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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677646/adjuvant-strategies-to-improve-vaccination-of-the-elderly-population
#1
REVIEW
Birgit Weinberger
Immunosenescence contributes to increased incidence and severity of many infections in old age and is responsible for impaired immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines. Adjuvants are one strategy to enhance immunogenicity of vaccines. The oil-in-water emulsions MF59TM and AS03, as well as a virosomal vaccine have been licensed in seasonal or pandemic influenza vaccines and are/were used successfully in the elderly. AS01, a liposome-based adjuvant comprising two immunostimulants has recently been approved in a recombinant protein vaccine for older adults, which showed very high efficacy against herpes zoster in clinical trials...
April 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677188/smsp2-a-serine-protease-secreted-by-the-blood-fluke-pathogen-schistosoma-mansoni-with-anti-hemostatic-properties
#2
Adrian Leontovyč, Lenka Ulrychová, Anthony J O'Donoghue, Jiří Vondrášek, Lucie Marešová, Martin Hubálek, Pavla Fajtová, Marta Chanová, Zhenze Jiang, Charles S Craik, Conor R Caffrey, Michael Mareš, Jan Dvořák, Martin Horn
BACKGROUND: Serine proteases are important virulence factors for many pathogens. Recently, we discovered a group of trypsin-like serine proteases with domain organization unique to flatworm parasites and containing a thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR-1). These proteases are recognized as antigens during host infection and may prove useful as anthelminthic vaccines, however their molecular characteristics are under-studied. Here, we characterize the structural and proteolytic attributes of serine protease 2 (SmSP2) from Schistosoma mansoni, one of the major species responsible for the tropical infectious disease, schistosomiasis...
April 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675705/marked-increase-in-measles-vaccination-coverage-among-young-adults-in-switzerland-a-campaign-or-cohort-effect
#3
Ekkehardt Altpeter, Monica N Wymann, Jean-Luc Richard, Mirjam Mäusezahl-Feuz
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of the Swiss measles elimination strategy-including a mass media campaign-on vaccination coverage and awareness among young adults aged 20-29 years. METHODS: Comparison of the results of two cross-sectional population surveys in 2012 and 2015. RESULTS: Documented vaccination coverage increased from 77 to 88% for two doses of measles vaccine. Major determinants of complete vaccination were survey year, birth cohort, sex and the absence of prior measles disease...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673941/use-of-hepatitis-a-vaccine-for-post-exposure-prophylaxis-in-individuals-over-40-years-of-age-a-systematic-review-of-published-studies-and-recommendations-for-vaccine-use
#4
REVIEW
Ruth Link-Gelles, Megan G Hofmeister, Noele P Nelson
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis A can cause widespread outbreaks. Until 2018, postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) in the United States for individuals >40 years consisted of immune globulin (IG) administered as soon as possible after exposure, ideally within 14 days whereas those aged ≤40 should receive hepatitis A (HepA) vaccine. However, state health departments reporting difficulty quickly accessing and administering IG, costs of higher IG doses and importance of long-term HAV protection prompted CDC to review immunogenicity data for use of HepA vaccine for PEP in older adults...
April 16, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673135/factors-associated-with-hpv-vaccine-refusal-among-young-adult-women-after-ten-years-of-vaccine-implementation
#5
Vincenzo Restivo, Claudio Costantino, Tiziana Francesca Fazio, Nicolò Casuccio, Claudio D'Angelo, Francesco Vitale, Alessandra Casuccio
In Italy, the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination was implemented for twelve years old girls in 2007, but its coverage was lower than the recommended level. Sicily is one of the Italian administrative regions with lower vaccination coverage, with a value of 59% for those born in 1996 increasing to 62% coverage for those born in 1999. The aim of the study was to investigate factors associated with the refusal of HPV vaccination among young adult women of Palermo, Italy. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Policlinico “Paolo Giaccone” Hospital (Palermo 1) and the questionnaire was validated in a convenience sample representing 10% of the young women...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672472/recommendations-of-the-advisory-committee-on-immunization-practices-for-use-of-a-hepatitis-b-vaccine-with-a-novel-adjuvant
#6
Sarah Schillie, Aaron Harris, Ruth Link-Gelles, José Romero, John Ward, Noele Nelson
Hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination is the primary means of preventing infections and complications caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). On February 21, 2018, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended Heplisav-B (HepB-CpG), a yeast-derived vaccine prepared with a novel adjuvant, administered as a 2-dose series (0, 1 month) for use in persons aged ≥18 years. The ACIP Hepatitis Vaccines Work Group conducted a systematic review of the evidence, including data from four randomized controlled trials assessing prevention of HBV infection and six randomized controlled trials assessing adverse events in adults...
April 20, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670634/robust-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses-to-pertussis-in-adults-after-a-first-acellular-booster-vaccination
#7
Saskia van der Lee, Debbie M van Rooijen, Mary-Lène de Zeeuw-Brouwer, Marjan J M Bogaard, Pieter G M van Gageldonk, Axel Bonacic Marinovic, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Guy A M Berbers, Anne-Marie Buisman
Introduction: To reduce the pertussis disease burden, nowadays several countries recommend acellular pertussis (aP) booster vaccinations for adults. We aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity of a first adult aP booster vaccination at childbearing age. Methods: In 2014, healthy adults aged 25-29 years ( n  = 105), vaccinated during infancy with four doses of whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccine, received a Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and aP) booster vaccination. Blood samples were collected longitudinally pre-booster, 2 and 4 weeks, and 1 year and 2 years post-booster...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670610/neonatal-immunization-rationale-current-state-and-future-prospects
#8
REVIEW
Elizabeth Whittaker, David Goldblatt, Peter McIntyre, Ofer Levy
Infections take their greatest toll in early life necessitating robust approaches to protect the very young. Here, we review the rationale, current state, and future research directions for one such approach: neonatal immunization. Challenges to neonatal immunization include natural concern about safety as well as a distinct neonatal immune system that is generally polarized against Th1 responses to many stimuli such that some vaccines that are effective in adults are not in newborns. Nevertheless, neonatal immunization could result in high-population penetration as birth is a reliable point of healthcare contact, and offers an opportunity for early protection of the young, including preterm newborns who are deficient in maternal antibodies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670482/evaluation-of-the-immunization-program-in-the-federation-of-bosnia-and-herzegovina-possible-modalities-for-improvement
#9
Fuad Husic, Zaim Jatic, Anes Joguncic, Lutvo Sporisevic
Introduction: Immunization is a lifelong preventive activity that helps prevent/reduce disease, prevent/ reduce mortality and prevent disability from specific infectious diseases. Material and Methods: Authors of this paper researched the WHO extended program of mandatory immunization of children from birth to the age of 18 years and analyzed how it has been implemented in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FB&H), because the guidelines of the specialist physician societies on immunization of adults, elderly people and risk groups of the population are missing...
March 2018: Materia Socio-medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669531/assessment-of-an-optimized-manufacturing-process-for-inactivated-quadrivalent-influenza-vaccine-a-phase-iii-randomized-double-blind-safety-and-immunogenicity-study-in-children-and-adults
#10
Carine Claeys, Mamadou Drame, José García-Sicilia, Khalequ Zaman, Alfonso Carmona, Phu My Tran, Mariano Miranda, Federico Martinón-Torres, Franck Thollot, Michael Horn, Tino F Schwarz, Ulrich Behre, José M Merino, Iwona Sadowska-Krawczenko, Henryk Szymański, Peter Schu, Elisabeth Neumeier, Ping Li, Varsha K Jain, Bruce L Innis
BACKGROUND: GSK has modified the licensed monovalent bulk manufacturing process for its split-virion inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (IIV4) to harmonize the process among different strains, resulting in an increased number of finished vaccine doses, while compensating for the change from inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (IIV3) to IIV4. To confirm the manufacturing changes do not alter the profile of the vaccine, a clinical trial was conducted to compare IIV4 made by the currently licensed process with a vaccine made by the new (investigational) process (IIV4-I)...
April 18, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669308/tn-n-acetyl-d-galactosamine-o-serine-threonine-immunization-protects-against-hyperoxia-induced-lung-injury-in-adult-mice-through-inhibition-of-the-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-activity
#11
Chung-Ming Chen, Jaulang Hwang, Hsiu-Chu Chou, Her-Shyong Shiah
Prolonged hyperoxia exposure leads to inflammation and acute lung injury. Since hyperoxia activates nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and proinflammatory mediators in lung fibroblasts and murine lungs, and proinflammatory cytokines upregulate Tn (N-acetyl-d-galactosamine-O-serine/threonine) expression in human gingival fibroblasts. We hypothesized connections exist between Tn expression and inflammation regulation. Thus, we immunized adult mice with Tn antigen to examine whether Tn vaccine can protect against hyperoxia-induced lung injury by inhibiting NF-κB activity and cytokine expression through the action of anti-Tn antibodies...
April 15, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669026/first-in-human-randomized-controlled-trial-of-mosaic-hiv-1-immunogens-delivered-via-a-modified-vaccinia-ankara-vector
#12
Lindsey R Baden, Stephen R Walsh, Michael S Seaman, Yehuda Z Cohen, Jennifer A Johnson, J Humberto Licona, Rachel D Filter, Jane A Kleinjan, Jon A Gothing, Julia Jennings, Lauren Peter, Joseph Nkolola, Peter Abbink, Erica N Borducchi, Marinela Kirilova, Kathryn E Stephenson, Poonam Pegu, Michael A Eller, Hung V Trinh, Mangala Rao, Julie A Ake, Michal Sarnecki, Steven Nijs, Katleen Callewaert, Hanneke Schuitemaker, Jenny Hendriks, Maria G Pau, Frank Tomaka, Bette T Korber, Galit Alter, Raphael Dolin, Patricia L Earl, Bernard Moss, Nelson L Michael, Merlin L Robb, Dan H Barouch
Background: Mosaic immunogens are bioinformatically engineered HIV-1 sequences designed to elicit clade independent coverage against globally circulating HIV-1 strains. Methods: This Phase 1 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial enrolled healthy HIV uninfected adults who received two doses of a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vectored HIV-1 bivalent mosaic immunogen vaccine or placebo on days 0 and 84. Two groups were enrolled: those who were HIV-1 vaccine naïve (N=15) and those who had received an HIV-1 vaccine four to six years earlier (Ad26...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668078/adherence-and-immune-response-to-revaccination-following-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-at-a-pediatric-onco-hematology-reference-center
#13
Fernanda Gouveia-Alves, Roseane Gouveia, Valéria C Ginani, Adriana Seber, Danielle A Kuramoto, Gabriel F A Murad, Fernanda G Spina, Antonio S Petrilli, Victor G Zecchin, Celso Granato, Fabianne Carlesse, M Isabel de Moraes-Pinto
BACKGROUND: Revaccination after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is necessary to compensate for the loss of immunological memory. The aims of this study were to evaluate the adherence to revaccination schedule and the humoral immune response to different vaccine antigens in HSCT pediatric and young adult patients. METHODS: Patients submitted to HSCT for over 3 years were recruited. After written informed consent, a questionnaire was filled in, the vaccination card was analyzed, a blood sample was collected and tested by ELISA for diphtheria, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus, measles, rubella and varicella antibodies...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661808/immunization-against-hepatitis-a
#14
Daniel Shouval
Worldwide, there are multiple formaldehyde-inactivated and at least two live attenuated hepatitis A vaccines now in clinical use. The impressive immunogenicity of inactivated vaccines is reflected in rapid seroconversion rates, enabling both preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis. Universal childhood vaccination programs targeting young children have led to significant drops in the incidence of hepatitis A both in toddlers and in susceptible nonimmune adults in regions with intermediate endemicity for hepatitis A...
April 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661629/a-collaborative-program-to-increase-adult-pneumococcal-vaccination-rates-among-a-high-risk-patient-population-receiving-care-at-urgent-care-clinics
#15
Nicholas Lehman, Carrie F Koenigsfeld, Geoffrey C Wall, Catherine Renner, Danielle Hahn, Brian Sheesley, Lisa A Veach, Adam Bjornson
We report a project that utilized pharmacy students to increase pneumococcal vaccination rates in patients aged 19-64 years with high-risk medical conditions within urgent care clinics. The study also sought to better identify the number of patients previously vaccinated for pneumococcal disease. A total of 1,178 patients were considered eligible for pneumococcal vaccination during the study period, 287 (24.4%) of whom were determined to be previously vaccinated through chart assessment or patient interview...
April 13, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661135/the-relative-burden-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-hospitalizations-in-older-adults-a-retrospective-observational-study-in-the-united-states
#16
Joshua D Brown, James Harnett, Richard Chambers, Reiko Sato
BACKGROUND: The risk of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) increases with age and significantly impacts morbidity and mortality in the elderly population. The burden of illness and cost of preventing CAP has not been compared to other serious diseases. METHODS: This retrospective analysis used claims data from 2014 to 2015 and compared hospitalizations for CAP, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and osteoporotic fractures (OF) in adults aged ≥65 years enrolled in a Medicare Advantage insurance plan...
April 16, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660994/providing-additional-muscle-for-older-adults-through-optimal-influenza-vaccine-selection
#17
John A Dougherty, Elias B Chahine
Immunization is the best strategy to protect individuals from influenza; however, older adults tend to respond less favorably to vaccines because of immunosenescence. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that any licensed, recommended, and age-appropriate influenza vaccine may be used in older adults despite reasonable evidence suggesting that the high-dose and, to a lesser extent, the adjuvanted and recombinant influenza vaccines provide better protection than the standard-dose vaccines in this vulnerable population...
April 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660190/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-hbai20-hepatitis-b-vaccine-in-healthy-na%C3%A3-ve-and-non-responding-adults
#18
Özgür M Koc, Paul H M Savelkoul, Inge H M van Loo, Andrea Peeters, Astrid M L Oude Lashof
Approximately 5% of the healthy adult population respond inadequately to the commercial recombinant hepatitis B vaccines. As the recombinant vaccines all have an aluminum-based adjuvant, we tried to enhance the immune response by adding a cytokine-based adjuvant. This new adjuvant AI20, containing 20μg recombinant human IL-2 attached to 20μg aluminum hydroxide, was added to HBVaxPro©-10μg (HBAI20). In a double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT), 24 naïve subjects were randomized to receive either HBAI20 or commercial HBVaxPro©-10μg vaccine...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659930/automated-cervical-screening-and-triage-based-on-hpv-testing-and-computer-interpreted-cytology
#19
Kai Yu, Noorie Hyun, Barbara Fetterman, Thomas Lorey, Tina R Raine-Bennett, Han Zhang, Robin E Stamps, Nancy E Poitras, William Wheeler, Brian Befano, Julia C Gage, Philip E Castle, Nicolas Wentzensen, Mark Schiffman
Background: State-of-the-art cervical cancer prevention includes human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among adolescents and screening/treatment of cervical precancer (CIN3/AIS and, less strictly, CIN2) among adults. HPV testing provides sensitive detection of precancer but, to reduce overtreatment, secondary "triage" is needed to predict women at highest risk. Those with the highest-risk HPV types or abnormal cytology are commonly referred to colposcopy; however, expert cytology services are critically lacking in many regions...
April 11, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659751/a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-of-the-quadrivalent-hpv-vaccine-in-hiv-infected-adults-age-27-years-or-older-aids-clinical-trials-group-protocol-a5298
#20
Timothy J Wilkin, Huichao Chen, Michelle S Cespedes, Jorge T Leon-Cruz, Catherine Godfrey, Elizabeth Y Chiao, Barbara Bastow, Jennifer Webster-Cyriaque, Qinghua Feng, Joan Dragavon, Robert W Coombs, Rachel M Presti, Alfred Saah, Ross D Cranston
Background: Adults living with HIV are at increased risk for anal and oropharyngeal cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). The efficacy of HPV vaccines in this population is unknown. Methods: Phase 3, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. We assigned HIV-infected adults age 27 or older to the quadrivalent HPV (Types 6, 11, 16, 18) vaccine or placebo (1:1) stratified by sex and presence of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions on biopsy (bHSIL)...
April 5, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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