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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221825/ecological-and-social-factors-constrain-spatial-and-temporal-opportunities-for-mating-in-a-migratory-songbird
#1
Sara A Kaiser, Benjamin B Risk, T Scott Sillett, Michael S Webster
Many studies of sexual selection assume that individuals have equal mating opportunities and that differences in mating success result from variation in sexual traits. However, the inability of sexual traits to explain variation in male mating success suggests that other factors moderate the strength of sexual selection. Extrapair paternity is common in vertebrates and can contribute to variation in mating success and thus serves as a model for understanding the operation of sexual selection. We developed a spatially explicit, multifactor model of all possible female-male pairings to test the hypothesis that ecological (food availability) and social (breeding density, breeding distance, and the social mate's nest stage) factors influence an individual's opportunity for extrapair paternity in a socially monogamous bird, the black-throated blue warbler, Setophaga caerulescens...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220109/temporal-stability-and-the-effect-of-transgenerational-transfer-on-fecal-microbiota-structure-in-a-long-distance-migratory-bird
#2
Jakub Kreisinger, Lucie Kropáčková, Adéla Petrželková, Marie Adámková, Oldřich Tomášek, Jean-François Martin, Romana Michálková, Tomáš Albrecht
Animal bodies are inhabited by a taxonomically and functionally diverse community of symbiotic and commensal microorganisms. From an ecological and evolutionary perspective, inter-individual variation in host-associated microbiota contributes to physiological and immune system variation. As such, host-associated microbiota may be considered an integral part of the host's phenotype, serving as a substrate for natural selection. This assumes that host-associated microbiota exhibits high temporal stability, however, and that its composition is shaped by trans-generational transfer or heritable host-associated microbiota modulators encoded by the host genome...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219490/a-multisite-study-of-family-functioning%C3%A2-impairment-in-pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#3
S Evelyn Stewart, Yu-Pei Hu, Aldrich Leung, Elaine Chan, Dianne M Hezel, Sarah Yao Lin, Laura Belschner, Casey Walsh, Daniel A Geller, David L Pauls
OBJECTIVE: Familial aspects of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), including accommodation and treatment, have received notable and warranted attention. However, individual perspectives of its repercussions on family functioning, including emotional and occupational parental burden, have not been closely examined. The present study details this topic using a large multicenter sample. METHOD: Participants included 354 youth affected with OCD and their mothers and fathers ascertained through OCD programs in Boston, Massachusetts (n = 180) and Vancouver, British Columbia (n = 174)...
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215682/correlation-between-phenotype-genotype-and-antral-follicle-population-in-beef-heifers
#4
F Morotti, G M G Santos, C Koetz Júnior, K C Silva-Santos, V M Roso, M M Seneda
The present study was performed in indicus-taurus heifers 1) to determine if the antral follicle count (AFC) exhibits repeatability from puberty to yearling age and 2) to evaluate whether the phenotypic and genotypic parameters used in genetic improvement programs are correlated with AFC. In study I, Braford heifers (3/8 Nelore x 5/8 Hereford, n = 137) were serially examined by ultrasonography (with 60-day intervals) from weaning (9 ± 1 mo of age) to yearling ages (20 ± 1 mo of age) to monitor the numbers of antral follicles...
March 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213547/laboratory-selection-and-characterization-of-resistance-to-the-bacillus-thuringiensis-vip3aa-toxin-in-heliothis-virescens-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#5
Brian R Pickett, Asim Gulzar, Juan Ferré, Denis J Wright
Laboratory selection with Vip3Aa of a field-derived population of Heliothis virescens produced >2040-fold resistance in 12 generations of selection. The Vip-Sel resistant population showed little cross-resistance to Cry1Ab and no cross-resistance to Cry1Ac. Resistance was unstable after 15 generations without exposure to the toxin. F1 reciprocal crosses between Vip-Unsel and Vip-Sel indicated a strong paternal influence on the inheritance of resistance. Resistance ranged from almost completely recessive (mean h = 0...
February 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212940/hippocampal-nr3c1-dna-methylation-can-mediate-part-of-preconception-paternal-stress-effects-in-rat-offspring
#6
Somayeh Niknazar, Arezo Nahavandi, Ali Asghar Peyvandi, Hassan Peyvandi, Navid Ahmady Roozbahany, Hojjat-Allah Abbaszadeh
Many studies have been shown that maternal stress during pregnancy and in early life period influences offspring in the behavioral and molecular aspects in human and animal models. Recent research has indicated that the environmental condition of males before conception has effects on next generations. We evaluated whether preconception paternal stress (PPS) could influence on hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor gene (GR), (NR3C1) expression, corticosterone response and behavioral outcomes of their offspring...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205120/establishment-of-legal-paternity-for-children-of-unmarried-american-women-trade-offs-in-male-commitment-to-paternal-investment
#7
Kermyt G Anderson
The establishment of a legal father for children of unmarried parents reflects both high paternity confidence and male willingness to commit to paternal investment. Whether an unmarried man voluntarily acknowledges paternity after a child is born has important consequences for both the mother and child. This paper brings to bear a life history perspective on paternity establishment, noting that men face trade-offs between mating and parental effort and that women will adjust their investment in children based on expected male investment...
February 15, 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202807/the-genetics-of-mate-preferences-in-hybrids-between-two-young-and-sympatric-lake-victoria-cichlid-species
#8
Ola Svensson, Katie Woodhouse, Cock van Oosterhout, Alan Smith, George F Turner, Ole Seehausen
The genetic architecture of mate preferences is likely to affect significant evolutionary processes, including speciation and hybridization. Here, we investigate laboratory hybrids between a pair of sympatric Lake Victoria cichlid fish species that appear to have recently evolved from a hybrid population between similar predecessor species. The species demonstrate strong assortative mating in the laboratory, associated with divergent male breeding coloration (red dorsum versus blue). We show in a common garden experiment, using DNA-based paternity testing, that the strong female mate preferences among males of the two species are fully recovered in a large fraction of their F2 hybrid generation...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195318/biallelic-loss-of-function-variants-in-dock3-cause-muscle-hypotonia-ataxia-and-intellectual-disability
#9
Katherine L Helbig, Cameron Mroske, Divya Moorthy, Samin A Sajan, Milen Velinov
DOCK3 encodes the dedicator of cytokinesis 3 protein, a member of the DOCK180 family of proteins that are characterized by guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity. DOCK3 is expressed exclusively in the central nervous system and plays an important role in axonal outgrowth and cytoskeleton reorganization. Dock3 knockout mice exhibit motor deficiencies with abnormal ataxic gait and impaired learning. We report two siblings with biallelic loss-of-function variants in DOCK3. Diagnostic whole exome sequencing and chromosomal microarray were performed on a proband with severe intellectual disability, hypotonia, and ataxic gait...
February 14, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186609/-analysis-of-genetic-polymorphisms-of-15-str-loci-among-ethnic-hans-from-xiamen
#10
Lili Wu, Peng Ran, Xiujuan Zheng, Juanjuan Zhou, Bin Pei, Xiuyu Song
OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci selected by an AmpFLSTR Identifiler(TM) system for personal identification and paternity testing among ethnic Hans from Xiamen, Fujian. METHODS: For 400 unrelated individuals, allelic frequencies for the 15 STR loci from the AmpFLSTR Identifiler(TM) kit were determined. Population genetics parameters for forensic usage were calculated. RESULTS: No deviation of the observed allele frequency from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations was found by Chi-square test (P>0...
February 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178169/an-artificial-neural-network-prediction-model-of-congenital-heart-disease-based-on-risk-factors-a-hospital-based-case-control-study
#11
Huixia Li, Miyang Luo, Jianfei Zheng, Jiayou Luo, Rong Zeng, Na Feng, Qiyun Du, Junqun Fang
An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to predict the risks of congenital heart disease (CHD) in pregnant women.This hospital-based case-control study involved 119 CHD cases and 239 controls all recruited from birth defect surveillance hospitals in Hunan Province between July 2013 and June 2014. All subjects were interviewed face-to-face to fill in a questionnaire that covered 36 CHD-related variables. The 358 subjects were randomly divided into a training set and a testing set at the ratio of 85:15...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166543/pollen-gene-flow-male-reproductive-success-and-genetic-correlations-among-offspring-in-a-northern-red-oak-quercus-rubra-l-seed-orchard
#12
Lisa Alexander, Keith Woeste
Northern red oak is a high-value hardwood used for lumber, furniture and veneer. Intensively managed northern red oak seed orchards are required to obtain genetic gain for trait improvement. Data from conifer seed orchards and natural and managed stands of hardwood trees have shed light on the distance over which pollen can move, and underscore the need for managerial attention to seed orchard design, placement, and maintenance. We used eleven microsatellite markers to investigate pollen gene flow, female mate choice, and male reproductive success in a clonal seed orchard of northern red oak based on paternity analysis of seed orchard offspring in progeny tests...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163690/mentalizing-makes-parenting-work-a-review-about-parental-reflective-functioning-and-clinical-interventions-to-improve-it
#13
REVIEW
Andrea Camoirano
In the last decade several studies have investigated the role of parental reflective functioning (RF), defined as the parental ability to understand his/her child's mental states, on the child's development. Herein, a narrative review on parental RF is presented aimed at (1) presenting an overview of the existing empirical studies, (2) pinpointing unrequited questions, and (3) identifying future research directions. Specifically, the current review focused on (a) the impact of parental RF on the quality of caregiving and the child's attachment security, (b) the effect of parental RF on the child's emotion regulation and the child's RF, (c) maternal RF in women with a history of neglect and abuse, (d) the efficacy of mentalization-based clinical interventions, and (e) the recently developed Parental Reflective Questionnaire...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160091/mediation-of-psychosocial-determinants-in-the-relation-between-socio-economic-status-and-adolescents-diet-quality
#14
Nathalie Michels, Lisa Vynckier, Luis A Moreno, Laurent Beghin, Alex de la O, Maria Forsner, Marcela Gonzalez-Gross, Inge Huybrechts, Isabel Iguacel, Antonio Kafatos, Mathilde Kersting, Catherine Leclercq, Yannis Manios, Ascension Marcos, Denes Molnar, Michael Sjöström, Kurt Widhalm, Stefaan De Henauw
PURPOSE: To examine the underlying reasons for the positive relation between socio-economic status (SES) and the diet quality of adolescents. METHODS: In 2081 adolescents (12.5-17.5 years) of the European HELENA study, a continuous variable on diet quality via 2-day 24-h recalls was available. SES was reflected by parental education, parental occupation and family affluence. Mediation by several psychosocial determinants was tested: self-efficacy, availability at school and home, social support, barriers, benefits, awareness and some self-reported influencers (parents, school, taste, health, friends, food readily available, easy preparation, hunger, price and habits)...
February 3, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152645/is-paternal-smoking-at-conception-a-risk-for-adhd-a-controlled-study-in-youth-with-and-without-adhd
#15
Joseph Biederman, Maura Fitzgerald, Thomas J Spencer, Pradeep G Bhide, Deirdre M McCarthy, K Yvonne Woodworth, Alexandra Saunders, Stephen V Faraone
OBJECTIVE: Based on emerging preclinical findings suggesting that paternal smoking at conception may be a risk for ADHD in the offspring, we investigated whether a similar effect can be observed in humans. METHOD: We analyzed data from an opportunistic dataset of girl probands with ( N = 140) and without ( N = 122) ADHD with available information on paternal smoking at conception. Data were analyzed using Pearson's chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137324/heteroplasmy-due-to-coexistence-of-mtcoi-haplotypes-from-different-lineages-of-the-thrips-tabaci-cryptic-species-group
#16
S J Gawande, S Anandhan, A A Ingle, Alana Jacobson, R Asokan
Heteroplasmy is the existence of multiple mitochondrial DNA haplotypes within the cell. Although the number of reports of heteroplasmy is increasing for arthropods, the occurrence, number of variants, and origins are not well studied. In this research, the occurrence of heteroplasmy was investigated in Thrips tabaci, a putative species complex whose lineages can be distinguished by their mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. The results from this study showed that heteroplasmy was due to the occurrence of mitochondrial cytochrome oxydase I (mtCOI) haplotypes from two different T...
January 31, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128313/quantifying-mating-success-of-territorial-males-and-sneakers-in-a-bower-building-cichlid-fish
#17
I S Magalhaes, A M Smith, D A Joyce
The strategies and traits males evolve to mate with females are incredible in their diversity. Theory on the evolution of secondary sexual characters suggests that evolving any costly trait or strategy will pay off and stabilise in the population if it is advantageous compared to the alternative less costly strategy, but quantifying the relative success of the two can be difficult. In Lake Malawi, Africa, there are >200 species of cichlid fish in which the males form leks and spend several weeks per year building sand-castle "bowers" several times their size...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122520/postnatal-depression-screening-in-a-paediatric-primary-care-setting-in-italy
#18
Antonio Clavenna, Elena Seletti, Massimo Cartabia, Anna Didoni, Filomena Fortinguerra, Teresa Sciascia, Luca Brivio, Daniela Malnis, Maurizio Bonati
BACKGROUND: Postnatal depression is a non-psychotic depressive disorder that begins within 4 weeks of childbirth and occurs in 13% of mothers and 10% of fathers. A prospective study with the aim to evaluate the prevalence of postnatal depression by screening parents with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in the Italian paediatric primary care setting was performed. METHODS: Mothers and fathers of infants born between 1 February and 31 July 2012, living in Italy's Milan-1 local health unit area, represented the target population of this pilot study...
January 25, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120840/non-invasive-prenatal-diagnosis-of-spinal-muscular-atrophy-by-relative-haplotype-dosage
#19
Michael Parks, Samantha Court, Benjamin Bowns, Siobhan Cleary, Samuel Clokie, Julie Hewitt, Denise Williams, Trevor Cole, Fiona MacDonald, Mike Griffiths, Stephanie Allen
Although technically possible, few clinical laboratories across the world have implemented non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) for selected single-gene disorders, mostly owing to the elevated costs incurred. Having previously proven that NIPD for X-linked disorders can be feasibly implemented in clinical practice, we have now developed a test for the NIPD of an autosomal-recessive disorder, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Cell-free DNA was extracted from maternal blood and prepared for massively parallel sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq by targeted capture enrichment of single-nucleotide polymorphisms across a 6 Mb genomic window on chromosome 5 containing the SMN1 gene...
January 25, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118352/using-genetic-variation-to-explore-the-causal-effect-of-maternal-pregnancy-adiposity-on-future-offspring-adiposity-a-mendelian-randomisation-study
#20
Rebecca C Richmond, Nicholas J Timpson, Janine F Felix, Tom Palmer, Romy Gaillard, George McMahon, George Davey Smith, Vincent W Jaddoe, Debbie A Lawlor
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that greater maternal adiposity during pregnancy affects lifelong risk of offspring fatness via intrauterine mechanisms. Our aim was to use Mendelian randomisation (MR) to investigate the causal effect of intrauterine exposure to greater maternal body mass index (BMI) on offspring BMI and fat mass from childhood to early adulthood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used maternal genetic variants as instrumental variables (IVs) to test the causal effect of maternal BMI in pregnancy on offspring fatness (BMI and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DXA] determined fat mass index [FMI]) in a MR approach...
January 2017: PLoS Medicine
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