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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651373/sex-dependent-differences-in-liver-and-gut-metabolomic-profiles-with-acarbose-and-calorie-restriction-in-c57bl-6-mice
#1
Victoria K Gibbs, Rachel A Brewer, Nathan D Miyasaki, Amit Patki, Daniel L Smith
Acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor used in treating type 2 diabetes, impairs complex carbohydrate digestion and absorption and extends lifespan in mice (without a requisite reduction in food intake). To assess sex-differential effects coincident with calorie restriction versus a non-restricted longevity enhancing intervention, we evaluated the metabolite profiles (by LC/MS) from livers and cecal contents of C57BL/6J mice (n=4/sex/group,) which were maintained for 10 months under one of three diet treatments: ad libitum control diet (CON), ad libitum control diet containing 0...
June 23, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651190/temporal-dynamics-of-the-compositions-and-activities-of-soil-microbial-communities-post-application-of-the-insecticide-chlorantraniliprole-in-paddy-soils
#2
Meng Wu, Jia Liu, Weitao Li, Ming Liu, Chunyu Jiang, Zhongpei Li
Chlorantraniliprole (CAP) is a newly developed insecticide widely used in rice fields in China. There has been few studies evaluating the toxicological effects of CAP on soil-associated microbes. An 85-day microcosm experiment was performed to reveal the dissipation dynamics of CAP in three types of paddy soils in subtropical China. The effects of CAP on microbial activities (microbial biomass carbon-MBC, basal soil respiration-BSR, microbial metabolic quotient-qCO2, acid phosphatase and sucrose invertase activities) in the soils were periodically evaluated...
June 23, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650915/the-brainstem-network-controlling-blood-pressure-an-important-role-for-pressor-sites-in-the-caudal-medulla-and-cervical-spinal-cord
#3
Michael G Z Ghali
: Although medullary control of blood pressure (BP) has been extensively studied, the contribution of critical regions, such as pressor sites in the caudal medulla and upper cervical spinal cord and the lateral tegmental field, remains controversial and underappreciated. A series of pressor sites caudal to the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM), including the caudal pressor area (CPA) and medullocervical pressor area, play an important role in control of BP. Activation and inhibition of these sites elicits pressor and depressor responses, respectively...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650834/angle-2dpca-a-new-formulation-for-2dpca
#4
Quanxue Gao, Lan Ma, Yang Liu, Xinbo Gao, Feiping Nie
2-D principal component analysis (2DPCA), which employs squared F-norm as the distance metric, has been widely used in dimensionality reduction for data representation and classification. It, however, is commonly known that squared F-norm is very sensitivity to outliers. To handle this problem, we present a novel formulation for 2DPCA, namely Angle-2DPCA. It employs F-norm as the distance metric and takes into consideration the relationship between reconstruction error and variance in the objective function...
June 22, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650828/convex-formulation-for-kernel-pca-and-its-use-in-semisupervised-learning
#5
Carlos M Alaiz, Michael Fanuel, Johan A K Suykens
In this brief, kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) is reinterpreted as the solution to a convex optimization problem. Actually, there is a constrained convex problem for each principal component, so that the constraints guarantee that the principal component is indeed a solution, and not a mere saddle point. Although these insights do not imply any algorithmic improvement, they can be used to further understand the method, formulate possible extensions, and properly address them. As an example, a new convex optimization problem for semisupervised classification is proposed, which seems particularly well suited whenever the number of known labels is small...
June 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650216/brachylaimiasis-brachylaima-spp-digenea-brachylaimidae-metacercariae-parasitizing-the-edible-snail-cornu-aspersum-helicidae-in-spanish-public-marketplaces-and-health-associated-risk-factors
#6
Mercedes Gracenea, Laia Gállego
The edible land snail Cornu aspersum (Pulmonata: Stylommatophora) acts as a second intermediate host in the terrestrial life-cycle of the trematodes Brachylaima spp., harboring unencysted metacercariae in its kidney. The ingestion of undercooked infected snails by humans may allow metacercariae to potentially develop to adult stage in the intestine causing brachylaimiasis, as already seen in the case of a given Brachylaima species in Australia. Prevalence and dynamics of C. aspersum parasitization by Brachylaima spp...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650167/molecular-insight-into-the-adsorption-of-spruce-budworm-antifreeze-protein-to-ice-surface-a-clathrate-mediated-recognition-mechanism
#7
Sandipan Chakraborty, Biman Jana
The principal mechanism of ice recognition by antifreeze protein (AFP) is a topic of intense discussion in recent times. Despite of many experimental and theoretical studies, the detailed understanding of the process remains elusive. Present work aims to explore the molecular mechanism of ice recognition by an insect AFP from Spruce budworm, sbwAFP. Evident from our simulation, water dynamics becomes highly sluggish around the IBS due to the combined effect of confinement and ordering induced by the perfectly aligned methyl side-chains of threonine residues, the THRs ladder...
June 26, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650056/tailoring-the-local-environment-around-metal-ions-a-solution-chemical-and-structural-study-of-some-multidentate-tripodal-ligands
#8
Ferenc Matyuska, Attila Szorcsik, Nóra V May, Ágnes Dancs, Éva Kováts, Attila Bényei, Tamás Gajda
Manganese(ii), copper(ii) and zinc(ii) complexes of four polydentate tripodal ligands (tachpyr (N,N',N''-tris(2-pyridylmethyl)-cis,cis-1,3,5-triaminocyclohexane), trenpyr (tris[2-(2-pyridylmethyl)aminoethyl]amine, tach3pyr (N,N',N''-tris(3-pyridylmethyl)-cis,cis-1,3,5-triaminocyclohexane) and tren3pyr (tris[2-(2-pyridylmethyl)aminoethyl]amine)) were characterized in both solution and solid states. A combined evaluation of potentiometric, UV-VIS, NMR and EPR data allowed the conclusion of both thermodynamic and structural information about the complexes formed in solution...
June 26, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649805/cross-country-skiing-movement-factorization-to-explore-relationships-between-skiing-economy-and-athletes-skills
#9
Barbara Pellegrini, Chiara Zoppirolli, Gennaro Boccia, Lorenzo Bortolan, Federico Schena
We investigated the relationships between the biomechanics of the double poling (DP) technique in cross-country skiing, its economy and athletes' skill. To this aim, skiers' motion has been factorized into components through principal component analysis (PCA).Eight high-level (HL) and eight regional level (RL) male cross-country skiers performed a 5-min submaximal DP trial while roller skiing on a treadmill at 14 km h(-1) and 2° incline. Whole-body kinematics was recorded with a motion capture system. PCA was applied to markers coordinates to extract principal movements (PMk ), which were ranked by their variance...
June 26, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649644/constitutional-variants-are-not-associated-with-her2-positive-breast-cancer-results-from-the-signal-phare-clinical-cohort
#10
Xavier Pivot, Gilles Romieu, Pierre Fumoleau, Maria Rios, Hervé Bonnefoi, Thomas Bachelot, Patrick Soulié, Christelle Jouannaud, Hugues Bourgeois, Thierry Petit, Isabelle Tennevet, David Assouline, Marie-Christine Mathieu, Jean-Philippe Jacquin, Sandrine Lavau-Denes, Ariane Darut-Jouve, Jean-Marc Ferrero, Carole Tarpin, Christelle Lévy, Valérie Delecroix, Véronique Trillet-Lenoir, Oana Cojocarasu, Jérôme Meunier, Jean-Yves Pierga, Cécile Agostini, Pierre Kerbrat, Céline Faure-Mercier, Hélène Blanché, Mourad Sahbatou, Anne Boland, Delphine Bacq, Céline Besse, Fabien Calvo, Alexia Renaud, Jean-François Deleuze, Iris Pauporté, Gilles Thomas, David G Cox
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer is a subtype of interest regarding its outcome and the impressive impact of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 targeted therapy. Constitutional variants may be involved in the aetiology of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer, and we propose a case-case study to test the hypothesis that single nucleotide polymorphisms may be associated with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status. A Genome-Wide Association Study was used in a cohort of 9836 patients from the SIGNAL/PHARE study (NCT00381901-RECF1098)...
2017: NPJ Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649445/variable-phenotype-expression-in-a-family-segregating-microdeletions-of-the-nrxn1-and-mbd5-autism-spectrum-disorder-susceptibility-genes
#11
Marc Woodbury-Smith, Rob Nicolson, Mehdi Zarrei, Ryan K C Yuen, Susan Walker, Jennifer Howe, Mohammed Uddin, Ny Hoang, Janet A Buchanan, Christina Chrysler, Ann Thompson, Peter Szatmari, Stephen W Scherer
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental condition of early childhood onset, which impacts socio-communicative functioning and is principally genetic in etiology. Currently, more than 50 genomic loci are deemed to be associated with susceptibility to ASD, showing de novo and inherited unbalanced copy number variants (CNVs) and smaller insertions and deletions (indels), more complex structural variants (SVs), as well as single nucleotide variants (SNVs) deemed of pathological significance. However, the phenotypes associated with many of these genes are variable, and penetrance is largely unelaborated in clinical descriptions...
May 3, 2017: NPJ Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649439/mechanisms-of-action-of-sacubitril-valsartan-on-cardiac-remodeling-a-systems-biology-approach
#12
Oriol Iborra-Egea, Carolina Gálvez-Montón, Santiago Roura, Isaac Perea-Gil, Cristina Prat-Vidal, Carolina Soler-Botija, Antoni Bayes-Genis
Sacubitril/Valsartan, proved superiority over other conventional heart failure management treatments, but its mechanisms of action remains obscure. In this study, we sought to explore the mechanistic details for Sacubitril/Valsartan in heart failure and post-myocardial infarction remodeling, using an in silico, systems biology approach. Myocardial transcriptome obtained in response to myocardial infarction in swine was analyzed to address post-infarction ventricular remodeling. Swine transcriptome hits were mapped to their human equivalents using Reciprocal Best (blast) Hits, Gene Name Correspondence, and InParanoid database...
2017: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649353/genetic-identification-of-source-and-likely-vector-of-a-widespread-marine-invader
#13
Stacy A Krueger-Hadfield, Nicole M Kollars, Allan E Strand, James E Byers, Sarah J Shainker, Ryuta Terada, Thomas W Greig, Mareike Hammann, David C Murray, Florian Weinberger, Erik E Sotka
The identification of native sources and vectors of introduced species informs their ecological and evolutionary history and may guide policies that seek to prevent future introductions. Population genetics provides a powerful set of tools to identify origins and vectors. However, these tools can mislead when the native range is poorly sampled or few molecular markers are used. Here, we traced the introduction of the Asian seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Rhodophyta) into estuaries in coastal western North America, the eastern United States, Europe, and northwestern Africa by genotyping more than 2,500 thalli from 37 native and 53 non-native sites at mitochondrial cox1 and 10 nuclear microsatellite loci...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649138/pseudomonas-predators-understanding-and-exploiting-phage-host-interactions
#14
REVIEW
Jeroen De Smet, Hanne Hendrix, Bob G Blasdel, Katarzyna Danis-Wlodarczyk, Rob Lavigne
Species in the genus Pseudomonas thrive in a diverse set of ecological niches and include crucial pathogens, such as the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. The bacteriophages that infect Pseudomonas spp. mirror the widespread and diverse nature of their hosts. Therefore, Pseudomonas spp. and their phages are an ideal system to study the molecular mechanisms that govern virus-host interactions. Furthermore, phages are principal catalysts of host evolution and diversity, which directly affects the ecological roles of environmental and pathogenic Pseudomonas spp...
June 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648997/effects-tolerance-mechanisms-and-management-of-salt-stress-in-grain-legumes
#15
REVIEW
Muhammad Farooq, Nirmali Gogoi, Mubshar Hussain, Sharmistha Barthakur, Sreyashi Paul, Nandita Bharadwaj, Hussein M Migdadi, Salem S Alghamdi, Kadambot H M Siddique
Salt stress is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries with irrigated agriculture. Efforts to improve salt tolerance in crop plants are vital for sustainable crop production on marginal lands to ensure future food supplies. Grain legumes are a fascinating group of plants due to their high grain protein contents and ability to fix biological nitrogen. However, the accumulation of excessive salts in soil and the use of saline groundwater are threatening legume production worldwide. Salt stress disturbs photosynthesis and hormonal regulation and causes nutritional imbalance, specific ion toxicity and osmotic effects in legumes to reduce grain yield and quality...
June 16, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648841/fine-needle-aspiration-combined-with-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-to-characterize-lipid-biomarkers-for-diagnosing-accuracy-of-breast-cancer
#16
Yi-Tzu Cho, Hung Su, Yi-Yan Chiang, Jentaie Shiea, Shyng-Shiou F Yuan, Wen-Chun Hung, Yao-Tsung Yeh, Ming-Feng Hou
BACKGROUND: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology has been widely used for pathologic assessment of breast lesions. However, the examination suffers a risk of false-negative results owing to insufficient sample volumes, inaccurate sampling positions, nondefinitive cytologic features, or suboptimal cell preservation. One approach to improve its accuracy is using modern mass spectrometry to detect disease biomarkers, of which the tissue samples are collected through FNA. METHODS: The biological compounds in the FNA tissue samples were extracted and characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS)...
May 25, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648659/enterochromaffin-cells-are-gut-chemosensors-that-couple-to-sensory-neural-pathways
#17
Nicholas W Bellono, James R Bayrer, Duncan B Leitch, Joel Castro, Chuchu Zhang, Tracey A O'Donnell, Stuart M Brierley, Holly A Ingraham, David Julius
Dietary, microbial, and inflammatory factors modulate the gut-brain axis and influence physiological processes ranging from metabolism to cognition. The gut epithelium is a principal site for detecting such agents, but precisely how it communicates with neural elements is poorly understood. Serotonergic enterochromaffin (EC) cells are proposed to fulfill this role by acting as chemosensors, but understanding how these rare and unique cell types transduce chemosensory information to the nervous system has been hampered by their paucity and inaccessibility to single-cell measurements...
June 21, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648601/inhibition-of-pld1-activity-causes-er-stress-via-regulation-of-copii-vesicle-formation
#18
Hiroshi Nakagawa, Kazuki Hazama, Katsumasa Ishida, Masayuki Komori, Kazuhiko Nishimura, Saburou Matsuo
Phospholipase D (PLD) plays a crucial role in the regulation of some cellular processes, including autophagy and apoptosis. Accumulation of protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen causes ER stress. Although ER stress is a principal cause of apoptosis and autophagy, the relationship between PLD activity and ER stress remains unclear. Protein transport from the ER to the Golgi apparatus is conducted by coat complex II (COPII) transport vesicles. Here, we demonstrated that inhibition of PLD1 activity or PLD1 knockdown suppressed COPII vesicle transport in normal rat kidney (NRK) cells...
June 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648544/risk-of-intussusception-following-rotavirus-vaccination-an-evidence-based-meta-analysis-of-cohort-and-case-control-studies
#19
Priya Kassim, Guy D Eslick
BACKGROUND: International post-licensure studies on rotavirus vaccines have identified an increased risk of intussusception in infants after administration. The first developed rotavirus vaccine (Rotashield (RRV-TV)) was suspended post-licensure in 1999 after an association with intussusception was found. The currently available second-generation rotavirus vaccines (Rotateq (RV5) and Rotarix (RV1)), are recommended as a routine vaccine by the World Health Organisation (WHO). Post-licensure studies of these vaccines have shown a smaller but temporal increased risk for developing intussusception...
June 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648366/-oxidative-stress-in-perinatal-asphyxia-and-hypoxic-ischaemic-encephalopathy
#20
Antonio Nuñez, Isabel Benavente, Dorotea Blanco, Héctor Boix, Fernando Cabañas, Mercedes Chaffanel, Belén Fernández-Colomer, José Ramón Fernández-Lorenzo, Begoña Loureiro, María Teresa Moral, Antonio Pavón, Inés Tofé, Eva Valverde, Máximo Vento
Birth asphyxia is one of the principal causes of early neonatal death. In survivors it may evolve to hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and major long-term neurological morbidity. Prolonged and intense asphyxia will lead to energy exhaustion in tissues exclusively dependent on aerobic metabolism, such as the central nervous system. Energy deficit leads to ATP-dependent pumps blockage, with the subsequent loss of neuronal transmembrane potential. The most sensitive areas of the brain will die due to necrosis. In more resistant areas, neuronal hyper-excitability, massive entrance of ionic calcium, activation of NO-synthase, free radical generation, and alteration in mitochondrial metabolism will lead to a secondary energy failure and programmed neuronal death by means of the activation of the caspase pathways...
June 22, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
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