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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102505/maternal-characteristics-and-incidence-of-overweight-obesity-in-children-a-13-year-follow-up-study-in-an-eastern-mediterranean-population
#1
Sara Jalali-Farahani, Parisa Amiri, Behnood Abbasi, Mehrdad Karimi, Leila Cheraghi, Maryam Sadat Daneshpour, Fereidoun Azizi
Objectives To investigate clustering of parental sociobehavioral factors and their relationship with the incidence of overweight and obesity in Iranian children. Methods Demographics, body weight, and certain medical characteristics of the parents of 2999 children were used to categorize parents by cluster; children's weights were assessed for each cluster. Specifically, survival analysis and Cox regression models were used to test the effect of parental clustering on the incidence of childhood overweight and obesity...
January 19, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101646/pedigree-based-relationship-inference-from-complex-dna-mixtures
#2
Guro Dørum, Navreet Kaur, Mario Gysi
We present a general method for analysing DNA mixtures involving relatives that accounts for dropout and drop-in, mutations, silent alleles and population substructure. Whether the aim is to identify the contributors to a mixture who may be related, or to determine the relationship between individuals based on a DNA mixture, both types of problems can be handled by the method and software presented here. We focus on the latter scenario, motivated by non-invasive prenatal paternity testing where the profile of the child is available only in the form of a mixture with the mother's profile...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101645/forensic-parameters-of-19-x-str-polymorphisms-in-two-chinese-populations
#3
Chuncao Deng, Feng Song, Jienan Li, Yi Ye, Lushun Zhang, Weibo Liang, Haibo Luo, Yingbi Li
Application of X-STRs as complements of autosomal STR application in the forensic genetics has become a tendency for kinship testing, especially in deficiency paternity cases. Recently, a novel kit of 19 X-STR loci was developed, which permitted the analysis of 19 STR in the same PCR reaction, and these markers can be clustered into seven groups for the physical linkage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the allele and haplotype diversity of 19 X-STR loci in the Uygur (n = 220) and Tibetan nationality (n = 270) and to estimate the usefulness for complex kinship analysis...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101439/development-of-highly-variable-microsatellite-markers-for-the-tetraploid-silene-stellata-caryophyllaceae
#4
Juannan Zhou, Michele R Dudash, Charles B Fenster, Elizabeth A Zimmer
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: We designed and tested microsatellite markers for the North American native species Silene stellata (Caryophyllaceae) to investigate its population genetic structure and identify selection on floral design through male reproductive success. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 153 candidate microsatellite loci were isolated based on next-generation sequencing. We identified 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci in three populations of S. stellata, with di- or trinucleotide repeats...
December 2016: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095430/is-childhood-socioeconomic-status-independently-associated-with-adult-bmi-after-accounting-for-adult-and-neighborhood-socioeconomic-status
#5
Gregory Pavela
Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is inversely associated with adult weight in high income countries. Whether the influence of childhood SES on adult weight is best described using a critical period model or an accumulation of risk model is not yet settled. This research tests whether childhood SES is associated with adult BMI and likelihood of obesity independent of adult socioeconomic status and neighborhood characteristics. Data on individual childhood and adult characteristics come from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 13,545)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081562/male-facial-appearance-and-offspring-mortality-in-two-traditional-societies
#6
Lynda G Boothroyd, Alan W Gray, Thomas N Headland, Ray T Uehara, David Waynforth, D Michael Burt, Nicholas Pound
It has been hypothesised that facial traits such as masculinity and a healthy appearance may indicate heritable qualities in males (e.g. immunocompetence) and that, consequently, female preferences for such traits may function to increase offspring viability and health. However, the putative link between paternal facial features and offspring health has not previously been tested empirically in humans. Here we present data from two traditional societies with little or no access to modern medicine and family planning technologies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077685/working-with-what-you-ve-got-unattractive-males-show-greater-mate-guarding-effort-in-a-duetting-songbird
#7
Jenélle Dowling, Michael S Webster
When mates are limited, individuals should allocate resources to mating tactics that maximize fitness. In species with extra-pair paternity (EPP), males can invest in mate guarding, or, alternatively, in seeking EPP. Males should optimize fitness by adjusting investment according to their attractiveness to females, such that attractive males seek EPP, and unattractive males guard mates. This theory has received little empirical testing, leaving our understanding of the evolution of mating tactics incomplete; it is unclear how a male's relative attractiveness influences his tactics...
January 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074406/testosterone-and-jamaican-fathers-exploring-links-to-relationship-dynamics-and-paternal-care
#8
Peter B Gray, Jody Reece, Charlene Coore-Desai, Twana Dinall, Sydonnie Pellington, Maureen Samms-Vaughan
This paper investigates relationships between men's testosterone and family life in a sample of approximately 350 Jamaican fathers of children 18-24 months of age. The study recognizes the role of testosterone as a proximate mechanism coordinating and reflecting male life history allocations within specific family and cultural contexts. A sample of Jamaican fathers and/or father figures reported to an assessment center for an interview based on a standardized questionnaire and provided a saliva sample for measuring testosterone level...
January 10, 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069174/management-and-counseling-of-the-male-with-advanced-paternal-age
#9
REVIEW
Michael O Jennings, Ryan C Owen, David Keefe, Edward D Kim
Increasing percentages of children are being born to older fathers. This has resulted in concerns about the potential adverse effects of advanced paternal age. To help clinicians counsel couples, a systemic review was performed to attempt to address questions that these couples may ask: Should routine sperm testing be performed in older males? Should preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) be performed? How do providers counsel patients about risk? Should young males freeze sperm if they plan to delay paternity? Using the terms "advanced paternal age", "semen testing", "preimplantation genetic diagnosis/screening", and "cryopreservation", a comprehensive search was performed in PubMed and the Cochrane Library, and numerous international societal guidelines were reviewed...
January 6, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068523/rs12941170-at-sox9-gene-associated-with-orofacial-clefts-in-chinese
#10
Zhong-Lin Jia, Sha He, Shu-Yuan Jiang, Bi-He Zhang, Shi-Jun Duan, Jia-Yu Shi, Ning Huang, Wen-Chao Zhu, Bing Shi
OBJECTIVE: Non-syndromic orofacial cleftings (NSOCs) are considered as complex trait, which results from genetic and/or environmental modifiers. Current findings could only explain small portion of the NSOCs. SOX9 gene plays an important role during craniofacial development in animal models and the Pierre Robin sequence (PRS). However, its role in non-syndromic clefts remains unknown. DESIGN: In this study, we selected eight SNPs in and around SOX9 gene to make maximum coverage, and genotyped them by using RFLP-PCR and ligase detection reaction (LDR) methods to test its associations among 151 NSOCs (53 NSCLP, 52 NSCLO and 46 NSCPO) from Western Han Chinese population...
December 30, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067316/long-term-exposure-to-a-safe-dose-of-bisphenol-a-reduced-protein-acetylation-in-adult-rat-testes
#11
Zhuo Chen, Xuezhi Zuo, Dongliang He, Shibin Ding, Fangyi Xu, Huiqin Yang, Xin Jin, Ying Fan, Li Ying, Chong Tian, Chenjiang Ying
Bisphenol A (BPA), a typical environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical, induces epigenetic inheritance. Whether histone acetylation plays a role in these effects of BPA is largely unknown. Here, we investigated histone acetylation in male rats after long-term exposure to a 'safe' dose of BPA. Twenty adult male rats received either BPA (50 μg/kg·bw/day) or a vehicle diet for 35 weeks. Decreased protein lysine-acetylation levels at approximately ~17 kDa and ~25 kDa, as well as decreased histone acetylation of H3K9, H3K27 and H4K12, were detected by Western blot analysis of testes from the treated rats compared with controls...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062580/hidden-female-physiological-resistance-to-male-accessory-gland-substances-in-a-simultaneous-hermaphrodite
#12
Monica Lodi, Joris M Koene
To increase fertilization chances compared to rivals, males are favoured to transfer accessory gland proteins to females during mating. These substances, by influencing female physiology, cause alteration of her sperm usage and remating rate. Simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails with love-darts are a case in point. During courtship, a love-dart is pierced through the partner's body wall, thereby introducing accessory mucous gland products. This mucus physiologically increases paternity by inhibiting the digestion of donated sperm...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050707/effect-of-parental-obesity-and-gestational-diabetes-on-child-neuropsychological-and-behavioral-development-at-4%C3%A2-years-of-age-the-rhea-mother-child-cohort-crete-greece
#13
Vasiliki Daraki, Theano Roumeliotaki, Katerina Koutra, Vaggelis Georgiou, Mariza Kampouri, Andriani Kyriklaki, Marina Vafeiadi, Stathis Papavasiliou, Manolis Kogevinas, Leda Chatzi
Studies have suggested an association between maternal obesity pre-pregnancy and gestational diabetes (GDM) with impaired offspring neurodevelopment, but it is not clear if these associations are explained by shared familiar characteristics. We aimed to assess the associations of maternal and paternal obesity, maternal glucose intolerance in early pregnancy and GDM, with offspring neurodevelopment at 4 years of age. We included 772 mother-child pairs from the "Rhea" Mother-Child cohort in Crete, Greece. Data on maternal/paternal body mass index (BMI) and maternal fasting serum samples for glucose and insulin measurements were collected at 12 weeks of gestation...
January 3, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040480/non-invasive-prenatal-diagnosis-nipd-of-cystic-fibrosis-an-optimized-protocol-using-memo-fluorescent-pcr-to-detect-the-p-phe508del-mutation
#14
C Guissart, C Dubucs, C Raynal, A Girardet, F Tran Mau Them, V Debant, C Rouzier, A Boureau-Wirth, E Haquet, J Puechberty, E Bieth, D Dupin Deguine, P Khau Van Kien, M P Brechard, V Pritchard, M Koenig, M Claustres, M C Vincent
BACKGROUND: Analysis of cell-free foetal DNA (cff-DNA) in maternal plasma is very promising for early diagnosis of monogenic diseases; in particular, cystic fibrosis (CF). However, NIPD of single-gene disorders has been limited by the availability of suitable technical platforms and the need to set up patient or disease-specific custom-made approaches. METHODS: To make research applications more readily accessible to the clinic, we offer a simple assay combining two independent methods to determine the presence or absence of paternally inherited foetal allele p...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040139/prenatal-diagnosis-of-paternal-duplication-of-11p15-5%C3%A2-14-3-its-implication-of-beckwith-wiedemann-syndrome
#15
Kuan Ju Chen, Yu Mei Liu, Chien Hong Li, Yao Lung Chang, Shuenn Dyh Chang
OBJECTIVE: To characterize a prenatally detected chromosomal aberration with molecular cytogenetic approaches and explore its relationship with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). CASE REPORT: A 33-year-old woman, gravida 2, para 0, was referred to our prenatal clinic at 20+ weeks due to an abnormal amniocentesis karyotyping finding, which showed 46,XY,add(11)(q24.2)dn. The mother conceived through in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI), then embryo transfer...
December 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018262/the-relationship-between-emotion-comprehension-and-internalizing-and-externalizing-behavior-in-7-to-10-year-old-children
#16
Ariane Göbel, Anne Henning, Corina Möller, Gisa Aschersleben
The influence of internalizing and externalizing problems on children's understanding of others' emotions has mainly been investigated on basic levels of emotion comprehension. So far, studies assessing more sophisticated levels of emotion comprehension reported deficits in the ability to understand others' emotions in children with severe internalizing or externalizing symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between emotion comprehension and interindividual differences, with a focus on internalizing and externalizing behavior in children aged 7-10 years from the general population...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013063/emotional-attachment-of-pre-weaning-pups-to-mothers-and-fathers-in-mandarin-voles
#17
Zhixiong He, Shuwei Zhang, Chengjun Yu, Yani Li, Rui Jia, Fadao Tai
Studies into the effects of maternal and paternal deprivation on the brain and behavior are traditionally done on animals from postnatal day 0 to 14 when parents display high levels of licking and grooming. Deprivation experiments that reveal attachment conducted during this period are confounded because physiological and emotional deprivation occur simultaneously. Whether rodent pups of greater physiological independence from postnatal 14 to 21days show emotional attachment towards mothers and fathers remains unclear...
December 21, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012606/could-ethanol-induced-alterations-in-the-expression-of-glutamate-transporters-in-testes-contribute-to-the-effect-of-paternal-drinking-on-the-risk-of-abnormalities-in-the-offspring
#18
Mohammed Abul Kashem, Aven Lee, David V Pow, Omar Šerý, Vladimir J Balcar
It has been known that a preconception paternal alcoholism impacts adversely on the offspring but the mechanism of the effect is uncertain. Several findings suggest that there are signalling systems in testis that are analogous to those known to be altered by alcoholism in brain. We propose that chronic alcohol affects these systems in a manner similar to that in brain. Specifically, we hypothesise that excessive alcohol may disturb glutamatergic-like signalling in testis by increasing expression of the glutamate transporter GLAST (EAAT1)...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011063/the-role-of-parental-engagement-in-the-intergenerational-transmission-of-smoking-behavior-and-identity
#19
Nisha C Gottfredson, Andrea M Hussong, Susan T Ennett, W Andrew Rothenberg
PURPOSE: Prior research has found that the protective effect of parental engagement on adolescent smoking behaviors may be weaker if parents smoke. We examine parental influence on adolescent smoking using a social learning theory framework. We hypothesize that adolescents are more likely to mimic parental smoking behavior if they perceive parents as being more engaged and if the parent is the same gender of the adolescent. METHODS: Hypotheses were tested using a diverse sample of 6,998 adolescents who were followed for seven waves (grades 6-12)...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008729/parental-and-child-genetic-contributions-to-obesity-traits-in-early-life-based-on-83-loci-validated-in-adults-the-family-study
#20
A Li, S Robiou-du-Pont, S S Anand, K M Morrison, S D McDonald, S A Atkinson, K K Teo, D Meyre
BACKGROUND: The genetic influence on child obesity has not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the parental and child contributions of 83 adult body mass index (BMI)-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to obesity-related traits in children from birth to 5 years old. METHODS: A total of 1402 individuals were genotyped for 83 SNPs. An unweighted genetic risk score (GRS) was generated by the sum of BMI-increasing alleles...
December 23, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
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