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T- cells

Xiao-Mei Shi, Gao-Chao Fan, Xueying Tang, Qingming Shen, Jun-Jie Zhu
Sensitive and specific detection of DNA is of great significance for clinical diagnosis. In this paper, an effective cascade signal amplification strategy was introduced into photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) DNA. This proposed signal amplification strategy integrates λ-exonuclease (λ-Exo) aided target recycling with hybridization chain reaction (HCR) and enzyme catalysis. In the presence of target DNA (tDNA) of HTLV-I, the designed hairpin DNA (h1 DNA) hybridized with tDNA, subsequently recognized and cleaved by λ-Exo to set free tDNA...
March 13, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Akhilesh Kumar, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Ajay Amit, Amir Zaidi, Raj Kishor Pandey, Ashish Kumar Singh, Shashi S Suman, Vahab Ali, Vidya Nand Rabi Das, Krishna Pandey, Vikas Kumar, Shubhankar Kumar Singh, Shyam Narayan, Hirendra Kumar Chourasia, Pradeep Das, Sanjiva Bimal
We report here a Leishmania donovani ornithine decarboxylase (Ld-ODC) gene used as a DNA vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis in a murine Balb/c mouse model. This study also evaluated the possible mechanism of action directed by this candidate. We found a Th1 immune response after immunization using an Ld-ODC DNA vaccine, with results based on the rearrangement of TCR-V-α-2, proliferation of Carboxy fluorescein Succinimidyle ester positive T cells, which were able to produce cytokines such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-2, but not IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10, and modulations of the STAT-1 and p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways...
March 17, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Yuri Ishiuchi, Hitoshi Sato, Narumi Komatsu, Hideo Kawaguchi, Takashi Matsuwaki, Keitaro Yamanouchi, Masugi Nishihara, Taku Nedachi
Skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ that secretes several proteins, which are collectively termed myokines. Although many studies suggest that exercise regulates myokine secretion, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear and all the exercise-dependent myokines have not yet been identified. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to identify novel exercise-dependent myokines by using our recently developed in vitro contractile model. Differentiated C2C12 myotubes were cultured with or without electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) for 24 h to induce cell contraction, and the myokines secreted in conditioned medium were analyzed using a cytokine array...
March 17, 2018: Cytokine
Karin Kfir-Elirachman, Rona Ortenberg, Bella Vizel, Michal J Besser, Iris Barshack, Jacob Schachter, Yael Nemlich, Gal Markel
BRAF becomes constitutively activated in 50% to 70% of melanoma cases. CEACAM1 has a dual role in melanoma, including facilitation of cell proliferation and suppression of infiltrating lymphocytes, which are consistent with its value as a marker for poor prognosis in melanoma patients. Here we show that BRAFV600E melanoma cells treated with BRAF and MEK inhibitors (MAPKi) downregulate CEACAM1 mRNA and protein expression in a dose- and exposure time-dependent manners. Indeed, there is a significant correlation between the presence of BRAFV600E and CEACAM1 expression in melanoma specimens obtained from 45 patients...
March 17, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Jes M Sanders, Alexandra B Steverson, Anna E Pawlowski, Daniel Schneider, Chad J Achenbach, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Matthew J Feinstein
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected (HIV+) persons have elevated risks for various manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD). No studies to our knowledge have compared atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL) prevalence and associated characteristics for HIV+ persons and matched uninfected controls. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Persons with diagnoses of HIV receiving care at a large urban academic medical center were frequency-matched 1:2 on age, sex, race, zip code, and clinic location with uninfected persons...
2018: PloS One
Gracjana Leonowicz, Kamil F Trzebuniak, Paulina Zimak-Piekarczyk, Ireneusz Ślesak, Beata Mysliwa-Kurdziel
Unbound tetrapyrroles, i.e. protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), chlorophyllide and chlorophylls, bring the risk of reactive oxygen species (ROS) being generated in the initial stages of angiosperm deetiolation due to inefficient usage of the excitation energy for photosynthetic photochemistry. We analyzed the activity of superoxide dismutases (SODs) in etiolated wheat (Triticum aestivum) leaves and at the beginning of their deetiolation. Mn-SOD and three isoforms of Cu/Zn-SODs were identified both in etiolated and greening leaves of T...
2018: PloS One
Akim Felipe Santos Nobre, Danilo de Souza Almeida, Louise Canto Ferreira, Deimy Lima Ferreira, Edivaldo Costa Sousa Júnior, Maria de Nazaré do Socorro de Almeida Viana, Ingrid Christiane Silva, Bruna Teles Pinheiro, Stephen Francis Ferrari, Alexandre da Costa Linhares, Edna Aoba Ishikawa, Rita Catarina Medeiros Sousa, Maísa Silva de Sousa
The Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV-1) is a Deltaretrovírus that was first isolated in the 1970s, and associated with Adult T-cell Leucemia-Lymphoma (ATLL), and subsequently to Tropical Spastic Paraparesis-Myelopathy (TSP/HAM). The genetic diversity of the virus varies among geographic regions, although its mutation rate is very low (approximately 1% per thousand years) in comparison with other viruses. The present study determined the genetic diversity of HTLV-1 in the metropolitan region of Belém, in northern Brazil...
2018: PloS One
Hongxi Wang, Guohua Shen, Chong Jiang, Li Li, Futao Cui, Rong Tian
METHODS: We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Medline databases for eligible articles. SUVmax, MTV, and TLG on B-PET/CT, DS on I-PET/CT and DS on E-PET/CT were regarded as efficacy data. Combined hazard ratios (HRs) for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS: Nine trials with a total of 535 ENKTL patients were included. SUVmax, MTV and TLG on B-PET/CT were significantly associated with PFS with HRs of 2...
2018: PloS One
Jing Jie, Yixin Zhang, Hongyue Zhou, Xiaoyu Zhai, Nannan Zhang, Hongyan Yuan, Weihua Ni, Guixiang Tai
Mucin 1 ( MUC1 ), being an oncogene, is an attractive target in tumor immunotherapy. Maltose binding protein (MBP) is a potent built-in adjuvant to enhance protein immunogenicity. Thus, a recombinant MUC1 and MBP antitumor vaccine (M-M) was constructed in our laboratory. To enhance the antitumor immune activity of M-M, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides 1826 (CpG 1826), a toll-like receptor-9 agonist, was examined in this study as an adjuvant. The combination of M-M and CpG 1826 significantly inhibited MUC1 -expressing B16 cell growth and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jin Liu, Yu Chen, Jing-Ya Li, Cheng Luo, Jia Li, Kai-Xian Chen, Xu-Wen Li, Yue-Wei Guo
Phidianidines A and B are two novel marine indole alkaloids bearing an uncommon 1,2,4-oxadiazole ring and exhibiting various biological activities. Our previous research showed that the synthesized phidianidine analogs had the potential to inhibit the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a validated target for Type II diabetes, which indicates that these analogs are worth further structural modification. Therefore, in this paper, a series of phidianidine derivatives were designed and rapidly synthesized with a function-oriented synthesis (FOS) strategy...
March 20, 2018: Marine Drugs
Yawara Kawano, Oksana Zavidij, Jihye Park, Michele Moschetta, Katsutoshi Kokubun, Tarek H Mouhieddine, Salomon Manier, Yuji Mishima, Naoka Murakami, Mark Bustoros, Romanos Sklavenitis Pistofidis, Mairead Reidy, Yu J Shen, Mahshid Rahmat, Pavlo Lukyanchykov, Esilida Sula Karreci, Shokichi Tsukamoto, Jiantao Shi, Satoshi Takagi, Daisy Huynh, Antonio Sacco, Yu-Tzu Tai, Marta Chesi, P Leif Bergsagel, Aldo M Roccaro, Jamil Azzi, Irene M Ghobrial
Despite significant advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), most patients succumb to disease progression. One of the major immunosuppressive mechanisms that is believed to play a role in myeloma progression, is the expansion of regulatory T-cells (Tregs). In this study, we demonstrate that myeloma cells drive Treg expansion and activation by secreting type-1 interferon (IFN). Blocking IFNAR1 (interferon alpha and beta receptor 1) on Tregs significantly decreases both, myeloma-associated Treg immunosuppressive function and myeloma progression...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Magdalena Dryglewska, Bogdan Kolarz, Maria Majdan
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that results in uncontrolled immune system activation and overproduction of autoantibodies. The pathogenesis of the disease is complex and not fully understood, nevertheless, genetic and environmental factors play an important role. So far, about 30 genes have been identified to be involved in the SLE pathomechanism. However, not all genetically predisposed individuals develop the disease. This phenomenon can be associated with epigenetic changes that occur under the influence of environmental factors...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Marcele F Bastos, Ana Carolina A V Kayano, João Luiz Silva-Filho, João Conrado K Dos-Santos, Carla Judice, Yara C Blanco, Nathaniel Shryock, Michelle K Sercundes, Luana S Ortolan, Carolina Francelin, Juliana A Leite, Rafaella Oliveira, Rosa M Elias, Niels O S Câmara, Stefanie C P Lopes, Letusa Albrecht, Alessandro S Farias, Cristina P Vicente, Claudio C Werneck, Selma Giorgio, Liana Verinaud, Sabrina Epiphanio, Claudio R F Marinho, Pritesh Lalwani, Rogerio Amino, Julio Aliberti, Fabio T M Costa
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a multifactorial syndrome involving an exacerbated proinflammatory status, endothelial cell activation, coagulopathy, hypoxia, and accumulation of leukocytes and parasites in the brain microvasculature. Despite significant improvements in malaria control, 15% of mortality is still observed in CM cases, and 25% of survivors develop neurologic sequelae for life-even after appropriate antimalarial therapy. A treatment that ameliorates CM clinical signs, resulting in complete healing, is urgently needed...
March 20, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Honglin Jin, Chao Wan, Zhenwei Zou, Guifang Zhao, Lingling Zhang, Yuanyuan Geng, Tong Chen, Ai Huang, Fagang Jiang, Jue-Ping Feng, Jonathan F Lovell, Jing Chen, Gang Wu, Kunyu Yang
Immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments (TMEs) create tremendous obstacles for an effective cancer therapy. Herein, we developed a melittin-RADA32 hybrid peptide hydrogel loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) for a potent chemoimmunotherapy against melanoma through the active regulation of TMEs. The formed melittin-RADA32-DOX (MRD) hydrogel has an interweaving nanofiber structure and exhibits excellent biocompatibility, controlled drug release properties both in vitro and in vivo, and an enhanced killing effect to melanoma cells...
March 20, 2018: ACS Nano
Ramsey Hachem, Paul Corris
BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation is a therapeutic option for select patients with end-stage lung disease. However, successful lung transplantation is hampered by chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), in particular bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Although there is no approved or standard treatment for BOS, which may have several distinct phenotypes, extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) has shown promising results in patients who develop BOS refractory to azithromycin treatment...
March 19, 2018: Transplantation
Christine T Dinh, Olena Bracho, Christine Mei, Esperanza Bas, Cristina Fernandez-Valle, Fred Telischi, Xue-Zhong Liu
HYPOTHESIS: Microsurgical implantation of mouse merlin-deficient Schwann cells (MD-SC) into the cerebellopontine angle of immunodeficient rats will initiate tumor formation, hearing loss, and vestibular dysfunction. BACKGROUND: The progress in identifying effective drug therapies for treatment of Neurofibromatosis type II (NF2) is limited by the availability of animal models of VS that develop hearing loss and imbalance. METHODS: A microsurgical technique for implanting MD-SCs onto the cochleovestibular nerve of rats was developed...
March 19, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Zia S Pradhan, Shivani Dixit, Shruthi Sreenivasaiah, Harsha L Rao, Jayasree P Venugopal, Sathi Devi, Carroll A B Webers
PURPOSE: To study sectoral vessel density (VD) and structural alterations in the peripapillary and parafoveal hemiretina corresponding to perimetrically intact regions of glaucomatous eyes with hemifield defects and to compare these with healthy eyes using optical coherence tomography. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 37 eyes with open-angle glaucoma having visual fields (VF) defects restricted to one hemifield and 45 age-matched controls. Peripapillary VD and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness were measured in 8 sectors...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Qian Zhou, Hui Zeng, Peng Ye, Yu Shi, Juan Guo, Xinghua Long
Increasing evidence has shown that the dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is associated with drug resistance. Fulvestrant and tamoxifen represent the major endocrine drugs for the treatment of breast cancer patients, and yet little is known about the biological mechanisms of acquiring resistance to fulvestrant and tamoxifen, let alone the differences between cell lines resistant to these two drugs. Exploration of the differential miRNA profiles between these two cell lines is a useful way to further clarify these resistance mechanisms...
March 19, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Marian Christoph Neidert, Daniel Johannes Kowalewski, Manuela Silginer, Konstantina Kapolou, Linus Backert, Lena Katharina Freudenmann, Janet Kerstin Peper, Ana Marcu, Sophie Shih-Yüng Wang, Juliane Sarah Walz, Fabian Wolpert, Hans-Georg Rammensee, Reinhard Henschler, Katrin Lamszus, Manfred Westphal, Patrick Roth, Luca Regli, Stefan Stevanović, Michael Weller, Günter Eisele
Glioblastoma is the most frequent malignant primary brain tumor. In a hierarchical tumor model, glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSC) play a major role in tumor initiation and maintenance as well as in therapy resistance and recurrence. Thus, targeting this cellular subset may be key to effective immunotherapy. Here, we present a mass spectrometry-based analysis of HLA-presented peptidomes of GSC and glioblastoma patient specimens. Based on the analysis of patient samples (n = 9) and GSC (n = 3), we performed comparative HLA peptidome profiling against a dataset of normal human tissues...
March 20, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Sufian S Ahmad, Michael T Hirschmann, Roland Becker, Ahmed Shaker, Atesch Ateschrang, Marius J B Keel, Christoph E Albers, Lukas Buetikofer, Sithombo Maqungo, Ulrich Stöckle, Sandro Kohl
PURPOSE: (1) To determine the overall accuracy of synovial alpha-defensin, synovial C-reactive protein (sCRP), interleukin-6 (sIL-6), and leukocyte esterase (sLE) as diagnostic markers for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and (2) to independantly evaluate the accuracy of both the laboratory-based ELISA alpha-defensin test and the Synovasure™ alpha-defensin test kit. METHODS: An EMBASE and MEDLINE (PubMed) database search was performed using a set of professionally set search terms...
March 20, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
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