily occurred in the lysosomes, which was accompanied by the upregulation of expression of the antioxidant genes SOD, GST, GPx, and G6PD...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221088/the-menstrual-cycle-response-and-developmental-affective-risk-model-a-multilevel-and-integrative-model-of-influence
#5
Jeff Kiesner
An integrative developmental model is presented in which menstrual cycle-related symptoms are hypothesized to result in a cascade of developmental challenges that contribute to increased affective symptoms among adolescent girls, and to long-term developmental sequelae. To provide the basis for this model a broad foundation is developed considering (a) psychological symptoms and disorders associated with reproductive events across the life span, and (b) the many and complicated effects that female reproductive steroids (estrogen & progesterone) have which trigger a variety of physical and psychological changes that are commonly associated with the menstrual cycle...
March 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221043/radiolabeled-111-in-fgf-2-is-suitable-for-in-vitro-ex-vivo-evaluations-and-in-vivo-imaging
#6
Alessandra Moscaroli, Gabriel Jones, Tessa Lühmann, Lorenz Meinel, Stephanie Wälti, Alain Blanc, Eliane Fischer, Manuel Hilbert, Roger Schibli, Martin Béhé
Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is a potent modulator of cell growth and regulation, with improper FGF-2 signaling being involved in impaired responses to injury or even cancer. Therefore, the exploitation of FGF-2 as a therapeutic drives the prerequisite for effective insight into drug disposition kinetics. In this article, we present an (111)In-radiolabeled FGF-2 derivative for noninvasive imaging in small animals deploying single photon emission tomography (SPECT). (111)In-FGF-2 is equally well suitable for in vitro and ex vivo investigations as (125)I-FGF-2...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221003/trends-in-high-throughput-and-functional-neuroimaging-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
REVIEW
Yongmin Cho, Charles L Zhao, Hang Lu
The nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model system for understanding the development and function of larger, more complex nervous systems. It is prized for its ease of handling, rapid life cycle, and stereotyped, well-cataloged development, with the development of all 302 neurons mapped all the way from zygote to adult. The combination of easy genetic manipulation and optical transparency of the worm allows for the direct imaging of its interior with fluorescent microscopy, without physically compromising the normal physiology of the animal itself...
February 21, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220995/development-of-hydrogels-for-regenerative-engineering
#8
REVIEW
Xiaofei Guan, Meltem Avci-Adali, Emine Alarçin, Hao Cheng, Sara Saheb Kashaf, Yuxiao Li, Aditya Chawla, Hae Lin Jang, Ali Khademhosseini
The aim of regenerative engineering is to restore complex tissues and biological systems through convergence in the fields of advanced biomaterials, stem cell science, and developmental biology. Hydrogels are one of the most attractive biomaterials for regenerative engineering, since they can be engineered into tissue mimetic 3D scaffolds to support cell growth due to their similarity to native extracellular matrix. Advanced nano- and micro-technologies have dramatically increased the ability to control properties and functionalities of hydrogel materials by facilitating biomimetic fabrication of more sophisticated compositions and architectures, thus extending our understanding of cell-matrix interactions at the nanoscale...
February 21, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220611/non-coding-rnas-emerging-regulatory-factors-in-the-derivation-and-differentiation-of-mammalian-parthenogenetic-embryonic-stem-cells
#9
REVIEW
Jihong Cui, Xin Xie
Parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (PESCs) are ESCs derived from early parthenogenetic embryos. Haploid PESCs, containing haploid DNA, originate from a single sperm or occyte, while, diploid PESCs originate from two fused occytes. Most PESC lines used so far are diploid. PESCs exhibit representative pluripotent stem cell features, such as the capacity for self-renewal and the pariticular molecular signatures. Whereas, PESCs display distinctive properties, such as differential regulation of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) and divergent monitor of genes involved in multiple biological processes...
February 21, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220606/lamarck-rises-from-his-grave-parental-environment-induced-epigenetic-inheritance-in-model-organisms-and-humans
#10
Yan Wang, Huijie Liu, Zhongsheng Sun
Organisms can change their physiological/behavioural traits to adapt and survive in changed environments. However, whether these acquired traits can be inherited across generations through non-genetic alterations has been a topic of debate for over a century. Emerging evidence indicates that both ancestral and parental experiences, including nutrition, environmental toxins, nurturing behaviour, and social stress, can have powerful effects on the physiological, metabolic and cellular functions in an organism...
February 20, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220490/biological-embedding-of-perinatal-social-relationships-in-infant-stress-reactivity
#11
Jenna C Thomas, Nicole Letourneau, Crystal I Bryce, Tavis S Campbell, Gerald F Giesbrecht
Whereas significant advances have been made in understanding how exposure to early adversity "gets under the skin" of children to result in long term changes in developmental outcomes, the processes by which positive social relationships become biologically embedded remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to understand the pathways by which maternal and infant social environments become biologically embedded in infant cortisol reactivity. Two hundred seventy-two pregnant women and their infants were prospectively assessed during pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum...
February 21, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219108/relative-age-maturation-and-physical-biases-on-position-allocation-in-elite-youth-soccer
#12
Chris Towlson, Stephen Cobley, Adrian Wayne Midgley, Andrew Garrett, Guy Parkin, Ric Lovell
This study assessed the contribution of relative age, anthropometry, maturation, and physical fitness characteristics on soccer playing position (goalkeeper [GK], central-defender [CD], lateral-defender [LD], central-midfield [CM], lateral-midfielder [LM], and forward [FWD]) for 465 elite-youth players (U13-U18's). U13-14 CD were relatively older than LD and CM (likely small effects). CD and GK were generally taller and heavier (likely small to very-likely moderate effects) than other players at each developmental stage and were advanced maturers at U13-14 (very-likely small to likely moderate effects)...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216171/toward-a-unified-theory-of-childhood-trauma-and-psychosis-a-comprehensive-review-of-epidemiological-clinical-neuropsychological-and-biological-findings
#13
REVIEW
Błażej Misiak, Maja Krefft, Tomasz Bielawski, Ahmed A Moustafa, Maria M Sąsiadek, Dorota Frydecka
There is a growing body of research focused on the relationship between childhood trauma and the risk of developing psychosis. Numerous studies, including many large-scale population-based studies controlling for possible mediating variables, provide persuasive evidence of a dose-response association and are indicative of a causal relationship. Existing evidence supports the specificity model, showing differential associations between particular adversities and clinical symptoms, with cumulative adversity causing less favorable clinical and functional outcomes in psychotic patients...
February 16, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215692/developing-a-puncture-free-in-ovo-chicken-transfection-strategy-based-on-bypassing-albumen-nucleases
#14
Hamid-Reza Amini, Abbas Pakdel, Hossein Moradi Shahr-Babak, Shahin Eghbalsaied
Chicken is a dual-purpose animal important from both agricultural and medical aspects. Even though significant improvements have been made in chicken transgenesis technologies, chicken genome manipulation has not been widely used in developmental biology. This study was aimed to evaluate chicken egg white nuclease properties and thereof plausibility of devising an in vivo transfection technology without causing physical damage to the embryo. First, the nuclease activity of egg albumen was assessed. The egg white nucleases were strongly active in degrading DNA and RNA...
March 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215355/differential-dna-methylation-may-contribute-to-temporal-and-spatial-regulation-of-gene-expression-and-the-development-of-mycelia-and-conidia-in-entomopathogenic-fungus-metarhizium-robertsii
#15
Wanzhen Li, Yulong Wang, Jianyu Zhu, Zhangxun Wang, Guiliang Tang, Bo Huang
Conidia and mycelia are two important developmental stages in the asexual life cycle of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium. Despite the crucial role that DNA methylation plays in many biological processes, its role in regulation of gene expression and development in fungi is not yet fully understood. We performed genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation patterns of an M. robertsii strain with single base pair resolution. Specifically, we examined for changes in methylation patterns between the conidia and mycelia stages...
March 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214944/the-vascular-plants-open-system-of-growth
#16
REVIEW
Alice Basile, Marco Fambrini, Claudio Pugliesi
What is fascinating in plants (true also in sessile animals such as corals and hydroids) is definitely their open and indeterminate growth, as a result of meristematic activity. Plants as well as animals are characterized by a multicellular organization, with which they share a common set of genes inherited from a common eukaryotic ancestor; nevertheless, circa 1.5 billion years of evolutionary history made the two kingdoms very different in their own developmental biology. Flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, arose during the Cretaceous Period (145-65 million years ago), and up to date, they count around 235,000 species, representing the largest and most diverse group within the plant kingdom...
February 18, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214667/effects-of-prior-testing-lasting-a-full-year-in-ncanda-adolescents-contributions-from-age-sex-socioeconomic-status-ethnicity-site-family-history-of-alcohol-or-drug-abuse-and-baseline-performance
#17
Edith V Sullivan, Ty Brumback, Susan F Tapert, Devin Prouty, Rosemary Fama, Wesley K Thompson, Sandra A Brown, Kevin Cummins, Ian M Colrain, Fiona C Baker, Duncan B Clark, Tammy Chung, Michael D De Bellis, Stephen R Hooper, Bonnie J Nagel, B Nolan Nichols, Weiwei Chu, Dongjin Kwon, Kilian M Pohl, Adolf Pfefferbaum
Longitudinal study provides a robust method for tracking developmental trajectories. Yet inherent problems of retesting pose challenges in distinguishing biological developmental change from prior testing experience. We examined factors potentially influencing change scores on 16 neuropsychological test composites over 1year in 568 adolescents in the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) project. The twice-minus-once-tested method revealed that performance gain was mainly attributable to testing experience (practice) with little contribution from predicted developmental effects...
January 24, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213850/gamma-hydroxybutyrate-ghb-content-in-hair-samples-correlates-negatively-with-age-in-succinic-semialdehyde-dehydrogenase-deficiency
#18
S S Johansen, X Wang, D Sejer Pedersen, P L Pearl, J-B Roullet, G R Ainslie, K R Vogel, K M Gibson
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse, an approved therapeutic for narcolepsy, an agent employed for facilitation of sexual assault, as well as a biomarker of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD). Our laboratory seeks to identify surrogate biomarkers in SSADHD that can shed light on the developmental course of this neurometabolic disease. Since GHB may be quantified in hair as a potential surrogate to identify victims of drug-related assault, we have opted to examine its level in SSADHD...
February 18, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212892/atf2-a-paradigm-of-the-multifaceted-regulation-of-transcription-factors-in-biology-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
Gregory Watson, Ze'ev Ronai, Eric Lau
Stringent transcriptional regulation is crucial for normal cellular biology and organismal development. Perturbations in the proper regulation of transcription factors can result in numerous pathologies, including cancer. Thus, understanding how transcription factors are regulated and how they are dysregulated in disease states is key to the therapeutic targeting of these factors and/or the pathways that they regulate. Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) has been studied in a number of developmental and pathological conditions...
February 14, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212800/vascular-cells-in-blood-vessel-wall-development-and-disease
#20
R Mazurek, J M Dave, R R Chandran, A Misra, A Q Sheikh, D M Greif
The vessel wall is composed of distinct cellular layers, yet communication among individual cells within and between layers results in a dynamic and versatile structure. The morphogenesis of the normal vascular wall involves a highly regulated process of cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. The use of modern developmental biological and genetic approaches has markedly enriched our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying these developmental events. Additionally, the application of similar approaches to study diverse vascular diseases has resulted in paradigm-shifting insights into pathogenesis...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
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