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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431025/1h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-of-live-human-sperm
#1
S Reynolds, S J Calvert, M N Paley, A A Pacey
STUDY QUESTION: Can 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) be used to obtain information about the molecules and metabolites in live human spermatozoa? SUMMARY ANSWER: Percoll-based density gradient centrifugation (DGC) followed by a further two washing steps, yielded enough sperm with minimal contamination (<0.01%) from seminal fluid to permit effective MRS which detected significant differences (p < 0.05) in the choline/glycerophosphocholine, lipid and lactate regions of the 1H MRS spectrum between sperm in the pellet and those from the 40/80% interface...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429416/modulation-of-heterotypic-and-homotypic-cell-cell-interactions-via-zwitterionic-lipid-masks
#2
Matthew Park, Wongu Youn, Doyeon Kim, Eun Hyea Ko, Beom Jin Kim, Sung Min Kang, Kyungtae Kang, Insung S Choi
Since the pioneering work by Whitesides, innumerable platforms that aim to spatio-selectively seed cells and control the degree of cell-cell interactions in vitro have been developed. These methods, however, have generally been technically and methodologically complex, or demanded stringent materials and conditions. In this work, we introduce zwitterionic lipids as patternable, cell-repellant masks for selectively seeding cells. The lipid masks are easily removed with a routine washing step under physiological conditions (37 °C, pH 7...
April 21, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425272/effect-of-transfusion-of-washed-red-blood-cells-on-serumpotassium-level-in-hemodialysis-patients
#3
Refik Demirtunç, Emel Üstün, Cumali Karatoprak, Kadir Kayataş, Fuat Çetinkaya, Uğur Özensoy, Rümeyza Kazancioğlu
BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aimed to compare washed red blood cell (WRBC) transfusion versus nonwashed RBC (NWRBC) transfusion in terms of posttransfusion potassium levels in dialysis patients on a day when the patient did not receive dialysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The patients were randomly assigned into two groups, i.e. those receiving WRBCs (n = 21) and those receiving NWRBCs (n = 17). Both groups received one unit of RBCs. Serum potassium and sodium levels were measured before and at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 6th hours after transfusion...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424686/mucosal-and-systemic-immune-responses-to-influenza-h7n9-antigen-ha1-2-co-delivered-intranasally-with-flagellin-or-polyethyleneimine-in-mice-and-chickens
#4
Li Song, Dan Xiong, Hongqin Song, Lili Wu, Meihua Zhang, Xilong Kang, Zhiming Pan, Xinan Jiao
Consecutive cases of human infection with H7N9 influenza viruses since 2013 in China have prompted efforts to develop an effective treatment. Subunit vaccines introduced by intranasal administration can block an infection at its primary site; flagellin (fliC) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) have been shown to be potent adjuvants. We previously generated the hemagglutinin (HA)1-2-fliC fusion protein consisting of the globular head domain (HA1-2; amino acids 62-284) of HA fused with Salmonella typhimurium fliC. In the present study, we investigated its effectiveness of both flagellin and PEI as mucosal adjuvants for the H7N9 influenza subunit vaccine...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424231/mroh1-a-lysosomal-regulator-localised-by-wash-generated-actin
#5
Peter A Thomason, Jason S King, Robert H Insall
The steps leading to constitutive exocytosis are poorly understood. In Dictyostelium WASH complex mutants, exocytosis is blocked, so cells that take up fluorescent dextran from the medium retain it and remain fluorescent. Here we establish a FACS-based method to select cells that retain fluorescent dextran, allowing identification of mutants with disrupted exocytosis. Screening a pool of random mutants identified the WASH complex, as expected, and multiple mutants in the conserved HEAT-repeat containing protein Mroh1...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419698/collagen-barrier-membranes-do-not-adsorb-hypoxia-mimetic-activity-activity-of-gingival-fibroblasts-cultured-directly-on-collagen-barrier-membranes-loaded-with-hypoxia-mimetic-agents
#6
Diana Al-Habbal, Klara Janjić, Michael Edelmayer, Andreas Moritz, Hermann Agis
Hypoxia-based strategies for applications in oral surgery and periodontology have been proposed where collagen barrier membranes (CBM) are loaded with hypoxia mimetic agents (HMA) to induce a pro-angiogenic response. While it was found that CBM release HMA, it remained unclear if CBM adsorb HMA activity. Here we evaluated the response of oral cells cultured on CBM, supplemented with the HMA dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG), desferrioxamine (DFO), and l-mimosine (l-MIM). Gingival fibroblasts (GF) were cultured on unwashed CBM as well as on CBM that had been washed with serum-free medium for 48 hours...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419412/eliminating-malignant-cells-from-cryopreserved-ovarian-tissue-is-possible-in-leukaemia-patients
#7
Michelle Soares, Pascale Saussoy, Mathilde Maskens, Hélène Reul, Christiani A Amorim, Jacques Donnez, Marie-Madeleine Dolmans
Reimplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue (OT) can successfully restore ovarian function in young cancer patients after gonadotoxic treatment. However, for patients with leukaemia, there is a risk of malignant cell transmission. Our objective was to evaluate minimal disseminated disease in OT from leukaemia patients and test a follicle isolation technique to obtain disease-free follicle suspensions. Cryopreserved OT from 12 leukaemia patients was thawed and analysed by histology and long-term xenografting in immunosuppressed mice...
April 17, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418636/defining-molecular-details-of-the-chemistry-of-biofilm-formation-by-raman-microspectroscopy
#8
Paul R Carey, Blake R Gibson, Jordan F Gibson, Michael E Greenberg, Hossein Heidari-Torkabadi, Marianne Pusztai-Carey, Sean T Weaver, Grant R Whitmer
Two protocols that allow for the comparison of Raman spectra of planktonic cells and biofilm formed from these cells in their growth phase have been developed. Planktonic cells are washed and flash-frozen in <1 min to reduce the time for metabolic changes during processing, prior to freeze-drying. Biofilm is formed by standing cells in 50 μL indentations in aluminum foil in an atmosphere of saturated water vapor for 24-48 h. The results for Escherichia coli type K12 cells, which do not readily form biofilm, are compared to those for Staphylococcus epidermidis cells, which prolifically synthesize biofilm...
April 19, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416610/evidence-for-shear-mediated-ca-2-entry-through-mechanosensitive-cation-channels-in-human-platelets-and-a-megakaryocytic-cell-line
#9
Zeki Ilkan, Joy R Wright, Alison H Goodall, Jonathan M Gibbins, Chris I Jones, Martyn P Mahaut-Smith
The role of mechanosensitive (MS) Ca(2+)-permeable ion channels in platelets is unclear, despite the importance of shear stress in platelet function and life-threatening thrombus formation. We therefore sought to investigate the expression and functional relevance of MS channels in human platelets. The effect of shear stress on Ca(2+) entry in human platelets and Meg-01 megakaryocytic cells loaded with Fluo-3 was examined by confocal microscopy. Cells were attached to microscope slides within flow chambers that allowed applications of physiological and pathological shear stress...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416376/seminal-plasma-removal-by-density-gradient-centrifugation-is-superior-for-goat-sperm-preservation-compared-with-classical-sperm-washing
#10
J Santiago-Moreno, M C Esteso, C Castaño, A Toledano-Díaz, J A Delgadillo, A López-Sebastián
Seminal plasma removal is routine in goat sperm cryopreservation protocols. The classical washing procedure designed to accomplish this usually leaves the pellet resulting from use of this procedure contaminated with dead sperm, debris, and cells other than sperm. This contamination negatively affects viability of sperm after cryopreservation. The present research was conducted to compare the effect on chilled and frozen-thawed goat sperm of the classical washing method to that of a selective washing method involving density gradient centrifugation (DGC)...
April 9, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414740/cryopreserved-human-aortic-root-allografts-arterial-wall-structural-changes-occurring-during-thawing
#11
Robert Novotny, Dasa Slizova, Jaroslav Hlubocky, Otakar Krs, Jaroslav Spatenka, Jan Burkert, Radovan Fiala, Petr Mitas, Pavel Mericka, Miroslav Spacek, Zuzana Hlubocka, Jaroslav Lindner
BACKGROUND: The aim of our experimental work was to assess morphological changes of arterial wall that arise during different thawing protocols of a cryopreserved human aortic root allograft (CHARA) arterial wall. METHODS: The experiment was performed on CHARAs. Two thawing protocols were tested: 1, CHARAs were thawed at a room temperature at +23°C; 2, CHARAs were placed directly into a water bath at +37°C. MICROSCOPIC SAMPLES PREPARATION: After fixation, all samples were washed in distilled water for 5 min, and dehydrated in a graded ethanol series (70, 85, 95, and 100%) for 5 min at each level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414061/mechanistic-correlates-of-clinical-responses-to-omalizumab-in-the-setting-of-oral-immunotherapy-for-milk-allergy
#12
Pamela A Frischmeyer-Guerrerio, Madhan Masilamani, Wenjuan Gu, Erica Brittain, Robert Wood, Jennifer Kim, Kari Nadeau, Kirsi M Jarvinen, Alexander Grishin, Robert Lindblad, Hugh A Sampson
BACKGROUND: In our recent clinical trial, the addition of omalizumab to oral immunotherapy (OIT) for milk allergy improved safety but no significant clinical benefit was detected. OBJECTIVE: To investigate mechanisms by which omalizumab modulates immunity in the context of OIT, and to identify baseline biomarkers that predict subgroups of patients most likely to benefit from omalizumab. METHODS: Blood was obtained at baseline and multiple time-points during a placebo-controlled trial of OIT for milk allergy where subjects were randomized to receive omalizumab or placebo...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412635/particle-manipulations-in-non-newtonian-microfluidics-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Xinyu Lu, Chao Liu, Guoqing Hu, Xiangchun Xuan
Microfluidic devices have been widely used since 1990s for diverse manipulations of particles (a general term of beads, cells, vesicles, drops, etc.) in a variety of applications. Compared to the active manipulation via an externally imposed force field, the passive manipulation of particles exploits the flow-induced intrinsic lift and/or drag to control particle motion with several advantages. Along this direction, inertial microfluidics has received tremendous interest in the past decade due to its capability to handle a large volume of samples at a high throughput...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401203/development-of-a-wash-free-immunoassay-using-escherichia-coli-cells-with-autodisplayed-z-domains
#14
Jae-Chul Pyun, Joachim Jose, Min Park
Escherichia coli cells that autodisplay Z-domains have been used to improve the sensitivity and limit of detection (LOD) of immunoassays by controlling antibody orientation. In this study, a rapid, wash-free immunoassay was developed using E. coli cells with autodisplayed Z-domains and flow cytometry. The fluorescence signal from a single E. coli cell could be identified and background noise from non-bound detection antibodies was minimal. Flow cytometric measurement was demonstrated to be more effective than microscopy or fluorescence photometry...
April 12, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399507/the-emerging-role-of-retromer-in-neuroprotection
#15
REVIEW
Kirsty J McMillan, Hendrick C Korswagen, Peter J Cullen
Efficient sorting and transportation of integral membrane proteins, such as ion channels, nutrient transporters, signalling receptors, cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion molecules is essential for the function of cellular organelles and hence organism development and physiology. Retromer is a master controller of integral membrane protein sorting and transport through one of the major sorting station within eukaryotic cells, the endosomal network. Subtle de-regulation of retromer is an emerging theme in the pathoetiology of Parkinson's disease...
April 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399040/a-new-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-elisa-for-a-total-anti-t-lymphocyte-globulin-determination-development-analytical-validation-and-clinical-application
#16
M Montagna, G La Nasa, M E Bernardo, E Piras, M A Avanzini, M Regazzi, F Locatelli
BACKGROUND: Anti-T lymphocyte globulin (ATLG) modulates the alloreactivity of T lymphocytes, reducing the risk of immunological post-transplant complications, in particular rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).We developed and validated a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method to measure serum levels of total ATLG and evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of the drug in children with β-Thalassemia, receiving allogeneic HSCT...
April 7, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389898/influence-of-sucrose-on-growth-and-sensitivity-of-candida-albicans-alone-and-in-combination-with-enterococcus-faecalis-and-streptococcus-mutans-to-photodynamic-therapy
#17
Fernanda Malagutti Tomé, Lucas De Paula Ramos, Fernanda Freire, Cristiane Aparecida Pereira, Ingrid Christine Barbosa de Oliveira, Juliana Campos Junqueira, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Luciane Dias de Oliveira
This study has evaluated the effects of photodynamic inactivation (PDI) using erythrosine as photosensitizer and green light-emitting diode (LED) on biofilms of Candida albicans alone and in combination with Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus mutans. We have also evaluated the effect of sucrose on biofilm formation and bacterial growth and sensitivity to PDI. Biofilms were formed in suspension of 10(6) cells/ml on plates before being grown in broth culture with and without sucrose and incubated for 48 h...
April 7, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389476/defects-in-er-endosome-contacts-impact-lysosome-function-in-hereditary-spastic-paraplegia
#18
Rachel Allison, James R Edgar, Guy Pearson, Tania Rizo, Timothy Newton, Sven Günther, Fiamma Berner, Jennifer Hague, James W Connell, Jürgen Winkler, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Christian Beetz, Beate Winner, Evan Reid
Contacts between endosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) promote endosomal tubule fission, but the mechanisms involved and consequences of tubule fission failure are incompletely understood. We found that interaction between the microtubule-severing enzyme spastin and the ESCRT protein IST1 at ER-endosome contacts drives endosomal tubule fission. Failure of fission caused defective sorting of mannose 6-phosphate receptor, with consequently disrupted lysosomal enzyme trafficking and abnormal lysosomal morphology, including in mouse primary neurons and human stem cell-derived neurons...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388880/a-prospective-comparison-of-urovysion-fish-and-urine-cytology-in-bladder-cancer-detection
#19
Hugh J Lavery, Boriana Zaharieva, Andrew McFaddin, Nyla Heerema, Kamal S Pohar
BACKGROUND: UroVysion fluorescence in situ hybridization (uFISH) was reported to have superior sensitivity to urine cytology. However uFISH studies are limited by varying definitions of what is considered a positive result, absence of histopathology and small sample size. The aim of our study was to better determine the performance characteristics of uFISH and urine cytology by overcoming some of the deficiencies of the current literature. METHODS: Intraoperative bladder wash cytology and uFISH were collected prospectively on all patients...
April 7, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386344/gyy4137-stimulates-osteoblastic-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-via-an-erk1-2-dependent-anti-oxidant-mechanism
#20
Meng Lv, Yang Liu, Ting-Hui Xiao, Wei Jiang, Bo-Wen Lin, Xiao-Ming Zhang, Yi-Miao Lin, Zhong-Shi Xu
OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the development of osteoporosis. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), produces anti-oxidant effect in various biological systems. The present study found that GYY4137, a slow H2S releasing compound, stimulated both mRNA level and activity of alkaline phosphatase, the marker of osteoblast differentiation. This research aims to explore the mechanism on how GYY4137 stimulates osteoblastic cell proliferation and differentiation via an ERK1/2-dependent anti-oxidant approach...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
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