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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812447/the-role-of-the-family-in-hiv-status-disclosure-amongst-women-in-vietnam-familial-dependence-and-independence
#1
D T H Dinh, J L White, M Hipwell, T K C Nguyen, A Pharris
Insights into disclosure by PLWHA can inform strategies for treatment and support, yet Vietnamese women's self-disclosure patterns are poorly understood. We conducted interviews with 12 HIV-positive women, identifying three principal factors influencing disclosure to family members: patrilocal residence, desire to protect own family, and the need for financial support. Women's decision-making about disclosure was significantly affected by dependence on or independence of parents-in-law and their own parents...
August 16, 2017: Health Care for Women International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812323/a-comparison-of-methods-for-estimating-the-temporal-change-in-a-continuous-variable-example-of-hba1c-in-patients-with-diabetes
#2
Therese Sheppard, Robyn Tamblyn, Michal Abrahamowicz, Mark Lunt, Matthew Sperrin, William G Dixon
PURPOSE: To compare the more complex technique, functional principal component analysis (FPCA), to simpler methods of estimating values of sparse and irregularly spaced continuous variables at given time points in longitudinal data using a diabetic patient cohort from UK primary care. METHODS: The setting for this study is the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), a UK general practice research database. For 16,034 diabetic patients identified in CPRD, with at least 2 measures in a 30-month period, HbA1c was estimated after temporarily omitting (i) the final and (ii) middle known values using linear interpolation, simple linear regression, arithmetic mean, random effects, and FPCA...
August 15, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812069/the-sensitivity-of-folding-free-energy-landscapes-of-trpzips-to-mutations-in-the-hydrophobic-core
#3
Madhulika Gupta, Prabir Khatua, Charusita Chakravarty, Sanjoy Bandyopadhyay
The sensitivity of the stability of folded states and free energy landscapes to the differences in the hydrophobic content of the core residues has been studied for the set of 16-residue trpzips, namely, Trpzip4, Trpzip5 and Trpzip6. The combination of principal component analysis and different secondary structure order metrics as reaction coordinates has been used to characterize and identify all the underlying attractive basins corresponding to the folded and the unfolded states for each trpzip at 300 K. Our results reveal that even a single mutation in the hydrophobic core perturbs the stability of the folded peptide and the conformational preferences for the partially folded and unfolded states significantly, leading to concomitant alterations in the free energy landscape of trpzips...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811967/il-18-receptor-marks-functional-cd8-t-cells-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
Eleonora Timperi, Chiara Focaccetti, Daniela Gallerano, Mariangela Panetta, Sheila Spada, Enzo Gallo, Paolo Visca, Federico Venuta, Daniele Diso, Arsela Prelaj, Flavia Longo, Francesco Facciolo, Paola Nisticò, Vincenzo Barnaba
IL-18 is an inflammasome-related cytokine, member of the IL-1 family, produced by a wide range of cells in response to signals by several pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns. It can be highly represented in tumor patients, but its relevance in human cancer development is not clear. In this study, we provide evidence that IL-18 is principally expressed in tumor cells and, in concert with other conventional Th1 cell-driven cytokines, has a pivotal role in establishing a pro-inflammatory milieu in the tumor microenvironment of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811810/what-is-done-when-endoscopic-examination-reveals-borderline-bowel-ischemia-in-patients-with-sigmoid-volvulus
#5
Sabri Selcuk Atamanalp, Refik Selim Atamanalp
Sigmoid volvulus (SV) is a rare colonic obstruction in which the sigmoid colonwraps around itself. The principal strategy for the treatment of uncomplicated SV is emergency endoscopic detorsion, while emergency surgery is needed in complicated SV with bowel gangrene, bowel perforation, peritonitis, or unsuccessful endoscopic treatment. In the endoscopic examination of SV, endoscopic detorsion is performed if the bowels are viable, while emergency surgery is needed if the bowels are gangrenous. However, the treatment approach is not clear when endoscopic examination reveals borderline bowel ischemia, and in this short report, the possible treatment strategies are discussed...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811534/distinct-projection-patterns-of-different-classes-of-layer-2-principal-neurons-in-the-olfactory-cortex
#6
Camille Mazo, Julien Grimaud, Yasuyuki Shima, Venkatesh N Murthy, C Geoffrey Lau
The broadly-distributed, non-topographic projections to and from the olfactory cortex may suggest a flat, non-hierarchical organization in odor information processing. Layer 2 principal neurons in the anterior piriform cortex (APC) can be divided into 2 subtypes: semilunar (SL) and superficial pyramidal (SP) cells. Although it is known that SL and SP cells receive differential inputs from the olfactory bulb (OB), little is known about their projections to other olfactory regions. Here, we examined axonal projections of SL and SP cells using a combination of mouse genetics and retrograde labeling...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811307/an-interview-with-jenny-nichols
#7
Aidan Maartens
Jennifer Nichols is a Principal Investigator at the Cambridge Stem Cell Institute and Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience at the University of Cambridge, UK. Her lab works on lineage segregation and the establishment of pluripotency in the mammalian embryo. In 2017 she was awarded the British Society for Developmental Biology's Cheryll Tickle Medal, given to mid-career female scientists with outstanding achievements in developmental biology. We met Jenny in her Cambridge office to talk about pluripotency in vitro and in vivo, the importance of collaboration in her career path, and what playing a musical instrument has in common with research...
August 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811122/acute-kidney-injury-after-computed-tomography-a-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Ryan D Aycock, Lauren M Westafer, Jennifer L Boxen, Nima Majlesi, Elizabeth M Schoenfeld, Raveendhara R Bannuru
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Computed tomography (CT) is an important imaging modality used in the diagnosis of a variety of disorders. Imaging quality may be improved if intravenous contrast is added, but there is a concern for potential renal injury. Our goal is to perform a meta-analysis to compare the risk of acute kidney injury, need for renal replacement, and total mortality after contrast-enhanced CT versus noncontrast CT. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (PubMed), the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, ProQuest, and Academic Search Premier for relevant articles...
August 12, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810992/two-new-effective-tourniquets-for-potential-use-in-the-military-environment-a-serving-soldier-study
#9
Alastair Beaven, Rob Briard, Mark Ballard, Paul Parker
BACKGROUND: Limb tourniquets have been used extensively during modern Middle Eastern conflicts. Despite its undeniable successes, the combat applied tourniquet (C-A-T) has some shortfalls, principally its inability to reliably control lower limb bleeding when applied to the mid-thigh. We tested two tourniquets which may represent an improvement to the combat applied tourniquet; the tactical mechanical tourniquet and the tactical pneumatic tourniquet. METHODS: We recruited 12 healthy service personnel and applied the tactical mechanical tourniquet and tactical pneumatic tourniquet to both lower limbs in a randomly generated sequence...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810615/detecting-serum-and-urine-metabolic-profile-changes-of-ccl4-liver-fibrosis-in-rats-at-12-weeks-based-on-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#10
Jiarong Gao, Xiu-Juan Qin, Hui Jiang, Jin-Feng Chen, Ting Wang, Ting Zhang, Shuang-Zhi Xu, Jun-Mei Song
Liver fibrosis is caused by liver injury induced by a number of chronic liver diseases, including schistosome infection, hepatitis infection, metabolic disease, alcoholism and cholestasis. The tissue damage occurring after injury or inflammation of the liver is a reversible lesion; however, liver fibrosis has become a worldwide problem and poses a threat to human health. The development of an effective drug for the prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis is ongoing and uses information from different occurrences of liver fibrosis...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810180/classification-and-quantitation-of-milk-powder-by-near-infrared-spectroscopy-and-mutual-information-based-variable-selection-and-partial-least-squares
#11
Hui Chen, Chao Tan, Zan Lin, Tong Wu
Milk is among the most popular nutrient source worldwide, which is of great interest due to its beneficial medicinal properties. The feasibility of the classification of milk powder samples with respect to their brands and the determination of protein concentration is investigated by NIR spectroscopy along with chemometrics. Two datasets were prepared for experiment. One contains 179 samples of four brands for classification and the other contains 30 samples for quantitative analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for exploratory analysis...
August 10, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810166/humanized-mouse-models-of-latent-hiv-infection
#12
REVIEW
Maud Deruaz, Andrew M Tager
Antiretroviral therapy can efficiently control HIV viral replication, resulting in low viral loads and sustained CD4(+) T cell counts in HIV-infected persons. However, fast viral rebound occurs in most infected persons when therapy is interrupted. The principal component of persistent infection is a latent but replication-competent HIV reservoir. The long half-life of this reservoir is a major barrier to cure, and its elimination is the target of important research efforts. Animal models that can recapitulate this aspect of human infection are needed to examine the HIV reservoir in tissues in vivo, and to test eradication strategies...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810120/aqueous-solvation-of-ammonia-and-ammonium-probing-hydrogen-bond-motifs-with-ft-ir-and-soft-x-ray-spectroscopy
#13
Maria Ekimova, Wilson Quevedo, Lukasz Szyc, Marcella Iannuzzi, Philippe Wernet, Michael Odelius, Erik T J Nibbering
In a multi-facetted investigation combining local soft-x-ray and vibrational spectroscopic probes with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, hydrogen-bond interactions of two key principal amine compounds in aqueous solution, ammonia (NH3) and ammonium ion (NH4+), are quantitatively assessed in terms of electronic structure, solvation structure, and dynamics. From the x-ray measurements and from the complementary determination of the IR-active hydrogen stretching and bending modes of NH3 and NH4+ in aqueous solution, the picture emerges of a comparatively strongly hydrogen-bonded NH4+ ion via N-H donating interactions, whereas NH3 has a strong accepting hydrogen bond with one water molecule at the nitrogen lone pair but only weak N-H donating hydrogen bonds...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809707/a-streaming-pca-vlsi-chip-for-neural-data-compression
#14
Tong Wu, Wenfeng Zhao, Hongsun Guo, Hubert H Lim, Zhi Yang
Neural recording system miniaturization and integration with low-power wireless technologies require compressing neural data before transmission. Feature extraction is a procedure to represent data in a low-dimensional space; its integration into a recording chip can be an efficient approach to compress neural data. In this paper, we propose a streaming principal component analysis algorithm and its microchip implementation to compress multichannel local field potential (LFP) and spike data. The circuits have been designed in a 65-nm CMOS technology and occupy a silicon area of 0...
August 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809543/infrared-spectroscopy-coupled-with-a-dispersion-model-for-quantifying-the-real-time-dynamics-of-kanamycin-resistance-in-artificial-microbiota
#15
Naifu Jin, Maria Paraskevaidi, Kirk T Semple, Francis Luke Martin, Dayi Zhang
Over-usage of antibiotics leads to the widespread induction of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Developing an approach to allow real-time monitoring and fast prediction of ARGs dynamics in clinical or environmental samples has become an urgent matter. Vibrational spectroscopy is potentially an ideal technique towards the characterization of the microbial composition of microbiota as it is non-destructive, high-throughput and label-free. Herein, we employed attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and developed a spectrochemical tool to quantify the static and dynamic composition of kanamycin resistance in artificial microbiota to evaluate microbial antibiotic resistance...
August 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809481/spectral-mining-for-discriminating-blood-origins-in-the-presence-of-substrate-interference-via-atr-ft-ir-postmortem-or-antemortem-blood
#16
Ayari Takamura, Ken Watanabe, Tomoko Akutsu, Hiroshi Ikegaya, Takeaki Ozawa
Often in criminal investigations, discrimination of types of body fluid evidence is crucially important to ascertain how a crime was committed. Compared to current methods using biochemical techniques, vibrational spectroscopic approaches can provide versatile applicability to identify various body fluid types without sample invasion. However, their applicability is limited to pure body fluid samples because important signals from body fluids incorporated in a substrate are affected strongly by interference from substrate signals...
August 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809480/rapid-life-cycle-impact-screening-using-artificial-neural-networks
#17
Runsheng Song, Arturo A Keller, Sangwon Suh
The number of chemicals in the market is rapidly increasing, while our understanding of the life-cycle impacts of these chemicals lags considerably. To address this, we developed deep Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models to estimate life-cycle impacts of chemicals. Using molecular structure information, we trained multilayer ANNs for life-cycle impacts of chemicals using six impact categories, including cumulative energy demand, global warming (IPCC 2007), acidification (TRACI), human health (Impact2000+), ecosystem quality (Impact2000+), and eco-indicator 99 (I,I, total)...
August 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809379/periodontal-salivary-and-il-6-status-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
J Silvestre-Rangil, L Bagán, F Silvestre, M Martinez-Herrera, J Bagán
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine whether saliva interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels are elevated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis versus a control group and examine the possible relationship between the oral condition and the risk of RA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 30 patients with RA and 30 healthy controls, different periodontal indices were recorded; sialometric measurements were taken to determine resting whole saliva, stimulated whole saliva and stimulated parotid saliva flow; and the saliva IL-6 levels were measured...
August 15, 2017: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809159/effect-of-functionalization-of-boron-nitride-flakes-by-main-group-metal-clusters-on-their-optoelectronic-properties
#19
Debdutta Chakraborty, Pratim Kumar Chattaraj
The possibility of functionalizing boron nitride flakes (BNF) with some selected main group metal clusters viz., OLi4, NLi5, CLi6, BLI7 and Al12Be has been analyzed with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) based computations. Thermochemical as well as energetic considerations suggest that all the metal clusters interact with the BNF moiety in a favorable fashion. As a result of functionalization, the static (first) hyperpolarizability ( ) values of the metal cluster supported BNF moieties increase quite significantly as compared to that in the case of pristine BNF...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808902/genetic-diversity-population-structure-and-correlations-between-locally-adapted-zebu-and-taurine-breeds-in-brazil-using-snp-markers
#20
Bárbara Machado Campos, Adriana Santana do Carmo, Andrea Alves do Egito, Arthur Silva da Mariante, Maria Socorro Muaés do Albuquerque, João José Simoni de Gouveia, Carlos Henrique Mendes Malhado, Lucas Lima Verardo, Marcos Vinícius Gualberto Barbosa da Silva, Paulo Luiz Souza Carneiro
Genetic diversity is one of the most important issues in studies on conservation of cattle breeds and endangered species. The objective of this study was to estimate the levels of genetic differentiation between locally adapted taurine (Bos taurus taurus) and zebu (Bos taurus indicus) breeds in Brazil, which were genotyped for more than 777,000 SNPs. The fixation index (F ST), principal component analysis (PCA), and Bayesian clustering were estimated. The F ST highlighted genetic differentiation between taurine and zebu breeds...
August 15, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
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