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Aging hippocampus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734178/subcortical-surface-shape-in-youth-at-familial-high-risk-for-schizophrenia
#1
Kathryn Hill, Nicolas Bolo, Suraj Sarvode Mothi, Paulo Lizano, Synthia Guimond, Neeraj Tandon, Elena Molokotos, Matcheri Keshavan
Abnormalities in the subcortical brain regions that support cognitive functions have been reported in schizophrenia. Relatives of those with schizophrenia often present with psychosis-like traits (schizotypy) and similar cognition as those with schizophrenia. To evaluate the relationships between subcortical structure, schizotypy, and cognitive function, we assessed shape and volume of the hippocampus, amygdala and thalamus in untreated youth at familial high risk for schizophrenia (HRSZ). The sample consisted of 66 HRSZ and 69 age-matched healthy controls (HC)...
July 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733814/neuroprotective-effect-of-ipriflavone-against-scopolamine-induced-memory-impairment-in-rats
#2
Hani S Hafez, Doaa A Ghareeb, Samar R Saleh, Mariam M Abady, Maha A El Demellawy, Hend Hussien, Nihad Abdel-Monem
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized clinically by a progressive loss of memory and cognitive functions resulting in severe dementia. Ipriflavone (IPRI) is a non-hormonal, semi-synthetic isoflavone, clinically used in some countries for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Moreover, ipriflavone is a non-peptidomimetic small molecule AChE inhibitor with an improved bioavailability after systemic administration, due to its efficient blood-brain barrier permeability in comparison with peptidomimetic inhibitors...
July 22, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733247/effective-connectivity-during-successful-and-unsuccessful-recollection-in-young-and-old-adults
#3
Selene Cansino, Patricia Trejo-Morales, Cinthya Estrada-Manilla, Erick Humberto Pasaye-Alcaraz, Erika Aguilar-Castañeda, Perla Salgado-Lujambio, Ana Luisa Sosa-Ortiz
Aging effects on regional brain activation have been studied extensively to explain the gradual recollection failure that occurs with advancing age. However, little is known about the consequence of aging on the interaction among brain regions that support recollection. The purpose of this study was to examine effective connectivity at encoding and retrieval during successful and unsuccessful recollection in young and old adults. In particular, we analyzed a recollection network that is characterized by its susceptibility to aging effects by middle age or later, which is comprised of the occipital cortex, hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex...
July 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731448/left-frontal-hub-connectivity-during-memory-performance-supports-reserve-in-aging-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#4
Nicolai Franzmeier, Julia C Hartmann, Alexander Nw Taylor, Migeul A Araque Caballero, Lee Simon-Vermot, Katharina Buerger, Lana M Kambeitz-Ilankovic, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Claudia Mueller, Cihan Catak, Daniel Janowitz, Robert Stahl, Martin Dichgans, Marco Duering, Michael Ewers
Reserve in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined as maintaining cognition at a relatively high level in the presence of neurodegeneration, an ability often associated with higher education among other life factors. Recent evidence suggests that higher resting-state functional connectivity within the frontoparietal control network, specifically the left frontal cortex (LFC) hub, contributes to higher reserve. Following up these previous resting-state fMRI findings, we probed memory-task related functional connectivity of the LFC hub as a neural substrate of reserve...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731446/effect-of-apoe-genotype-on-synaptic-proteins-in-earlier-adult-life
#5
Lindsey I Sinclair, Seth Love
BACKGROUND: Possession of APOEɛ4 is a strong risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease and is associated with loss of synaptic proteins in the elderly even in the absence of Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that ɛ4 allele possession in non-demented adults aged under-75 would also be associated with alterations in the levels of synaptic proteins. METHODS: We measured synaptophysin, PSD95, drebrin, SNAP-25, and septin 7 by ELISA in hippocampus and superior temporal gyrus from 103 adults aged <75 without dementia...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730828/the-effect-of-hypertension-on-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-young-adult-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-and-dahl-rats
#6
A Pistikova, H Brozka, M Bencze, D Radostova, K Vales, A Stuchlik
The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few places in the brain where neurogenesis occurs in adulthood. Nowadays, an increasing number of children and young adults are affected by hypertension, one of the factors in the development of cerebrovascular diseases and age-related cognitive deficits. Since these cognitive deficits are often hippocampus-dependent, it is possible that hypertension exerts this effect via decreasing adult neurogenesis which has been shown to be essential for a range of cognitive tasks...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720898/balance-training-improves-memory-and-spatial-cognition-in-healthy-adults
#7
Ann-Kathrin Rogge, Brigitte Röder, Astrid Zech, Volker Nagel, Karsten Hollander, Klaus-Michael Braumann, Kirsten Hötting
Physical exercise has been shown to improve cognitive functions. However, it is still unknown which type of exercise affects cognition. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that a demanding balance training program improves memory and spatial cognition. Forty healthy participants aged 19-65 years were randomly assigned to either a balance or relaxation training intervention. Each group exercised twice a week for a total of 12 weeks. Pre- and posttests assessed balance performance, cardiorespiratory fitness, memory, spatial cognition, and executive functions...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720071/developmental-expression-and-dysregulation-of-mir-146a-and-mir-155-in-down-s-syndrome-and-mouse-models-of-down-s-syndrome-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
A Arena, A M Iyer, I Milenkovic, G G Kovács, I Ferrer, M Perluigi, E Aronica
miR-146a and miR-155 are key regulators of the innate immune response. We hypothesized that an inflammation-mediated dysregulation of these miRNAs may occur in patients with Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The miRNA expression patterns were investigated by in situ hybridization in developing hippocampus from controls, patients with DS and in adults with AD pathology (DS and sporadic AD; sAD). quantitative real-time PCR was employed to evaluate the miRNA levels in the hippocampus of sAD and in mouse models of DS and AD...
July 6, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719855/high-fat-diet-and-aging-interact-to-produce-neuroinflammation-and-impair-hippocampal-and-amygdalar-dependent-memory
#9
Sarah J Spencer, Heather D'Angelo, Alita Soch, Linda R Watkins, Steven F Maier, Ruth M Barrientos
More Americans are consuming diets higher in saturated fats and refined sugars than ever before, and based on increasing obesity rates, this is a growing trend among older adults as well. While high saturated fat diet (HFD) consumption has been shown to sensitize the inflammatory response to a subsequent immune challenge in young adult rats, the inflammatory effect of HFD in the already-vulnerable aging brain has not yet been assessed. Here, we explored whether short-term (3 days) consumption of HFD would serve as a neuroinflammatory trigger in aging animals, leading to cognitive deficits...
June 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719141/neonatal-infection-produces-significant-changes-in-immune-function-with-no-associated-learning-deficits-in-juvenile-rats
#10
Brittany F Osborne, Jasmine I Caulfield, Samantha A Solomotis, Jaclyn M Schwarz
The current experiments examined the impact of early-life immune activation and a subsequent mild immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 25µg/kg) on hippocampal-dependent learning, proinflammatory cytokine expression in the brain, and peripheral immune function in juvenile male and female rats at P24, an age when hippocampal-dependent learning and memory first emerges. Our results indicate that neonatal infection did not produce learning deficits in the hippocampal-dependent context pre-exposure facilitation effect (CPFE) paradigm in juvenile males and females, contrary to what has been observed in adults...
July 18, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716635/the-effects-of-strength-exercise-on-hippocampus-volume-and-functional-fitness-of-elderly-women
#11
Yun Sik Kim, Sang Keun Shin, Seung Baek Hong, Hak Jin Kim
BACKGROUND: Various positive effects of exercise on elderly women have been identified in many studies. Despite the importance of preserving the health of brain as well as body, few studies have investigated the effects of strength exercise on the brain health of elderly women to date. This study aimed to identify the effects of 24weeks of the Growing Stronger program on hippocampus volume and functional fitness of elderly women. METHODS: Twenty elderly women aged over 65 participated in this study...
July 14, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716545/effect-of-ageing-on-neurocognitive-function-by-stage-of-hiv-infection-evidence-from-the-multicenter-aids-cohort-study
#12
Karl Goodkin, Eric N Miller, Christopher Cox, Sandra Reynolds, James T Becker, Eileen Martin, Ola A Selnes, David G Ostrow, Ned C Sacktor
BACKGROUND: The demographics of the HIV epidemic in the USA have shifted towards older age. We aimed to establish the relationship between the processes of ageing and HIV infection in neurocognitive impairment. METHODS: With longitudinal data from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, a long-term prospective cohort study of the natural and treated history of HIV infection among men who have sex with men in the USA, we examined the effect of ageing, HIV infection (by disease stage), and their interaction on five neurocognitive domains: information processing speed, executive function, episodic memory, working memory, and motor function...
July 14, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715593/physical-exercise-improves-total-antioxidant-capacity-and-gene-expression-in-rat-hippocampal-tissue
#13
F Franzoni, G Federighi, J Fusi, E Cerri, R Banducci, A Petrocchi, A Innocenti, C Pruneti, S Daniele, S Pellegrini, C Martini, R Scuri, F Galetta
Exercise may exert beneficial effects on cognitive functions and play an important role in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. Such effects seem to be mediated by changes in anti-oxidative status, but limited information is available on the nature of molecular pathways supporting the antioxidant effects of exercise in the brain. In this study 3-5-month-old male Wistar albino rats were subjected to three times/week moderate intensity exercise on a rodent treadmill for a period of 6 weeks. The tissue antioxidant activity towards various reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined in the hippocampus...
July 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714396/differential-effects-of-nicotine-exposure-on-the-hippocampus-across-lifespan
#14
Dana Zeid, Munir Gunes Kutlu, Thomas J Gould
Nicotine exposure affects the hippocampus through activation of hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are present throughout excitatory and inhibitory hippocampal circuitry. The role of cholinergic functioning in the hippocampus varies across developmental stages so that nicotine exposure differentially affects this region depending upon timing of exposure, producing developmentally distinct changes in structure, function, and behavior. The hippocampus continues to mature well into adolescence, and this development is modulated by cholinergic activity...
July 13, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713963/sexual-dimorphism-of-frailty-and-cognitive-impairment-potential-underlying-mechanisms-review
#15
Qingwei Ruan, Grazia D'onofrio, Tao Wu, Antonio Greco, Daniele Sancarlo, Zhuowei Yu
The aim of the present study was to assess systematically gender differences in susceptibility to frailty and cognitive performance decline, and the underlying mechanisms. A systematic assessment was performed of the identified reviews of cohort, mechanistic and epidemiological studies. The selection criteria of the present study included: i) Sexual dimorphism of frailty, ii) sexual dimorphism of subjective memory decline (impairment) and atrophy of hippocampus during early life, iii) sexual dimorphism of late‑onset Alzheimer's disease and iv) sexual dimorphism mechanisms underlying frailty and cognitive impairment...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713251/age-related-changes-in-lateral-entorhinal-and-ca3-neuron-allocation-predict-poor-performance-on-object-discrimination
#16
Andrew P Maurer, Sarah A Johnson, Abbi R Hernandez, Jordan Reasor, Daniela M Cossio, Kaeli E Fertal, Jack M Mizell, Katelyn N Lubke, Benjamin J Clark, Sara N Burke
Age-related memory deficits correlate with dysfunction in the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus, which includes both hyperactivity and overly rigid activity patterns. While changes in intrinsic membrane currents and interneuron alterations are involved in this process, it is not known whether alterations in afferent input to CA3 also contribute. Neurons in layer II of the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) project directly to CA3 through the perforant path, but no data are available regarding the effects of advanced age on LEC activity and whether these activity patterns update in response to environmental change...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711815/geschwind-syndrome-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-neuroanatomical-and-neuropsychological-features-over-9-years
#17
Laura Veronelli, Sara J Makaretz, Megan Quimby, Bradford C Dickerson, Jessica A Collins
Geschwind Syndrome, a characteristic behavioral syndrome frequently described in patients affected by temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), consists of the following features: hyper-religiosity, hypergraphia, hyposexuality, and irritability. Here we report the 9-year-clinical course of a case of Geschwind Syndrome that developed as a first and salient clinical expression of right temporal lobe variant of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Only one patient affected by frontotemporal dementia has previously been shown to present with Geschwind Syndrome...
June 27, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711736/two-dose-investigation-of-the-5-ht-agonist-psilocybin-on-relative-and-global-cerebral-blood-flow
#18
Candace R Lewis, Katrin H Preller, Rainer Kraehenmann, Lars Michels, Philipp Stämpfli, Franz X Vollenweider
Psilocybin, the active compound in psychedelic mushrooms, is an agonist of various serotonin receptors. Seminal psilocybin positron emission tomography (PET) research suggested regional increases in glucose metabolism in frontal cortex (hyperfrontality). However, a recent arterial spin labeling (ASL) study suggests psilocybin may lead to hypo-perfusion in various brain regions. In this placebo-controlled, double-blind study we used pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) to measure perfusion changes, with and without adjustment for global brain perfusion, after two doses of oral psilocybin (low dose: 0...
July 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711193/nociceptin-receptors-in-alcohol-use-disorders-a%C3%A2-positron-emission-tomography-study-using-11-c-nop-1a
#19
Rajesh Narendran, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Brian Lopresti, Jennifer Paris, Michael L Himes, N Scott Mason
BACKGROUND: The neuropeptide transmitter nociceptin, which binds to the nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor, is a core component of the brain's antistress system. Nociceptin exerts its antistress effect by counteracting the functions of corticotropin-releasing factor, the primary stress-mediating neuropeptide in the brain. Basic investigations support a role for medications that target nociceptin receptors in the treatment of alcohol use disorders. Thus, it is of high interest to measure the in vivo status of NOP receptors in individuals with alcohol use disorders...
May 31, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710907/distinct-contributions-of-the-fornix-and-inferior-longitudinal-fasciculus-to-episodic-and-semantic-autobiographical-memory
#20
Carl J Hodgetts, Mark Postans, Naomi Warne, Alice Varnava, Andrew D Lawrence, Kim S Graham
Autobiographical memory (AM) is multifaceted, incorporating the vivid retrieval of contextual detail (episodic AM), together with semantic knowledge that infuses meaning and coherence into past events (semantic AM). While neuropsychological evidence highlights a role for the hippocampus and anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in episodic and semantic AM, respectively, it is unclear whether these constitute dissociable large-scale AM networks. We used high angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging and constrained spherical deconvolution-based tractography to assess white matter microstructure in 27 healthy young adult participants who were asked to recall past experiences using word cues...
June 20, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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