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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029260/an-adjuvanted-postfusion-f-protein-based-vaccine-did-not-prevent-respiratory-syncytial-virus-illness-in-older-adults
#1
Judith Falloon, Jing Yu, Mark T Esser, Tonya Villafana, Li Yu, Filip Dubovsky, Therese Takas, Myron J Levin, Ann R Falsey
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of illness in older adults. This study assessed efficacy of a vaccine for prevention of RSV-associated acute respiratory illness (RSV-ARI), defined by specified symptoms with virologic confirmation. Methods: This phase 2b study evaluated RSV postfusion F protein (120 µg) with glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant (5 µg) in 2% stable emulsion. Subjects aged ≥60 years were randomized 1:1 to vaccine or placebo (all received influenza vaccine)...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029224/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-an-adjuvanted-herpes-zoster-subunit-vaccine-co-administered-with-seasonal-influenza-vaccine-in-adults-aged-50-years-and-older
#2
Tino F Schwarz, Naresh Aggarwal, Beate Moeckesch, Isabelle Schenkenberger, Carine Claeys, Martine Douha, Olivier Godeaux, Katrijn Grupping, Thomas C Heineman, Marta Lopez Fauqued, Lidia Oostvogels, Peter Van den Steen, Himal Lal
Background: The immunogenicity and safety of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) when co-administered with a quadrivalent seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4) was investigated in a phase 3, open-label, randomized clinical trial in adults aged ≥50 years. Methods: Subjects were randomized 1:1 to receive either HZ/su (VZV glycoprotein E [gE]; AS01B Adjuvant System) and IIV4 at day 0 followed by a second HZ/su dose at month 2 (Co-ad group), or IIV4 at month 0 and HZ/su at months 2 and 4 (Control group)...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029166/beyond-antigenic-match-possible-agent-host-and-immuno-epidemiological-influences-on-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-during-the-2015-16-season-in-canada
#3
Danuta M Skowronski, Catharine Chambers, Suzana Sabaiduc, Gaston De Serres, Anne-Luise Winter, James A Dickinson, Jonathan B Gubbay, Steven J Drews, Christine Martineau, Hugues Charest, Mel Krajden, Nathalie Bastien, Yan Li
Background: Vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates are reported from Canada's Sentinel Practitioner Surveillance Network (SPSN) for the 2015-16 influenza season, characterized by a delayed A(H1N1)pdm09 epidemic and concurrent B(Victoria) activity. Potential influences beyond antigenic match are explored including viral genomic variation, birth cohort effects, prior vaccination and epidemic period. Methods: VE was estimated by test-negative design comparing adjusted-odds ratio for influenza test-positivity among vaccinated vs...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029125/vaccine-prevention-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-older-adults-the-work-continues
#4
Joanne M Langley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029122/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-the-hz-su-adjuvanted-herpes-zoster-subunit-vaccine-in-adults-previously-vaccinated-with-a-live-attenuated-herpes-zoster-vaccine
#5
Katrijn Grupping, Laura Campora, Martine Douha, Thomas C Heineman, Nicola P Klein, Himal Lal, James Peterson, Ilse Vastiau, Lidia Oostvogels
Background: Protection against herpes zoster (HZ) induced by the live-attenuated zoster vaccine Zostavax (ZVL) wanes within 3-7 years. Re-vaccination may renew protection. We assessed whether (re)-vaccination with the adjuvanted HZ subunit vaccine candidate (HZ/su) induced comparable immune responses in previous ZVL-recipients and ZVL-naïve individuals (HZ-NonVac). Methods: In an open-label, multicenter study (NCT02581410), adults ≥65 years of age, vaccinated with ZVL ≥5 years previously (HZ-PreVac), were matched to HZ-NonVac adults...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028977/evolving-understanding-of-the-causes-of-pneumonia-in-adults-with-special-attention-to-the-role-of-pneumococcus
#6
Daniel M Musher, Michael S Abers, John G Bartlett
Before 1945, Streptococcus pneumoniae caused more than 90% of cases of pneumonia in adults. After 1950, the proportion of pneumonia caused by pneumococcus began to decline. Pneumococcus has continued to decline; at present, this organism is identified in fewer than fewer10%-15% of cases. This proportion is higher in Europe, a finding likely related to differences in vaccination practices and smoking. Gram-negative bacilli, Staphylococcus aureus, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, and Legionella are each identified in 2%-5% of patients with pneumonia who require hospitalization...
September 27, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028565/human-papillomavirus-vaccine-initiation-in-asian-indians-and-asian-subpopulations-a-case-for-examining-disaggregated-data-in-public-health-research
#7
H Budhwani, P De
OBJECTIVES: Vaccine disparities research often focuses on differences between the five main racial and ethnic classifications, ignoring heterogeneity of subpopulations. Considering this knowledge gap, we examined human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation in Asian Indians and Asian subpopulations. STUDY DESIGN: National Health Interview Survey data (2008-2013), collected by the National Center for Health Statistics, were analyzed. METHODS: Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted on adults aged 18-26 years (n = 20,040)...
October 10, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028558/determinants-of-trust-in-the-flu-vaccine-for-african-americans-and-whites
#8
Vicki S Freimuth, Amelia M Jamison, Ji An, Gregory R Hancock, Sandra Crouse Quinn
Trust is thought to be a major factor in vaccine decisions, but few studies have empirically tested the role of trust in adult immunization. Utilizing a 2015 national survey of African American and White adults (n = 1630), we explore multiple dimensions of trust related to influenza immunization, including generalized trust, trust in the flu vaccine, and trust in the vaccine production process. We find African Americans report lower trust than Whites across all trust measures. When considering demographic, racial, and ideological predictors, generalized trust shows statistically significant effects on both trust in the flu vaccine and trust in the vaccine process...
October 4, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028455/health-indicators-for-older-sexual-minorities-national-health-interview-survey-2013-2014
#9
Christina N Dragon, Alison M Laffan, Erkan Erdem, Sean Cahill, Daniel Kenefick, Jiahui Ye, Samuel C Haffer
PURPOSE: Advances in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (sexual minority [SM]) acceptance and equality have been made in the past decade. However, certain SM subgroups continue to be disadvantaged due to lack of data and, thus, lack of knowledge about these populations. Data for older sexual minorities are especially lacking and will be increasingly important as more sexual minorities enter older age. This research explores results from a nationally representative health survey to elucidate some health indicators for older sexual minorities...
October 13, 2017: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028178/zika-virus-immune-evasion-mechanisms-currently-available-therapeutic-regimens-and-vaccines
#10
Arun Asif, Sobia Manzoor, Fatima Tuz-Zahra, Muhammad Saalim, Maliha Ashraf, Javeria Ishtiyaq, Madiha Khalid
The sudden emergence of infectious pathogens such as Zika virus (ZIKV) holds global health concerns. Recent dissemination of ZIKV from Pacific to Americas with an upsurge of congenital anomalies and Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) in adults has created an alarming situation. High-throughput studies are in progress to understand ZIKV's mode of pathogenesis and mechanism of immune escape, yet the pathogenesis remains obscure. Mainly ZIKV's envelope (E) protein and nonstructural proteins (mainly NS1 and NS5) manipulate host cell to support viral immune escape by modulation of the interferon pathway and complement antagonism...
October 13, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027518/-influenza-vaccination-of-patients-with-solid-tumours-during-chemotherapy-efficacy-and-safety
#11
A M Vollaard, I Schreuder, L Slok-Raijmakers, W Opstelten, G F Rimmelzwaan, A J Gelderblom
- Adult patients with solid tumours receiving chemotherapy have reduced immunity against infections and are at increased risk of influenza infection and its complications. However, many of said patients are not vaccinated for influenza.- Limited observational research in this patient group has given some indication of the protective effects of the influenza vaccine on clinical outcome measures.- Serological studies have shown that the antibody response following influenza vaccination is often less pronounced in patients with solid tumours compared to healthy individuals...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023555/assessing-the-individual-risk-of-fecal-poliovirus-shedding-among-vaccinated-and-non-vaccinated-subjects-following-national-health-weeks-in-mexico
#12
Leticia Ferreyra-Reyes, Luis Pablo Cruz-Hervert, Stephanie B Troy, ChunHong Huang, Clea Sarnquist, Guadalupe Delgado-Sánchez, Sergio Canizales-Quintero, Marisa Holubar, Elizabeth Ferreira-Guerrero, Rogelio Montero-Campos, Mauricio Rodríguez-Álvarez, Norma Mongua-Rodriguez, Yvonne Maldonado, Lourdes García-García
BACKGROUND: Mexico introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into its routine immunization (RI) schedule in 2007 but continued to give trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) twice a year during national health weeks (NHW) through 2015. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate individual variables associated with poliovirus (PV) shedding among children with IPV-induced immunity after vaccination with tOPV and their household contacts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 72 children (both genders, ≤30 months, vaccinated with at least two doses of IPV) and 144 household contacts (both genders, 2 per household, children and adults) between 08/2010 and 09/2010 in Orizaba, Veracruz...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021946/predictors-of-pneumococcal-carriage-and-the-effect-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-in-the-western-australian-aboriginal-population
#13
Deirdre A Collins, Anke Hoskins, Thomas Snelling, Kalpani Senasinghe, Jacinta Bowman, Natalie A Stemberger, Amanda J Leach, Deborah Lehmann
BACKGROUND: The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced to prevent invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal people in 2001. PCV13 replaced PCV7 in July 2011, covering six additional pneumococcal serotypes; however, IPD rates remained high in Aboriginal people in WA. Upper respiratory tract pneumococcal carriage can precede IPD, and PCVs alter serotype distribution. METHODS: To assess the impact of PCV13 introduction, identify emerging serotypes, and assess risk factors for carriage, nasopharyngeal swabs and information on demographic characteristics, health, medication and living conditions from Aboriginal children and adults across WA from August 2008 to November 2014 were collected...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021402/hiv-exposed-infants-vaccinated-with-a-mf59-rgp120-vaccine-have-higher-magnitude-anti-v1v2-igg-responses-than-adults-immunized-with-the-same-vaccine
#14
Erin P McGuire, Youyi Fong, Christopher Toote, Coleen K Cunningham, Elizabeth J McFarland, William Borkowsky, Susan Barnett, Hannah L Itell, Amit Kumar, Glenda Gray, M Julianna McElrath, Georgia D Tomaras, Sallie R Permar, Genevieve G Fouda
In the RV144 vaccine trial, IgG responses against the HIV envelope variable loops 1 and 2 (V1V2) were associated with decreased HIV acquisition risk. We previously reported that infants immunized with a MF59 adjuvanted rgp120 vaccine developed higher magnitude anti-V1V2 IgG responses than adult RV144 vaccinees. To determine if the robust antibody response in infants is due to differences in vaccine regimens or to inherent differences between the adult and infant immune systems, we compared Env-specific IgG responses in adults and infants immunized with the same MF59 and Alum adjuvanted HIV envelope vaccines...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021303/a-single-intramuscular-dose-of-a-plant-made-virus-like-particle-vaccine-elicits-a-balanced-humoral-and-cellular-response-and-protects-young-and-aged-mice-from-influenza-h1n1-challenge-despite-a-modest-absent-humoral-response
#15
Breanna Hodgins, Karen K Yam, Kaitlin Winter, Stephane Pillet, Nathalie Landry, Brian J Ward
Background: Virus-like-particle (VLP) influenza vaccines can be given intramuscularly (IM) or intranasally (IN) and may have advantages over split-virion formulations in the elderly. We tested a plant-made VLP vaccine candidate bearing the viral hemagglutinin (HA) delivered either IM or IN in young and aged mice. Methods: Young adult (5-8 weeks) and aged (16-20 months) female BALB/c mice received a single 3μg dose based on HA (A/California/07/2009 H1N1) content of a plant-made H1-VLP (IM or IN), split-virion vaccine (IM) or left naïve...
October 11, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021302/development-of-a-high-throughput-respiratory-syncytial-virus-fluorescent-foci-based-microneutralization-assay
#16
Cindy Shambaugh, Sarieh Azshirvani, Li Yu, Jared Pache, Stacie L Lambert, Fengrong Zuo, Mark T Esser
Neutralizing antibodies specific for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) represent a major protective mechanism against RSV infection as demonstrated by the efficacy of the immune-prophylactic monoclonal antibody, Palivizumab, in preventing RSV associated lower respiratory tract infections in premature infants. Accordingly, the RSV neutralization assay has become a key functional method to assess the neutralizing activity of serum antibodies in pre-clinical animal models, epidemiology studies and clinical trials...
October 11, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021299/a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-phase-2-trial-comparing-the-reactogenicity-and-immunogenicity-of-a-single-%C3%A2-2x10-8-colony-forming-units-cfu-standard-dose-versus-a-%C3%A2-2x10-9-cfu-high-dose-of-cvd-103-hgr-live-attenuated-oral-cholera-vaccine-with-shanchol
#17
Samba O Sow, Milagritos D Tapia, Wilbur H Chen, Fadima C Haidara, Karen L Kotloff, Marcela F Pasetti, William C Blackwelder, Awa Traoré, Boubou Tamboura, Moussa Doumbia, Fatoumata Diallo, Flanon Coulibaly, Uma Onwuchekwa, Mamoudou Kodio, Sharon M Tennant, Mardi Reymann, Diana F Lam, Marc Gurwith, Michael Lock, Thomas Yonker, Jonathan Smith, Jakub K Simon, Myron M Levine
Reactive immunization with a single-dose cholera vaccine that could rapidly (within days) protect immunologically-naïve individuals during "virgin soil" epidemics would facilitate cholera control. One dose of attenuated Vibrio cholerae O1 classical Inaba vaccine CVD 103-HgR (Vaxchora™) containing ≥2x10(8) colony forming units (cfu) induces vibriocidal antibody seroconversion (correlate of protection) in >90% of U.S. adults. A previous CVD 103-HgR commercial formulation required ≥2x10(9) cfu to elicit high seroconversion in developing country populations...
October 11, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021248/live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-for-children
#18
(no author information available yet)
For many years, the UK seasonal influenza vaccination programme has been offered to people at higher risk from the complications of influenza infection, including those aged over 65 years and anyone aged over 6 months who is in a clinical risk group.(1) In 2012, the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) recommended extending seasonal influenza vaccination to children aged 2-16 years who are not in a clinical risk group.(2) In contrast to the vaccination programme for adults, which uses an injectable inactivated influenza vaccine, children are being offered a live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) that is administered intranasally...
October 2017: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020589/phase-2-placebo-controlled-trial-of-two-vaccines-to-prevent-ebola-in-liberia
#19
Stephen B Kennedy, Fatorma Bolay, Mark Kieh, Greg Grandits, Moses Badio, Ripley Ballou, Risa Eckes, Mark Feinberg, Dean Follmann, Birgit Grund, Swati Gupta, Lisa Hensley, Elizabeth Higgs, Krisztina Janosko, Melvin Johnson, Francis Kateh, James Logue, Jonathan Marchand, Thomas Monath, Martha Nason, Tolbert Nyenswah, François Roman, Eric Stavale, Julian Wolfson, James D Neaton, H Clifford Lane
Background The safety and efficacy of vaccines to prevent Ebola virus disease (EVD) were unknown when the incidence of EVD was peaking in Liberia. Methods We initiated a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial of the chimpanzee adenovirus 3 vaccine (ChAd3-EBO-Z) and the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccine (rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP) in Liberia. A phase 2 subtrial was embedded to evaluate safety and immunogenicity. Because the incidence of EVD declined in Liberia, the phase 2 component was expanded and the phase 3 component was eliminated...
October 12, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020313/trends-in-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-ipd-in-cancer-patients-after-the-introduction-of-7-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-pcv7-a-20-year-longitudinal-study-at-a-major-urban-cancer-center
#20
Yeon Joo Lee, Yao-Ting Huang, Seong Jin Kim, Marina Kerpelev, Victoria Gonzalez, Anna Kaltsas, Genovefa Papanicolaou
Background: Rates of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) declined since routine childhood immunization with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2000. We studied the impact of PCV7 on the incidence of IPD in cancer patients. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of adult and pediatric patients treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from 1992 to 2012. Recovery of Streptococcus pneumoniae from a sterile site defined IPD. IPD incidence was calculated as cases per 1,000 unique patient-visits per year (UPV)...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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