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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145203/evaluation-of-mental-disorders-using-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-dialysis-and-predialysis-patients
#1
Chun-Yun Zhang, Ying Chen, Shan Chen, Xiang-Chuang Kong, Yuan Liu, Chao-Qun You, Cheng Wan, Philip A Bondzie, Hua Su, Chun Zhang, Fang-Fang He
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Psychological complications are prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aimed to investigate mental disorders in stage 4-5 CKD patients, to detect metabolite concentrations in the brain by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and to compare the effects of different dialysis therapies on mental disorders in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). METHODS: The sample population was made up of predialysis (13), hemodialysis (HD) (13), and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients (12)...
November 21, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138799/lychee-seed-extract-protects-against-neuronal-injury-and-improves-cognitive-function-in-rats-with-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus-with-cognitive-impairment
#2
Yong Tang, Chonglin Yu, Jianming Wu, Haixia Chen, Yuan Zeng, Xiuling Wang, Le Yang, Qibing Mei, Shousong Cao, Dalian Qin
Lychee seed is a traditional Chinese medicine and has many beneficial effects such as modulation of blood sugar and lipids, antioxidation, antivirus and antitumor. Studies have indicated that type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) share common biological mechanisms including insulin resistance, impaired glucose metabolism, β‑amyloid (Aβ) formation, oxidative stress and presence of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The present study investigated the effects of lychee seed extract (LSE) on neuroprotection, cognitive function improvement and possible underlying mechanisms in a rat model of T2DM with cognitive impairment...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135998/multivariate-regression-analysis-of-structural-mri-connectivity-matrices-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Javier Rasero, Nicola Amoroso, Marianna La Rocca, Sabina Tangaro, Roberto Bellotti, Sebastiano Stramaglia
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older people and increasing longevity ensures its prevalence will rise even further. Whether AD originates by disconnecting a localized brain area and propagates to the rest of the brain across disease-severity progression is a question with an unknown answer. An important related challenge is to predict whether a given subject, with a mild cognitive impairment (MCI), will convert or not to AD. Here, our aim is to characterize the structural connectivity pattern of MCI and AD subjects using the multivariate distance matrix regression (MDMR) analysis, and to compare it to those of healthy subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135924/the-impact-of-synaptic-zn-2-dynamics-on-cognition-and-its-decline
#4
REVIEW
Atsushi Takeda, Hanuna Tamano
The basal levels of extracellular Zn(2+) are in the range of low nanomolar concentrations and less attention has been paid to Zn(2+), compared to Ca(2+), for synaptic activity. However, extracellular Zn(2+) is necessary for synaptic activity. The basal levels of extracellular zinc are age-dependently increased in the rat hippocampus, implying that the basal levels of extracellular Zn(2+) are also increased age-dependently and that extracellular Zn(2+) dynamics are linked with age-related cognitive function and dysfunction...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135331/imaging-microglial-activation-and-amyloid-burden-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#5
Dunja Knezevic, Nicolaas Paul Lg Verhoeff, Sina Hafizi, Antonio P Strafella, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Tarek Rajji, Bruce G Pollock, Sylvain Houle, Pablo M Rusjan, Romina Mizrahi
Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is defined as a transitional state between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Given the replicated finding of increased microglial activation in AD, we sought to investigate whether microglial activation is also elevated in aMCI and whether it is related to amyloid beta (Aβ) burden in-vivo . Eleven aMCI participants and 14 healthy volunteers completed positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [(18)F]-FEPPA and [(11)C]-PIB. Given the known sensitivity in affinity of second-generation TSPO radioligands, participants were genotyped for the TSPO polymorphism and only high-affinity binders were included...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133948/increased-hippocampal-tail-volume-predicts-depression-status-and-remission-to-anti-depressant-medications-in-major-depression
#6
J J Maller, K Broadhouse, A J Rush, E Gordon, S Koslow, S M Grieve
Studies of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have consistently reported reduced hippocampal volumes; however, the exact pattern of these volume changes in specific anatomical subfields and their functional significance is unclear. We sought to clarify the relationship between hippocampal tail volumes and (i) a diagnosis of MDD, and (ii) clinical remission to anti-depressant medications (ADMs). Outpatients with nonpsychotic MDD (n=202) based on DSM-IV criteria and a 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17) score ⩾16 underwent pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging as part of the international Study to Predict Optimized Treatment for Depression (iSPOT-D)...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133437/abnormal-microglia-and-enhanced-inflammation-related-gene-transcription-in-mice-with-conditional-deletion-of-ctcf-in-camk2a-cre-expressing-neurons
#7
Bryan E McGill, Ruteja A Barve, Susan E Maloney, Amy Strickland, Nicholas Rensing, Peter Wang, Michael Wong, Richard Head, David F Wozniak, Jeffrey Milbrandt
CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is an 11 zinc finger DNA-binding domain protein that regulates gene expression by modifying three dimensional chromatin structure. Human mutations in CTCF cause intellectual disability and autistic features. Knocking out Ctcf in mouse embryonic neurons is lethal by neonatal age, but the effects of CTCF deficiency in postnatal neurons are less well studied. We knocked out Ctcf postnatally in glutamatergic forebrain neurons under the control of Camk2a-CreCtcf(loxP/loxP) ;Camk2a-Cre+ (Ctcf CKO) mice of both sexes were viable and exhibited profound deficits in spatial learning/memory, impaired motor co-ordination, and decreased sociability by 4 months of age...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133109/temporal-gradient-during-famous-face-naming-is-associated-with-lower-cerebral-blood-flow-and-gray-matter-volume-in-aging
#8
Chelsea C Hays, Zvinka Z Zlatar, Laura Campbell, M J Meloy, Christina E Wierenga
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that famous face naming may be a cognitive ability especially sensitive to the early pathological processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and that those at risk for AD may demonstrate a Ribot temporal gradient (RTG), characterized by better performance for naming remote famous faces than for naming recent famous faces. Reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and gray matter volume (GMV) have been implicated in the neuropathological cascade of AD and show utility as biomarkers of AD risk...
November 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129676/exercise-enhances-cognitive-function-and-neurotrophin-expression-in-the-hippocampus-accompanied-by-changes-in-epigenetic-programming-in-senescence-accelerated-mice
#9
Hiroshi Maejima, Naohiko Kanemura, Takanori Kokubun, Kenji Murata, Kiyomi Takayanagi
Aerobic exercise is known to increase expression of neurotrophins, particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in the hippocampus and to improve cognitive function. Exercise exerts neuroprotective effects in the hippocampus by inducing epigenetic changes, which play crucial roles in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Specifically, the activity levels of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate histone acetylation and modulate gene transcription. The objective of the present study was to assess the interactive effects of exercise and aging on cognitive function, expression of neurotrophins (BDNF and neurotrophin-4) and their receptors (tyrosine receptor kinase B and p75), and epigenetic regulations, including the activity of HATs and HADCs in the hippocampus...
November 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129596/amyloid-toxicity-is-enhanced-after-pharmacological-or-genetic-invalidation-of-the-%C3%AF-1-receptor
#10
Tangui Maurice, Manon Strehaiano, Fanny Duhr, Nathalie Chevallier
The sigma-1 receptor (S1R) is a molecular chaperone which activity modulates several intracellular signals including calcium mobilization at mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes. S1R agonists are potent neuroprotectants against neurodegenerative insults and particularly in rodent models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We here analyzed whether S1R inactivation modifies vulnerability to amyloid toxicity in AD models. Two strategies were used: (1) amyloid β[25-35] (Aβ25-35) peptide (1, 3, 9nmol) was injected intracerebroventricularly in mice treated repeatedly with the S1R antagonist NE-100 or in S1RKO mice, and (2) WT, APPSweInd, S1RKO, and APPSweInd/S1RKO mice were created and female littermates analyzed at 8 months of age...
November 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128164/grey-matter-volume-loss-is-associated-with-specific-clinical-motor-signs-in-huntington-s-disease
#11
Emma M Coppen, Milou Jacobs, Annette A van den Berg-Huysmans, Jeroen van der Grond, Raymund A C Roos
BACKGROUND: Motor disturbances are clinical hallmarks of Huntington's disease (HD) and involve chorea, dystonia, hypokinesia and visuomotor dysfunction. Investigating the association between specific motor signs and different regional volumes is important to understand the heterogeneity of HD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the motor phenotype of HD and associations with subcortical and cortical grey matter volume loss. METHODS: Structural T1-weighted MRI scans of 79 HD patients and 30 healthy controls were used to calculate volumes of seven subcortical structures including the nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen, pallidum and amygdala...
November 2, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127518/identifying-molecular-mediators-of-environmentally-enhanced-neurogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Brian E Eisinger, Xinyu Zhao
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis occurs throughout life and supports healthy brain functions. The production of new neurons decreases with age, and deficiencies in adult neurogenesis are associated with neurodevelopmental and degenerative disease. The rate of neurogenesis is dynamically sensitive to an individual's environmental conditions and experiences, and certain stimuli are known robustly to enhance neurogenesis in rodent models, including voluntary exercise, enriched environment, and electroconvulsive shock...
November 10, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126887/combined-administration-of-resolvin-e1-and-lipoxin-a4-resolves-inflammation-in-a-murine-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Alpdogan Kantarci, Nurgul Aytan, Iro Palaska, Danielle Stephens, Leah Crabtree, Claudia Benincasa, Bruce G Jenkins, Isabel Carreras, Alpaslan Dedeoglu
Dysfunction in the resolution of inflammation may play a key role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we found that the levels of specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs) in the hippocampus of 5xFAD mice are significantly lower than in non-transgenic littermates. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that treatment with resolvin E1 (RvE1) and lipoxin A4 (LXA4) alone or in combination will reverse the neuroinflammatory process and decrease Aβ pathology. 5xFAD mice were treated intraperitoneally starting at 1month of age with RvE1 or LXA4 alone or in combination at a dose of 1...
November 7, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124761/longitudinal-investigation-of-neuroinflammation-and-metabolite-profiles-in-the-appswe-%C3%A3-ps1%C3%AE-e9-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
A Chaney, M Bauer, D Bochicchio, A Smigova, M Kassiou, K E Davies, S R Williams, H Boutin
There is increasing evidence linking neuroinflammation to many neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), however its exact contribution to disease manifestation and/or progression is poorly understood. Therefore, a need exists to find new ways of investigating neuroinflammation in both health and disease. Here we investigate cognitive decline, neuroinflammatory and other pathophysiological changes in the APPswe ×PS1Δe9 transgenic mouse model of AD. Transgenic (TG) mice were compared to C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice at 6, 12 and 18 months of age...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124393/the-systemic-environment-at-the-interface-of-aging-and-adult-neurogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Lucas K Smith, Charles W White, Saul A Villeda
Aging results in impaired neurogenesis in the two neurogenic niches of the adult mammalian brain, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle. While significant work has characterized intrinsic cellular changes that contribute to this decline, it is increasingly apparent that the systemic environment also represents a critical driver of brain aging. Indeed, emerging studies utilizing the model of heterochronic parabiosis have revealed that immune-related molecular and cellular changes in the aging systemic environment negatively regulate adult neurogenesis...
November 9, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124088/considerations-and-code-for-partial-volume-correcting-18-f-av-1451-tau-pet-data
#16
Suzanne L Baker, Anne Maass, William J Jagust
[(18)F]-AV-1451 is a leading tracer used with positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify tau pathology. However, [(18)F]-AV-1451 shows "off target" or non-specific binding, which we define as binding of the tracer in unexpected areas unlikely to harbor aggregated tau based on autopsy literature [1]. Along with caudate, putamen, pallidum and thalamus non-specific binding [2], [3], we have found binding in the superior portion of the cerebellar gray matter, leading us to use inferior cerebellar gray as the reference region...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123474/brain-interleukin-1-facilitates-learning-of-a-water-maze-spatial-memory-task-in-young-mice
#17
Takako Takemiya, Kumiko Fumizawa, Kanato Yamagata, Yoichiro Iwakura, Marumi Kawakami
The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is produced by many types of cells, including immune cells in the periphery and glia and neurons in the brain. The type I IL-1 receptor (IL-1r1) is primarily responsible for transmitting the inflammatory effects of IL-1 and mediates several biological functions by binding to either IL-1α or IL-1β. IL-1β activation is associated with hippocampus-dependent memory tasks. Although IL-1β impairs spatial memory under certain pathophysiological conditions, IL-1β may be required for the normal physiological regulation of hippocampal plasticity and memory...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123083/identification-of-a-peptide-recognizing-cerebrovascular-changes-in-mouse-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Aman P Mann, Pablo Scodeller, Sazid Hussain, Gary B Braun, Tarmo Mölder, Kadri Toome, Rajesh Ambasudhan, Tambet Teesalu, Stuart A Lipton, Erkki Ruoslahti
Cerebrovascular changes occur in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using in vivo phage display, we searched for molecular markers of the neurovascular unit, including endothelial cells and astrocytes, in mouse models of AD. We identified a cyclic peptide, CDAGRKQKC (DAG), that accumulates in the hippocampus of hAPP-J20 mice at different ages. Intravenously injected DAG peptide homes to neurovascular unit endothelial cells and to reactive astrocytes in mouse models of AD. We identified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a matricellular protein that is highly expressed in the brain of individuals with AD and in mouse models, as the target of the DAG peptide...
November 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122705/age-related-changes-in-striatal-enriched-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-levels-regulation-by-bdnf
#19
Silvia Cases, Ana Saavedra, Shiraz Tyebji, Albert Giralt, Jordi Alberch, Esther Pérez-Navarro
Recent results indicate that STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase (STEP) levels are regulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), whose expression changes during postnatal development and aging. Here, we studied STEP ontogeny in mouse brain and changes in STEP with age with emphasis on the possible regulation by BDNF. We found that STEP expression increased during the first weeks of life, reaching adult levels by 2-3weeks of age in the striatum and cortex, and by postnatal day (P) 7 in the hippocampus...
November 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122629/long-term-cilostazol-administration-prevents-age-related-decline-of-hippocampus-dependent-memory-in-mice
#20
Shuichi Yanai, Hideki Ito, Shogo Endo
Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are enzymes that hydrolyze and inactivate 3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and/or 3', 5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). The regulation of intracellular signaling pathways mediated by cyclic nucleotides is imperative to synaptic plasticity and memory in animals. Because PDEs play an important role in this regulation, PDE inhibitors are considered as candidate compounds for treating cognitive and memory disorders. In the present study, we tested whether cilostazol, a selective PDE3 inhibitor, prevents the cognitive deterioration that occurs during the course of normal aging in mice...
November 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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