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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726063/gaze-based-assessments-of-vigilance-and-avoidance-in-social-anxiety-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Nigel T M Chen, Patrick J F Clarke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A broad base of research has sought to identify the biases in selective attention which characterize social anxiety, with the emergent use of eye tracking-based methods. This article seeks to provide a review of eye tracking studies examining selective attention biases in social anxiety. RECENT FINDINGS: Across a number of contexts, social anxiety may be associated with a mix of both vigilant and avoidant patterns of attention with respect to the processing of emotional social stimuli...
September 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725032/remora-cranial-vein-morphology-and-its-functional-implications-for-attachment
#2
Brooke E Flammang
Remora fishes adhere to, and maintain long-term, reversible attachment with, surfaces of varying roughness and compliance under wetted high-shear conditions using an adhesive disc that evolved from the dorsal fin spines typical of other fishes. Evolution of this complex hierarchical structure required extensive reorganization of the skull and fin spines, but the functional role of the soft tissues of the disc are poorly understood. Here I show that remora cranial veins are highly-modified in comparison to those of other vertebrates; they are transposed anteriorly and enlarged, and lie directly ventral to the disc on the dorsum of the cranium...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721518/illusory-visual-depth-reversal-can-modulate-sensations-of-contact-surface
#3
Yuka Igarashi, Keiko Omori, Tetsuya Arai, Yasunori Aizawa
To perceive the external world stably, humans must integrate and manage continuous streams of information from various sensory modalities, in addition to drawing on past experiences and knowledge. In this study, we introduce a novel visuo-tactile illusion elicited by a visual-depth-reversal stimulus. The stimulus (a model of a building) was constructed so as to produce the same retinal image as an opaque cuboid, although it actually consisted of only three PVC boards forming a three-dimensional corner with the hollow inside facing the observer...
July 18, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720033/inattention-and-poor-eye-contact-is-not-all-autism
#4
Wen Chen, Elias G Chalhub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719370/simple-preparation-of-timolol-0-5-gel-from-eye-drop-solution-for-superficial-infantile-hemangiomas
#5
Winnie Choo
The discovery of beta-adrenergic blocker effects on infantile hemangiomas has affected the choice of treatment in recent years. Oral propranolol is effective in treating infantile hemangiomas, but the risk of systemic side effects remains a concern. Data from literature review reported positive clinical outcomes with no major adverse effects observed in children using topical beta-blocker such as timolol maleate. Topical application of timolol eye drop has been mentioned in few studies, most of which reported that the solution cannot stay on the site of application due to its fluidity...
July 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714595/telocytes-in-normal-and-keratoconic-human-cornea-an-immunohistochemical-and-transmission-electron-microscopy-study
#6
Mirca Marini, Rita Mencucci, Irene Rosa, Eleonora Favuzza, Daniele Guasti, Lidia Ibba-Manneschi, Mirko Manetti
Telocytes (TC) are typically defined as cells with telopodes by their ultrastructural features. Their presence was reported in the interstitium of various organs in vertebrates, including humans. However, no study has yet described the presence of TC in the human eye and in particular, within the stromal compartment of the cornea. To address this issue, samples of normal and pathologic (keratoconic) human corneas were tested by immunohistochemistry for CD34, platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) and c-kit/CD117 or examined by transmission electron microscopy...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714237/effects-of-intracameral-ascorbic-acid-on-the-corneal-endothelium-of-dogs-undergoing-phacoemulsification
#7
Ivan R M Padua, Gisele P Valdetaro, Tiago B Lima, Karina K Kobashigawa, Paloma E S Silva, Marcela Aldrovani, Pedro P M Padua, Jose L Laus
OBJECTIVE: Cataracts are the most common ocular disorder in dogs. Phacoemulsification is the preferred treatment method among ophthalmologists, but the cellularity of the endothelium must be considered for its success, as endothelial lesions may produce permanent corneal decompensation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of intracameral ascorbic acid, a known antioxidant, on the corneal endothelium of dogs undergoing phacoemulsification. ANIMAL STUDIED: In all, 40 eyes from 20 dogs, males and females from 7 to 12 years of age, were assessed for mature cataracts...
July 17, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712891/corneo-scleral-contact-lenses-in-an-uncommon-case-of-keratoconus-with-high-hyperopia-and-astigmatism
#8
Esteban Porcar, Juan Carlos Montalt, Enrique España-Gregori, Cristina Peris-Martínez
PURPOSE: To analyse the visual quality achieved by fitting corneo-scleral contact lenses (CScL) in an uncommon case of bilateral keratoconus, high hyperopia and astigmatism. METHODS: A 45-year-old man presented for eye examination due to the unsatisfactory quality of his vision wearing soft toric contact lenses. He presented high hyperopia and astigmatism with bilateral keratoconus. He was fitted with CScL to correct his irregular astigmatism and ocular aberrations...
July 13, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711015/hydrophilic-surface-modification-of-poly-methyl-methacrylate-based-ocular-prostheses-using-poly-ethylene-glycol-grafting
#9
JaeSang Ko, Kanghee Cho, Sang Won Han, Hyung Kyung Sung, Seung Woon Baek, Won-Gun Koh, Jin Sook Yoon
Ocular prostheses are custom-made polymeric inserts that can be placed in anophthalmic sockets for cosmetic rehabilitation. Prosthetic eye wearers have reduced tear amount, and they often experience dry eye symptoms including dryness, irritation, discomfort, and discharge. Most modern ocular prostheses are made of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), which is highly hydrophobic. Previous research has shown that improving the wettability of contact lens materials decreases its wearers discomfort by increasing lubrication...
July 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708643/rare-complication-in-third-maxillary-molar-extraction-dislocation-in-infratemporal-fossa
#10
Andrea Battisti, Paolo Priore, Filippo Giovannetti, Giorgio Barbera, Francesco D'Alessandro, Valentino Valentini
AIM: Removal of impacted third maxillary molar is frequently carried out without difficulties and low rate of intraoperative complications. The rare and particularly challenger to manage it is the third molar dislocation into the infratemporal fossa (IF). In this clinical report, the authors present their solution to manage and resolve this particular complication. METHODS: A 28-year-old woman was referred to the emergency rescue unit of the authors' hospital by her dentistry, after the attempt to extract the left impacted maxillary third molar...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708218/microbial-characteristics-of-posttraumatic-infective-keratitis
#11
Blanche X Lim, Victor T C Koh, Manotosh Ray
PURPOSE: To determine the demographics, risk factors, clinical and microbiological characteristics, and treatment outcome of posttraumatic infective keratitis. METHODS: Consecutive patients with posttraumatic infective keratitis presenting to the Ophthalmology Department of a tertiary referral hospital in Singapore between March 2012 and March 2016 were prospectively identified. A standardized data collection form was used to document patient demographics, microbiological diagnosis, antibiotic sensitivity, and pretreatment and posttreatment ocular characteristics...
July 8, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707045/management-of-extraocular-infections
#12
Srinivasan Muthiah, Naveen Radhakrishnan
Extraocular infection is a frequently encountered problem in children including neonates and infants. Prompt recognition of the extraocular disease and management at first contact reduces the ocular morbidity and visual impairment. Delay in administering appropriate therapy and referral to an eye care personnel may result in blindness; sometimes bilateral, due to severe ophthalmia neonatorum. This review is mainly aimed at offering basic, brief information about common extraocular infections prevalent among infants and children living in developing countries as a ready reference to practising pediatricians and neonatologists...
July 14, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705204/delay-along-the-care-seeking-journey-of-patients-with-ocular-surface-squamous-neoplasia-in-kenya
#13
Stephen Gichuhi, Joy Kabiru, Alain M'bongo Zindamoyen, Hillary Rono, Ernest Ollando, Joseph Wachira, Rhoda Munene, Timothy Onyuma, Mandeep S Sagoo, David Macleod, Helen A Weiss, Matthew J Burton
BACKGROUND: In Africa, accessing eye health services is a major challenge. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is a substantial ocular health problem in Africa related to solar UV light exposure and HIV infection among other risk factors. The disease causes visual loss and even death in advanced cases. This study was conducted to assess referral pathway and treatment delay for patients with OSSN in Kenya. METHODS: Adults with conjunctival lesions presenting to four eye centres were asked about their occupations, when they noticed the growth, health facilities visited in seeking care, cost of consultation, surgery, medicines and histopathology and dates at each step...
July 14, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701971/facilitating-social-play-for-children-with-pdds-effects-of-paired-robotic-devices
#14
Soichiro Matsuda, Eleuda Nunez, Masakazu Hirokawa, Junichi Yamamoto, Kenji Suzuki
Interacting with toys and other people is fundamental for developing social communication skills. However, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are characterized by having a significant impairment in social interaction, which often leads to deficits in play skills. For this reason, methods of teaching play skills to young children with ASD have been well documented. Although previous studies have examined a variety of instructional strategies for teaching skills, few studies have evaluated the potential of using robotic devices...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700254/diquafosol-delivery-from-silicone-hydrogel-contact-lenses-improved-effect-on-tear-secretion
#15
Carmen Dominguez-Godinez, Gonzalo Carracedo, Jesus Pintor
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability to uptake and to deliver diquafosol from commercial contact lenses (CLs) and its effect on tear secretion. METHODS: For both in vitro and in vivo experiments, two commercial silicone hydrogel (Si-Hy) CLs (comfilcon A and balafilcon A) were used. The CLs were soaked overnight for 12 h in diquafosol solution and control CLs were soaked in saline solution (NaCl 0.9%). The CLs were introduced into a new well container with 1 mL of saline solution, and aliquots of 100 μL were extracted at different times during a period of 6 h to measure the diquafosol release...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699324/corneal-endothelial-cell-loss-and-corneal-biomechanical-characteristics-after-two-step-sequential-or-combined-phaco-vitrectomy-surgery-for-idiopathic-epiretinal-membrane
#16
Hassan Hamoudi, Ulrik Correll Christensen, Morten La Cour
PURPOSE: To assess the impact of sequential and combined surgery [cataract surgery and 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with peeling] on corneal endothelium cell density (CED) and corneal biomechanical characteristics. METHODS: Phakic eyes with epiretinal membrane (ERM) were prospectively allocated to (i) cataract surgery and subsequent PPV (CAT group), (ii) PPV and subsequent cataract surgery (VIT group) or (iii) phacovitrectomy (COMBI group). Eyes were examined at baseline, 1 month after each surgery, and at 3 and 12 months follow-up...
August 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698621/investigating-gene-flow-between-the-blind-cavefish-garra-barreimiae-and-its-conspecific-surface-populations
#17
Sandra Kirchner, Helmut Sattmann, Elisabeth Haring, Lukas Plan, Reginald Victor, Luise Kruckenhauser
Cave-dwelling taxa often share the same phenotypic modifications like absence of eyes and pigmentation. These "troglomorphic characters" are expressed in the populations of Garra barreimiae from the Al Hoota Cave and nearby Hoti Pit in Northern Oman. Surface morphotypes of this cyprinid species are common throughout the distribution area. Very rarely individuals with intermediate phenotypes can be found. In the present study, potential gene flow between cave and surface populations was tested and population structure within five sampling sites was assessed...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693972/polymer-interaction-driven-diffusionof-eyeshadow-in-soft-contact-lenses
#18
Silvia Tavazzi, Alessandra Rossi, Sara Picarazzi, Miriam Ascagni, Stefano Farris, Alessandro Borghesi
Soft contact lenses used for the correction of ametropia are often made of hydrogel and silicone-hydrogel materials. Since they are placed directly on the surface of the eye and they are hydrated by tears, eye cosmetics can compromise the lens performance and, even worse, can be transported from an external environment to the ocular surface through the contact lens. The diffusion of the dye component of a purple eyeshadow in soft contact lenses of different materials is here evaluated. Diffusivity is found to be typically higher in silicone-hydrogels than in hydrogels...
July 7, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689748/in-vivo-corneal-pulsation-in-relation-to-in-vivo-intraocular-pressure-and-corneal-biomechanics-assessed-in-vitro-an-animal-pilot-study
#19
Maja M Rogala, Monika E Danielewska, Agnieszka Antończyk, Zdzisław Kiełbowicz, Marta E Rogowska, Marta Kozuń, Jerzy Detyna, D Robert Iskander
The aim was to ascertain whether the characteristics of the corneal pulse (CP) measured in-vivo in a rabbit eye change after short-term artificial increase of intraocular pressure (IOP) and whether they correlate with corneal biomechanics assessed in-vitro. Eight New Zealand white rabbits were included in this study and were anesthetized. In-vivo experiments included simultaneous measurements of the CP signal, registered with a non-contact method, IOP, intra-arterial blood pressure, and blood pulse (BPL), at the baseline and short-term elevated IOP...
July 6, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683562/gaze-to-faces-across-interactive-contexts-in-infants-at-heightened-risk-for-autism
#20
Devon N Gangi, A J Schwichtenberg, Ana-Maria Iosif, Gregory S Young, Fam Baguio, Sally Ozonoff
Infant social-communicative behavior, such as gaze to the face of an interactive partner, is an important early developmental skill. Children with autism spectrum disorder exhibit atypicalities in social-communicative behavior, including gaze and eye contact. Behavioral differences in infancy may serve as early markers of autism spectrum disorder and help identify individuals at highest risk for developing the disorder. Researchers often assess social-communicative behavior in a single interactive context, such as during assessment with an unfamiliar examiner or play with a parent...
July 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
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