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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905894/seroprevalence-of-bordetella-pertussis-specific-immunoglobulin-g-antibody-levels-among-asymptomatic-individuals-aged-4-to-24%C3%A2-years-a-descriptive-cross-sectional-study-from-sri-lanka
#1
Shamithra Sigera, Jennifer Perera, Jeyanthakumar Rasarathinam, Dulani Samaranayake, Dileepa Ediriweera
BACKGROUND: In Sri Lanka pertussis continues to circulate in the community and cases among adolescents and adults have been reported despite 95% coverage of the four dose pertussis vaccination during early childhood. Waning of immunity following natural infection or immunization may contribute to the persistent circulation. An adolescent booster dose is not included in the national immunization schedule of Sri Lanka, although this is routine practice in many countries. Therefore information on immunity to pertussis in the adolescent group is needed prior to considering vaccination schedule changes...
December 1, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903416/post-licensure-phase-iv-safety-study-of-a-live-attenuated-japanese-encephalitis-recombinant-vaccine-in-children-in-thailand
#2
Tawee Chotpitayasunondh, Pornpimol Pruekprasert, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Chitsanu Pancharoen, Auchara Tangsathapornpong, Peninnah Oberdorfer, Pope Kosalaraksa, Olarn Prommalikit, Suwimon Tangkittithaworn, Phirangkul Kerdpanich, Chonnamet Techasaensiri, Joanna Korejwo, Sunate Chuenkitmongkol, Guy Houillon
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis is a mosquito-borne viral disease endemic in most countries in Asia. A recombinant live, attenuated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine, JE-CV, is licensed in 14 countries, including Thailand, for the prevention of Japanese encephalitis in adults and children. METHODS: This was a prospective, phase IV, open-label, multicentre, safety study of JE-CV conducted from November 2013 to April 2015, to evaluate rare serious adverse events (AEs)...
November 28, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902386/establishment-of-memory-cd8-t-cells-with-live-attenuated-influenza-virus-laiv-across-different-vaccination-doses
#3
Zhongfang Wang, Lukasz Kedzierska, Simone Nuessing, Brendon Chua, Sergio M Quiñones-Parra, Victor C Huber, David Jackson, Paul G Thomas, Katherine Kedzierska
FluMist has been used in children and adults for more than ten years. As pre-existing CD8+ T-cell memory pools can provide heterologous immunity against distinct influenza viruses, it is important to understand influenza-specific CD8+ T-cell responses elicited by different LAIV regimens. In this study, we immunized mice intranasally (i.n.) with two different doses of live-attenuated PR8 virus (PR8 ts, H1N1), low and high, and then assessed protective efficacy by challenging animals with heterosubtypic X31-H3N2 virus at 6 weeks post-vaccination...
November 2, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899030/childhood-vaccine-refusal-and-hesitancy-intentions-in-croatia-insights-from-a-population-based-study
#4
Anja Repalust, Sandra Šević, Stanko Rihtar, Aleksandar Štulhofer
Considering that programmatic data suggest a recent rise in vaccine refusal in Croatia, this study, first of its kind in Southeast Europe, aimed to estimate the prevalence, and sociodemographic, and sociocultural determinants of childhood vaccine refusal and hesitancy (CVRH) intentions among Croatian adults. Multi-stage stratified population-based survey included 1000 individuals aged 18-88 years (Mage = 47.7, SD = 17.8), of whom 51.7% were women. The outcome, a categorical indicator, distinguished among individuals who would approve vaccinating their children (vaccine accepting), those who would approve some but not all vaccines (vaccine hesitant), and those who would refuse vaccination (vaccine refusing)...
November 29, 2016: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895845/a-trial-of-a-7-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-hiv-infected-adults
#5
Neil French, Stephen B Gordon, Thandie Mwalukomo, Sarah A White, Gershom Mwafulirwa, Herbert Longwe, Martin Mwaiponya, Eduard E Zijlstra, Malcolm E Molyneux, Charles F Gilks
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading and serious coinfection in adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, particularly in Africa. Prevention of this disease by vaccination with the current 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine is suboptimal. Protein conjugate vaccines offer a further option for protection, but data on their clinical efficacy in adults are needed. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical efficacy trial, we studied the efficacy of a 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in predominantly HIV-infected Malawian adolescents and adults who had recovered from documented invasive pneumococcal disease...
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895172/pulmonary-dendritic-cell-subsets-shape-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-specific-cd8-t-cell-immunodominance-hierarchy-in-neonates
#6
Allison M W Malloy, Tracy J Ruckwardt, Kaitlyn M Morabito, Annie W Lau-Kilby, Barney S Graham
Young infants are generally more susceptible to viral infections and experience more severe disease than do adults. CD8(+) T cells are important for viral clearance, and although often ineffective in neonates they can be protective when adequately stimulated. Using a murine CB6F1/J hybrid model of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, we previously demonstrated that the CD8(+) T cell immunodominance hierarchy to two RSV-derived epitopes, K(d)M282-90 and D(b)M187-195, was determined by the age at infection...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895132/protection-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-invasive-pathogenesis-by-a-protein-based-vaccine-is-achieved-by-suppression-of-nasopharyngeal-bacterial-density-during-influenza-a-virus-co-infection
#7
M Nadeem Khan, Qingfu Xu, Michael E Pichichero
An increase in Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization density during a viral co-infection initiates pathogenesis. To mimic natural Spn pathogenesis, we commensally colonized the NP of adult C57BL/6 mice with Spn serotypes (STs) 6A or 8, and then co-infected with mouse-adapted H1N1 influenza A virus (PR/8/34). Spn established effective commensal colonization and Influenza co-infection caused Spn NP density to increase, resulting in bacteremia and mortality. We then studied histidine triad protein D (PhtD), a Spn adhesin vaccine candidate, for its ability to prevent invasive Spn disease in adult and infant mice...
November 28, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893866/ecology-and-demography-of-free-roaming-domestic-dogs-in-rural-villages-near-serengeti-national-park-in-tanzania
#8
Anna M Czupryna, Joel S Brown, Machunde A Bigambo, Christopher J Whelan, Supriya D Mehta, Rachel M Santymire, Felix J Lankester, Lisa J Faust
Free-roaming dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) are of public health and conservation concern because of their potential to transmit diseases, such as rabies, to both people and wildlife. Understanding domestic dog population dynamics and how they could potentially be impacted by interventions, such as rabies vaccination, is vital for such disease control efforts. For four years, we measured demographic data on 2,649 free-roaming domestic dogs in four rural villages in Tanzania: two villages with and two without a rabies vaccination campaign...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893793/field-trial-of-an-aerially-distributed-tuberculosis-vaccine-in-a-low-density-wildlife-population-of-brushtail-possums-trichosurus-vulpecula
#9
Graham Nugent, Ivor J Yockney, E Jackie Whitford, Martin L Cross, Frank E Aldwell, Bryce M Buddle
Oral-delivery Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in a lipid matrix has been shown to confer protection against M. bovis infection and reduce the severity of tuberculosis (TB) when fed to brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), the major wildlife vector of bovine TB in New Zealand. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of aerial delivery of this live vaccine in bait form to an M. bovis-infected wild possum population, and subsequently assess vaccine uptake and field efficacy. Pre-trial studies indicated a resident possum population at very low density (<0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893360/vaccine-preventable-diseases-in-pediatric-patients-a-review-of-measles-mumps-rubella-and-varicella
#10
Deborah A Levine
Vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella continue to plague children and adults worldwide. Although public health programs have helped decrease the prevalence and sequelae of these diseases, outbreaks still occur. To limit the spread of these diseases, emergency clinicians must be able to readily identify the characteristic presentations of the rashes associated with measles, rubella, and varicella, as well as the common presenting features associated with mumps. Diagnostic laboratory studies are not usually necessary, as a complete history and physical examination usually lead to an accurate diagnosis...
December 2016: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889021/neuroimaging-of-peptide-based-vaccine-therapy-in-pediatric-brain-tumors-initial-experience
#11
REVIEW
Andre D Furtado, Rafael Ceschin, Stefan Blüml, Gary Mason, Regina I Jakacki, Hideho Okada, Ian F Pollack, Ashok Panigrahy
The potential benefits of peptide-based immunotherapy for pediatric brain tumors are under investigation. Treatment-related heterogeneity has resulted in radiographic challenges, including pseudoprogression. Conventional MR imaging has limitations in assessment of different forms of treatment-related heterogeneity, particularly regarding distinguishing true tumor progression from efficacious treatment responses. Advanced neuroimaging techniques, including diffusion magnetic resonance (MR), perfusion MR, and MR spectroscopy, may add value in the assessment of treatment-related heterogeneity...
February 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887591/a-prospective-cohort-study-to-assess-seroprevalence-incidence-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-willingness-to-pay-for-vaccine-and-related-risk-factors-in-dengue-in-a-high-incidence-setting
#12
Ruth Aralí Martínez-Vega, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales, Yalil Tomás Bracho-Churio, Mirley Enith Castro-Salas, Fredy Galvis-Ovallos, Ronald Giovanny Díaz-Quijano, María Lucrecia Luna-González, Jaime E Castellanos, José Ramos-Castañeda, Fredi Alexander Diaz-Quijano
BACKGROUND: Dengue is one of the most important vector-borne diseases in the world, causing significant morbidity and economic impact. In Colombia, dengue is a major public health problem. Departments of La Guajira, Cesar and Magdalena are dengue endemic areas. The objective of this research is to determine the seroprevalence and the incidence of dengue virus infection in the participating municipalities from these Departments, and also establish the association between individual and housing factors and vector indices with seroprevalence and incidence...
November 25, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886031/pertussis-in-north-central-and-northwestern-regions-of-algeria
#13
Nabila Benamrouche, Hassiba Tali Maamar, Malika Lazri, Sonia Hasnaoui, Abdelkarim Radoui, Ourida Lafer, Rachida Boukari, Chawki Kaddache, Zakia Arrada, Kheira Rahal
INTRODUCTION: Pertussis outbreaks continue to occur in many countries despite high vaccination coverage. Under-diagnosed cases in adolescents and adults may result in increased transmission to infants, who are at risk of severe pertussis. Additional measures to protect both groups should be considered. METHODOLOGY: Nasopharyngeal samples and sera were collected from patients and household contacts with clinically suspected pertussis. Diagnoses were confirmed by culture, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serology...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885841/the-utility-of-saliva-for-the-assessment-of-anti-pneumococcal-antibodies-investigation-of-saliva-as-a-marker-of-antibody-status-in-serum
#14
Jennifer L J Heaney, Anna C Phillips, Douglas Carroll, Mark T Drayson
CONTEXT: Salivary antibodies may act as non-invasive marker of systemic immunity enabling assessment of vaccination and protection against bacterial infections. OBJECTIVE: To assess if levels of anti-pneumococcal antibodies in saliva reflect concentrations in serum and determine whether saliva can accurately identify protective concentrations in serum. METHODS: IgG, IgA and IgM antibody levels in paired saliva and serum samples were measured against 12 pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens in 72 healthy adults...
November 25, 2016: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884652/clinical-and-molecular-epidemiologic-trends-reveal-the-important-role-of-rotavirus-in-adult-infectious-gastroenteritis-in-shanghai-china
#15
Yan Wang, Jinan Zhang, Pengbo Liu
As a leading cause of severe diarrhea in children, the pathogenic role of rotavirus in adults has been underestimated for a long time. A hospital-based prospective clinical and molecular epidemiologic study of rotavirus infections in adults was performed between April 2014 and March 2015 in Shanghai, China. Overall, rotavirus was detected in 48 of 441 (10.9%) specimens with prevalence peaking in December (33.3%) and January (27.9%), whereas bacteria were identified in 45 of 846 (5.3%) samples (p<0.01). The rotavirus winter-spring seasonality (November-March) contrasts with the marked summer-fall seasonality (April-October) of bacterial pathogens (p<0...
November 21, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882801/rapid-assessment-of-the-reactogenicity-of-a-2016-2017-seasonal-influenza-vaccine-results-from-a-feasibility-study
#16
Anke L Stuurman, Thomas Verstraeten, Antoon De Schryver
BACKGROUND: ​​The European Medicines Agency (EMA) calls for a strategy for enhanced safety surveillance of seasonal influenza vaccines. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the feasibility of collecting reactogenicity data within one month of the start of the vaccination campaign in Belgium. METHODS: One hundred subjects aged 18 to 65 years who had received inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine in occupational setting were enrolled. For 7 days after vaccination, subjects received a daily SMS with a link to a web-based questionnaire where reactogenicity events and their severity were solicited...
December 1, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881553/stage-specific-transcriptome-and-proteome-analyses-of-the-filarial-parasite-onchocerca-volvulus-and-its-wolbachia-endosymbiont
#17
Sasisekhar Bennuru, James A Cotton, Jose M C Ribeiro, Alexandra Grote, Bhavana Harsha, Nancy Holroyd, Amruta Mhashilkar, Douglas M Molina, Arlo Z Randall, Adam D Shandling, Thomas R Unnasch, Elodie Ghedin, Matthew Berriman, Sara Lustigman, Thomas B Nutman
: Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a neglected tropical disease that has been successfully targeted by mass drug treatment programs in the Americas and small parts of Africa. Achieving the long-term goal of elimination of onchocerciasis, however, requires additional tools, including drugs, vaccines, and biomarkers of infection. Here, we describe the transcriptome and proteome profiles of the major vector and the human host stages (L1, L2, L3, molting L3, L4, adult male, and adult female) of Onchocerca volvulus along with the proteome of each parasitic stage and of its Wolbachia endosymbiont (wOv)...
November 23, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875050/assessment-of-oral-human-papillomavirus-prevalence-in-a-multi-ethnic-pediatric-clinic-population
#18
Vikram Tiku, Chelsie J Todd, Karl Kingsley
The human papillomavirus (HPV) family has been associated with many cancers, including oral cancer. Recent studies have also revealed HPV presence from healthy adult and pediatric patient saliva samples, though much less is known about the oral prevalence of high-risk HPV in healthy children and adolescents. The primary goal of this project was to assess the prevalence of HPV within a pediatric dental clinic using non-invasively collected saliva. In brief, saliva was collected and DNA isolated to screen for HPV strains HPV6, HPV11, HPV16, and HPV18...
November 2016: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870907/national-survey-indicates-that-individual-vaccination-decisions-respond-positively-to-community-vaccination-rates
#19
John Romley, Prodyumna Goutam, Neeraj Sood
Some models of vaccination behavior imply that an individual's willingness to vaccinate could be negatively correlated with the vaccination rate in her community. The rationale is that a higher community vaccination rate reduces the risk of contracting the vaccine-preventable disease and thus reduces the individual's incentive to vaccinate. At the same time, as for many health-related behaviors, individuals may want to conform to the vaccination behavior of peers, counteracting a reduced incentive to vaccinate due to herd immunity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869440/immunology-update-new-vaccines
#20
S Paul Starr
A new 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is effective against more cancer-causing HPV types than previous vaccines. HPV vaccine series started with previous vaccines can be completed with the 9-valent vaccine. Two new influenza vaccines are available for adults 65 years and older: a high-dose vaccine and an enhanced adjuvant vaccine. These elicit stronger antibody responses than standard-dose vaccines. Current guidelines specify no preference for the new versus standard-dose vaccines. Two new group B meningococcal vaccines are intended for use during outbreaks and for patients with asplenia, complement deficiencies, frequent occupational meningococcus exposure, or for patients who desire protection from type B meningococcus...
November 2016: FP Essentials
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