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Paternity testing

Haoliang Fan, Xiao Wang, Zheng Ren, Guanglin He, Ren Long, Anwen Liang, Tao Song, Jianqiang Deng
In the present study, population data of 19 autosomal STR loci included in the Goldeneye™ DNA ID System 20A in 653 Li individuals was obtained and population genetic relationships among 13 populations were investigated. MDS and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the Hainan Li population kept a close genetic relationship with the Chinese Han populations, especially for Southern Han populations (Guangdong Han, Sichuan Han, and Hunan Han). Our results indicated that the 19 autosomal STRs are highly discriminative and polymorphic in the Hainan Li population suitable for personal forensic identification and paternity testing...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Il Hwan Byun, Jong Won Hong, Mohammed Ahmed Hussein, Yong Oock Kim
PURPOSE: Craniosynostosis (CRS) is a congenital condition resulting premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures. CRS is classified according to the involved sutures into sagittal, metopic, unicoronal, unilambdoid, bicoronal, and multiple-suture CRS, with sagittal suture fusion known to be the most common type. Although multiple studies have presented demographic characteristics of CRS patients, to date, there is no study representing an Asian population. We sought to compare the demographic characteristics of Asian patients to those of Western patients, considering previous reports...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Narges Pachenari, Hossein Azizi, Elmira Ghasemi, Maryam Azadi, Saeed Semnanian
During the past decades, the use/misuse of opioids has increased dramatically among adolescent population. It is now well acknowledged that various morphological and physiological changes occur in the brain during adolescence. During this critical period, brain development and maturation could be affected by several factors including stress, drug abuse, nutritional status, etc. Although studies on transgenerational effects of substances such as alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine have focused on both paternal and maternal drug exposure, most reports on transgenerational effects of morphine are restricted to maternal exposure...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Thomas Liehr, Isolde Schreyer, Alma Kuechler, Emmanouil Manolakos, Sylke Singer, Andreas Dufke, Kathleen Wilhelm, Tereza Jančušková, Radek Čmejla, Moneeb A K Othman, Ahmed H Al-Rikabi, Kristin Mrasek, Monika Ziegler, Stefanie Kankel, Katharina Kreskowski, Anja Weise
Background: Copy number variants (CNVs) are the genetic bases for microdeletion/ microduplication syndromes (MMSs). Couples with an affected child and desire to have further children are routinely tested for a potential parental origin of a specific CNV either by molecular karyotyping or by two color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), yet. In the latter case a critical region probe (CRP) is combined with a control probe for identification of the chromosome in question. However, CNVs can arise also due to other reasons, like a recombination-event based on a submicroscopic, cryptic inversion in one of the parents...
2018: Molecular Cytogenetics
Jing Jing Wang, Yang Gao, Patrick W C Lau
Background: Childhood overweight is a crucial public health concern. Recognizing its associated factors can facilitate the establishment of effective prevention strategies. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of overweight in Hong Kong Chinese children and explore its influential factors in relation to family, early-life development and behavior-related issues. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 894 primary school students aged 9-12 years (50...
December 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Sellappan Selvaraju, Sivashanmugam Parthipan, Lakshminarayana Somashekar, B Krishnan Binsila, Atul P Kolte, Arunachalam Arangasamy, Janivara Parameshwaraiah Ravindra, Stephen A Krawetz
With artificial insemination (AI) and other precision dependent assisted reproductive technologies (ART) being followed in large scale in human and animal reproduction, assessing semen quality and fertilizability is under continuous scrutiny. Various tests have been developed to predict semen quality, but so far no single, highly reliable test is available. In this regard, transcriptomic profiling of spermatozoa assumes significance as it carries the information about spermatogenesis, sperm function, and paternal roles in post-fertilization events...
March 14, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Ning- Qu, Yifan Xie, Haiyan Li, Hao- Liang, Shaobin Lin, Erwen Huang, Jun- Gao, Fang- Chen, Yanwei Shi, Xueling Ou
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technology have provided efficient methods for noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT). However, a well-accepted protocol has not been established. The present study developed an MPS-based approach for NIPAT and compared the performance of two recently reported methods for MPS data interpretation. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We selected 1795 unlinked polymorphic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and performed paternity analysis in 34 real parentage test cases with maternal plasma samples using the Illumina HiSeq platform...
March 13, 2018: Transfusion
Cristiana Bulato, Elena Campello, Sabrina Gavasso, Sara Maggiolo, Daniela Tormene, Paolo Simioni
A 7-years-old child who developed unprovoked deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) was tested for inherited thrombophilia. Protein C (PC) antigen level (87 %) and PC coagulometric and amidolytic activities (12 % and 11 %, respectively) were consistent with a homozygous PC type IIA phenotype.The patient was carrier of two heterozygous missense mutations causing p.Arg32Cys substitution associated with a type I PC defect ("null allele", from the paternal side) and p.Gly433Ser substitution responsible for a type IIA PC defect (from the maternal side)...
February 2018: Hämostaseologie
Tamás Müller, Hajime Matsubara, Yuki Kubara, Ákos Horváth, Balázs Kolics, János Taller, Viktor Stéger, Balázs Kovács, László Horváth, Juan F Asturiano, David S Peñaranda, Béla Urbányi
The objective of this study was to assess impact of cryopreserved European eel sperm and Japanese eel native sperm on early fertilization, hatch, survival, and malformation rates of larvae, as well as develop molecular techniques to distinguish different eel species. Eggs from Japanese eel females (Anguilla japonica) were artificially fertilized with sperm of Japanese eel males and cryopreserved sperm from European eel (A. anguilla, extender was modified Tanaka solution and methanol as cryoprotectant). There were no statistical differences (p > 0...
March 2, 2018: Theriogenology
Alexander N Yatsenko, Paul J Turek
PURPOSE: To examine current evidence of the known effects of advanced paternal age on sperm genetic and epigenetic changes and associated birth defects and diseases in offspring. METHODS: Review of published PubMed literature. RESULTS: Advanced paternal age (> 40 years) is associated with accumulated damage to sperm DNA and mitotic and meiotic quality control mechanisms (mismatch repair) during spermatogenesis. This in turn causes well-delineated abnormalities in sperm chromosomes, both numerical and structural, and increased sperm DNA fragmentation (3%/year of age) and single gene mutations (relative risk, RR 10)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Maxime Cadieux-Dion, Nicole P Safina, Kendra Engleman, Carol Saunders, Elena Repnikova, Nikita Raje, Kristi Canty, Emily Farrow, Neil Miller, Lee Zellmer, Isabelle Thiffault
BACKGROUND: Ectodermal dysplasias (ED) are a group of diseases that affects the development or function of the teeth, hair, nails and exocrine and sebaceous glands. One type of ED, ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate syndrome (AEC or Hay-Wells syndrome), is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by the presence of skin erosions affecting the palms, soles and scalp. Other clinical manifestations include ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum, cleft lip, cleft palate, craniofacial abnormalities and ectodermal defects such as sparse wiry hair, nail changes, dental changes, and subjective hypohydrosis...
March 9, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
Jesica Carina Guzmán-Alberto, Gabriela Martínez-Cortes, Héctor Rangel-Villalobos
Atypical situations arise during the constant resolution of paternity cases, which constitute challenges requiring additional genetic systems and non-standard methods. We report a paternity case presenting three alleged father (AF)-child incompatibilities for the markers TPOX, D2S441, and the indel locus B02 (11/11 vs 8/8; 14/14 vs 10/10; 2/2 vs1/1, respectively). Considering the presence of mutations/null alleles, the residual paternity indexes (PI) obtained with 23 autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) and 38 indels suggest that the AF is the father (PI = 1...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Shao-Kang Mo, Zi-Lin Ren, Ya-Ran Yang, Ya-Cheng Liu, Jing-Jing Zhang, Hui-Juan Wu, Zhen Li, Xiao-Chen Bo, Sheng-Qi Wang, Jiang-Wei Yan, Ming Ni
Kinship testing based on genetic markers, as forensic short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), has valuable practical applications. Paternity and first-degree relationship can be accurately identified by current commonly-used forensic STRs and reported SNP markers. However, second-degree and more distant relationships remain challenging. Although ∼105 -106 SNPs can be used to estimate relatedness of higher degrees, genome-wide genotyping and analysis may be impractical for forensic use...
March 2, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Eun Gyeong Kim
Objectives: To examine health behaviors among Korean adolescents with a focus on both individual and school-based factors, specifically in relation to predictors of high-risk groups. Methods: Secondary data analysis was conducted with data from the 8th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, using descriptive statistics, t tests, χ2 test, and multilevel logistic regression analysis. Health Practice Index was calculated and a range of 0 to 2 was classified as a high-risk group...
January 2018: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
Conny Landgraf, Kerstin Wilhelm, Jutta Wirth, Michael Weiss, Silke Kipper
Most birds engage in extrapair copulations despite great differences across and within species. Besides cost and benefit considerations of the two sex environmental factors have been found to alter mating strategies within or between populations and/or over time. For socially monogamous species, the main advantage that females might gain from mating with multiple males is probably increasing their offspring's genetic fitness. Since male (genetic) quality is mostly not directly measurable for female birds, (extrapair) mate choice is based on male secondary traits...
August 2017: Current Zoology
Xin Liu, Xiumei Hong, Hui-Ju Tsai, Karen K Mestan, Min Shi, Amira Kefi, Ke Hao, Qi Chen, Guoying Wang, Deanna Caruso, Hua Geng, Yufeng Gao, Jianlin He, Rajesh Kumar, Hongjian Wang, Yunxian Yu, Tami Bartell, Xiao-Di Tan, Robert P Schleimer, Daniel E Weeks, Jacqueline A Pongracic, Xiaobin Wang
Previous genetic studies of food allergy (FA) have mainly focused on inherited genotypic effects. The role of parental genotypic effects remains largely unexplored. Leveraging existing genome-wide association study (GWAS) data generated from the Chicago Food Allergy Study, we examined maternal genotypic and parent-of-origin (PO) effects using multinomial likelihood ratio tests in 588 complete and incomplete Caucasian FA trios. We identified 1 single nucleotide polymorphism with significant (P < 5×10) maternal effect on any FA (rs4235235), which is located in a noncoding RNA (LOC101927947) with unknown function...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Angela Sparago, Flavia Cerrato, Andrea Riccio
Background: Loss of paternal methylation (LOM) of the H19/IGF2 intergenic differentially methylated region ( H19/IGF2 :IG-DMR) causes alteration of H19/IGF2 imprinting and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). Recently, internal deletions of the H19/IGF2 :IG-DMR have been associated with LOM and SRS when present on the paternal chromosome. In contrast, previously described deletions, most of which cause gain of methylation (GOM) and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) on maternal transmission, were consistently associated with normal methylation and phenotype if paternally inherited...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
Nicholas M A Crouch, Roberta J Mason-Gamer
Identifying relationships between variables in ecological systems is challenging due to the large number of interacting factors. One system studied in detail is avian reproduction, where molecular analyses have revealed dramatic variation in rates of extra-pair paternity-the frequency with which broods contain individuals sired by different males. Despite the attention the topic has received, identification of ecological predictors of the observed variation remains elusive. In this study we evaluate how structural equation modeling-which allows for simultaneous estimation of covariation between all variables in a model-can help identify significant relationships between ecological variables and extra-pair paternity...
2018: PloS One
Erin J Campbell, Jeremy P M Flanagan, Nathan J Marchant, Andrew J Lawrence
Emerging evidence has demonstrated that paternal alcohol use can modify the behavior of offspring, particularly male offspring. However, preclinical studies to date have not used voluntary self-administration of alcohol to examine alcohol-related behaviors in offspring. Here, we tested the hypothesis that paternal alcohol self-administration followed by punishment-imposed abstinence alters alcohol consumption and seeking in male offspring. Male inbred alcohol preferring iP rats were trained to self-administer alcohol in one context followed by punishment-imposed suppression of alcohol-seeking in a different context using contingent footshock...
April 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Lindsay Taraban, Daniel S Shaw, Leslie D Leve, Misaki N Natsuaki, Jody M Ganiban, David Reiss, Jenae M Neiderhiser
This study used a large (N = 519), longitudinal sample of adoptive families to test overreactive parenting as a mediator of associations between parental depressive symptoms and early childhood externalizing, and parents' social support satisfaction as a moderator. Maternal parenting (18 months) mediated the association between maternal depressive symptoms (9 months) and child externalizing problems (27 months). Paternal parenting was not a significant mediator. Unexpectedly, we found a cross-over effect for the moderating role of social support satisfaction, such that partners' social support satisfaction reduced the strength of the association between each parent's own depressive symptoms and overreactive parenting...
February 20, 2018: Child Development
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