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Aging hippocampus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426945/testosterone-levels-in-healthy-men-correlate-negatively-with-serotonin-4-receptor-binding
#1
Erik Perfalk, Sofi da Cunha-Bang, Klaus K Holst, Sune Keller, Claus Svarer, Gitte M Knudsen, Vibe G Frokjaer
The serotonergic system integrates sex steroid information and plays a central role in mood and stress regulation, cognition, appetite and sleep. This interplay may be critical for likelihood of developing depressive episodes, at least in a subgroup of sensitive individuals. The serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT4R) indexes central serotonergic tonus, which may be related to endogenous sex-steroid levels in the mentally healthy state even though this remains elusive. Here we evaluate if peripheral levels of estradiol and testosterone are associated with 5-HT4R binding as imaged by [(11)C]SB207145 positron emission tomography in a group of 41 healthy men...
March 22, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425451/ifn%C3%AE-protects-neurons-from-damage-in-a-murine-model-of-hiv-1-associated-brain-injury
#2
Victoria E Thaney, Alan M O'Neill, Melanie M Hoefer, Ricky Maung, Ana B Sanchez, Marcus Kaul
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) causes brain injury. Type I interferons (IFNα/β) are critical mediators of any anti-viral immune response and IFNβ has been implicated in the temporary control of lentiviral infection in the brain. Here we show that transgenic mice expressing HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 in their central nervous system (HIVgp120tg) mount a transient IFNβ response and provide evidence that IFNβ confers neuronal protection against HIVgp120 toxicity. In cerebrocortical cell cultures, neuroprotection by IFNβ against gp120 toxicity is dependent on IFNα receptor 1 (IFNAR1) and the β-chemokine CCL4, as IFNAR1 deficiency and neutralizing antibodies against CCL4, respectively, abolish the neuroprotective effects...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424833/cannabis-related-hippocampal-volumetric-abnormalities-specific-to-subregions-in-dependent-users
#3
Yann Chye, Chao Suo, Murat Yücel, Lauren den Ouden, Nadia Solowij, Valentina Lorenzetti
RATIONALE: Cannabis use is associated with neuroanatomical alterations in the hippocampus. While the hippocampus is composed of multiple subregions, their differential vulnerability to cannabis dependence remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to investigate gray matter alteration in each of the hippocampal subregions (presubiculum, subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) subfields CA1-4, and dentate gyrus (DG)) as associated with cannabis use and dependence...
April 19, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424610/characterizing-brain-iron-deposition-in-patients-with-subcortical-vascular-mild-cognitive-impairment-using-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-a-potential-biomarker
#4
Yawen Sun, Xin Ge, Xu Han, Wenwei Cao, Yao Wang, Weina Ding, Mengqiu Cao, Yong Zhang, Qun Xu, Yan Zhou, Jianrong Xu
The presence and pattern of iron accumulation in subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI) and their effects on cognition have rarely been investigated. We aimed to examine brain iron deposition in svMCI subjects using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). Moreover, we aimed to investigate the correlation between brain iron deposition and the severity of cognitive impairment as indicated by z-scores. We recruited 20 subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) patients who fulfilled the criteria for svMCI...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424512/human-umbilical-cord-plasma-proteins-revitalize-hippocampal-function-in-aged-mice
#5
Joseph M Castellano, Kira I Mosher, Rachelle J Abbey, Alisha A McBride, Michelle L James, Daniela Berdnik, Jadon C Shen, Bende Zou, Xinmin S Xie, Martha Tingle, Izumi V Hinkson, Martin S Angst, Tony Wyss-Coray
Ageing drives changes in neuronal and cognitive function, the decline of which is a major feature of many neurological disorders. The hippocampus, a brain region subserving roles of spatial and episodic memory and learning, is sensitive to the detrimental effects of ageing at morphological and molecular levels. With advancing age, synapses in various hippocampal subfields exhibit impaired long-term potentiation, an electrophysiological correlate of learning and memory. At the molecular level, immediate early genes are among the synaptic plasticity genes that are both induced by long-term potentiation and downregulated in the aged brain...
April 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423876/effects-of-confinement-on-physiological-and-psychological-response-and-expression-of-il-6-and-bdnf-mrna-in-primiparous-and-multiparous-weaning-sows
#6
Mingyue Zhang, Xiang Li, Jianhong Li, Hanqing Sun, Xiaohui Zhang, Jun Bao
Objective: The present study aimed to investigate whether the long-lasting, recurrent restricting of sows leads to the physiological and psychological reaction of discomfort. Methods: Sows (Large White) that had experienced restricting for about 0.5 or 3 years and age-matched sows kept in a group housing system (loose sows) were compared. PLR parameters were measured at the weaning stage. Immediately after slaughter, blood samples were taken to measure serum cortisol levels, and the brain was dissected, gene expression in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and hypothalamus was analyzed...
March 25, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423534/estrogen-deficiency-is-associated-with-hippocampal-morphological-remodeling-of-early-postmenopausal-mice
#7
Yan Yan, Liang Cheng, Xin Chen, Qin Wang, Mingjing Duan, Jichao Ma, Linjing Zhao, Xuemei Jiang, Jing Ai
Estrogen (E2) deficiency is reported to involve in the impairment of cognition in postmenopausal women. However, the morphological basis is still unclear. In the present study, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we observed the ultrastructure of hippocampus in female C57BL/6 mice at the age of 18 months (18 M) which is considered as the early stage of postmenopause (n = 8). Compared with control mice aged 6 M (n = 8), we identified that the morphological changes in the hippocampus of these menopausal mice were mitochondrial damage, lipofuscin deposition and microtubule degradation...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422707/factors-underlying-cognitive-decline-in-old-age-and-alzheimer-s-disease-the-role-of-the-hippocampus
#8
Wafa Jaroudi, Julia Garami, Sandra Garrido, Michael Hornberger, Szabolcs Keri, Ahmed A Moustafa
There are many factors that strongly influence the aetiology, development, and progression of cognitive decline in old age, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). These factors include not only different personality traits and moods but also lifestyle patterns (e.g. exercise and diet) and awareness levels that lead to cognitive decline in old age. In this review, we discuss how personality traits, mood states, and lifestyle impact brain and behaviour in older adults. Specifically, our review shows that these lifestyle and personality factors affect several brain regions, including the hippocampus, a region key for memory that is affected by cognitive decline in old age as well as AD...
April 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422391/mr-elastography-detection-of-early-viscoelastic-response-of-the-murine-hippocampus-to-amyloid-%C3%AE-accumulation-and-neuronal-cell-loss-due-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Tonia Munder, Anna Pfeffer, Stefanie Schreyer, Jing Guo, Juergen Braun, Ingolf Sack, Barbara Steiner, Charlotte Klein
PURPOSE: To investigate in vivo viscoelastic parameters related to early histopathological changes in the hippocampus and the cortex in early, preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) stages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) was applied to female APP23 mice, an established transgenic mouse model of AD, at three different stages early in disease progression. To investigate the potential therapeutic effects of physical, cognitive, and social stimulation on brain viscoelasticity and histopathological characteristics, MRE was also applied after exposing young APP23 mice to environmentally enriched cage conditions (ENR), for 1, 12, or 24 weeks, which corresponds to adolescent, young-adult, and adult age at the time of analysis...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421540/maternal-folic-acid-supplementation-during-pregnancy-improves-neurobehavioral-development-in-rat-offspring
#10
Xinyan Wang, Wen Li, Shou Li, Jing Yan, John X Wilson, Guowei Huang
Maternal folate status during pregnancy may influence central nervous system (CNS) development in offspring. However, the recommended intakes of folic acid for women of childbearing age differ among countries and there is still no consensus about whether folic acid should be supplemented continuously throughout pregnancy. We hypothesized that folic acid supplementation may be more beneficial for offspring's neurobehavioral development if prolonged throughout pregnancy instead of being limited to the periconceptional period...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420415/distribution-pattern-following-systemic-mesenchymal-stem-cell-injection-depends-on-the-age-of-the-recipient-and-neuronal-health
#11
Claire Fabian, Yahaira Naaldijk, Christiane Leovsky, Adiv A Johnson, Lukas Rudolph, Carsten Jaeger, Katrin Arnold, Alexandra Stolzing
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show therapeutic efficacy in many different age-related degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Very little is currently known about whether or not aging impacts the transplantation efficiency of MSCs. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the distribution of intravenously transplanted syngeneic MSCs derived from young and aged mice into young, aged, and transgenic APP/PS1 Alzheimer's disease mice. MSCs from male donors were transplanted into female mice and their distribution pattern was monitored by PCR using Y-chromosome specific probes...
April 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418206/anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-during-pregnancy-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#12
Xue Xiao, Shunping Gui, Peng Bai, Yi Bai, Dan Shan, Yayi Hu, Tri M Bui-Nguyen, Rong Zhou
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDA-R) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder that was first described by Dr Vitaliani in 2005. In 2007, Dalmau et al. found anti-NMDA-R antibody expressed both in the hippocampus and prefrontal nerve cell membrane, finally proposing the diagnosis of autoimmune anti-NMDA-R encephalitis. Most of the patients are female (91%), with ages ranging from 4 to 76 years. The average age is 23 years, a birth peak age, although anti-NMDA-R encephalitis is rare during pregnancy...
April 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418030/the-bmp2-nuclear-variant-nbmp2-is-expressed-in-mouse-hippocampus-and-impacts-memory
#13
Ryan D Cordner, Lindsey N Friend, Jaime L Mayo, Corinne Badgley, Andrew Wallmann, Conrad N Stallings, Peter L Young, Darla R Miles, Jeffrey G Edwards, Laura C Bridgewater
The novel nuclear protein nBMP2 is synthesized from the BMP2 gene by translational initiation at an alternative start codon. We generated a targeted mutant mouse, nBmp2NLS(tm), in which the nuclear localization signal (NLS) was inactivated to prevent nuclear translocation of nBMP2 while still allowing the normal synthesis and secretion of the BMP2 growth factor. These mice exhibit abnormal muscle function due to defective Ca(2+) transport in skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that neurological function, which also depends on intracellular Ca(2+) transport, could be affected by the loss of nBMP2...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414755/childhood-socioeconomic-status-and-childhood-maltreatment-distinct-associations-with-brain-structure
#14
Gwendolyn M Lawson, Joshua S Camins, Laura Wisse, Jue Wu, Jeffrey T Duda, Philip A Cook, James C Gee, Martha J Farah
The present study examined the relationship between childhood socioeconomic status (SES), childhood maltreatment, and the volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala between the ages of 25 and 36 years. Previous work has linked both low SES and maltreatment with reduced hippocampal volume in childhood, an effect attributed to childhood stress. In 46 adult subjects, only childhood maltreatment, and not childhood SES, predicted hippocampal volume in regression analyses, with greater maltreatment associated with lower volume...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414094/effect-of-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathology-on-brain-monoamines-in-mice
#15
C U Von Linstow, M Severino, A Metaxas, J Waider, A A Babcock, K P Lesch, J B Gramsbergen, B Finsen
Aging is the greatest single risk factor of the neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD). The monoaminergic system, including serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) modulates cognition, which is affected in AD. Changes in monoamine levels have been observed in AD, but these can both be age- and/or disease-related. We examined whether brain monoamine levels change as part of physiological aging and/or AD-like disease in APPSWE/PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice. The neocortex, hippocampus, striatum, brainstem and cerebellum of 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month-old B6C3 wild-type (WT) mice and of 18-month old APP/PS1 and WT mice were analysed for 5-HT, DA and NA contents by high-pressured liquid chromatography (HPLC), along with neocortex from 14-month-old APP/PS1 and WT mice...
April 13, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414034/age-exacerbates-surgery-induced-cognitive-impairment-and-neuroinflammation-in-sprague-dawley-rats-the-role-of-il-4
#16
Zhe Li, Fang Liu, Hong Ma, Paul F White, Roya Yumul, Yanhua Jiang, Na Wang, Xuezhao Cao
Age is the most prominent risk factor for the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. This study investigated the potential role of anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-4 in age-related differences of surgery-induced cognitive deficits and neuroinflammatory responses. Both adult and aged Sprague-Dawley male rats were subjected to partial hepatectomy or partial hepatectomy with a cisterna magna infusion of IL-4. On postoperative days 1, 3, and 7, the rats were subjected to a reversed Morris water maze test...
April 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413940/elevated-mrna-expression-of-caspr3-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#17
Mitsuo Okita, Yuta Yoshino, Jun-Ichi Iga, Shu-Ichi Ueno
BACKGROUND: Recently, it was reported that antipsychotic treatment reverted Contactin Associated Protein-Like 3 (CASPR3, same as CNTNAP3) mRNA expressions in leukocytes of schizophrenia (SCZ) subjects to the same levels as healthy controls. CASPR3 was expressed in various regions of the mice brain (cortex, frontal lobes, corpus callosum, hippocampus, etc.). Thus, this study evaluated CASPR3 mRNA expression in SCZ subjects to find a new clue of schizophrenia pathogenesis. METHODS: One hundred SCZ subjects and 100 age-matched controls were compared...
May 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413778/family-history-and-apoe4-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease-impact-the-neural-correlates-of-episodic-memory-by-early-midlife
#18
M N Rajah, L M K Wallace, E Ankudowich, E H Yu, A Swierkot, R Patel, M M Chakravarty, D Naumova, J Pruessner, R Joober, S Gauthier, S Pasvanis
Episodic memory impairment is a consistent, pronounced deficit in pre-clinical stages of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Individuals with risk factors for AD exhibit altered brain function several decades prior to the onset of AD-related symptoms. In the current event-related fMRI study of spatial context memory we tested the hypothesis that middle-aged adults (MA; 40-58 yrs) with a family history of late onset AD (MA+ FH), or a combined + FH and apolipoprotein E ε4 allele risk factors for AD (MA+ FH + APOE4), will exhibit differences in encoding and retrieval-related brain activity, compared to - FH - APOE4 MA controls...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411086/early-depletion-of-ca1-neurons-and-late-neurodegeneration-in-a-mouse-tauopathy-model
#19
Lone Helboe, Jan Egebjerg, Pernille Barkholt, Christiane Volbracht
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and tauopathies, such as frontotemporal dementia (FTD), are characterized by formation of neurofibrillary tangles consisting of hyperphosphorylated tau. Further neuropathological characteristics include synaptic loss, neurodegeneration and brain atrophy. Here, we explored the association between hyperphosphorylated tau species, brain atrophy, synaptic and neuronal loss in a mouse model (rTg4510) carrying the human tau (hTau) P301L mutation found in a familiar form of FTD. We established that hTau expression during the first 6 postnatal weeks was important for the progression of tauopathy in rTg4510 mice...
April 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411068/protective-effect-of-dapsone-on-cognitive-impairment-induced-by-propofol-involves-hippocampal-autophagy
#20
Ning Yang, Lunxu Li, Zhengqian Li, Cheng Ni, Yiyun Cao, Taotao Liu, Miao Tian, Dehua Chui, Xiangyang Guo
Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a commonly seen postoperative complication in elderly patients and its underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Autophagy, a degradation mechanism of cellular components, is required for cell survival and many physiological processes. Although propofol is one of the most commonly used intravenous anesthetics, investigations into its mechanisms and effects on cognition in aged rodents are relatively scarce. In this study, we evaluate the influence of propofol on learning and memory, and identify the potential role of hippocampal autophagy in propofol-induced cognitive alterations in aged rats...
April 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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