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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920943/a-pilot-dental-survey-on-maui
#1
Olivia Jenkins, Sara Routley, Tina Pedro-Gomes, Lorrin Pang
Routine dental screening surveys of third graders have proven to be a useful tool to monitor the dental health of a community, especially those of highest risk. In 2010 the PEW Charitable Trust (PEW) conducted state-by-state oral hygiene assessments, giving Hawai'i a poor grade, with routine dental surveys of children one of several criteria not met. The Maui Oral Health Task Force piloted its own survey for the island of Maui to assess the challenges in implementing a dental screening and to gain an understanding as to how obstacles might be addressed...
November 2016: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916250/viral-serological-and-molecular-data-on-possible-involvement-of-herpes-viruses-in-periodontal-disease
#2
Cristiana Antipa, Coralia Bleotu, Camelia Grancea, Andreea Oana Rosu, Gabriela Anton, Simona Ruta
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that latent herpes virus infections can be associated with chronic periodontal sites that exhibit a predisposition to disease progression. The aim of this study was to identify the possible relationship between infections with CMV and EBV and the severity of periodontal disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty two patients aged between 27 and 70 years, diagnosed with periodontal disease were enrolled in the study after giving informed consent...
December 2016: Singapore Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903295/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-periodontal-disease-among-pre-conception-chinese-women
#3
Hong Jiang, Yi Su, Xu Xiong, Emily Harville, Hongqiao Wu, Zhijun Jiang, Xu Qian
BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease is one of the most common chronic infectious diseases. It has been reported that periodontal disease is associated with various adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth, low birth weight, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Given the fact that the treatment for periodontal disease during pregnancy was ineffective in improving pregnancy outcomes by most of studies, the pre-conception period has been put forward as a more optimal time. However, very few studies have reported the prevalence of periodontal disease among pre-conception women...
December 1, 2016: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899163/human-fetal-and-adult-epicardial-derived-cells-a-novel-model-to-study-their-activation
#4
Asja T Moerkamp, Kirsten Lodder, Tessa van Herwaarden, Esther Dronkers, Calinda K E Dingenouts, Fredrik C Tengström, Thomas J van Brakel, Marie-José Goumans, Anke M Smits
BACKGROUND: The epicardium, a cell layer covering the heart, plays an important role during cardiogenesis providing cardiovascular cell types and instructive signals, but becomes quiescent during adulthood. Upon cardiac injury the epicardium is activated, which includes induction of a developmental gene program, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migration. However, the response of the adult epicardium is suboptimal compared to the active contribution of the fetal epicardium to heart development...
November 29, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893933/cancer-and-treatment-distress-psychometric-evaluation-over-time-a-bmt-ctn-0902-secondary-analysis
#5
Karen L Syrjala, Steven K Sutton, Heather S L Jim, Jennifer M Knight, William A Wood, Stephanie J Lee, Paul B Jacobsen, Muneer H Abidi, Jean C Yi
BACKGROUND: Routine monitoring of cancer-related distress is recognized as essential to quality care and mandated by a major accrediting organization. However, to the authors' knowledge, few cancer-specific measures have been developed to date to assess the multiple cancer-related factors contributing to this distress. In the current study, the authors examined the psychometric properties of the Cancer and Treatment Distress (CTXD) measure over time in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients...
November 28, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884952/how-violence-constitutes-order-consent-coercion-and-censure-in-tanzania
#6
Hilde Jakobsen
Survey data show that most Tanzanian women find wife-beating justifiable. What is the meaning of the violence that enjoys such broad social approval? Does respect for women's agency invalidate feminist opposition to wife-beating? I explore these questions by analyzing data on hegemonic norms generated through 27 focus group discussions in Arumeru and Kigoma-Vijijini districts, and find that wife-beating was supported for its role in constituting social order. This analysis of how exactly violence can constitute order yielded insights into the interplay between violence and consent that are theoretically relevant to violence against women in other forms and contexts, reminding researchers and practitioners of the role of power and coercion in supposedly agreed-upon community norms...
November 23, 2016: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883873/doctors
#7
Gaya Sritharan, Amber C Mills, Michele R Levinson, Anthea L Gellie
Objectives The aims of the present study were to investigate doctors' attitudes regarding the discussion and writing of not for resuscitation (NFR) orders and to identify potential barriers to the completion of these orders.Methods A questionnaire-based convenience study was undertaken at a tertiary hospital. Likert scales and open-ended questions were directed to issues surrounding the discussion, timing, understanding and writing of NFR orders, including legal and personal considerations.Results Doctors thought the presence of an NFR order both should and does alter care delivered by nursing staff, particularly delivery of pain relief, nursing observations and contacting the medical emergency team...
November 25, 2016: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879595/the-effect-of-written-information-on-recall-of-surgical-risks-of-carpal-tunnel-release-surgery-a-randomized-controlled-study
#8
Alison L Wong, Janet Martin, David Tang, Martin LeBlanc, Steven F Morris, Justin Paletz, John Stein, Michael J Wong, Michael Bezuhly
BACKGROUND: Written information has been thought to help patients recall surgical risks discussed during the informed consent process, but has not been assessed for carpal tunnel release, a procedure with the rare but serious risk of complex regional pain syndrome. The authors' objective was to determine whether providing a pamphlet would improve patients' ability to remember the risks of surgery. METHODS: Sixty patients seen for carpal tunnel release were included in this prospective, single-blind, randomized study...
December 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872904/exploring-informed-consent-in-hiv-clinical-trials-a-case-study-in-uganda
#9
Agnes Ssali, Fiona Poland, Janet Seeley
INTRODUCTION: In settings with low literacy levels ensuring that participants are fully-informed before they consent to participate in clinical trials is a challenge. We explored the experiences and concerns of key actors in the informed consent process in two HIV clinical trials. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 46 respondents including trial participants, research study team and research ethics committee members about their experiences during the informed consent process...
November 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871308/recruiting-to-clinical-trials-on-the-telephone-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Kim Thestrup Foss, Jesper Kjærgaard, Lone Graff Stensballe, Gorm Greisen
BACKGROUND: Informed consent is an essential element of clinical research. Obtaining consent, however, may be challenging. The use of the telephone for giving information and obtaining consent may be practical but little formal research has been done. METHODS: We examined the use of the telephone for the purpose of informing expectant mothers about The Danish Calmette Study; a randomized clinical trial assessing neonatal Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination. Expectant mothers received an invitation letter with a Participant Information Sheet about The Danish Calmette Study, the present trial, and a Consent Form...
November 21, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867062/evaluation-of-convalescent-whole-blood-for-treating-ebola-virus-disease-in-freetown-sierra-leone
#11
F Sahr, R Ansumana, T A Massaquoi, B R Idriss, F R Sesay, J M Lamin, S Baker, S Nicol, B Conton, W Johnson, O T Abiri, O Kargbo, P Kamara, A Goba, J B W Russell, S M Gevao
BACKGROUND: Convalescent blood therapy has been a promising form of treatment for Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), but less attention has been focused on it for treatment. METHOD: We assessed the effectiveness of convalescent whole blood (CWB) in the treatment of consented EVD patients. We recruited 69 subjects in December 2014 up to April 2015, at the 34 Military Hospital in Wilberforce and the PTS 1 Ebola Treatment Unit in Hastings, Freetown. Forty-four were given CWB, and 25 who consented but preferred to be exempted from the CWB treatment were used to compare clinical outcomes...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866391/adolescent-healthcare-brokering-prevalence-experience-impact-and-opportunities
#12
Jennifer R Banas, Lisa C Wallis, James W Ball, Sarah Gershon
BACKGROUND: Limited health literacy disproportionately affects those with limited English proficiency (LEP). Parents with LEP might rely on their adolescent children to interpret health information. We call this adolescent healthcare brokering. This study uncovers the prevalence of brokering, kinds of tasks, emotional and academic impact, and desired support. METHODS: We invited 165 students from health classes (in a community in which 29.8% are foreign-born and 53...
December 2016: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857778/state-of-acute-agitation-at-psychiatric-emergencies-in-europe-the-stage-study
#13
Luis San, Josef Marksteiner, Peter Zwanzger, María Aragüés Figuero, Francisco Toledo Romero, Grigorios Kyropoulos, Alberto Bessa Peixoto, Roxana Chirita, Anca Boldeanu
BACKGROUND: Agitation is an array of syndromes and types of behaviors that are common in patients with psychiatric disorders. In Europe, the estimation of prevalence of agitation has been difficult due to the lack of standard studies or systematic data collection done on this syndrome. OBJECTIVE: An observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study aimed to assess the prevalence of agitation episodes in psychiatric emergencies in different European countries. METHOD: For 1 week, all episodes of acute agitation that were attended to at the psychiatric emergency room (ER) or Acute Inpatient Unit (AIU) in the 27 participating centers were registered...
2016: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852713/effects-of-increased-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-on-intracranial-pressure-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-a-protocol-of-a-prospective-physiological-study
#14
Han Chen, Ming Xu, Yan-Lin Yang, Kai Chen, Jing-Qing Xu, Ying-Rui Zhang, Rong-Guo Yu, Jian-Xin Zhou
INTRODUCTION: There are concerns that the use of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in patients with brain injury may potentially elevate intracranial pressure (ICP). However, the transmission of PEEP into the thoracic cavity depends on the properties of the lungs and the chest wall. When chest wall elastance is high, PEEP can significantly increase pleural pressure. In the present study, we investigate the different effects of PEEP on the pleural pressure and ICP in different respiratory mechanics...
November 15, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852708/choice-of-moisturiser-for-eczema-treatment-comet-feasibility-study-of-a-randomised-controlled-parallel-group-trial-in-children-recruited-from-primary-care
#15
Matthew J Ridd, Kirsty Garfield, Daisy M Gaunt, Sandra Hollinghurst, Niamh M Redmond, Kingsley Powell, Victoria Wilson, Richard H Guy, Nicola Ball, Lindsay Shaw, Sarah Purdy, Chris Metcalfe
OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of 'leave on' emollients for children with eczema. DESIGN: Single-centre, pragmatic, 4-arm, observer-blinded, parallel, randomised feasibility trial. SETTING: General practices in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: Children with eczema aged 1 month to <5 years. OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome-proportion of parents who reported use of the allocated study emollient every day for the duration of follow-up (12 weeks)...
November 16, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852188/a-review-of-maturity-onset-diabetes-of-the-young-mody-and-challenges-in-the-management-of-glucokinase-mody
#16
Ramy H Bishay, Jerry R Greenfield
Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY), the most common monogenic form of diabetes, accounts for 1-2% of all diabetes diagnoses. Glucokinase (GCK)-MODY (also referred to as MODY2) constitutes 10-60% of all MODY cases and is inherited as an autosomal dominant heterozygous mutation, resulting in loss of function of the GCK gene. Patients with GCK-MODY generally have mild, fasting hyperglycaemia that is present from birth, are commonly leaner and diagnosed at a younger age than patients with type 2 diabetes, and rarely develop complications from diabetes...
November 21, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848271/improvement-in-condition-specific-and-generic-quality-of-life-outcomes-in-patients-with-knee-osteoarthritis-following-synvisc-one-results-from-the-lobras-study
#17
P Kearey, A E Popple, J Warren, T Davis, N Bellamy
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of viscosupplementation with Synvisc-One in knee Osteoarthritis (OA), during routine clinical care, in a 52 week observational study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The LOBRAS study involved a one year long, multi-centre, quasi-experimental, repeated measures, observational study. Consenting patients in Australia fulfilling inclusion/exclusion criteria under the care of a medical specialist in routine clinical practice were enrolled...
November 16, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846873/a-cross-sectional-survey-of-hiv-transmission-and-behavior-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-different-areas-of-inner-mongolia-autonomous-region-china
#18
Lin Qu, Wenrui Wang, Yongming Gao, Jingyuan Yang, Jijiang Dai, Dawei Wang, Bo Tao
BACKGROUND: Little research has been conducted on the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and the sexual intercourse habits of men who have sex with men (MSM) in crowded places, both locally and abroad. This study conducted a survey of MSM in different locales of Inner Mongolia to provide a reference for developing strategies or measures to prevent and control HIV among this understudied population. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of men aged 18 years and older at different venues popular among MSM in Inner Mongolia...
November 15, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846789/impact-of-breakthrough-pain-on-community-dwelling-cancer-patients-results-from-the-national-breakthrough-pain-study
#19
Nathaniel P Katz, Kavita L Gajria, Alicia C Shillington, Judith J Stephenson, Qing Harshaw
OBJECTIVE: To characterize cancer-related breakthrough pain (BTcP) among community-dwelling patients with cancer. METHODS: Data from the National Breakthrough Pain Study, a cross-sectional observational survey describing breakthrough pain (BTP) in the community, were analyzed for a subset of patients with BTcP. Eligible patients were community-dwelling adults with commercial insurance and insurance claims consistent with cancer and chronic pain who consented to a structured telephone interview...
December 5, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843307/the-effect-of-conjugated-linoleic-acid-supplementation-on-the-nutritional-status-of-copd-patients
#20
Hassan Ghobadi, Somaieh Matin, Ali Nemati, Abbas Naghizadeh-Baghi
BACKGROUND: COPD patients are susceptible to anorexia, reduction of caloric intake, weight loss, and malnutrition. One of the possible mechanisms is the increase of inflammatory markers such as interleukin 1β (IL1β), is highly correlated with anorexia. Considering the anti-inflammatory role of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), this study aimed to investigate the effect of CLA supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a double-blind clinical trial, 93 COPD patients who volunteered to participate in the study and who filled out a written consent form, were randomly assigned to control or supplementation groups...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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