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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545257/the-reactive-sulfur-species-concept-15-years-on
#1
REVIEW
Gregory I Giles, Muhammad Jawad Nasim, Wesam Ali, Claus Jacob
Fifteen years ago, in 2001, the concept of "Reactive Sulfur Species" or RSS was advocated as a working hypothesis. Since then various organic as well as inorganic RSS have attracted considerable interest and stimulated many new and often unexpected avenues in research and product development. During this time, it has become apparent that molecules with sulfur-containing functional groups are not just the passive "victims" of oxidative stress or simple conveyors of signals in cells, but can also be stressors in their own right, with pivotal roles in cellular function and homeostasis...
May 23, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545238/epigenetic-strategies-to-boost-cancer-immunotherapies
#2
REVIEW
Maria J Barrero
Recently, immunotherapeutic approaches have shown impressive responses in a subset of cancer patients. However, the rate of success is low and a large percentage of treated patients do not experience clinical benefits. Therefore, additional strategies are needed to improve responses and select responsive patients. Emerging data suggest that epigenetic drugs can improve the responses to immunotherapy. Understanding the mechanisms of resistance to immunotherapy and the epigenetic events that take place during immune evasion is critical to providing a rational combined use of immunotherapies and epigenetic drugs...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545226/emergence-of-cd26-cancer-stem-cells-with-metastatic-properties-in-colorectal-carcinogenesis
#3
Alvin Ho-Kwan Cheung, Deepak Narayanan Iyer, Colin Siu-Chi Lam, Lui Ng, Sunny K M Wong, Hung-Sing Lee, Timothy Wan, Johnny Man, Ariel K M Chow, Ronnie T Poon, Roberta Pang, Wai-Lun Law
Colorectal cancer results from genetic aberrations which accumulate over a long period of time, with malignant and metastatic properties acquired at a relatively late stage. A subpopulation of CD26+ colorectal cancer stem cells are known to be implicated in metastasis. We quantified CD26+ cancer cells in 11 primary tumor samples by flow cytometry, and showed that tumors having confirmed or suspected metastases harbored a relatively high CD26+ level in these samples. We hypothesized that this subpopulation of cancer stem cells arises in the late stage of carcinogenesis from the bulk of tumor daughter cells which are CD26-...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545217/a-miniature-bird-borne-passive-air-sampler-for-monitoring-halogenated-flame-retardants
#4
Manon Sorais, Ali Rezaei, Joseph O Okeme, Miriam L Diamond, Ricardo Izquierdo, Jean-François Giroux, Jonathan Verreault
Birds have been used intensively as biomonitors of halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), and several studies have reported elevated tissue concentrations and inter-individual variability for these contaminants. While diet is known to be an important exposure pathway for HFRs in birds, it has been suggested that exposure through air may represent an underestimated source of HFRs for certain species. However, a method was not available for measuring the atmospheric exposure of individual birds to HFRs or other semi-volatile contaminants...
May 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545213/safe-utilization-of-heavy-metal-contaminated-farmland-by-mulberry-tree-cultivation-and-silk-production
#5
Xiaoming Wan, Mei Lei, Tongbin Chen, Yongbi Tan, Junxing Yang
Heavy-metal-contaminated soil threatens human health and environmental safety. Complete remediation of contaminated soil is expensive; therefore, phytomanagement has emerged as a cost-effective alternative. The current study investigated mulberry tree (Morus alba) plantation, silkworm cultivation, and silk production as phytomanagement options. Results defined the safety of planting mulberry trees in soils with lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) concentrations lower than 369 and 180mgkg(-1), respectively. Silkworms fed with mulberry leaves collected from slightly contaminated soil exhibited productive growth and normal silk production...
May 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545203/influence-of-urban-vegetation-on-air-pollution-and-noise-exposure-a-case-study-in-gothenburg-sweden
#6
Jenny Klingberg, Malin Broberg, Bo Strandberg, Pontus Thorsson, Håkan Pleijel
Air pollution levels (NO2, PAHs, O3) were investigated, before (BLE) and after (ALE) leaf emergence, in the urban landscape of Gothenburg, Sweden. The aims were to study the 1) spatial and temporal variation in pollution levels between urban green areas, 2) effect of urban vegetation on air pollution levels at the same distance from a major emission source (traffic route), 3) improvement of urban air quality in urban parks compared to adjacent sites near traffic, 4) correlation between air pollution and noise in a park...
May 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545172/femoral-nerve-block-versus-adductor-canal-block-for-analgesia-after-total-knee-arthroplasty
#7
REVIEW
In Jun Koh, Young Jun Choi, Man Soo Kim, Hyun Jung Koh, Min Sung Kang, Yong In
Inadequate pain management after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) impedes recovery, increases the risk of postoperative complications, and results in patient dissatisfaction. Although the preemptive use of multimodal measures is currently considered the principle of pain management after TKA, no gold standard pain management protocol has been established. Peripheral nerve blocks have been used as part of a contemporary multimodal approach to pain control after TKA. Femoral nerve block (FNB) has excellent postoperative analgesia and is now a commonly used analgesic modality for TKA pain control...
June 1, 2017: Knee Surgery & related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545159/the-value-transformation-of-health-care-impact-on-neuromuscular-and-electrodiagnostic-medicine
#8
Pushpa Narayanaswami, Millie Suk, Lyell K Jones
INTRODUCTION: Beginning in 2017, most physicians who participate in Medicare are subject to the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA), the milestone legislation that signals the US health care system's transition from volume-based to value-based care. METHODS: Review of emerging trends in development of value-based healthcare systems in the US. RESULTS: MACRA and the resulting Quality Payment Program (QPP) create two participation pathways, the Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) and the Advanced Alternative Payment Model (AAPM) pathway...
May 25, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545157/the-aminoestrogen-prolame-increases-recognition-memory-and-hippocampal-neuronal-spine-density-in-aged-mice
#9
Alfonso Diaz, Samuel Treviño, Rubén Vázquez-Roque, Berenice Venegas, Blanca Espinosa, Gonzalo Flores, Juan Manuel Fernández-G, Luis F Montaño, Jorge Guevara
The aging brain shows biochemical and morphological changes in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons from the limbic system associated with memory loss. Prolame (N-(3-hydroxy-1,3,5 (10) -estratrien-17β-yl) -3-hydroxypropylamine) is a non-feminizing aminoestrogen with antithrombotic activity that prevents neuronal deterioration, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of prolame on motor and cognitive processes, as well as its influence on the dendritic morphology of neurons at the CA1, CA3 and granule cells of the dentate gyrus (DG) regions of hippocampus (HP), and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of aged mice...
May 25, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545126/pheromone-sensing-neurons-regulate-peripheral-lipid-metabolism-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#10
Rosalind Hussey, Jon Stieglitz, Jaleh Mesgarzadeh, Tiffany T Locke, Ying K Zhang, Frank C Schroeder, Supriya Srinivasan
It is now established that the central nervous system plays an important role in regulating whole body metabolism and energy balance. However, the extent to which sensory systems relay environmental information to modulate metabolic events in peripheral tissues has remained poorly understood. In addition, it has been challenging to map the molecular mechanisms underlying discrete sensory modalities with respect to their role in lipid metabolism. In previous work our lab has identified instructive roles for serotonin signaling as a surrogate for food availability, as well as oxygen sensing, in the control of whole body metabolism...
May 18, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545103/combined-effects-of-cotyledon-excision-and-nursery-fertilization-on-root-growth-nutrient-status-and-outplanting-performance-of-quercus-variabilis-container-seedlings
#11
Wenhui Shi, Mark Bloomberg, Guolei Li, Shuchai Su, Liming Jia
Artificial excision of the distal part of acorns in order to promote germination is well researched in oak seedling cultivation studies. However, studies of combined effects of cotyledon excision and nursery fertilization on container seedlings are lacking, especially for seedling root growth and outplanting performance. This study aimed to explore the main effects of cotyledon excision on Quercus variabilis seedling emergence characteristics and demonstrated the combined effects of cotyledon excision and nursery fertilization on seedling quality to improve Quercus variabilis seedling outplanting performance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545050/prevalence-and-extent-of-heteroresistance-by-next-generation-sequencing-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#12
Darwin J Operario, Alexander F Koeppel, Stephen D Turner, Yongde Bao, Suporn Pholwat, Sayera Banu, Suporn Foongladda, Stellah Mpagama, Jean Gratz, Oleg Ogarkov, Svetlana Zhadova, Scott K Heysell, Eric R Houpt
Amplicon-based Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is an emerging method for Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing (DST) but has not been well described. We examined 158 clinical multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates via NGS of 11 resistance-associated gene regions covering 3519 nucleotides. Across these gene regions, complete resistance or heteroresistance (defined as 1%-99% mutation) was present in at least one isolate in 6.3% of loci. The number of isolates with heteroresistance was highest for gyrA codon 94, rpoB codons 526 and 531, and embB codons 306, 372 and 406 (range 11-26% of isolates exhibited heteroresistance)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545038/assessing-the-facilitators-and-barriers-of-interdisciplinary-team-working-in-primary-care-using-normalisation-process-theory-an-integrative-review
#13
Pauline O'Reilly, Siew Hwa Lee, Madeleine O'Sullivan, Walter Cullen, Catriona Kennedy, Anne MacFarlane
BACKGROUND: Interdisciplinary team working is of paramount importance in the reform of primary care in order to provide cost-effective and comprehensive care. However, international research shows that it is not routine practice in many healthcare jurisdictions. It is imperative to understand levers and barriers to the implementation process. This review examines interdisciplinary team working in practice, in primary care, from the perspective of service providers and analyses 1 barriers and facilitators to implementation of interdisciplinary teams in primary care and 2 the main research gaps...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545036/the-long-non-coding-rna-neat1-enhances-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-chemoresistance-via-the-mir-34a-c-met-axis-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#14
Fei Liu, Na Chen, Yanchun Gong, Ruihai Xiao, Weichao Wang, Zhengyue Pan
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as new gene regulators and prognostic markers in various cancers. Although the lncRNA nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) has been associated with tumorigenesis, its functions in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have not been elucidated. We determined that NEAT1 is up-regulated in RCC tissue compared to corresponding non-tumor tissue. High NEAT1 expression was associated with tumor progression and poor survival in RCC patients. NEAT1 knockdown suppressed RCC cell proliferation by inhibiting cell cycle progression, and inhibited RCC cell migration and invasion by reversing the epithelial-to- mesenchymal transition phenotype...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545004/autophagy-as-an-emerging-arena-for-plant-pathogen-interactions
#15
REVIEW
Daniel Hofius, Liang Li, Anders Hafrén, Nuria S Coll
Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation and recycling process that controls cellular homeostasis, stress adaptation, and programmed cell death in eukaryotes. Emerging evidence indicates that autophagy is a key regulator of plant innate immunity and contributes with both pro-death and pro-survival functions to antimicrobial defences, depending on the pathogenic lifestyle. In turn, several pathogens have co-opted and evolved strategies to manipulate host autophagy pathways to the benefit of infection, while some eukaryotic microbes require their own autophagy machinery for successful pathogenesis...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544955/associations-of-anxiety-sensitivity-and-emotional-symptoms-with-the-subjective-effects-of-alcohol-cigarettes-and-cannabis-in-adolescents
#16
Raina D Pang, Casey R Guillot, Michael J Zvolensky, Marcel O Bonn-Miller, Adam M Leventhal
Maladaptive emotional traits (anxiety sensitivity [AS], fear of anxiety-related sensations and consequences) and symptoms (major depressive disorder [MDD] and generalized anxiety disorder [GAD] symptoms) could play a role in altering sensitivity to the subjective effects of drugs of abuse in adolescents. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of high school students in Los Angeles, CA, USA who completed surveys and reported past six-month use of alcohol (n=1054), cigarettes (n=297), or cannabis (n=706). At each of the four semi-annual waves during mid-adolescence (14-16years old), students reported positive and negative subjective drug effects experienced in the prior six-months...
May 18, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544891/emergence-of-ultrafast-sparsely-synchronized-rhythms-and-their-responses-to-external-stimuli-in-an-inhomogeneous-small-world-complex-neuronal-network
#17
Sang-Yoon Kim, Woochang Lim
We consider an inhomogeneous small-world network (SWN) composed of inhibitory short-range (SR) and long-range (LR) interneurons, and investigate the effect of network architecture on emergence of synchronized brain rhythms by varying the fraction of LR interneurons plong. The betweenness centralities of the LR and SR interneurons (characterizing the potentiality in controlling communication between other interneurons) are distinctly different. Hence, in view of the betweenness, SWNs we consider are inhomogeneous, unlike the "canonical" Watts-Strogatz SWN with nearly the same betweenness centralities...
April 28, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544862/narcissistic-force-meets-systemic-resistance-the-energy-clash-model
#18
Constantine Sedikides, W Keith Campbell
This article focuses on the interplay between narcissistic leaders and organizations. It attempts to capture the gist of this interplay with a model outlining the narcissistic organizational trajectory. The Energy Clash Model borrows and adapts a phase/state physics metaphor to conceptualize narcissism as a force that enters or emerges in a stable system (i.e., organization) as a leader, destabilizes it, and stabilizes it at a different state or is expelled. The model consists of three time-contingent phases: perturbation, conflict, and resolution...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544861/social-buffering-of-stress-in-development-a-career-perspective
#19
Megan R Gunnar
This review provides a broad overview of my research group's work on social buffering in human development in the context of the field. Much of the focus is on social buffering of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system, one of the two major arms of the mammalian stress system. This focus reflects the centrality of the HPA system in research on social buffering in the fields of developmental psychobiology and developmental science. However, buffering of the cardiovascular and autonomic nervous system is also discussed...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544857/new-treatment-directions-for-ipf-current-status-of-ongoing-and-upcoming-clinical-trials
#20
Francesco Macagno, Francesco Varone, Paolo Maria Leone, Pier-Valerio Mari, Loredana Panico, Ludovica Berardini, Luca Richeldi
The main objective of this review is to explore the wide and expanding field of new clinical trials in IPF. Recent trials have confirmed the efficacy of the approved drugs pirfenidone and nintedanib; nonetheless, the discovery of new biological pathways has opened new horizons in this field. Areas Covered: New strategies against matrix deposition are under study and so is for the role of immunity and autoimmunity. Recent advances in the use of stem cells are opening new possibilities for the recovery of damaged lung tissues...
May 25, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
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