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Thomas Ebenhan, Isabel Schoeman, Daniel D Rossouw, Anne Grobler, Biljana Marjanovic-Painter, Judith Wagener, Hendrik G Kruger, Mike M Sathekge, Jan Rijn Zeevaart
PURPOSE: Radiopharmaceuticals containing the motive tripeptide arginyl-glycyl-asparatic acid (RGD) are known to target ανβ3 integrins during tumor angiogenesis. A more generic kit radiolabeling procedure accommodating Ga-68 from different generators was developed for NOTA-RGD and evaluated for its versatile use and safety in subsequent in vivo applications. The [(68)Ga]NOTA-RGD kit was further verified for its expected biodistribution and pharmacokinetics in nonhuman primates and its clinical sensitivity to detect solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) in cancer patients...
October 14, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Junfeng Li, Johann Karunananthan, Bradley Pelham, Fouad Kandeel
It was estimated that every year more than 30000 persons in the United States - approximately 80 people per day - are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (T1D). T1D is caused by autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic islet (β cells) cells. Islet transplantation has become a promising therapy option for T1D patients, while the lack of suitable tools is difficult to directly evaluate of the viability of the grafted islet over time. Positron emission tomography (PET) as an important non-invasive methodology providing high sensitivity and good resolution, is able to accurate detection of the disturbed biochemical processes and physiological abnormality in living organism...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Neena Kalsy, Sobhan Vinjamuri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2016: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Sara Rubagotti, Stefania Croci, Erika Ferrari, Michele Iori, Pier C Capponi, Luca Lorenzini, Laura Calzà, Annibale Versari, Mattia Asti
Curcumin derivatives labelled with fluorine-18 or technetium-99m have recently shown their potential as diagnostic tools for Alzheimer's disease. Nevertheless, no study by exploiting the labelling with gallium-68 has been performed so far, in spite of its suitable properties (positron emitter, generator produced radionuclide). Herein, an evaluation of the affinity for synthetic β-amyloid fibrils and for amyloid plaques of three (nat/68)Ga-labelled curcumin analogues, namely curcumin curcumin (CUR), bis-dehydroxy-curcumin (bDHC) and diacetyl-curcumin (DAC), was performed...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Michael S Hofman, Rodney J Hicks
Nuclear medicine renal imaging provides important functional data to assist in the diagnosis and management of patients with a variety of renal disorders. Physiologically stable metal chelates like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriamine penta-acetate (DTPA) are excreted by glomerular filtration and have been radiolabelled with a variety of isotopes for imaging glomerular filtration and quantitative assessment of glomerular filtration rate. Gallium-68 ((68)Ga) EDTA PET usage predates Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) renal imaging, but virtually disappeared with the widespread adoption of gamma camera technology that was not optimal for imaging positron decay...
September 2016: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Mariza Vorster, Alex Maes, Christophe van de Wiele, Mike Sathekge
The process of inflammation (with or without infection) forms part of essentially every major debilitating disease. Early detection and accurate distinction of inflammation from infection are important to optimize and individualize therapy. Nuclear medicine is ideally suited for the detection of pathologic changes early on and is able to target a magnitude of role players involved in the aforementioned processes. Hybrid modalities such as PET/CT and PET/MRI offer high spatial resolution that combines morphologic and pathophysiological changes and add various quantification possibilities that are preferable in these settings...
September 2016: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Dale L Bailey, Enid M Eslick, Geoffrey P Schembri, Paul J Roach
Gallium-68 ((68)Ga) is a positron-emitting radionuclide suitable for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging that has a number of convenient features-it has a physical half life of 68 minutes, it is generator produced at the PET facility and needs no local cyclotron, and being a radiometal is able to be chelated to a number of useful molecules for diagnostic imaging with PET. (68)Ga has recently been investigated as a radiotracer for ventilation and perfusion (V/Q) lung imaging. It is relatively easy to produce both V/Q radiopharmaceuticals labeled with (68)Ga for PET studies, it offers higher spatial resolution than equivalent SPECT studies, the short half life allows for multiple (repeated) scans on the same day, and low amounts of radiotracer can be used thus limiting the radiation dose to the subject...
September 2016: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Philipp Spang, Christian Herrmann, Frank Roesch
This article reviews the development of bifunctional chelates for synthesising (68)Ga radiopharmaceuticals. It structures the chelates into groups of macrocycles, nonmacrocycles, and chimeric derivatives. The most relevant bifunctional chelates are discussed in chelate structure, parameters of (68)Ga-labeling, and stability of the (68)Ga-chelate complexes. Furthermore those derivatives are included, where (67)Ga was applied instead of (68)Ga. A particular feature discussed is the ability of certain bifunctional chelate structures to function in kit-type preparation of the (68)Ga radiopharmaceuticals...
September 2016: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Pierre-Yves Le Roux, Tracy L Leong, Stephen A Barnett, Rodney J Hicks, Jason Callahan, Peter Eu, Renee Manser, Michael S Hofman
BACKGROUND: Pre-operative evaluation of lung cancer patients relies on calculation of predicted post-operative (PPO) lung function based on split lung function testing. Pulmonary perfusion (Q) PET/CT can now be performed by substituting Technetium-99 m labeling of macroaggregated albumin (MAA) with Gallium-68. This study compares Q PET/CT with current recommended methods of pre-operative lung function assessment. METHODS: Twenty-two patients planned for curative surgical resection (mean FEV1 77 %, SD 21 %; mean DLCO 66 %, SD 17 % predicted) underwent pre-operative Q PET/CT...
2016: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
Diala El-Maouche, Samira M Sadowski, Georgios Z Papadakis, Lori Guthrie, Candice Cottle-Delisle, Roxanne Merkel, Corina Millo, Clara C Chen, Electron Kebebew, Michael T Collins
CONTEXT: Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors (PMTs) are small, typically difficult to localize, and express somatostatin receptors. Recent work suggests imaging studies using (68)Gallium ((68)Ga)-conjugated somatostatin peptide analogues, such as 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)TATE, which enables somatostatin receptor imaging with positron emission tomography (PET), may be useful at identifying these tumors. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the use of (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET/computed tomography (CT) for tumor localization in tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO)...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Travis M Shaffer, Stefan Harmsen, Emaad Khwaja, Moritz F Kircher, Charles Michael Drain, Jan Grimm
Nanoparticles labeled with radiometals enable whole-body nuclear imaging and therapy. Though chelating agents are commonly used to radiolabel biomolecules, nanoparticles offer the advantage of attaching a radiometal directly to the nanoparticle itself without the need of such agents. We previously demonstrated that direct radiolabeling of silica nanoparticles with hard, oxophilic ions, such as the positron emitters zirconium-89 and gallium-68, is remarkably efficient. However, softer radiometals, such as the widely employed copper-64, do not stably bind to the silica matrix and quickly dissociate under physiological conditions...
September 14, 2016: Nano Letters
Ashraf Fakhari, Amir R Jalilian, Fariba Johari-Daha, Mehdi Shafiee-Ardestani, Ali Khalaj
OBJECTIVES: In line with previous research on the development of conjugated bisphosphonate ligands as new bone-avid agents, in this study, DOTA-conjugated alendronate (DOTA-ALN) was synthesized and evaluated after labeling with gallium-68 ((68)Ga). METHODS: DOTA-ALN was synthesized and characterized, followed by (68)Ga-DOTA-ALN preparation, using DOTA-ALN and (68)GaCl3 (pH: 4-5) at 92-95° C for 10 min. Stability tests, hydroxyapatite assay, partition coefficient calculation, biodistribution studies, and imaging were performed on the developed agent in normal rats...
2016: Asia Ocean J Nucl Med Biol
Christopher J Palestro
There are numerous imaging tests for diagnosing musculoskeletal infection. Radiographs are routinely performed, because even when not diagnostic, they provide an anatomic overview of the region of interest that could influence subsequent procedure selection and interpretation. MRI is sensitive and provides superb anatomic detail. Bone scintigraphy accurately diagnoses osteomyelitis in bones not affected by underlying conditions. (67)Ga is used primarily for spondylodiskitis. Although in vitro labeled leukocyte imaging is the radionuclide test of choice for complicating osteomyelitis such as diabetic pedal osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infection, it is not useful for spondylodiskitis...
September 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Ulrich J Knappe, Christian Jaspers, Desirée Buschsieweke, Wolf-Dieter Reinbold, Ali Alomari, Wolfgang Saeger, Klaus Ehlenz, W Alexander Mann, Peter Herbert Kann, Joachim Feldkamp
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of Cushing disease is based on endocrinological parameters, with no single test being specific. In some patients, dynamic thin-slice sellar magnetic resonance imaging fails to detect a pituitary tumor. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of ectopic pituitary adenoma in this situation. METHODS: In a retrospective chart review, 5 patients (6%) with ectopic adenomas were identified in 83 consecutive patients undergoing transsphenoidal surgery for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas by 1 surgeon...
June 24, 2016: Neurosurgery
V Schreiter, C Reimann, D Geisel, N F Schreiter
The new tracer Gallium-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen (Ga-68 PSMA) yields new promising options for the PET/CT diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) and its metastases. To overcome limitations of hybrid imaging, known from the use of choline derivatives, seems to be possible with the use of Ga-68 PSMA for PCa. The benefits of hybrid imaging with Ga-68 PSMA for PCa compared to choline derivatives shall be discussed in this article based on an overview of the current literature. Key Points: • Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT can achieve higher detection rates of PCa lesions than PET/CT performed with choline derivatives• The new tracer Ga-68 PSMA has the advantage of high specificity, independence of PSA-level and low nonspecific tracer uptake in surrounding tissue• The new tracer Ga-68 PSMA seems very suitable for MR-PET diagnostic Citation Format: • Schreiter V, Reimann C, Geisel D et al...
June 14, 2016: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
Amir Reza Jalilian, Davood Beiki, Arman Hassanzadeh-Rad, Arash Eftekhari, Parham Geramifar, Mohammad Eftekhari
During past 3 decades, nuclear medicine has flourished as vibrant and independent medical specialty in Iran. Since that time, more than 200 nuclear physicians have been trained and now practicing in nearly 158 centers throughout the country. In the same period, Tc-99m generators and variety of cold kits for conventional nuclear medicine were locally produced for the first time. Local production has continued to mature in robust manner while fulfilling international standards. To meet the ever-growing demand at the national level and with international achievements in mind, work for production of other Tc-99m-based peptides such as ubiquicidin, bombesin, octreotide, and more recently a kit formulation for Tc-99m TRODAT-1 for clinical use was introduced...
July 2016: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Hao-Li Liu, Po-Hung Hsu, Chung-Yin Lin, Chiun-Wei Huang, Wen-Yen Chai, Po-Chun Chu, Chiung-Yin Huang, Pin-Yuan Chen, Liang-Yo Yang, John S Kuo, Kuo-Chen Wei
Purpose To demonstrate that magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-monitored transcranial focused ultrasound can enhance the delivery of the antiangiogenic monoclonal antibody bevacizumab into the central nervous system (CNS) for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treatment. Materials and Methods All animal experiments were approved by the animal committee and adhered to experimental animal care guidelines. Transcranial focused ultrasound exposure in the presence of microbubbles was used to open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to enhance bevacizumab penetration into the CNS in healthy and glioma-bearing mice...
October 2016: Radiology
Dirk Mueller, Wouter A P Breeman, Ingo Klette, Michael Gottschaldt, Andreas Odparlik, Manfred Baehre, Izabela Tworowska, Michael K Schultz
Gallium-68 ((68)Ga) is a generator-produced radionuclide with a short half-life (t½ = 68 min) that is particularly well suited for molecular imaging by positron emission tomography (PET). Methods have been developed to synthesize (68)Ga-labeled imaging agents possessing certain drawbacks, such as longer synthesis time because of a required final purification step, the use of organic solvents or concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl). In our manuscript, we provide a detailed protocol for the use of an advantageous sodium chloride (NaCl)-based method for radiolabeling of chelator-modified peptides for molecular imaging...
June 2016: Nature Protocols
Murthi S Kandanapitiye, Matthew D Gott, Andrew Sharits, Silvia S Jurisson, Patrick M Woodward, Songping D Huang
Similarity between the Ga(+) ion and the Fe(3+) ion allows for partial replacement of Fe(3+) ions with Ga(3+) ions in the Fe(iii) crystallographic positions in Prussian blue (PB) to form various solid solutions KGaxFe1-x[Fe(CN)6] (0 < x < 1). Such solid solutions possess very high thermodynamic stability as expected from the parent PB structure. Consequently, a simple one-step (68)Ga-labeling method was developed for preparing a single-phase nanoparticulate bimodal PET/MRI imaging agent based on the PB structural platform...
May 31, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Alireza Mirzaei, Amir R Jalilian, Mehdi Akhlaghi, Davood Beiki
INTRODUCTION: Gallium-68 citrate has been successfully applied in the PET imaging of infections and inflammation in some centers; however further evaluation of the tracer in inflammation models is of great importance. METHODS: 68Ga-citrate prepared from [68Ga]GaCl3 (eluted form an SnO2 based 68Ge/68Ga generator) and sodium citrate at optimized conditions followed by quality control tests was injected to normal and turpentine-oil induced rats PET/CT imaging studies up to 290 min...
May 6, 2016: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
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