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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930899/the-cingulate-cortex-of-older-adults-with-excellent-memory-capacity
#1
Feng Lin, Ping Ren, Mark Mapstone, Steven P Meyers, Anton Porsteinsson, Timothy M Baran
Memory deterioration is the earliest and most devastating cognitive deficit in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Some older adults, known as "Supernormals", maintain excellent memory. This study examined relationships between cerebral amyloid deposition and functional connectivity (FC) within the cingulate cortex (CC) and between CC and other regions involved in memory maintenance between Supernormals, healthy controls (HC), and those at risk for AD (amnestic mild cognitive impairment [MCI]). Supernormals had significantly stronger FC between anterior CC and R-hippocampus, middle CC (MCC) and L-superior temporal gyrus, and posterior CC (PCC) and R-precuneus, while weaker FC between MCC and R-middle frontal gyrus and MCC and R-thalamus than other groups...
November 19, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927959/vectored-intracerebral-immunization-with-the-anti-tau-monoclonal-antibody-phf1-markedly-reduces-tau-pathology-in-mutant-tau-transgenic-mice
#2
Wencheng Liu, Lingzhi Zhao, Brittany Blackman, Mayur Parmar, Man Ying Wong, Thomas Woo, Fangmin Yu, Dolan Sondhi, Stephen M Kaminsky, Ronald G Crystal, Steven M Paul
: Passive immunization with anti-tau monoclonal antibodies has been shown by several laboratories to reduce age-dependent tau pathology and neurodegeneration in mutant tau transgenic mice. These studies have used repeated high weekly doses of various tau antibodies administered systemically for several months and have reported reduced tau pathology of ∼40-50% in various brain regions. Here we show that direct intrahippocampal administration of the adeno-associated virus (AAV)-vectored anti-phospho-tau antibody PHF1 to P301S tau transgenic mice results in high and durable antibody expression, primarily in neurons...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919008/phenotype-analysis-of-male-transgenic-mice-overexpressing-mutant-igfbp-2-lacking-the-cardin-weintraub-sequence-motif-reduced-expression-of-synaptic-markers-and-myelin-basic-protein-in-the-brain-and-a-lower-degree-of-anxiety-like-behaviour
#3
N Schindler, J Mayer, S Saenger, U Gimsa, C Walz, J Brenmoehl, D Ohde, E Wirthgen, A Tuchscherer, V C Russo, M Frank, T Kirschstein, F Metzger, A Hoeflich
Brain growth and function are regulated by insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) but also by IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), including IGFBP-2. In addition to modulating IGF activities, IGFBP-2 interacts with a number of components of the extracellular matrix and cell membrane via a Cardin-Weintraub sequence or heparin binding domain (HBD1). The nature and the signalling elicited by these interactions are not fully understood. Here, we examined transgenic mice (H1d-hBP2) overexpressing a mutant human IGFBP-2 that lacks a specific heparin binding domain (HBD1) known as the Cardin-Weintraub sequence...
November 16, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918827/optic-radiations-microstructural-changes-in-glaucoma-and-association-with-severity-a-study-using-3tesla-magnetic-resonance-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#4
Laury Tellouck, Muriel Durieux, Pierrick Coupé, Audrey Cougnard-Grégoire, Joy Tellouck, Thomas Tourdias, Fanny Munsch, Arnaud Garrigues, Catherine Helmer, Florence Malet, Jean-François Dartigues, Vincent Dousset, Cécile Delcourt, Cédric Schweitzer
Purpose: To compare microstructural changes along the optical radiations and brain structure volumes between glaucoma and control subjects using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and to analyze their association with severity of the disease. Methods: A total of 50 open-angle glaucoma subjects and 50 healthy age- and sex-matched controls underwent detailed ophthalmologic examinations (including visual field testing [VF], funduscopy, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography) as well as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) using 3...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917464/relation-of-dysglycemia-to-structural-brain-changes-in-a-multiethnic-elderly-cohort
#5
Christiane Reitz, Vanessa A Guzman, Atul Narkhede, Charles DeCarli, Adam M Brickman, José A Luchsinger
OBJECTIVES: Abnormally high glucose levels (dysglycemia) increase with age. Epidemiological studies suggest that dysglycemia is a risk factor for cognitive impairment but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the relation of dysglycemia clinical categories (normal glucose tolerance (NGT), pre-diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, known diabetes) with brain structure in older adults. We also assessed the relation between dysglycemia and cognitive performance...
December 5, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917121/neurochemical-and-neuroanatomical-plasticity-following-memory-training-and-yoga-interventions-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#6
Hongyu Yang, Amber M Leaver, Prabha Siddarth, Pattharee Paholpak, Linda Ercoli, Natalie M St Cyr, Harris A Eyre, Katherine L Narr, Dharma S Khalsa, Helen Lavretsky
Behavioral interventions are becoming increasingly popular approaches to ameliorate age-related cognitive decline, but their underlying neurobiological mechanisms and clinical efficiency have not been fully elucidated. The present study explored brain plasticity associated with two behavioral interventions, memory enhancement training (MET) and a mind-body practice (yogic meditation), in healthy seniors with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using structural magnetic resonance imaging (s-MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916687/a-unique-combination-of-micronutrients-rejuvenates-cognitive-performance-in-aged-mice
#7
Sam D Perez, Kristy Du, Catarina Rendeiro, Lin Wang, Qian Wu, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Rema Vazhappilly, Jeffrey H Baxter, Jonathan V Sweedler, Justin S Rhodes
It is widely believed that diet can influence the onset and severity of cognitive aging, but the optimal combination of micronutrients and molecular and cellular mechanisms remain elusive. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of eight distinct diets, consisting of various concentrations of selected micronutrients, on learning and memory as well as markers of neuronal plasticity, and metabolic and neuro-immune status of the aged hippocampus. Eighteen-month-old male and female C57BL/6J mice were fed the diets for 16 weeks, followed by learning and memory trials on the active avoidance task...
December 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915041/garlic-active-constituent-s-allyl-cysteine-protects-against-lipopolysaccharide-induced-cognitive-deficits-in-the-rat-possible-involved-mechanisms
#8
Mahboubeh Zarezadeh, Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Zahra Kiasalari, Siamak Afshin-Majd, Mehrdad Roghani
Neuroinflammation is known as a risk factor for cognitive deficit and dementia and its incidence increases with aging. S-allyl cysteine (SAC) is the active and main component of aged garlic extract with anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and nootropic potential. In this study, the protective effect of SAC against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognitive deficit in the rat was investigated. For induction of learning and memory impairment and neuroinflammation, LPS was intraperitoneally injected at a dose of 167μg/kg for 7 days and SAC was administered p...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914197/young-adult-born-neurons-enhance-hippocampal-dependent-performance-via-influences-on-bilateral-networks
#9
Jia-Min Zhuo, Hua-An Tseng, Mitul Desai, Mark E Bucklin, Ali I Mohammed, Nick Tm Robinson, Edward S Boyden, Lara M Rangel, Alan P Jasanoff, Howard J Gritton, Xue Han
Adult neurogenesis supports performance in many hippocampal dependent tasks. Considering the small number of adult-born neurons generated at any given time, it is surprising that this sparse population of cells can substantially influence behavior. Recent studies have demonstrated that heightened excitability and plasticity may be critical for the contribution of young adult-born cells for certain tasks. What is not well understood is how these unique biophysical and synaptic properties may translate to networks that support behavioral function...
December 3, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913407/whole-brain-analysis-reveals-increased-neuroanatomical-asymmetries-in-dementia-for-hippocampus-and-amygdala
#10
Christian Wachinger, David H Salat, Michael Weiner, Martin Reuter
Structural magnetic resonance imaging data are frequently analysed to reveal morphological changes of the human brain in dementia. Most contemporary imaging biomarkers are scalar values, such as the volume of a structure, and may miss the localized morphological variation of early presymptomatic disease progression. Neuroanatomical shape descriptors, however, can represent complex geometric information of individual anatomical regions and may demonstrate increased sensitivity in association studies. Yet, they remain largely unexplored...
December 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911305/nitrosylation-of-vesicular-transporters-in-brain-of-amyloid-precursor-protein-presenilin-1-double-transgenic-mice
#11
Ying Wang, Zhu Zhou, Hua Tan, Shenghua Zhu, Yiran Wang, Yingxia Sun, Xin-Min Li, Jun-Feng Wang
Nitric oxide can attack thiol groups of cysteine residues in proteins and induce protein cysteine S-nitrosylation. Cholinergic and glutamatergic systems are dysregulated in Alzheimer's disease. Vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) are important in packaging acetylcholine and glutamate into vesicles, which is an important step for neurotransmission. Previously we found that VAChT and VGLUT1 can be nitrosylated and that S-nitrosylation of these transporters inhibits vesicular uptake of acetylcholine and glutamate...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909002/anatomy-of-subcortical-structures-predicts-age-related-differences-in-skill-acquisition
#12
Sima Chalavi, Hamed Zivari Adab, Lisa Pauwels, Iseult A M Beets, Peter van Ruitenbeek, Matthieu P Boisgontier, Thiago Santos Monteiro, Celine Maes, Stefan Sunaert, Stephan P Swinnen
Skill acquisition capabilities vary substantially from one individual to another. Volumetric brain studies have demonstrated that global volume of several subcortical structures predicts variations in learning outcome in young adults (YA) and older adults (OA). In this study, for the first time, we utilized shape analysis, which offers a more sensitive detection of subregional brain anatomical deformations, to investigate whether subregional anatomy of subcortical structures is associated with training-induced performance improvement on a bimanual task in YA and OA, and whether this association is age-dependent...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908425/copper-accumulation-in-rodent-brain-astrocytes-a-species-difference
#13
Brendan Sullivan, Gregory Robison, Yulia Pushkar, John K Young, Kebreten F Manaye
Changes in Cu homeostasis have been implicated in multiple neurodegenerative diseases. Factors controlling and regulating the distribution of Cu in the brain remain largely unknown. We have previously reported that a sub-set of astrocytes in the subventricular zone (SVZ) contain Cu-rich aggregates. Here we expand previous studies with detailed X-ray fluorescent imaging (XRF) analysis of the additional brain areas of hippocampus (HP) and rostral migratory stream (RMS). We also use conventional DAB (3,3'-diaminobenzidine) staining which accesses both peroxidase and pseudo-peroxidase activities...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903335/patterns-of-cortical-and-subcortical-amyloid-burden-across-stages-of-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Emily C Edmonds, Katherine J Bangen, Lisa Delano-Wood, Daniel A Nation, Ansgar J Furst, David P Salmon, Mark W Bondi
OBJECTIVES: We examined florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET) amyloid scans across stages of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) in cortical, allocortical, and subcortical regions. Stages were characterized using empirically defined methods. METHODS: A total of 312 cognitively normal Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants completed a neuropsychological assessment and florbetapir PET scan. Participants were classified into stages of preclinical AD using (1) a novel approach based on the number of abnormal biomarkers/cognitive markers each individual possessed, and (2) National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA) criteria...
November 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900929/main-effects-and-interactions-of-cerebral-hemispheres-gender-and-age-in-the-calculation-of-volumes-and-asymmetries-of-selected-structures-of-episodic-memory
#15
Rocio Ramirez-Carmona, Haydee Guadalupe Garcia-Lazaro, Brenda Dominguez-Corrales, Erika Aguilar-Castañeda, Ernesto Roldan-Valadez
The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of anatomical (cerebral hemisphere) and demographic (age and gender) variables on the gray matter (GM) volumes and volumetric asymmetry indices (VAIs) of selected structures involved in episodic memory. A cross-sectional study was performed in 47 healthy volunteers. Neuropsychological evaluation revealed similar IQs across the sample. Using SPM-based software, brain segmentation, labeling and volume measurements of the hippocampus, amygdala, middle temporal gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus were performed in each cerebral hemisphere...
November 30, 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900211/in-vivo-expression-of-reprogramming-factors-increases-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-chronic-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#16
Soohyun Wi, Ji Hea Yu, MinGi Kim, Sung-Rae Cho
Neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity can be stimulated in vivo in the brain. In this study, we hypothesized that in vivo expression of reprogramming factors such as Klf4, Sox2, Oct4, and c-Myc would facilitate endogenous neurogenesis and functional recovery. CD-1® mice were induced at 1 week of age by unilaterally carotid artery ligation and exposure to hypoxia. At 6 weeks of age, mice were injected GFP only or both four reprogramming factors and GFP into lateral ventricle. Passive avoidance task and open field test were performed to evaluate neurobehavioral function...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896065/analysis-of-ageing-associated-grey-matter-volume-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-shows-excess-atrophy-in-subcortical-regions
#17
Courtney A Bishop, Rexford D Newbould, Jean Sz Lee, Lesley Honeyfield, Rebecca Quest, Alessandro Colasanti, Rehiana Ali, Miriam Mattoscio, Antonio Cortese, Richard Nicholas, Paul M Matthews, Paolo A Muraro, Adam D Waldman
Age of onset in multiple sclerosis (MS) exerts an influence on the course of disease. This study examined whether global and regional brain volumes differed between "younger" and "older" onset MS subjects who were matched for short disease duration, mean 1.9 years and burden as measured by the MS Severity Score and relapses. 21 younger-onset MS subjects (age 30.4 ± 3.2 years) were compared with 17 older-onset (age 48.7 ± 3.3 years) as well as age-matched controls (n = 31, 31.9 ± 3.5 years and n = 21, 47...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895577/fus1-ko-mouse-as-a-model-of-oxidative-stress-mediated-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-circadian-disruption-and-long-term-spatial-and-olfactory-memory-impairments
#18
Guillermo Coronas-Samano, Keeley L Baker, Winston J T Tan, Alla V Ivanova, Justus V Verhagen
Insufficient advances in the development of effective therapeutic treatments of sporadic Alzheimer's Disease (sAD) to date are largely due to the lack of sAD-relevant animal models. While the vast majority of models do recapitulate AD's hallmarks of plaques and tangles by virtue of tau and/or beta amyloid overexpression, these models do not reflect the fact that in sAD (unlike familial AD) these genes are not risk factors per se and that other mechanisms like oxidative stress, metabolic dysregulation and inflammation play key roles in AD etiology...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894939/intranasal-cerebrolysin-attenuates-learning-and-memory-impairments-in-d-galactose-induced-senescence-in-mice
#19
Ehsan Pourmemar, Alireza Majdi, Morteza Haramshahi, Mahnaz Talebi, Pouran Karimi, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad
Neurotrophic factors are currently being considered as pro-cognitive therapeutic approaches for management of cognitive deficits. This study aims to evaluate the effects of intranasal (i.n.) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of Cerebrolysin (CBL) (as a mixture of neurotrophic factors) on the d-galactose-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis and memory as well as learning impairment in mice. For this purpose, CBL (1, 2.5, 5 ml/kg/i.p.) or (1 ml/kg/i.n.), were administrated daily in d-galactose-received (100 mg/kg/subcutaneous (s...
November 25, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893859/hippocampal-calcification-on-computed-tomography-in-relation-to-cognitive-decline-in-memory-clinic-patients-a-case-control-study
#20
Remko Kockelkoren, Jill B De Vis, Willem P Th M Mali, Jeroen Hendrikse, Pim A de Jong, Annemieke M Rozemuller, Huiberdina L Koek
BACKGROUND: It was recently shown that calcification of the hippocampus can be detected on computed tomography (CT) images and these calcifications occur in up to 20% of people over 50 years of age. However, little is known about hippocampal calcification and its relation to cognition and cognitive decline. Therefore, the aim of this study was to (1) determine the prevalence of hippocampal calcification on CT in memory clinic patients controls, and (2) to assess its relation with cognitive decline...
2016: PloS One
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