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Aging hippocampus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941760/bilateral-cingulum-fiber-reductions-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-unilateral-hippocampal-sclerosis
#1
H Urbach, K Egger, K Rutkowski, J M Nakagawa, B Schmeiser, M Reisert, A Brandt, B J Steinhoff, A Schulze-Bonhage, T Hammen
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether white matter tracts within the Papez circuit are altered in patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS). METHODS: Twenty patients with histologically proven unilateral HS and 20 age-matched controls were studied with a 3T Epilepsy-dedicated MRI protocol including a MPRAGE sequence for hippocampus volumetry and a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequence (61 diffusion-encoding directions, 2×2×2mm(3) voxels) for diffusion tensor tractography (DTT)...
September 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939187/the-ameliorative-effects-and-underlying-mechanisms-of-dopamine-d1-like-receptor-agonist-skf38393-on-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-cognitive-impairment
#2
Xuan Zang, Zhao-Yan Cheng, Yi Sun, Nan Hua, Li-Hua Zhu, Ling He
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease characterized by extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. It is the most common form of human cognitive decline and dementia. In this study, we aim to systematically investigate the ameliorative effects of dopamine D1-like receptor agonist SKF38393 on cognitive dysfunction and explore its underlying mechanisms. The Aβ1-42 was injected intracerebroventricularly to establish cognitive disorder model. Then, a series of behavior tests were used...
September 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936596/age-related-behavioral-morphological-and-physiological-changes-in-the-hippocampus-of-zitter-rats
#3
Ayuka Ehara, Masao Maekawa, Yuuichi Hori, Kazuhiko Nakadate, Shiuchi Ueda
Convulsive seizure is known to be associated with hippocampal abnormalities, such as hilar cell degeneration, abnormal mossy fiber sprouting in the dentate gyrus (DG) and abnormal expression of immediate early genes. However, whether these morphological changes are a cause or consequence of convulsive seizures has remained contentious. Zitter (zi/zi) rats carry a mutation of the attractin gene and display spongiform degeneration of the brain. Spontaneous convulsive seizures in zi/zi rats over 8 months (M) old were demonstrated using 24-h video monitoring...
September 21, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934247/the-extent-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-determines-the-severity-of-cerebral-injury-and-neurobehavioural-deficits-in-rodents
#4
Crystal A Ruff, Stuart D Faulkner, Prakasham Rumajogee, Stephanie Beldick, Warren Foltz, Jennifer Corrigan, Alfred Basilious, Shangjun Jiang, Shanojan Thiyagalingam, Jerome Y Yager, Michael G Fehlings
BACKGROUND: Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most common physical pediatric neurodevelopmental disorder and spastic diplegic injury is its most frequent subtype. CP results in substantial neuromotor and cognitive impairments that have significant socioeconomic impact. Despite this, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and etiology remain incompletely understood. Furthermore, there is a need for clinically relevant injury models, which a) reflect the heterogeneity of the condition and b) can be used to evaluate new translational therapies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931353/blueberry-supplementation-attenuates-microglia-activation-and-increases-neuroplasticity-in-mice-consuming-a-high-fat-diet
#5
Amanda N Carey, Kelsea R Gildawie, Abigail Rovnak, Nopporn Thangthaeng, Derek R Fisher, Barbara Shukitt-Hale
OBJECTIVES: Consuming a high-fat diet (HFD) may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals. Blueberries may prevent and even reverse age-related alterations in neurochemistry and behavior. It was previously demonstrated that middle-aged mice fed HFD had impaired memory; however, supplementation of HFD with blueberry reduced these memory deficits. As a follow-up to that study, the brain tissue from HFD-fed mice with and without blueberry supplementation was assessed to determine the neuroprotective mechanism(s) by which blueberry allayed cognitive dysfunction associated with HFD...
September 21, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929362/brain-reactivity-to-visual-food-stimuli-after-moderate-intensity-exercise-in-children
#6
Travis D Masterson, C Brock Kirwan, Lance E Davidson, Michael J Larson, Kathleen L Keller, S Nicole Fearnbach, Alyssa Evans, James D LeCheminant
Exercise may play a role in moderating eating behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an acute bout of exercise on neural responses to visual food stimuli in children ages 8-11 years. We hypothesized that acute exercise would result in reduced activity in reward areas of the brain. Using a randomized cross-over design, 26 healthy weight children completed two separate laboratory conditions (exercise; sedentary). During the exercise condition, each participant completed a 30-min bout of exercise at moderate-intensity (~ 67% HR maximum) on a motor-driven treadmill...
September 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928740/microbiome-derived-lipopolysaccharide-enriched-in-the-perinuclear-region-of-alzheimer-s-disease-brain
#7
Yuhai Zhao, Lin Cong, Vivian Jaber, Walter J Lukiw
Abundant clinical, epidemiological, imaging, genetic, molecular, and pathophysiological data together indicate that there occur an unusual inflammatory reaction and a disruption of the innate-immune signaling system in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Despite many years of intense study, the origin and molecular mechanics of these AD-relevant pathogenic signals are still not well understood. Here, we provide evidence that an intensely pro-inflammatory bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), part of a complex mixture of pro-inflammatory neurotoxins arising from abundant Gram-negative bacilli of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract, are abundant in AD-affected brain neocortex and hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928638/affective-circuitry-alterations-in-patients-with-trigeminal-neuralgia
#8
Dave J Hayes, David Q Chen, Jidan Zhong, Ariel Lin, Brendan Behan, Matthew Walker, Mojgan Hodaie
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a severe chronic neuropathic facial pain disorder. Affect-related behavioral and structural brain changes have been noted across chronic pain disorders, but have not been well-studied in TN. We examined the potential impact of TN (37 patients: 23 with right-sided TN, 14 with left-sided TN), compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls, on three major white matter tracts responsible for carrying affect-related signals-i.e., cingulum, fornix, and medial forebrain bundle. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI), deterministic multi-tensor tractography for tract modeling, and a model-driven region-of-interest approach was used...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928414/disruption-to-schizophrenia-associated-gene-fez1-in-the-hippocampus-of-hdac11-knockout-mice
#9
Dale T Bryant, Christian Landles, Aikaterini S Papadopoulou, Agnesska C Benjamin, Joshua K Duckworth, Thomas Rosahl, Caroline L Benn, Gillian P Bates
Histone Deacetylase 11 (HDAC11) is highly expressed in the central nervous system where it has been reported to have roles in neural differentiation. In contrast with previous studies showing nuclear and cytoplasmic localisation, we observed synaptic enrichment of HDAC11. Knockout mouse models for HDACs 1-9 have been important for guiding the development of isoform specific HDAC inhibitors as effective therapeutics. Given the close relationship between HDAC11 and neural cells in vitro, we examined neural tissue in a previously uncharacterised Hdac11 knockout mouse (Hdac11 (KO/KO))...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925561/nestin-expressing-cell-types-in-the-temporal-lobe-and-hippocampus-morphology-differentiation-and-proliferative-capacity
#10
Joan Liu, Cheryl Reeves, Thomas Jacques, Andrew McEvoy, Anna Miserocchi, Pamela Thompson, Sanjay Sisodiya, Maria Thom
Nestin is expressed in immature neuroepithelial and progenitor cell types and transiently upregulated in proliferative neuroglial cells responding to acute brain injury, including following seizures. In 36 temporal lobe (TLobe) specimens from patients with TLobe epilepsy (age range 8-60 years) we studied the number, distribution and morphology of nestin-expressing cells (NEC) in the pes, hippocampus body, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, temporal cortex and pole compared with post mortem control tissues from 26 cases (age range 12 gestational weeks to 76 years)...
September 19, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924012/inhibition-of-il-1%C3%AE-signaling-normalizes-nmda-dependent-neurotransmission-and-reduces-seizure-susceptibility-in-a-mouse-model-of-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease
#11
Ilaria Bertani, Valentina Iori, Massimo Trusel, Mattia Maroso, Claudia Foray, Susanna Mantovani, Raffaella Tonini, Annamaria Vezzani, Roberto Chiesa
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by prion protein (PrP) misfolding, clinically recognized by cognitive and motor deficits, electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities and seizures. Its neurophysiological bases are not known. To assess the potential involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dysfunction, we analyzed NMDA-dependent synaptic plasticity in hippocampal slices from Tg(CJD) mice, which model a genetic form of CJD. Because PrP depletion may result in functional upregulation of NMDARs, we also analyzed PrP knockout (KO) mice...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923531/hippocampal-infarction-identification-of-three-new-types
#12
A Förster, M Al-Zghloul, P Eisele, H Wenz, J Böhme, C Groden, E Neumaier-Probst
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hippocampal infarction (HI) is common but yet still not comprehensively studied. In the present study, we aimed to identify novel HI patterns and to describe additional ischemic lesions outside the hippocampus to draw conclusions regarding the underlying vessel occlusion. METHODS: In 222 patients (mean age 69.9 (±13.6) years; 129 (58.1%) male, 93 (41.9%) female) with HI, diffusion-weighted images were analyzed with emphasis on HI patterns and associated ischemic lesions outside the hippocampus...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923274/mapping-orbitofrontal-limbic-maturation-in-non-human-primates-a-longitudinal-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#13
Akiko Uematsu, Junichi Hata, Yuji Komaki, Fumiko Seki, Chihoko Yamada, Norio Okahara, Yoko Kurotaki, Erika Sasaki, Hideyuki Okano
Brain development involves spatiotemporally complex microstructural changes. A number of neuropsychiatric disorders are linked to the neural processes of development and aging. Thus, it is important to understanding the typical developmental patterns of various brain structures, which will help to define critical periods of vulnerability for neural maturation, as well as anatomical mechanisms of brain structure-related neuropathology. In this study, we used magnetic resonance imaging to assess development of the orbitofrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus in a non-human primate species, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)...
September 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923083/prevention-of-c5ar1-signaling-delays-microglial-inflammatory-polarization-favors-clearance-pathways-and-suppresses-cognitive-loss
#14
Michael X Hernandez, Shan Jiang, Tracy A Cole, Shu-Hui Chu, Maria I Fonseca, Melody J Fang, Lindsay A Hohsfield, Maria D Torres, Kim N Green, Rick A Wetsel, Ali Mortazavi, Andrea J Tenner
BACKGROUND: Pharmacologic inhibition of C5aR1, a receptor for the complement activation proinflammatory fragment, C5a, suppressed pathology and cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models. To validate that the effect of the antagonist was specifically via C5aR1 inhibition, mice lacking C5aR1 were generated and compared in behavior and pathology. In addition, since C5aR1 is primarily expressed on cells of the myeloid lineage, and only to a lesser extent on endothelial cells and neurons in brain, gene expression in microglia isolated from adult brain at multiple ages was compared across all genotypes...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921679/maternal-immune-activation-leads-to-increased-nnos-immunoreactivity-in-the-brain-of-postnatal-day-2-rat-offspring
#15
Jiaxian Zhang, Yu Jing, Hu Zhang, David K Bilkey, Ping Liu
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is a key arginine metabolising enzyme in the brain, and nNOS-derived nitric oxide plays an important role in regulating glutamatergic neurotransmission. Nitric oxide and its related molecules are involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and human genetic studies have identified schizophrenia risk genes encoding nNOS. The present study systematically investigated how maternal immune activation (MIA; a risk factor for schizophrenia) induced by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid affected nNOS-immunoreactivity in the brain of the resulting male and female offspring at the age of postnatal day (PND) 2...
September 16, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919059/rates-of-hippocampal-atrophy-and-presence-of-post-mortem-tdp-43-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-longitudinal-retrospective-study
#16
Keith A Josephs, Dennis W Dickson, Nirubol Tosakulwong, Stephen D Weigand, Melissa E Murray, Leonard Petrucelli, Amanda M Liesinger, Matthew L Senjem, Anthony J Spychalla, David S Knopman, Joseph E Parisi, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Jennifer L Whitwell
BACKGROUND: Post-mortem studies have not identified an association between β-amyloid or tau and rates of hippocampal atrophy in patients with Alzheimer's disease. TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is another protein linked to Alzheimer's disease. We aimed to investigate whether hippocampal TDP-43 is associated with increased rates of hippocampal atrophy. METHODS: In this longitudinal retrospective study, we analysed post-mortem brain tissue of all individuals with an Alzheimer's disease spectrum pathological diagnosis who had antemortem head MRI scans between Jan 1, 1999, and Dec 31, 2012, and who had been recruited into the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Patient Registry, or the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging...
September 11, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918757/relationship-between-cognitive-performance-and-measures-of-neurodegeneration-among-hispanic-and-white-non-hispanic-individuals-with-normal-cognition-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#17
Shanna L Burke, Miriam J Rodriguez, Warren Barker, Maria T Greig-Custo, Monica Rosselli, David A Loewenstein, Ranjan Duara
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the presence and severity of potential cultural and language bias in widely used cognitive and other assessment instruments, using structural MRI measures of neurodegeneration as biomarkers of disease stage and severity. METHODS: Hispanic (n=75) and White non-Hispanic (WNH) (n=90) subjects were classified as cognitively normal (CN), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild dementia. Performance on the culture-fair and educationally fair Fuld Object Memory Evaluation (FOME) and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) between Hispanics and WNHs was equivalent, in each diagnostic group...
September 18, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918364/volumetric-changes-in-the-aging-rat-brain-and-its-impact-on-cognitive-and-locomotor-functions
#18
Hamizah Shahirah Hamezah, Lina Wati Durani, Nor Faeizah Ibrahim, Daijiro Yanagisawa, Tomoko Kato, Akihiko Shiino, Sachiko Tanaka, Hanafi Ahmad Damanhuri, Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah, Ikuo Tooyama
Impairments in cognitive and locomotor functions usually occur with advanced age, as do changes in brain volume. This study was conducted to assess changes in brain volume, cognitive and locomotor functions, and oxidative stress levels in middle- to late-aged rats. Forty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: 14, 18, 23, and 27months of age. (1)H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a 7.0-Tesla MR scanner system. The volumes of the lateral ventricles, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, and whole brain were measured...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917978/sen1500-a-novel-oral-amyloid-%C3%AE-aggregation-inhibitor-attenuates-brain-pathology-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
D Brunner, S Flunkert, J Neddens, S Duller, D I C Scopes, J M Treherne, B Hutter-Paier
INTRODUCTION: Amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation is thought to be a major pathogenic event underlying the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The development of new drugs inhibiting the Aβ aggregation process is, therefore, important. SEN1500, an orally bioavailable and CNS-penetrant Aβ aggregation inhibitor, has previously been shown to reduce spatial learning and memory deficits in an APP transgenic mouse model. To verify that the pharmacological properties of SEN1500 are not unique to this model, we investigated brain Aβ pathology, neuroinflammation, as well as memory in a different mouse model of AD expressing the human amyloid precursor protein with Swedish and London mutations (APPSL)...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917663/leucine-rich-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-overexpression-in-the-brain-contributes-to-memory-impairment
#20
Chihiro Akiba, Madoka Nakajima, Masakazu Miyajima, Ikuko Ogino, Masami Miura, Ritsuko Inoue, Eri Nakamura, Fumio Kanai, Norihiro Tada, Miyuki Kunichika, Mitsutaka Yoshida, Kinya Nishimura, Akihide Kondo, Hidenori Sugano, Hajime Arai
We previously reported increase in leucine-rich α2-glycoprotein (LRG) concentration in cerebrospinal fluid is associated with cognitive decline in humans. To investigate relationship between LRG expression in the brain and memory impairment, we analyzed transgenic mice overexpressing LRG in the brain (LRG-Tg) focusing on hippocampus. Immunostaining and Western blotting revealed age-related increase in LRG expression in hippocampal neurons in 8-, 24-, and 48-week-old controls and LRG-Tg. Y-maze and Morris water maze tests indicated retained spatial memory in 8- and 24-week-old LRG-Tg, while deteriorated in 48-week-old LRG-Tg compared with age-matched controls...
August 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
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