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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806889/forensic-implications-of-changes-in-dsm-5-criteria-for-responses-to-trauma-and-stress
#1
Madelyn Simring Milchman
DSM-5 significantly changed the diagnostic criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) relative to DSM-IV/DSM-IV-TR. These changes do not alter its basic approach to diagnosing mental disorders, which treats each disorder as a separate category. This article analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the categorical approach, and reviews empirical evidence regarding the impact of changes within it on the ease or difficulty of receiving the PTSD diagnosis. It especially analyzes the impact of newly included symptoms that are meant to identify cases in which trauma exposure was associated with changes in more serious PTSD cases, known as Complex PTSD (C-PTSD)...
October 30, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27396017/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-stressful-life-events-among-rural-women-with-hiv-disease
#2
Jeanne K Kemppainen, Sally MacKain, Melissa Alexander, Paula Reid, Morgan Parks Jackson
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and stressful life events are frequent and distressing problems for women living with HIV (WLWH). Studies have independently focused on the impact of these problems, but little work has examined the relationship between PTSD and stressful life events. Our cross-sectional study examined relationships between PTSD and recent stressful life events in WLWH. A sample of 60 women recruited through HIV community agencies in southeastern North Carolina completed the Stressful Life Events Questionnaire and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C)...
June 8, 2016: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27058158/mediating-role-of-childhood-emotional-abuse-on-the-relationship-between-severity-of-adhd-and-ptsd-symptoms-in-a-sample-of-male-inpatients-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#3
Cuneyt Evren, Gokhan Umut, Muge Bozkurt, Bilge Evren, Ruken Agachanli
The aim of the present study was to evaluate relationship of PTSD symptom severity with severity of ADHD symptoms while controlling the effect of childhood trauma in a sample of male inpatients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Participants included 190 male inpatients with AUD. Participants were evaluated with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and PTSD Checklist Civilian version (PCL-C). PTSD and ADHD scores were mildly correlated with severity of childhood trauma and types of traumas, the only exception was emotional neglect, which was not correlated with PTSD and ADHD...
May 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26390108/subthreshold-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-meta-analytic-review-of-dsm-iv-prevalence-and-a-proposed-dsm-5-approach-to-measurement
#4
Mira Brancu, Monica Mann-Wrobel, Jean C Beckham, H Ryan Wagner, Alyssa Elliott, Allison T Robbins, Madrianne Wong, Ania E Berchuck, Jennifer J Runnals
Subthreshold posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic condition that is often ignored, the cumulative effects of which can negatively impact an individual's quality of life and overall health care costs. However, subthreshold PTSD prevalence rates and impairment remain unclear due to variations in research methodology. This study examined the existing literature in order to recommend approaches to standardize subthreshold PTSD assessment. We conducted (a) a meta-analysis of subthreshold PTSD prevalence rates and (b) compared functional impairment associated with the 3 most commonly studied subthreshold PTSD definitions...
March 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26390106/professional-versus-personal-resource-utilization-in-survivors-of-intimate-partner-violence
#5
C J Eubanks Fleming, Patricia A Resick
Although many women are affected by intimate partner violence (IPV) across the life span, rates of help seeking for IPV-related concerns are low. The current project examined predictors of personal and professional resource use in a sample of female IPV survivors, with the purpose of identifying engagement strategies for IPV services and resources. The study is notable for is concurrent examination of demographic variables, abuse characteristics, beliefs about cause of violence, beliefs about helpfulness of resources, coping style, and PTSD symptoms as predictors of resource use...
May 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26389531/the-strongest-correlates-of-ptsd-for-firefighters-number-recency-frequency-or-perceived-threat-of-traumatic-events
#6
Ricardo J Pinto, Sandra P Henriques, Inês Jongenelen, Cláudia Carvalho, Ângela C Maia
Firefighters experience a wide range of traumatic events while on duty and are at risk to develop psychopathology and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). According to cognitive models, the person's interpretation of the traumatic event is responsible for the development of PTSD rather than the traumatic event itself. This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the contribution of perceived threat to explain PTSD symptoms in Portuguese firefighters, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. A sample of 397 firefighters completed self-report measures of exposure to traumatic events, psychopathology, and PTSD...
October 2015: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26388539/the-impact-of-addiction-medications-on-treatment-outcomes-for-persons-with-co-occurring-ptsd-and-opioid-use-disorders
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Elizabeth C Saunders, Mark P McGovern, Chantal Lambert-Harris, Andrea Meier, Bethany McLeman, Haiyi Xie
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous research has been inconclusive about whether adding psychosocial treatment to medication assisted treatment (MAT) improves outcomes for patients with co-occurring psychiatric and opioid use disorders. This study evaluated the impact of MAT and psychosocial therapies on treatment outcomes for patients with co-occurring opioid use disorders and PTSD. METHODS: Patients meeting criteria for PTSD and substance use disorders were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions: Standard Care (SC) alone, Integrated Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (ICBT) plus SC, or Individual Addiction Counseling (IAC) plus SC...
December 2015: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26386825/smoking-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-alcohol-use-disorders-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-australian-men-and-women
#8
Miriam K Forbes, Julianne C Flanagan, Emma L Barrett, Erica Crome, Andrew J Baillie, Katherine L Mills, Maree Teesson
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) often co-occur with smoking and tobacco use disorders. Each of these disorders is known to have negative health consequences and impairment independently, but little is known about the impact of their co-occurrence. The aim of the present study is to examine the prevalence, correlates, order of onset, and impact of co-occurring daily smoking, PTSD, and AUDs. METHOD: The 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (2007 NSMHWB) was a nationally representative survey of 8841 Australians...
November 1, 2015: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26386484/validation-of-a-brief-ptsd-screener-for-underserved-patients-in-federally-qualified-health-centers
#9
Bing Han, Eunice C Wong, Zhimin Mao, Lisa S Meredith, Andrea Cassells, Jonathan N Tobin
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to validate the reliability and efficiency of alternative cutoff values on the abbreviated six-item Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist (PCL-6) [1] for underserved, largely minority patients in primary care settings of Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs). METHOD: Using a sample of 760 patients recruited from six FQHCs in the New York City and New Jersey metropolitan area from June 2010 to April 2013, we compared the PCL-6 with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition...
January 2016: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26384973/trends-in-any-and-high-dose-opioid-analgesic-receipt-among-aging-patients-with-and-without-hiv
#10
William C Becker, Kirsha Gordon, E Jennifer Edelman, Robert D Kerns, Stephen Crystal, James D Dziura, Lynn E Fiellin, Adam J Gordon, Joseph L Goulet, Amy C Justice, David A Fiellin
Harms of opioid analgesics, especially high-dose therapy among individuals with comorbidities and older age, are increasingly recognized. However, trends in opioid receipt among HIV-infected patients are not well characterized. We examined trends, from 1999 to 2010, in any and high-dose (≥120 mg/day) opioid receipt among patients with and without HIV, by age strata, controlling for demographic and clinical correlates. Of 127,216 patients, 64 % received at least one opioid prescription. Opioid receipt increased substantially among HIV-infected and uninfected patients over the study; high-dose therapy was more prevalent among HIV-infected patients...
March 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26372769/a-novel-locus-in-the-oxidative-stress-related-gene-alox12-moderates-the-association-between-ptsd-and-thickness-of-the-prefrontal-cortex
#11
Mark W Miller, Erika J Wolf, Naomi Sadeh, Mark Logue, Jeffrey M Spielberg, Jasmeet P Hayes, Emily Sperbeck, Steven A Schichman, Angie Stone, Weleetka C Carter, Donald E Humphries, William Milberg, Regina McGlinchey
Oxidative stress has been implicated in many common age-related diseases and is hypothesized to play a role in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related neurodegeneration (Miller and Sadeh, 2014). This study examined the influence of the oxidative stress-related genes ALOX 12 and ALOX 15 on the association between PTSD and cortical thickness. Factor analyses were used to identify and compare alternative models of the structure of cortical thickness in a sample of 218 veterans. The best-fitting model was then used for a genetic association analysis in White non-Hispanic participants (n=146) that examined relationships between 33 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the two genes, 8 cortical thickness factors, and each SNP×PTSD interaction...
December 2015: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26372003/increased-generalization-of-learned-associations-is-related-to-re-experiencing-symptoms-in-veterans-with-symptoms-of-post-traumatic-stress
#12
Nicole Anastasides, Kevin D Beck, Kevin C H Pang, Richard J Servatius, Mark W Gilbertson, Scott P Orr, Catherine E Myers
One interpretation of re-experiencing symptoms in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is that memories related to emotional information are stored strongly, but with insufficient specificity, so that stimuli which are minimally related to the traumatic event are sufficient to trigger recall. If so, re-experiencing symptoms may reflect a general bias against encoding background information during a learning experience, and this tendency might not be limited to learning about traumatic or even autobiographical events...
2015: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26366328/pretraumatic-stress-reactions-in-soldiers-deployed-to-afghanistan
#13
Dorthe Berntsen, David C Rubin
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is a diagnosis related to the past. Pre-traumatic stress reactions, as measured by intrusive involuntary images of possible future stressful events and their associated avoidance and increased arousal, have been overlooked in the PTSD literature. Here we introduce a scale that measures pre-traumatic stress reactions providing a clear future-oriented parallel to the posttraumatic stress reactions described in the diagnostic criteria for PTSD. We apply this pre-traumatic stress reactions checklist (PreCL) to Danish soldiers before, during, and after deployment to Afghanistan...
September 2015: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26366290/latent-factor-structure-of-dsm-5-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#14
Emily Gentes, Paul A Dennis, Nathan A Kimbrel, Angela C Kirby, Lauren P Hair, Jean C Beckham, Patrick S Calhoun
The current study examined the latent factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) based on DSM-5 criteria in a sample of participants (N = 374) recruited for studies on trauma and health. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were used to compare the fit of the previous 3-factor DSM-IV model of PTSD to the 4-factor model specified in DSM-5 as well as to a competing 4-factor "dysphoria" model (Simms, Watson, & Doebbeling, 2002) and a 5-factor (Elhai et al., 2011) model of PTSD. Results indicated that the Elhai 5-factor model (re-experiencing, active avoidance, emotional numbing, dysphoric arousal, anxious arousal) provided the best fit to the data, although substantial support was demonstrated for the DSM-5 4-factor model...
2015: Psychopathology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26361058/ska2-methylation-is-involved-in-cortisol-stress-reactivity-and-predicts-the-development-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd-after-military-deployment
#15
Marco P Boks, Bart P F Rutten, Elbert Geuze, Lotte C Houtepen, Eric Vermetten, Zachary Kaminsky, Christiaan H Vinkers
Genomic variation in the SKA2 gene has recently been identified as a promising suicide biomarker. In light of its role in glucocorticoid receptor transactivation, we investigated whether SKA2 DNA methylation influences cortisol stress reactivity and is involved in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Increased SKA2 methylation was significantly associated with lower cortisol stress reactivity in 85 healthy individuals exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (B=-173.40, t=-2.324, p-value=0...
April 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26343483/test-of-the-stress-sensitization-model-in-adolescents-following-the-pipeline-explosion
#16
Di Shao, Qing-Ling Gao, Jie Li, Jiao-Mei Xue, Wei Guo, Zhou-Ting Long, Feng-Lin Cao
PURPOSE: The stress sensitization model states that early traumatic experiences increase vulnerability to the adverse effects of subsequent stressful life events. This study examined the effect of stress sensitization on development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Chinese adolescents who experienced the pipeline explosion. METHODS: A total of 670 participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic characteristics and degree of explosion exposure, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C)...
October 2015: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26342399/tinnitus-and-anxiety-disorders-a-review
#17
REVIEW
T Pattyn, F Van Den Eede, S Vanneste, L Cassiers, D J Veltman, P Van De Heyning, B C G Sabbe
BACKGROUND: The most common form of tinnitus is a subjective, auditory, and distressing phantom phenomenon. Comorbidity with depression is high but other important psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders have received less attention. The current paper reviews the literature on the associations between tinnitus and anxiety disorders and the underlying pathophysiology, and discusses the clinical implications. METHODOLOGY: PubMed and Web of Science were searched for all articles published up until October 2014 using combinations of the following search strings "Tinnitus", "Anxiety disorder", "Panic Disorder", "Generalized Anxiety Disorder", "Post traumatic stress disorder", "PTSD" "Social Phobia", "Phobia Disorder", "Obsessive Compulsive Disorder", "Agoraphobia"...
March 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26338326/incubation-of-fear-is-regulated-by-tip39-peptide-signaling-in-the-medial-nucleus-of-the-amygdala
#18
Mumeko C Tsuda, Ho-Man Yeung, Jonathan Kuo, Ted B Usdin
UNLABELLED: Fear-related psychopathologies such as post-traumatic stress disorder are characterized by impaired extinction of fearful memories. Recent behavioral evidence suggests that the neuropeptide tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39), via its receptor, the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R), modulates fear memory. Here we examined the anatomical and cellular localization of TIP39 signaling that contributes to the increase in fear memory over time following a traumatic event, called fear memory incubation...
September 2, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26337036/prospective-longitudinal-evaluation-of-the-effect-of-deployment-acquired-traumatic-brain-injury-on-posttraumatic-stress-and-related-disorders-results-from-the-army-study-to-assess-risk-and-resilience-in-servicemembers-army-starrs
#19
Murray B Stein, Ronald C Kessler, Steven G Heeringa, Sonia Jain, Laura Campbell-Sills, Lisa J Colpe, Carol S Fullerton, Matthew K Nock, Nancy A Sampson, Michael Schoenbaum, Xiaoying Sun, Michael L Thomas, Robert J Ursano
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for deleterious mental health and functional outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the strength and specificity of the association between deployment-acquired TBI and subsequent posttraumatic stress and related disorders among U.S. Army personnel. METHOD: A prospective, longitudinal survey of soldiers in three Brigade Combat Teams was conducted 1-2 months prior to an average 10-month deployment to Afghanistan (T0), upon redeployment to the United States (T1), approximately 3 months later (T2), and approximately 9 months later (T3)...
November 1, 2015: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26330376/treatment-of-persistent-post-concussive-symptoms-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-of-cognitive-rehabilitation-and-behavioral-health-interventions-in-military-service-members-and-veterans
#20
REVIEW
Douglas B Cooper, Anne E Bunner, Jan E Kennedy, Valerie Balldin, David F Tate, Blessen C Eapen, Carlos A Jaramillo
Increased prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been associated with service members and veterans who completed combat deployments in support of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Management of persistent post-concussive symptoms (PCS) has been a challenge to healthcare providers throughout the Military and Veterans Healthcare Systems, as well as civilian healthcare providers, due in part to the chronic nature of symptoms, co-occurrence of behavioral health disorders such as depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and substance use disorders, and fear of a potential stigma associated with psychiatric diagnoses and behavioral health treatment(s)...
September 2015: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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