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chromosomal anomalies in human development

Manish Kumar, Umesh Chandra Prasad, Betina Chandolia, S M Manjunath, Shiva Basu, Silvie Verma
INTRODUCTION: Malignant transformation of the Potentially Malignant Lesions (PML) in the oral cavity is associated with elevated mortality rate because of its aggressive and exceedingly invasive nature. Meticulous diagnosis and prompt therapy of PML may help prevent malignant conversion in oral lesions. Carcinogenic insult to oral cells results in chromosomal damage and formation of Micronuclei (Mn), before the development of clinical symptoms. AIM: To determine the genotoxic effect of smoking and chewing tobacco on target tissue using Mn assay and to evaluate the prevalence of other nuclear anomalies associated with it and to determine the reliability of feulgen stain for Mn assay over Papaincolau (PAP) stain...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Sunil Kumar Polipalli, Vijay Kumar Karra, Ankur Jindal, Madhavi Puppala, Pratiksha Singh, Kanchan Rawat, Seema Kapoor
INTRODUCTION: Chromosomal abnormalities are the results of alterations in the number or structure of chromosomes causing significant human morbidity and mortality. They are responsible for a large proportion of miscarriages, developmental delay, disorders of sexual development, congenital malformations and mental retardation. AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of different chromosomal abnormalities in North Indian patients referred for cytogenetic analysis...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Daryl A Scott, Andres Hernandez-Garcia, Mahshid S Azamian, Valerie K Jordan, Bum Jun Kim, Molly Starkovich, Jinglan Zhang, Lee-Jun Wong, Sandra A Darilek, Amy M Breman, Yaping Yang, James R Lupski, Amyn K Jiwani, Bibhuti Das, Seema R Lalani, Alejandro D Iglesias, Jill A Rosenfeld, Fan Xia
BACKGROUND: The non-POU domain containing octamer-binding gene (NONO) is located on chromosome Xq13.1 and encodes a member of a small family of RNA-binding and DNA-binding proteins that perform a variety of tasks involved in RNA synthesis, transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. Loss-of-function variants in NONO have been described as a cause of intellectual disability in males but have not been described in association with congenital heart defects or cardiomyopathy. In this article, we seek to further define the phenotypic consequences of NONO depletion in human subjects...
January 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
Benjamin M Helm, Samantha L Freeze
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are common birth defects and result in significant morbidity and global economic impact. Genetic factors play a role in most CHDs; however, identification of these factors has been historically slow due to technological limitations and incomplete understanding of the impact of human genomic variation on normal and abnormal cardiovascular development. The advent of chromosome microarray (CMA) brought tremendous gains in identifying chromosome abnormalities in a variety of human disorders and is now considered part of a standard evaluation for individuals with multiple congenital anomalies and/or neurodevelopmental disorders...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Yasmin A Issa, Lara Kamal, Amal Abu Rayyan, Dima Dweik, Sarah Pierce, Ming K Lee, Mary-Claire King, Tom Walsh, Moien Kanaan
Tooth development is controlled by the same processes that regulate formation of other ectodermal structures. Mutations in the genes underlying these processes may cause ectodermal dysplasia, including severe absence of primary or permanent teeth. Four consanguineous Palestinian families presented with oligodontia and hair and skin features of ectodermal dysplasia. Appearance of ectodermal dysplasia was consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. Exome sequencing followed by genotyping of 56 informative relatives in the 4 families suggests that the phenotype is due to homozygosity for KREMEN1 p...
October 2016: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Roberta Milone, Angelo Valetto, Roberta Battini, Veronica Bertini, Giulia Valvo, Giovanni Cioni, Federico Sicca
The recent advance of new molecular technologies like array - Comparative Genomic Hybridization has fostered the detection of genomic imbalances in subjects with intellectual disability, epilepsy, and/or congenital anomalies. Though some of the rearrangements are relatively frequent, their consequences on phenotypes can be strongly variable. We report on a boy harbouring a de novo 8.3 Mb duplication of chromosome 1q21.1-q21.3 whose complex unusual phenotype deserves attention, due to the presence of focal cortical dysplasia, microcephaly, and epilepsy...
May 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Mónica D Martín-De Saro, Juan M Valdés-Miranda, Lautaro Plaza-Benhumea, Adrián Pérez-Cabrera, Luz M Gonzalez-Huerta, Roberto Guevara-Yañez, Sergio A Cuevas-Covarrubias
Rearrangements of the distal region of 9p are important chromosome imbalances in human beings. Trisomy 9p is the fourth most frequent chromosome anomaly and is a clinically recognizable syndrome. Kleefstra syndrome, previously named 9q subtelomeric deletion syndrome, is either caused by a submicroscopic deletion in 9q34.3 or an intragenic mutation of EHMT1. We report a Mexican male patient with abnormal development, dysmorphism, systemic anomalies and a complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR). GTG-banding revealed a 46,XY,add(9)(q34...
2015: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Martina Rincic, Milan Rados, Zeljka Krsnik, Kristina Gotovac, Fran Borovecki, Thomas Liehr, Lukrecija Brecevic
BACKGROUND: Van der Woude syndrome (MIM: 119300, VWS) is a dominantly inherited and the most common orofacial clefting syndrome; it accounts for ~2 % of all cleft lip and palate cases. Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by significant limitations, both in intellectual functioning (cognitive deficit) and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social and practical adaptive skills. Karyotyping has been the first standard test for the detection of genetic imbalance in patients with ID for more than 35 years...
2016: Molecular Cytogenetics
Ramakrishnan Rajagopalan, Christopher M Grochowski, Melissa A Gilbert, Alexandra M Falsey, Karlene Coleman, Rene Romero, Kathleen M Loomes, David A Piccoli, Marcella Devoto, Nancy B Spinner
We studied two brothers who presented in the newborn period with cardiac, renal, and hepatic anomalies that were initially suggestive of ALGS, although no mutations in JAG1 or NOTCH2 were identified. Exome sequencing demonstrated compound heterozygous mutations in the NEK8 gene (Never in mitosis A-related Kinase 8), a ciliary kinase indispensable for cardiac and renal development based on murine studies. The mutations included a c.2069_2070insC variant (p.Ter693LeufsTer86), and a c.1043C>T variant (p.Thr348Met) in the highly conserved RCC1 (Regulation of Chromosome Condensation 1) domain...
March 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Cristina-Elena Popa, Gogu Ghiorghiţа
This paper presents the state of genetic health of the human populations in two Romanian counties, Bacau and Vaslui, as they are different in area, number of inhabitants, level of economic and social development, etc. The data presented in this paper is from the Public Health Directions of the two counties, reflecting the situation recorded during 2006-2013. In the 8 years study, 1894 cases of congenital and chromosomal disorders were recorded in the newborns from the populations in the two counties. The identified cases were distributed based on years, categories of disorders and sexes...
December 2015: Journal of Genetics
Sophia K Krutzke, Hartmut Engels, Andrea Hofmann, Madita M Schumann, Kirsten Cremer, Alexander M Zink, Alina Hilger, Michael Ludwig, Ulrich Gembruch, Heiko Reutter, Waltraut M Merz
BACKGROUND: For the majority of congenital brain malformations, the underlying cause remains unknown. Recent studies have implicated rare copy number variations (CNVs) in their etiology. METHODS: Here, we used array-based molecular karyotyping to search for causative CNVs in 33 fetuses of terminated pregnancies with prenatally detected brain malformations and additional extracerebral anomalies. RESULTS: In 11 fetuses, we identified 15 CNVs (0...
January 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Ami Patel, Naoya Yamashita, Maria Ascaño, Daniel Bodmer, Erica Boehm, Chantal Bodkin-Clarke, Yun Kyoung Ryu, Rejji Kuruvilla
Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal disorder affecting the nervous system in humans. To date, investigations of neural anomalies in Down syndrome have focused on the central nervous system, although dysfunction of the peripheral nervous system is a common manifestation. The molecular and cellular bases underlying peripheral abnormalities have remained undefined. Here, we report the developmental loss of sympathetic innervation in human Down syndrome organs and in a mouse model. We show that excess regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1), an endogenous inhibitor of the calcineurin phosphatase that is triplicated in Down syndrome, impairs neurotrophic support of sympathetic neurons by inhibiting endocytosis of the nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor, TrkA...
December 14, 2015: Nature Communications
Mariana A Costa
During pregnancy, several tightly coordinated and regulated processes take place to enable proper fetal development and gestational success. The formation and development of the placenta is one of these critical pregnancy events. This organ plays essential roles during gestation, including fetal nourishment, support and protection, gas exchange and production of several hormones and other mediators. Placental hormones are mainly secreted by the syncytiotrophoblast, in a highly and tightly regulated way. These hormones are important for pregnancy establishment and maintenance, exerting autocrine and paracrine effects that regulate decidualization, placental development, angiogenesis, endometrial receptivity, embryo implantation, immunotolerance and fetal development...
January 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
S Tercanli, I Filges
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: Ultraschall in der Medizin
Nobuhiro Kurabayashi, Minh Dang Nguyen, Kamon Sanada
Down syndrome (DS) arises from triplication of genes on human chromosome 21 and is associated with anomalies in brain development such as reduced production of neurons and increased generation of astrocytes. Here, we show that differentiation of cortical progenitor cells into astrocytes is promoted by DYRK1A, a Ser/Thr kinase encoded on human chromosome 21. In the Ts1Cje mouse model of DS, increased dosage of DYRK1A augments the propensity of progenitors to differentiate into astrocytes. This tendency is associated with enhanced astrogliogenesis in the developing neocortex...
November 2015: EMBO Reports
Marco Cascella, Maria Rosaria Muzio
Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, or DiGeorge syndrome, or velocardiofacial syndrome, is one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes in humans. This syndrome is commonly caused by a microdelection from chromosome 22 at band q11.2. Although this genetic disorder may reflect several clinical abnormalities and different degrees of organ commitment, the clinical features that have driven the greatest amount of attention are behavioral and developmental features, because individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have a 30-fold risk of developing schizophrenia...
July 2015: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Pratima Basak, Rachelle Dillon, Heather Leslie, Afshin Raouf, Michael R A Mowat
BACKGROUND: Deleted in Liver Cancer 1 (Dlc1) is a tumor suppressor gene, which maps to human chromosome 8p21-22 and is found frequently deleted in many cancers including breast cancer. The promoter of the remaining allele is often found methylated. The Dlc1 gene encodes a RhoGAP protein that regulates cell proliferation, migration and inhibits cell growth and invasion when restored in Dlc1 deficient tumor cell lines. This study focuses on determining the role of Dlc1 in normal mammary gland development and epithelial cell polarity in a Dlc1 gene trapped (gt) mouse...
2015: BMC Cancer
Stanislaw Dzimira, Wojciech Nizanski, Malgorzata Ochota, Janusz A Madej
Disturbances in sex differentiation (DSD - disorder of sexual development) may result from disturbances in sex chromosomes or a disturbed development of gonads, or from genotypic disturbances. The objective of this article is to describe the histological structure of gonads in dogs showing sexual disturbances and a case of a cancer resembling gonadoblastoma in one of the animals. Among the 10 examined dogs with disturbances of sex development only a single case of a gonadoblastoma was observed. In animals with sex disturbances, similarly to humans, there exists a potential tendency for neoplastic lesions in dysgenetic gonads...
October 2015: Pathology, Research and Practice
Alina Guna, Nancy J Butcher, Anne S Bassett
BACKGROUND: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common micro-deletion syndrome. The associated 22q11.2 deletion conveys the strongest known molecular risk for schizophrenia. Neurodevelopmental phenotypes, including intellectual disability, are also prominent though variable in severity. Other developmental features include congenital cardiac and craniofacial anomalies. Whereas existing mouse models have been helpful in determining the role of some genes overlapped by the hemizygous 22q11...
2015: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Tiong Yang Tan, Christopher T Gordon, Kerry A Miller, David J Amor, Peter G Farlie
BACKGROUND: The YPEL (Yippee-like) gene family comprises five highly conserved members (YPEL1-5), but their biological function remains largely unknown. Early studies of YPEL1 function suggested that it plays a role in the development of structures derived from the pharyngeal arches. Human YPEL1 localises to distal chromosome 22q11.2 and copy number changes at this locus lead to diverse phenotypes that include facial dysmorphism, facial asymmetry, and palatal anomalies comprising the distal 22q11...
August 2015: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
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