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Marcel Wilhelm, Winfried Rief, Bettina K Doering
PURPOSE: Informing patients about treatment side effects increases the occurrence and intensity of side effects. Since the obligatory informed consent procedure in drug treatments requires transparency and nocebo research suggests that the informed consent of a drug leads to an increased occurrence of the mentioned side effects, the aim of this proof of concept study was to determine the effect of two different framings of informed consent on the occurrence, intensity, and perceived threat of side effects...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Fabrizio Benedetti, Aziz Shaibani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Stuart Benson, David Hunter
Direct-to-consumer advertising is banned in Australia, and instead pharmaceutical companies use disease awareness campaigns as a strategy to raise public awareness of conditions for which the company produces a treatment. This practice has been justified by promoting individual autonomy and public health, but it has attracted criticism regarding medicalisation of normal health and ageing, and exaggeration of the severity of the condition in question, imbalanced reporting of risks and benefits, and damaging the patient-clinician relationship...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Hua Wei, Lili Zhou, Huijuan Zhang, Jie Chen, Xuejing Lu, Li Hu
Nondeceptive placebo has demonstrated its efficiency in clinical practice. Although the underlying mechanisms are still unclear, nondeceptive placebo effect and nondeceptive nocebo effect may be mediated by expectation. To examine the extent to which expectation influences these effects, the present study compared nondeceptive placebo and nocebo effects with different expectation levels. Seventy-two healthy female participants underwent a standard conditioning procedure to establish placebo and nocebo effects...
2018: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
Sarah Khan, Anne Holbrook, Baiju R Shah
BACKGROUND: The nocebo effect, where patients with expectations of adverse effects are more likely to experience them, may contribute to the high rate of statin intolerance found in observational studies. Information that patients read on the internet may be a precipitant of this effect. The objective of the study was to establish whether the number of websites about statin side effects found using Google is associated with the prevalence of statin intolerance. METHODS: The prevalence of statin intolerance in 13 countries across 5 continents was established in a recent study via a web-based survey of primary care physicians and specialists...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Karen Krüger, Niklas Leppkes, Sabine Gehrke-Beck, Wolfram Herrmann, Engi A Algharably, Reinhold Kreutz, Christoph Heintze, Iris Filler
BACKGROUND: Statins substantially reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease when taken regularly. Though statins are generally well tolerated, current studies show that one-third of patients discontinue use of statins within 2 years. A qualitative approach may improve the understanding of attitudes and behaviours towards statins, the mechanisms related to discontinuation, and how they are managed in primary care. AIM: To identify factors related to statin discontinuation and approaches for long-term statin adherence...
April 23, 2018: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
Elisa Carlino, Lene Vase
Over the last decade, there has been a substantial increase in negative results from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which may be due to an increasing placebo response among other factors. Currently, identification and exclusion of placebo responders from trials are attempted to overcome this problem, but so far the success of these approaches has been limited. At the same time, the placebo-mechanism literature has highlighted how contextual factors, such as patients' expectations, interfere with the effect of drug administration, leading to a certain degree of uncertainty in RCTs...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Veronica F Quinn, Ben Colagiuri
Learning is a key mechanism underpinning the development of the nocebo effect. The learning literature has cataloged and explored numerous ways in which the environment can be manipulated to prevent, reduce, or eradicate learning. Knowledge of these processes could be used to both inhibit the development of nocebo effects and reduce already established nocebo learning. This review describes the available evidence on how such learning strategies have, or could be, applied to reduce the nocebo effect in both healthy participants and patients to date...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Sigrid Elsenbruch, Franziska Labrenz
Despite its clinical relevance and the potential to extend insights into the processing and modulation of pain derived from investigations of placebo phenomena, the nocebo effect has received comparably little attention over the past decades. Research from experimental and clinical studies is only beginning to unravel the behavioral, functional, and psychoneurobiological mechanisms underlying the nocebo effect. Herein, we summarize current evidence regarding nocebo effects in the field of pain, with a particular emphasis on visceral pain...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Julian Kleine-Borgmann, Ulrike Bingel
Psychosocial and contextual factors, such as patient-physician relationship, prior treatment experience, and treatment expectation, can either improve or compromise treatment efficacy. These phenomena are commonly specified as placebo and nocebo effects. As placebo and nocebo effects can influence symptom development, adverse event rate, and treatment efficacy, it is crucial to be aware of these effects and to develop strategies for prevention to optimize treatment outcomes. While experimental studies have made substantial progress in elucidating the psychosocial and neurobiological mechanisms underlying placebo effects, the detailed mechanisms of nocebo effects remain largely unexplored...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Anne-Kathrin Bräscher, Michael Witthöft, Susanne Becker
Placebo and nocebo effects are intriguing phenomena in pain perception with important implications for clinical research and practice because they can alleviate or increase pain. According to current theoretical accounts, these effects can be shaped by verbal suggestions, social observational learning, and classical conditioning and are necessarily mediated by explicit expectation. In this review, we focus on the contribution of conditioning in the induction of placebo hypoalgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia and present accumulating evidence that conditioning independent from explicit expectation can cause these effects...
2018: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
Christoph Boehmert, Adam Verrender, Mario Pauli, Peter Wiedemann
BACKGROUND: Regarding electromagnetic fields from mobile communication technologies, empirical studies have shown that precautionary information given to lay recipients increases their risk perceptions, i.e. the belief that electromagnetic fields are dangerous. Taking this finding one step further, the current study investigates whether precautionary information also leads to higher symptom perceptions in an alleged exposure situation. Building on existing research on nocebo responses to sham electromagnetic fields, an interaction of the precautionary information with personality characteristics was hypothesised...
April 12, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Panagiotis Zis, Marios Hadjivassiliou, Ptolemaios G Sarrigiannis, Thomas M Jenkins, Dimos-Dimitrios Mitsikostas
INTRODUCTION: Nocebo is very prevalent among neurological disorders, resulting in low adherence and treatment outcome. We sought to examine the adverse events (AE) following placebo administration in placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials (RCTs) for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). METHODS: After a systematic literature search for RCTs for CIDP pharmacotherapy treatments, we assessed the number of AE in the placebo groups and the number discontinuations because of placebo intolerance...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
S Mouly, J-F Bergmann, M Molimard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2018: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Katie A Butera, Steven Z George, Paul A Borsa, Geoffrey C Dover
OBJECTIVES: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is commonly used for reducing musculoskeletal pain to improve function. However, peripheral nerve stimulation using TENS can alter muscle motor output. Few studies examine motor outcomes following TENS in a human pain model. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of TENS sensory stimulation primarily on motor output (strength) and secondarily on pain and disability following exercise-induced delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS)...
March 5, 2018: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
Matt Richardson, Gina Isbister, Brad Nicholson
BACKGROUND: Theories concerning the aetiology of functional neurological symptom disorder (FNSD; also known as conversion disorder) have historically inferred that psychological factors or dissociative states underlie patients' symptoms. Current psychological models of functional neurological symptoms suggest that some type of 'top-down' representations/beliefs are activated automatically (without conscious awareness), leading to symptoms. It is assumed that these representations or beliefs are similar to the idea 'I am neurologically damaged', as in our clinical experience, almost all patients have some reason to doubt the integrity of their neurological system...
February 21, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
A A van Bodegraven, N W Boone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Carina Höfler, Andreas Gremsl, Anne Schienle
The knowledge about effects of placebos and nocebos on specific visual attention processes is still very limited. In the present eye-tracking study, it was analyzed if a nocebo (sham transcranial magnetic stimulation) is able to elicit left-sided attentional deficits (pseudo-neglect). Fifty-two healthy participants performed a search task on the computer, once with and once without the nocebo. Indicators of left-biased search behavior (e.g. fixation count, reaction times for left vs. right-sided target detection) and affective state (e...
March 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Rebecca K Webster, John Weinman, G James Rubin
OBJECTIVES: To investigate a range of possible predictors of nocebo responses to medicines. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: In total, 203 healthy adult volunteers completed measures concerning demographics, psychological factors, medicine-related beliefs, baseline symptoms, and symptom expectations before taking a sham pill, described as 'a well-known tablet available without prescription' that was known to be associated with several side effects...
May 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
Julia Schmitz, Sandra Kamping, Janine Wiegratz, Maike Müller, Jan Stork, Luana Colloca, Herta Flor, Regine Klinger
Introduction: Patient information leaflets on pain medication primarily list side effects while positive effects and action mechanisms remain underrepresented. Nocebo research has shown that negative instructions can lower analgesic effects. Objectives: Research on information leaflets and their influence on mood, memory of side effects, and intake behavior of healthy participants is needed. Methods: To determine the ratio of positive to negative phrases, 18 information leaflets of common, over-the-market analgesics were examined of which 1 was selected...
November 2017: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
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