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Anaerobic respiration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228768/recovery-of-mrs3%C3%AE-mrs4%C3%AE-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-cells-under-iron-sufficient-conditions-and-the-role-of-fe580
#1
Michael J Moore, Joshua Wofford, Andrew Dancis, Paul Alan Lindahl
Mrs3 and Mrs4 are mitochondrial inner membrane proteins that deliver an unidentified cytosolic iron species into the matrix for use in iron-sulfur-cluster (ISC) and heme biosynthesis. The Mrs3/4 double-deletion strain (ΔΔ) grew slowly in iron-deficient glycerol/ethanol medium but recovered to WT rates in iron-sufficient medium. ΔΔ cells grown under both iron-deficient and iron-sufficient respiring conditions accumulated large amounts of iron relative to WT cells, indicating iron homeostatic dysregulation regardless of nutrient iron status...
December 11, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222443/metabolic-versatility-of-small-archaea-micrarchaeota-and-parvarchaeota
#2
Lin-Xing Chen, Celia Méndez-García, Nina Dombrowski, Luis E Servín-Garcidueñas, Emiley A Eloe-Fadrosh, Bao-Zhu Fang, Zhen-Hao Luo, Sha Tan, Xiao-Yang Zhi, Zheng-Shuang Hua, Esperanza Martinez-Romero, Tanja Woyke, Li-Nan Huang, Jesús Sánchez, Ana Isabel Peláez, Manuel Ferrer, Brett J Baker, Wen-Sheng Shu
Small acidophilic archaea belonging to Micrarchaeota and Parvarchaeota phyla are known to physically interact with some Thermoplasmatales members in nature. However, due to a lack of cultivation and limited genomes on hand, their biodiversity, metabolisms, and physiologies remain largely unresolved. Here, we obtained 39 genomes from acid mine drainage (AMD) and hot spring environments around the world. 16S rRNA gene based analyses revealed that Parvarchaeota were only detected in AMD and hot spring habitats, while Micrarchaeota were also detected in others including soil, peat, hypersaline mat, and freshwater, suggesting a considerable higher diversity and broader than expected habitat distribution for this phylum...
December 8, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218039/the-anaerobically-induced-srna-paii-affects-denitrification-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pa14
#3
Muralidhar Tata, Fabian Amman, Vinay Pawar, Michael T Wolfinger, Siegfried Weiss, Susanne Häussler, Udo Bläsi
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can thrive by anaerobic respiration in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients using nitrate as terminal electron acceptor. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the small RNA PaiI in the P. aeruginosa strain 14 (PA14). PaiI is anaerobically induced in the presence of nitrate and depends on the two-component system NarXL. Our studies revealed that PaiI is required for efficient denitrification affecting the conversion of nitrite to nitric oxide...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215190/organohalide-respiration-in-pristine-environments-implications-for-the-natural-halogen-cycle
#4
Siavash Atashgahi, Max M Häggblom, Hauke Smidt
Halogenated organic compounds, also termed organohalogens, were initially considered to be of almost exclusively anthropogenic origin. However, over 5000 naturally-synthesized organohalogens are known today. This has also fuelled the hypothesis that the natural and ancient origin of organohalogens could have primed development of metabolic machineries for their degradation, especially in microorganisms. Among these, a special group of anaerobic microorganisms was discovered that could conserve energy by reducing organohalogens as terminal electron acceptor in a process termed organohalide respiration...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211977/waste-not-want-not-lactate-oxidation-fuels-the-tca-cycle
#5
Inmaculada Martínez-Reyes, Navdeep S Chandel
Previous studies have demonstrated that mitochondrial respiration is essential for tumorigenesis. Hui et al. (2017) and Faubert et al. (2017) demonstrate that lactate, traditionally viewed as a waste product of anaerobic and aerobic glycolysis, is a major carbon source to fuel the mitochondrial TCA cycle in normal tissue and in tumors.
December 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208611/perturbations-of-nad-salvage-systems-impact-mitochondrial-function-and-energy-homeostasis-in-mouse-myoblasts-and-intact-skeletal-muscle
#6
Marianne Agerholm, Morten Dall, Benjamin A H Jensen, Clara Prats, Søren Madsen, Astrid L Basse, Anne-Sofie Graae, Steve Risis, Julie Goldenbaum, Bjørn Quistorff, Steen Larsen, Sara G Vienberg, Jonas T Treebak
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) can be synthesized by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT). We aimed to determine the role of NAMPT for maintaining NAD+ levels, mitochondrial function, and metabolic homeostasis in skeletal muscle cells. We generated stable Nampt knockdown (shNampt KD) C2C12 cells using a shRNA lentiviral approach. Moreover, we applied gene electrotransfer to express cre recombinase in tibialis anterior muscle of floxed Nampt mice. In shNampt KD C2C12 myoblasts, Nampt and NAD+ levels were reduced by 70% and 50%, respectively, and maximal respiratory capacity was reduced by 25%...
December 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194386/hierarchical-control-of-nitrite-respiration-by-transcription-factors-encoded-within-mobile-gene-clusters-of-thermus-thermophilus
#7
Laura Alvarez, Nieves G Quintáns, Alba Blesa, Ignacio Baquedano, Mario Mencía, Carlos Bricio, José Berenguer
Denitrification in Thermus thermophilus is encoded by the nitrate respiration conjugative element (NCE) and nitrite and nitric oxide respiration (nic) gene clusters. A tight coordination of each cluster's expression is required to maximize anaerobic growth, and to avoid toxicity by intermediates, especially nitric oxides (NO). Here, we study the control of the nitrite reductases (Nir) and NO reductases (Nor) upon horizontal acquisition of the NCE and nic clusters by a formerly aerobic host. Expression of the nic promoters PnirS, PnirJ, and PnorC, depends on the oxygen sensor DnrS and on the DnrT protein, both NCE-encoded...
December 1, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191091/schizosaccharomyces-japonicus-has-low-levels-of-coq10-synthesis-respiration-deficiency-and-efficient-ethanol-production
#8
Tomohiro Kaino, Kai Tonoko, Shiomi Mochizuki, Yuriko Takashima, Makoto Kawamukai
Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is essential for mitochondrial respiration and as a cofactor for sulfide quinone reductase. Schizosaccharomyces pombe produces a human-type CoQ10. Here, we analyzed CoQ in other fission yeast species. S. cryophilus and S. octosporus produce CoQ9. S. japonicus produces low levels of CoQ10, although all necessary genes for CoQ synthesis have been identified in its genome. We expressed three genes (dps1, dlp1, and ppt1) for CoQ synthesis from S. japonicus in the corresponding S. pombe mutants, and confirmed that they were functional...
December 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188998/transcriptional-activity-of-arsenic-reducing-bacteria-and-genes-regulated-by-lactate-and-biochar-during-arsenic-transformation-in-flooded-paddy-soil
#9
Jiangtao Qiao, Xiaomin Li, Min Hu, Fangbai Li, Lily Y Young, Weimin Sun, Weilin Huang, Jianghu Cui
Organic substrates and biochar are important in controlling arsenic release from sediments and soils, however, little is known about their impacts on arsenic-reducing bacteria and genes during arsenic transformation in flooded paddy soils. In this study, microcosm experiments were established to profile transcriptional activity of As(V)-respiring gene (arrA) and arsenic resistance gene (arsC) as well as the associated bacteria regulated by lactate and/or biochar in anaerobic arsenic-contaminated paddy soils...
November 30, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176641/anaerobic-microsites-have-an-unaccounted-role-in-soil-carbon-stabilization
#10
Marco Keiluweit, Tom Wanzek, Markus Kleber, Peter Nico, Scott Fendorf
Soils represent the largest carbon reservoir within terrestrial ecosystems. The mechanisms controlling the amount of carbon stored and its feedback to the climate system, however, remain poorly resolved. Global carbon models assume that carbon cycling in upland soils is entirely driven by aerobic respiration; the impact of anaerobic microsites prevalent even within well-drained soils is missed within this conception. Here, we show that anaerobic microsites are important regulators of soil carbon persistence, shifting microbial metabolism to less efficient anaerobic respiration, and selectively protecting otherwise bioavailable, reduced organic compounds such as lipids and waxes from decomposition...
November 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172865/mammoth-a-new-database-for-curated-mathematical-models-of-biomolecular-systems
#11
Fedor Kazantsev, Ilya Akberdin, Sergey Lashin, Natalia Ree, Vladimir Timonov, Alexander Ratushny, Tamara Khlebodarova, Vitaly Likhoshvai
MOTIVATION: Living systems have a complex hierarchical organization that can be viewed as a set of dynamically interacting subsystems. Thus, to simulate the internal nature and dynamics of the entire biological system, we should use the iterative way for a model reconstruction, which is a consistent composition and combination of its elementary subsystems. In accordance with this bottom-up approach, we have developed the MAthematical Models of bioMOlecular sysTems (MAMMOTh) tool that consists of the database containing manually curated MAMMOTh fitted to the experimental data and a software tool that provides their further integration...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163426/sugar-metabolism-of-the-first-thermophilic-planctomycete-thermogutta-terrifontis-comparative-genomic-and-transcriptomic-approaches
#12
Alexander G Elcheninov, Peter Menzel, Soley R Gudbergsdottir, Alexei I Slesarev, Vitaly V Kadnikov, Anders Krogh, Elizaveta A Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Xu Peng, Ilya V Kublanov
Xanthan gum, a complex polysaccharide comprising glucose, mannose and glucuronic acid residues, is involved in numerous biotechnological applications in cosmetics, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, food and petroleum industries. Additionally, its oligosaccharides were shown to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, and few other properties. Yet, despite its extensive usage, little is known about xanthan gum degradation pathways and mechanisms. Thermogutta terrifontis, isolated from a sample of microbial mat developed in a terrestrial hot spring of Kunashir island (Far-East of Russia), was described as the first thermophilic representative of the Planctomycetes phylum...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152251/oxygen-the-forgotten-nutrient
#13
Paul Trayhurn
O2 is essential for the maintenance and growth of aerobic animals, similar to the essentiality of what are classically considered nutrients. Nevertheless, O2 is not customarily regarded as a nutrient, this reflecting the route by which it enters the body - through the lungs or gills in vertebrates, rather than via the mouth and gastrointestinal tract. A relative deficiency of O2 occurs at high altitudes and during deep-sea diving, to which distinct adaptations occur. Deficiency is also evident in lung diseases such as emphysema...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133820/early-postnatal-cardiomyocyte-proliferation-requires-high-oxidative-energy-metabolism
#14
Ana Elisa Teófilo Saturi de Carvalho, Vinícius Bassaneze, Maria Fernanda Forni, Aline Alfonso Keusseyan, Alicia Juliana Kowaltowski, José Eduardo Krieger
Cardiac energy metabolism must cope with early postnatal changes in tissue oxygen tensions, hemodynamics, and cell proliferation to sustain development. Here, we tested the hypothesis that proliferating neonatal cardiomyocytes are dependent on high oxidative energy metabolism. We show that energy-related gene expression does not correlate with functional oxidative measurements in the developing heart. Gene expression analysis suggests a gradual overall upregulation of oxidative-related genes and pathways, whereas functional assessment in both cardiac tissue and cultured cardiomyocytes indicated that oxidative metabolism decreases between the first and seventh days after birth...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132082/increased-suppression-of-methane-production-by-humic-substances-in-response-to-warming-in-anoxic-environments
#15
Wenbing Tan, Yufu Jia, Caihong Huang, Hui Zhang, Dan Li, Xinyu Zhao, Guoan Wang, Jie Jiang, Beidou Xi
Humic substances (HS) are redox-active and can function as organic terminal electron acceptors in anaerobic microbial respiration, which plays a relevant role on suppressing the emissions of methane (CH4) in anoxic systems. However, it is unclear whether or not there is an inherent link between suppression of CH4 emissions by HS and warming temperature. In this study, we assess the effects of HS additions on CH4 production in paddy and wetland soils and their responses to increasing temperature by incubation experiments...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126033/natural-attenuation-of-chlorinated-ethenes-in-hyporheic-zones-a-review-of-key-biogeochemical-processes-and-in-situ-transformation-potential
#16
REVIEW
John J Weatherill, Siavash Atashgahi, Uwe Schneidewind, Stefan Krause, Sami Ullah, Nigel Cassidy, Michael O Rivett
Chlorinated ethenes (CEs) are legacy contaminants whose chemical footprint is expected to persist in aquifers around the world for many decades to come. These organohalides have been reported in river systems with concerning prevalence and are thought to be significant chemical stressors in urban water ecosystems. The aquifer-river interface (known as the hyporheic zone) is a critical pathway for CE discharge to surface water bodies in groundwater baseflow. This pore water system may represent a natural bioreactor where anoxic and oxic biotransformation process act in synergy to reduce or even eliminate contaminant fluxes to surface water...
October 30, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123541/rice-seed-germination-underwater-morpho-physiological-responses-and-the-bases-of-differential-expression-of-alcoholic-fermentation-enzymes
#17
Berta Miro, Toshisangba Longkumer, Frederickson D Entila, Ajay Kohli, Abdelbagi M Ismail
The water-, energy-, and labor-intensive system of transplanted puddled rice (Oryza sativa) is steadily being replaced by direct seeding due to the progressive scarcity of these resources. However, the alternate dry direct seeding leads to competition with weeds and poor establishment when soils are flooded. Direct seeded rice capable of anaerobic germination (germination in flooded soil, AG) is ideal, which under rainfed ecosystems would also overcome waterlogging during germination. AG tolerance is associated with faster germination and faster elongation of coleoptiles, with the activities of alcoholic fermentation enzymes replacing aerobic respiration as a source of energy...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116114/co2-production-dissolution-and-pressure-dynamics-during-silage-production-multi-sensor-based-insight-into-parameter-interactions
#18
Menghua Li, Guilin Shan, Haiyang Zhou, Wolfgang Buescher, Christian Maack, Kerstin H Jungbluth, André Lipski, David A Grantz, Youheng Fan, Daokun Ma, Zhongyi Wang, Qiang Cheng, Yurui Sun
Silage is a critical global feedstock, but is prone to aerobic deterioration. The dominant mechanism of O2 transport into silage remains unresolved. Here, multiple sensors tracked O2 and CO2, gas pressure (ΔP) between internal silage and ambient air, pH and silage temperature (Tsi) during the ensilage of maize and ryegrass. We report the first observation that CO2 produced from microbial respiration was partially dissolved in silage water, with evidence of negative or positive ΔP depending on the changing balance between CO2 production and dissolution...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112726/reconstructed-genomes-of-novel-dehalococcoides-mccartyi-strains-from-1-2-3-4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-dechlorinating-enrichment-cultures-reveal-divergent-reductive-dehalogenase-gene-profiles
#19
Hang T Dam, John Vollmers, Anne-Kristin Kaster, Max M Häggblom
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) contaminated sites are widespread and associated with a variety of anthropogenic sources. PCDDs and other organohalide pollutants can serve as terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration by specialized bacteria containing reductive dehalogenases (RdhA). These microorganisms, therefore, play an important role in bioremediation of PCDD contaminated sites. Two anaerobic enrichment cultures established using sediments collected from the PCDD polluted Hackensack (USA) and Kymijoki (Finland) rivers showed robust reductive dechlorination of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4-TeCDD)...
November 3, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109361/-anaerobic-reduction-of-nitrate-to-nitrous-oxide-is-lower-in-bradyrhizobium-japonicum-than-in-bradyrhizobium-diazoefficiens
#20
Arthur Fernandes Siqueira, Kiwamu Minamisawa, Cristina Sánchez
When soil oxygen levels decrease, some bradyrhizobia use denitrification as an alternative form of respiration. Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens (nos(+)) completely denitrifies nitrate (NO3(-)) to dinitrogen, whereas B. japonicum (nos(-)) is unable to reduce nitrous oxide to dinitrogen. We found that anaerobic growth with NO3(-) as the electron acceptor was significantly lower in B. japonicum than in B. diazoefficiens, and this was not explained by the absence of nos in B. japonicum. Our results indicate that the reason for the limited growth of B...
November 3, 2017: Microbes and Environments
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