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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915416/opposing-effects-on-the-cell-cycle-of-t-lymphocytes-by-fbxo7-via-cdk6-and-p27
#1
Shachi P Patel, Suzanne J Randle, Sarah Gibbs, Anne Cooke, Heike Laman
G1 phase cell cycle proteins, such as cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (Cdk6) and its activating partners, the D-type cyclins, are important regulators of T-cell development and function. An F-box protein, called F-box only protein 7 (Fbxo7), acts as a cell cycle regulator by enhancing cyclin D-Cdk6 complex formation and stabilising levels of p27, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. We generated a murine model of reduced Fbxo7 expression to test its physiological role in multiple tissues and found that these mice displayed a pronounced thymic hypoplasia...
December 3, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915375/identification-of-enzymes-responsible-for-extracellular-alginate-depolymerization-and-alginate-metabolism-in-vibrio-algivorus
#2
Hidetaka Doi, Yuriko Tokura, Yukiko Mori, Kenichi Mori, Yoko Asakura, Yoshihiro Usuda, Hiroo Fukuda, Akito Chinen
Alginate is a marine non-food-competing polysaccharide that has potential applications in biorefinery. Owing to its large size (molecular weight >300,000 Da), alginate cannot pass through the bacterial cell membrane. Therefore, bacteria that utilize alginate are presumed to have an enzyme that degrades extracellular alginate. Recently, Vibrio algivorus sp. SA2(T) was identified as a novel alginate-decomposing and alginate-utilizing species. However, little is known about the mechanism of alginate degradation and metabolism in this species...
December 3, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915371/histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-deplete-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-induced-by-4t1-mammary-tumors-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#3
Hai-Fang Wang, Fen Ning, Zong-Cai Liu, Long Wu, Zi-Qian Li, Yi-Fei Qi, Ge Zhang, Hong-Sheng Wang, Shao-Hui Cai, Jun Du
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have been identified as a population of immature myeloid cells that suppress anti-tumor immunity. MDSC are increased in tumor-bearing hosts; thus, depletion of MDSC may enhance anti-tumor immunity. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are chemical agents that are primarily used against hematologic malignancies. The ability of these agents to modulate anticancer immunity has recently been extensively studied. However, the effect of HDACi on MDSC has remained largely unexplored...
December 3, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915349/roles-of-1-25-oh-2d3-and-vitamin-d-receptor-in-the-pathogenesis-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-by-regulating-the-activation-of-cd4-t-cells-and-the-pkc%C3%AE-erk-signaling-pathway
#4
Xiao-Jie He, Yan Ding, Wei Xiang, Xi-Qiang Dang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The study aims to elucidate the roles of 1,25(OH)2D3 and vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by regulating the activation of CD4+ T cells and the PKCδ/ERK signaling pathway. METHODS: From January 2013 to December 2015, a total of 130 SLE patients, 137 RA patients and 130 healthy controls were selected in this study. Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 and VDR mRNA expression were detected by ELISA and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR)...
December 5, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915271/changes-in-renal-gene-expression-associated-with-induced-ochratoxicosis-in-chickens-activation-and-deactivation-of-transcripts-after-varying-durations-of-exposure
#5
Cynthia P Zeferino, Kevin D Wells, Ana Silvia A M T Moura, George E Rottinghaus, David R Ledoux
Exposure to ochratoxin A (OTA) can lead to changes in global gene expression. This study investigated the individual expression of genes turned on and off in renal cells of chicks after different durations of exposure to dietary OTA. One hundred and eighty day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments (3 levels of OTA: 0, 1 and 2 mg OTA/kg diet and 3 time periods: 7, 14 and 21 d). Birds were allocated to 36 pens (4 replicate pens of 5 birds each per treatment)...
December 3, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915233/molecular-basis-for-the-autonomous-promotion-of-cell-proliferation-by-angiogenin
#6
Trish T Hoang, Ronald T Raines
Canonical growth factors act indirectly via receptor-mediated signal transduction pathways. Here, we report on an autonomous pathway in which a growth factor is internalized, has its localization regulated by phosphorylation, and ultimately uses intrinsic catalytic activity to effect epigenetic change. Angiogenin (ANG), a secreted vertebrate ribonuclease, is known to promote cell proliferation, leading to neovascularization as well as neuroprotection in mammals. Upon entering cells, ANG encounters the cytosolic ribonuclease inhibitor protein, which binds with femtomolar affinity...
December 2, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915231/predominant-role-of-dna-polymerase-eta-and-p53-dependent-translesion-synthesis-in-the-survival-of-ultraviolet-irradiated-human-cells
#7
Leticia K Lerner, Guilherme Francisco, Daniela T Soltys, Clarissa R R Rocha, Annabel Quinet, Alexandre T Vessoni, Ligia P Castro, Taynah I P David, Silvina O Bustos, Bryan E Strauss, Vanesa Gottifredi, Anne Stary, Alain Sarasin, Roger Chammas, Carlos F M Menck
Genome lesions trigger biological responses that help cells manage damaged DNA, improving cell survival. Pol eta is a translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerase that bypasses lesions that block replicative polymerases, avoiding continued stalling of replication forks, which could lead to cell death. p53 also plays an important role in preventing cell death after ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. Intriguingly, we show that p53 does so by favoring translesion DNA synthesis by pol eta. In fact, the p53-dependent induction of pol eta in normal and DNA repair-deficient XP-C human cells after UV exposure has a protective effect on cell survival after challenging UV exposures, which was absent in p53- and Pol H-silenced cells...
December 2, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915228/cytokines-il-17-and-il-22-in-the-host-response-to-infection
#8
Maria Valeri, Manuela Raffatellu
Cytokines IL-17 and IL-22 play pivotal roles in host defense against microbes and in the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. These cytokines are produced by cells that are often located in epithelial barriers, including subsets of T cells and innate lymphoid cells. In general, IL-17 and IL-22 can be characterized as important cytokines in the rapid response to infectious agents, both by recruiting neutrophils and by inducing the production of antimicrobial peptides. Although each cytokine induces an innate immune response in epithelial cells, their functional spectra are generally distinct: IL-17 mainly induces an inflammatory tissue response and is involved in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, whereas IL-22 is largely protective and regenerative...
December 2, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915213/case-report-of-cholelithiasis-in-a-patient-with-type-1-gaucher-disease
#9
Afrim Avdaj, Naim Fanaj, Mirsade Osmani, Agron Bytyqi, Anila Cake
INTRODUCTION: Patients with type 1 Gaucher disease have been reported to be more likely to have cholelithiasis. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A case of cholelithiasis in a patient with type 1 Gaucher disease; which is very intriguing to show this comorbidity. The case was the only known case with this pathology in time of diagnosis in our country (Kosovo). The patient is a 21-year old girl a known case of type 1 Gaucher disease, at the age of 8 years. The patient underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915113/white-blood-cells-and-subtypes-in-hfe-p-c282y-and-wild-type-homozygotes-in-the-hemochromatosis-and-iron-overload-screening-study
#10
James C Barton, J Clayborn Barton, Ronald T Acton
The major histocompatibility complex is linked to white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts in subjects unselected for HFE genotypes. We compared age, sex, body mass index, total WBC and subtypes (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils) (Beckman Coulter® Gen-S), transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin of HFE p.C282Y and wild-type (p.C282Y, p.H63D negative) homozygotes without acquired conditions that influence WBC counts. We performed regressions on WBC and subtypes. There were 161 p...
November 12, 2016: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915024/extracellular-matrix-hydrogels-from-decellularized-tissues-structure-and-function
#11
REVIEW
Lindsey T Saldin, Madeline C Cramer, Sachin S Velankar, Lisa J White, Stephen F Badylak
: Extracellular matrix (ECM) bioscaffolds prepared from decellularized tissues have been used to facilitate constructive and functional tissue remodeling in a variety of clinical applications. The discovery that these ECM materials could be solubilized and subsequently manipulated to form hydrogels expanded their potential in vitro and in vivo utility; i.e. as culture substrates comparable to collagen or Matrigel, and as injectable materials that fill irregularly-shaped defects. The mechanisms by which ECM hydrogels direct cell behavior and influence remodeling outcomes are only partially understood, but likely include structural and biological signals retained from the native source tissue...
November 30, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915012/intra-laboratory-validated-human-cell-based-in-vitro-vasculogenesis-angiogenesis-test-with-serum-free-medium
#12
T Toimela, O Huttala, E Sabell, M Mannerström, J R Sarkanen, T Ylikomi, T Heinonen
Vasculogenesis and angiogenesis are the processes by which new blood vessels are formed. We have developed a serum-free human adipose stromal cell and umbilical cord vein endothelial cell based vasculogenesis/angiogenesis test. In this study, the test was validated in our GLP laboratory following the OECD Guidance Document 34 [1] using erlotinib, acetylic salicylic acid, levamisole, 2-methoxyestradiol, anti-VEGF, methimazole, and D-mannitol to show its reproducibility, repeatability, and predictivity for humans...
November 30, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914984/recapitulating-the-human-tumor-microenvironment-colon-tumor-derived-extracellular-matrix-promotes-angiogenesis-and-tumor-cell-growth
#13
Mónica Romero-López, Andrew L Trinh, Agua Sobrino, Michaela M S Hatch, Mark T Keating, Cristhian Fimbres, David E Lewis, Paul D Gershon, Elliot L Botvinick, Michelle Digman, John S Lowengrub, Christopher C W Hughes
Extracellular matrix (ECM) is an essential and dynamic component of all tissues and directly affects cellular behavior by providing both mechanical and biochemical signaling cues. Changes in ECM can alter tissue homeostasis, potentially leading to promotion of cellular transformation and the generation of tumors. Therefore, understanding ECM compositional changes during cancer progression is vital to the development of targeted treatments. Previous efforts to reproduce the native 3D cellular microenvironment have utilized protein gels and scaffolds that incompletely recapitulate the complexity of native tissues...
November 24, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914961/expanding-the-clinical-and-genetic-spectrum-of-g6pd-deficiency-the-occurrence-of-bcgitis-and-novel-missense-mutation
#14
Taj Ali Khan, Humaira Mazhar, Mehboob Nawaz, Kalsoom Kalsoom, Muhammad Ishfaq, Huma Asif, Hazir Rahman, Muhammad Qasim, Farkhanda Naz, Mubashir Hussain, Baharullah Khattak, Waheed Ullah, Otavio Cabral-Marques, Jawad Butt, Asif Iqbal
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a key enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway that ensures sufficient production of coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) by catalyzing the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH. Noteworthy, the latter mediates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by phagocytic cells such as neutrophils and monocytes. Therefore, patients with severe forms of G6PD deficiency may present impaired NADPH oxidase activity and become susceptible to recurrent infections...
November 30, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914958/comparative-analysis-of-motility-and-other-properties-of-treponema-denticola-strains
#15
Keiji Nagano, Yoshiaki Hasegawa, Yasuo Yoshida, Fuminobu Yoshimura
The periodontitis-associated pathogen Treponema denticola is a spirochetal bacterium that swims by rotating its cell body like a corkscrew using periplasmic flagella. We compared physiologic and pathogenic properties, including motility, in four strains of T. denticola. Phase-contrast microscopy showed differential motility between the strains; ATCC 35404 showed the highest motility, followed by ATCC 33521, and the remaining two strains (ATCC 35405 and ATCC 33520) showed the lowest motility. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the low motility strains exhibited extracellular flagellar protrusions resulting from elongated flagella...
November 30, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914923/alloantigen-gene-transfer-to-hepatocytes-promotes-tolerance-to-pancreatic-islet-graft-by-inducing-cd8-regulatory-t-cells
#16
Valentin Le Guen, Jean-Paul Judor, Françoise Boeffard, Vanessa Gauttier, Nicolas Ferry, Jean-Paul Soulillou, Sophie Brouard, Sophie Conchon
BACKGROUND & AIM: Induction of donor-specific immune tolerance is a good alternative to chronic life-long immunosuppression for transplant patients. Donor major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules represent the main targets of the allogeneic immune response of transplant recipients. Liver-targeted gene transfer with viral vectors induces tolerance toward the encoded antigen. The aim of this work was to determine whether alloantigen gene transfer to hepatocytes induces tolerance and promotes graft acceptance...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914813/normal-human-gingival-fibroblasts-undergo-cytostasis-and-apoptosis-after-long-term-exposure-to-butyric-acid
#17
Michihiro Shirasugi, Keisuke Nishioka, Toshiro Yamamoto, Takaaki Nakaya, Narisato Kanamura
The causes of periodontal disease are complex. Butyric acid, a metabolite of periodontopathic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, acts as a histone deacetylase inhibitor that has a direct effect on mRNA expression. Butyric acid produced by Clostridium butyricum in the intestinal tract induces differentiation of regulatory T cells, thereby suppressing inflammation in the gut. Mice lacking Clostridium butyricum in the intestinal tract suffer from colitis. By contrast, butyric acid in the oral cavity worsens periodontal disease...
November 30, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914798/antimycobacterial-activity-of-novel-hydrazide-hydrazone-derivatives-with-2h-chromene-and-coumarin-scaffold
#18
Violina T Angelova, Violeta Valcheva, Nikolay G Vassilev, Rosen Buyukliev, Georgi Momekov, Ivan Dimitrov, Luciano Saso, Mirjana Djukic, Boris Shivachev
This study reports the synthesis of new 2H-chromene or coumarin based acylhydrazones, which were evaluated for their in vitro antimycobacterial activity against reference strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and compared to the first-line antituberculosis drugs, isoniazid (INH) and ethambutol (EMB). The most active compounds 7m (MIC 0.13μM), 7o (MIC 0.15μM) and 7k (MIC 0.17μM) demonstrated antimycobacterial activity at submicromolar concentration level and remarkably minimal associated cytotoxicity in the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK-293T...
November 25, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914715/prostate-cancer-in-young-adults-seventeen-year-clinical-experience-of-a-single-center
#19
Tzu-Hao Huang, Junne-Yih Kuo, Yi-Hsiu Huang, Hsiao-Jen Chung, William J S Huang, Howard H H Wu, Yen-Hwa Chang, Alex T L Lin, Kuang-Kuo Chen
BACKGROUND: In the general population, prostate adenocarcinoma affects predominately older men. If fact, most current guidelines suggest that males over the age of 50 years should undergo prostate cancer screening. However, the clinical behavior and prognosis of prostate cancer in young adults is not well defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical behavior, pathological characteristics, and prognosis of prostate cancer in young adults. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of young patients (age, ≤50 years) in our hospital with prostate adenocarcinoma between 1997 and 2013...
November 30, 2016: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914707/adiponectin-alters-renal-calcium-and-phosphate-excretion-through-regulation-of-klotho-expression
#20
Joseph M Rutkowski, Johanne Pastor, Kai Sun, Sun K Park, I Alexandru Bobulescu, Christopher T Chen, Orson W Moe, Philipp E Scherer
The kidney controls systemic calcium and phosphate levels and disturbances of its control mechanisms can lead to a variety of diseases. The insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin is renoprotective and accelerates functional recovery following renal injury. However, unlike other adipokines, adiponectin is reduced in obesity. High adiponectin levels are also correlated with bone loss, suggestive of an additional action in mineral metabolism. Using knockout, wild-type, and adiponectin-overexpressing transgenic mice, we sought to identify the mechanistic basis for adiponectin's ability to regulate calcium and phosphate balance at the level of the kidney...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
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