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Aging hippocampus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332467/is-hippocampal-avoidance-during-whole-brain-radiotherapy-risky-for-patients-with-small-cell-lung-cancer-hippocampal-metastasis-rate-and-associated-risk-factors
#1
Esra Korkmaz Kirakli, Ozgur Oztekin
OBJECTIVES: Hippocampal avoidance during whole-brain radiotherapy is performed to prevent neural stem cell injury causing neurocognitive dysfunction. Nevertheless, the estimated risk of metastases in hippocampal avoidance area in small-cell lung cancer is unknown. The current study aimed to characterize the metastatic distribution within the brain relative to the hippocampus, estimate the incidence of hippocampal metastasis in patients with small-cell lung cancer, and identify clinical and radiographic variables that may be associated with the risk of hippocampal avoidance area metastasis...
December 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332092/early-life-stress-activates-glial-cells-in-the-hippocampus-but-attenuates-cytokine-secretion-in-response-to-an-immune-challenge-in-rat-pups
#2
Luis Miguel Saavedra, Bertha Fenton Navarro, Luz Torner
OBJECTIVE: Early life stress (ELS) increases the vulnerability to developing psychopathological disorders in adulthood that are accompanied by brain inflammatory processes. However, it is not known how a combined double hit (stress and immune) at an early age affects the response of the neuroimmune system. Here we investigated the effect of periodic maternal separation (MS) followed by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on glial cells in the CA3 region and hilus of the hippocampus and on cytokine release on postnatal day (PN) 15...
January 13, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332037/increased-vulnerability-of-the-hippocampus-in-transgenic-mice-overexpressing-app-and-triple-repeat-tau
#3
Andrew Arner, Edward Rockenstein, Michael Mante, Jazmin Florio, Deborah Masliah, Bahar Salehi, Anthony Adame, Cassia Overk, Eliezer Masliah, Robert A Rissman
 Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common tauopathy, characterized by progressive accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau. While pathology associated with the 4-repeat (4R) tau isoform is more abundant in corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy, both 3R and 4R tau isoforms accumulate in AD. Many studies have investigated interactions between Aβ and 4R tau in double transgenic mice, but few, if any, have examined the effects of Aβ with 3R tau. To examine this relationship, we crossed our APP751 mutant line with our recently characterized 3R tau mutant model to create a bigenic line (hAPP-3RTau) to model AD neuropathology...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331931/resting-state-fmri-signals-in-offspring-of-parents-with-bipolar-disorder-at-the-high-risk-and-ultra-high-risk-stages-and-their-relations-with-cognitive-function
#4
Kangguang Lin, Robin Shao, Rui Lu, Kun Chen, Weicong Lu, Ting Li, Jiehua Kong, Kwok-Fai So, Guiyun Xu
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with dysfunctional resting-state brain functioning. However, it is still not known whether the aberrant functioning occurs and predict cognitive functioning before illness onset. AIMS: We examined the resting-state regional and network dysfunctioning, and their correlates with neurocognitive performance, in the high-risk (HR) and ultra-high-risk (UHR) stages of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF), region homogeneity (ReHo) and hypothesis-driven region-of-interest (ROI)-based connectivity, we examined resting-state fMRI data of 8- to 25-year-old healthy offspring (HR, n = 28) and offspring with subthreshold syndromes (UHR, n = 22) of a BD parent, and age-matched healthy controls without any personal or family psychopathology (HC, n = 46)...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331692/memory-performance-predicts-response-to-psychotherapy-for-depression-in-bipolar-disorder-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-with-exploratory-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#5
Thilo Deckersbach, Amy T Peters, Conor Shea, Aishwarya Gosai, Jonathan P Stange, Andrew D Peckham, Kristen K Ellard, Michael W Otto, Scott L Rauch, Darin D Dougherty, Andrew A Nierenberg
OBJECTIVE: This pilot randomized controlled trial compared Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and Supportive Psychotherapy (SP) for the treatment of depression in bipolar I disorder. We also examined whether exploratory verbal memory, executive functioning, and neural correlates of verbal memory during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) predicted change in depression severity. METHODS: Thirty-two adults (ages 18-65) with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder meeting current criteria for a major depressive episode were randomized to 18 weeks of CBT or SP...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329055/altered-brain-structure-in-women-with-premenstrual-syndrome
#6
Peng Liu, Ying Wei, Yingying Fan, Ru Li, Yanfei Liu, Geliang Wang, Yichen Wei, Yong Pang, Demao Deng, Wei Qin
BACKGROUND: Functional brain abnormalities have been noted in premenstrual syndrome (PMS). However, the brain structural alterations related to PMS remain unclear. This study aimed to identify possible abnormalities in gray matter (GM) volumes and structural covariance patterns among PMS patients. METHODS: Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained from 20 PMS patients and 20 healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was applied to examine GM volumes changes between the two groups...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329033/onjisaponin-b-prevents-cognitive-impairment-in-a-rat-model-of-d-galactose-induced-aging
#7
Gaowen Li, Jimian Yu, Ling Zhang, Yong Wang, Chuang Wang, Qun Chen
In this study, we investigated the potential effect of onjisaponin B (OB) on aging rats induced by D-gal (D-galactose). Sub-acute aging model was established in rats by the subcutaneous injection of D-gal (120 mg/kg) for 42 days, accompanied with OB (10, 20 mg/kg, p.o.) or normal saline intervention for 28 days since the 14th day after the beginning of D-gal stimulation. Morris water maze test and step-down passive avoidance test were conducted to evaluate the cognitive function of the rats. The superoxidase dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) contents in hippocampus were measured by according kits, respectively...
January 9, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328416/endotoxin-tolerance-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-preconditioning-protects-against-surgery%C3%A2-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-aging-mice
#8
Zhijie Zhang, Muhuo Ji, Yanlin Liao, Jianjun Yang, Jun Gao
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a clinical syndrome characterized by varying degrees of cognitive functional decline in patients following major surgery. Inflammation and a dysregulated innate immune system exert broad effects in the periphery and central nervous system, yet the mechanisms underlying POCD remain poorly understood and without effective therapy. It has been reported that modulation of the dysregulated inflammatory response with low‑dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning, a phenomenon additionally referred to as endotoxin tolerance, has the potential to reduce neuroinflammation, blood‑brain barrier disruption, and cognitive impairment in a number of disease states...
January 2, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326362/-18f-pbr111-pet-imaging-in-healthy-controls-and-schizophrenia-test-retest-reproducibility-and-quantification-of-neuroinflammation
#9
Julie Ottoy, Livia De Picker, Jeroen Verhaeghe, Steven Deleye, Leonie Wyffels, Lauren Kosten, Bernard Sabbe, Violette Coppens, Maarten Timmers, Luc Van Nueten, Sarah Ceyssens, Sigrid Stroobants, Manuel Morrens, Steven Staelens
Activated microglia express the translocator protein (TSPO) on the outer mitochondrial membrane. 18F-PBR111 is a second-generation positron emission tomography (PET) ligand that specifically binds the TSPO, allowing in-vivo visualization and quantification of neuroinflammation. The aim of this study is to evaluate if the test-retest variability of 18F-PBR111 in healthy controls is acceptable to detect a psychosis-associated neuroinflammatory signal in schizophrenia. Methods: Dynamic 90-min 18F-PBR111 scans were obtained in 17 healthy male controls (HC) and 11 male schizophrenia patients during a psychotic episode (SP)...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325995/acetylshikonin-from-zicao-attenuates-cognitive-impairment-and-hippocampus-senescence-in-d-galactose-induced-aging-mouse-model-via-upregulating-the-expression-of-sirt1
#10
Qisen Li, Jiacheng Zeng, Meiling Su, Yu He, Banghao Zhu
Zicao acts as a pleiotropic medicine in various diseases due to its particular pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-oxidative, and wound healing effects. However, few studies have focused on the function in neurodegenerative diseases of Zicao. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of Acetylshikonin (AS) from Zicao on the hippocampus of the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced sub-acute aging mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aging model was established in male Kunming mice by subcutaneous injection of D-gal (150 mg/kg/d) for 60 days, and the mice were given AS (270, 540 and 1080 mg/kg/d) or distilled water intragastrically for 30 days after 30 days of D-gal injection...
January 8, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325780/longitudinal-atlas-for-normative-human-brain-development-and-aging-over-the-lifespan-using-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping
#11
Yuyao Zhang, Hongjiang Wei, Matthew J Cronin, Naying He, Fuhua Yan, Chunlei Liu
Longitudinal brain atlases play an important role in the study of human brain development and cognition. Existing atlases are mainly based on anatomical features derived from T1-and T2-weighted MRI. A 4D developmental quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) atlas may facilitate the estimation of age-related iron changes in deep gray matter nuclei and myelin changes in white matter. To this end, group-wise co-registered QSM templates were generated over various age intervals from age 1-83 years old. Registration was achieved by combining both T1-weighted and QSM images...
January 8, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324756/associations-of-plasma-clusterin-and-alzheimer-s-disease-related-mri-markers-in-adults-at-mid-life-the-cardia-brain-mri-sub-study
#12
Thaddeus Haight, R Nick Bryan, Osorio Meirelles, Russell Tracy, Myriam Fornage, Melissa Richard, Ilya Nasrallah, Kristine Yaffe, David R Jacobs, Cora Lewis, Pamela Schreiner, Stephen Sidney, Christos Davatzikos, Lenore J Launer
BACKGROUND: Clinical and epidemiological studies of older persons have implicated clusterin in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. In the context of identifying early biomarkers of risk, we examined associations of plasma clusterin and characteristics of AD in middle-aged individuals from the community. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects were 639 cognitively normal individuals (mean age 50 ± 3.5) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Brain MRI sub-study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324753/microrna-signatures-of-endogenous-huntingtin-cag-repeat-expansion-in-mice
#13
Peter Langfelder, Fuying Gao, Nan Wang, David Howland, Seung Kwak, Thomas F Vogt, Jeffrey S Aaronson, Jim Rosinski, Giovanni Coppola, Steve Horvath, X William Yang
In Huntington's disease (HD) patients and in model organisms, messenger RNA transcriptome has been extensively studied; in contrast, comparatively little is known about expression and potential role of microRNAs. Using RNA-sequencing, we have quantified microRNA expression in four brain regions and liver, at three different ages, from an allelic series of HD model mice with increasing CAG length in the endogenous Huntingtin gene. Our analyses reveal CAG length-dependent microRNA expression changes in brain, with 159 microRNAs selectively altered in striatum, 102 in cerebellum, 51 in hippocampus, and 45 in cortex...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323935/shape-related-characteristics-of-age-related-differences-in-subcortical-structures
#14
Christopher R Madan
OBJECTIVES: With an increasing aging population, it is important to understand biological markers of aging. Subcortical volume is known to differ with age; additionally considering shape-related characteristics may provide a better index of age-related differences. Fractal dimensionality is more sensitive to age-related differences, but is borne out of mathematical principles, rather than neurobiological relevance. We considered four distinct measures of shape and how they relate to aging and fractal dimensionality: surface-to-volume ratio, sphericity, long-axis curvature, and surface texture...
January 11, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323526/psychological-and-neural-correlates-of-embitterment-in-old-age
#15
Simone Kühn, Sandra Düzel, Johanna Drewelies, Denis Gerstorf, Ulman Lindenberger, Jürgen Gallinat
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic embitterment disorder (PTED) comprises a stress-related response to a negative life event that violates the belief system of the individual. Characteristic symptoms involve repeated intrusive thoughts, emotional arousal when reminded of the event, and decreases in well-being. METHOD: Within the scope of the present study, embitterment was treated as a continuous rather than categorical concept, and we investigated its psychological and brain structural correlates in a sample of healthy older adults...
January 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322596/subclinical-depressive-symptoms-during-late-midlife-and-structural-brain-alterations-a-longitudinal-study-of-danish-men-born-in-1953
#16
Merete Osler, Lauge Sørensen, Maarten Rozing, Oriol Puig Calvo, Mads Nielsen, Egill Rostrup
We explored whether depressive symptoms measured three times during midlife were associated with structural brain alterations quantified using magnetic resonance imaging measurements of volume, cortical thickness, and intensity texture. In 192 men born in 1953 with depressive symptoms measured at age 51, 56, and 59 years, magnetic resonance imaging was performed at age 59. All data processing was performed using the Freesurfer software package except for the texture-scores that were computed using in-house software...
January 10, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319430/sex-differences-in-the-development-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-probable-alzheimer-s-disease-as-predicted-by-the-hippocampal-volume-or-white-matter-hyperintensities
#17
Shanna L Burke, Tianyan Hu, Nicole M Fava, Tan Li, Miriam J Rodriguez, Katie L Schuldiner, Aaron Burgess, Angela Laird
This study examined biological sex differences in the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) development as predicted by changes in the hippocampus or white matter hyperintensities. A secondary data analysis of the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set was conducted. We selected samples of participants with normal cognition at baseline who progressed to MCI (n = 483) and those who progressed to probable AD (n = 211) to determine if hippocampal volume or white matter hyperintensities (WMH) at baseline predicted progression to probable AD or MCI and whether the rate of progression differed between men and women...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Women & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317290/running-exercise-protects-against-myelin-breakdown-in-the-absence-of-neurogenesis-in-the-hippocampus-of-ad-mice
#18
Feng-Lei Chao, Lei Zhang, Yi Zhang, Chun-Ni Zhou, Lin Jiang, Qian Xiao, Yan-Min Luo, Fu-Lin Lv, Qi He, Yong Tang
Neurogenesis might influence oligodendrogenesis and selectively instruct myelination in the mammalian brain. Running exercise could induce neurogenesis and protect the myelin sheaths in the dentate gyrus of AD mice. It is unclearwhether running exercise could protect the myelin sheaths in the absence of neurogenesis in the hippocampus of AD mice. Six-month-old male APP/PS1 transgenic mice were randomly assigned to a control group (Tg control) or a running group (Tg runner), and age-matched non-transgenic littermates were used as a wild-type group (WT control)...
January 6, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317248/cognitive-decline-and-increased-hippocampal-p-tau-expression-in-mice-with-hearing-loss
#19
So Young Park, Min Jung Kim, Hong Lim Kim, Dong Kee Kim, Sang Won Yeo, Shi Nae Park
Hearing and cognition are commonly involved in both normal and pathological aging. Current clinical interest lies in whether peripheral hearing loss promotes cognitive decline. In our previous publication, the authors have shown a causal relationship between hearing and cognitive impairments in C57BL/6 mice. Here we extended the follow-up to 12 months to determine the long-term effects of hearing loss on cognition and to observe hippocampal p-tau and lipofuscin. One month old male mice were randomly allocated into two groups, the control (n = 12) and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) (n = 12)...
January 6, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315714/brain-abnormalities-in-cognition-anxiety-and-depression-regulatory-regions-in-adolescents-with-single-ventricle-heart-disease
#20
Nancy A Pike, Bhaswati Roy, Ritika Gupta, Sadhana Singh, Mary A Woo, Nancy J Halnon, Alan B Lewis, Rajesh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Single ventricle heart disease (SVHD) adolescents show cognitive impairments and anxiety and depressive symptoms, indicating the possibility of brain injury in regions that control these functions. However, brain tissue integrity in cognition, anxiety, and depression regulatory sites in SVHD remains unclear. We examined brain tissue changes in SVHD compared to controls using T2-relaxometry procedures, which measure free water content and show tissue injury. METHODS: Proton-density and T2-weighted images, using a 3...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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