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Anaerobic respiration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731532/formate-and-nitrate-utilization-in-enterobacter-aerogenes-for-semi-anaerobic-production-of-isobutanol
#1
Hwi-Min Jung, Yong Hwan Kim, Min-Kyu Oh
Anaerobic bioprocessing is preferred because of its economic advantages. However, low productivity and decreased growth of the host strain have limited the use of the anaerobic process. Anaerobic respiration can be applied to anoxic processing using formate and nitrate metabolism to improve the productivity of value-added metabolites. We constructed isobutanol-producing strains using Enterobacter aerogenes as a host strain by metabolic engineering approaches. The byproduct pathway (ldhA, budA, and pflB) was knocked out, and heterologous keto-acid decarboxylase (kivD) and alcohol dehydrogenase (adhA) were expressed along with the L-valine synthesis pathway (ilvCD and budB)...
July 21, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729646/climate-oscillations-reflected-within-the-microbiome-of-arabian-sea-sediments
#2
William D Orsi, Marco J L Coolen, Cornelia Wuchter, Lijun He, Kuldeep D More, Xabier Irigoien, Guillem Chust, Carl Johnson, Jordon D Hemingway, Mitchell Lee, Valier Galy, Liviu Giosan
Selection of microorganisms in marine sediment is shaped by energy-yielding electron acceptors for respiration that are depleted in vertical succession. However, some taxa have been reported to reflect past depositional conditions suggesting they have experienced weak selection after burial. In sediments underlying the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), we performed the first metagenomic profiling of sedimentary DNA at centennial-scale resolution in the context of a multi-proxy paleoclimate reconstruction...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708460/tolerance-to-hypercarbia-is-repeatable-and-related-to-a-component-of-the-metabolic-phenotype-in-a-freshwater-fish
#3
Caleb T Hasler, Ian A Bouyoucos, Cory D Suski
Freshwater fish may be exposed to high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) because of several actions, including anesthesia and high levels of aquatic respiration and potentially as the result of using high-CO2 plumes as a barrier to the movements of invasive fishes. Metabolic phenotype can potentially drive how freshwater fish respond to high CO2. We therefore quantified how tolerance (measured using time to equilibrium loss [ELT]) was driven by metabolic phenotype in a cosmopolitan freshwater fish species, Micropterus salmoides...
September 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698673/a-quinolinol-based-small-molecule-with-anti-mrsa-activity-that-targets-bacterial-membrane-and-promotes-fermentative-metabolism
#4
Dhanalakshmi R Nair, Ji Chen, João M Monteiro, Michaele Josten, Mariana G Pinho, Hans-Georg Sahl, Jimmy Wu, Ambrose Cheung
In a loss-of-viability screen of small molecules against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) USA300, we found a small molecule, designated DNAC-2, which has an MIC of 8 μg ml(-1). DNAC-2 is a quinolinol derivative that is bactericidal at 2X MIC. Macromolecular synthesis assays at 2 × MIC of DNAC-2 revealed inhibition of DNA, cell wall, RNA and protein synthesis within fifteen to thirty minutes of treatment when compared to the untreated control. Transmission electron microscopy of DNAC-2-treated cells revealed a significantly thicker cell wall and impaired daughter cell separation...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689303/direct-calorimetry-a-brief-historical-review-of-its-use-in-the-study-of-human-metabolism-and-thermoregulation
#5
REVIEW
Glen P Kenny, Sean R Notley, Daniel Gagnon
Direct calorimetry is the gold standard means of measuring human metabolic rate and its use has been fundamental for understanding metabolism in health and disease. While metabolic rate is now more commonly estimated indirectly from measures of the oxygen consumed during respiration, direct calorimetry provides the user with the unique capacity to quantify the heat produced from aerobic and anaerobic metabolism by measuring heat exchange between the body and the environment. This review provides a brief historical overview of the fundamental concepts which underlie direct calorimetry, of pioneer scientists which developed these concepts into functional pieces of equipment and the subsequent use of direct calorimetry to advance our understanding of energy balance, nutrition, and the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases...
July 8, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688222/assembly-pathway-of-a-bacterial-complex-iron-sulfur-molybdoenzyme
#6
REVIEW
Stephana J Cherak, Raymond J Turner
Protein folding and assembly into macromolecule complexes within the living cell are complex processes requiring intimate coordination. The biogenesis of complex iron sulfur molybdoenzymes (CISM) requires use of a system specific chaperone - a redox enzyme maturation protein (REMP) - to help mediate final folding and assembly. The CISM dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase is a bacterial oxidoreductase that utilizes DMSO as a final electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration. The REMP DmsD strongly interacts with DMSO reductase to facilitate folding, cofactor-insertion, subunit assembly and targeting of the multi-subunit enzyme prior to membrane translocation and final assembly and maturation into a bioenergetic catalytic unit...
July 8, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674596/effects-of-nasal-or-oral-breathing-on-anaerobic-power-output-and-metabolic-responses
#7
Christine Recinto, Theodore Efthemeou, P Tony Boffelli, James W Navalta
Nasal and oral exclusive breathing modes have benefits and drawbacks during submaximal exercise. It is unknown whether these responses would extend to anaerobic work performed at high intensity. Nine individuals (males N = 7, females N = 2) performed a standard Wingate Anaerobic cycle test on a cycle ergometer under nose (N) and mouth (M) only respiratory conditions, performed in a counterbalanced order. A 2 (condition: nose, mouth) × 6 (time: 0-5 sec, 5-10 sec, 10-15 sec, 15-20 sec, 20-25 sec, 25-30 sec) repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the data with significance accepted at the p<0...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668633/distinct-and-diverse-anaerobic-respiration-of-methanogenic-community-in-response-to-mno2-nanoparticles-in-anaerobic-digester-sludge
#8
Tian Tian, Sen Qiao, Cong Yu, Yihui Tian, Yue Yang, Jiti Zhou
Recently, the influence of metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) on methanogenesis in anaerobic digestion has drawn much attention, however, the changes in NPs and functioning consortia within the methanogenic community are usually not investigated. Therefore, the methanogenesis performance, NPs transformation and methanogenic community development in anaerobic digester sludge under MnO2 NP supplementation were demonstrated in this study. MnO2 NPs (400 mg/gVSS) stimulated the methane (CH4) yield by 42% for a final CH4 proportion of 81...
June 23, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665988/oxidative-stress-induced-in-e-coli-by-the-human-antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37
#9
Heejun Choi, Zhilin Yang, James C Weisshaar
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are thought to kill bacterial cells by permeabilizing their membranes. However, some antimicrobial peptides inhibit E. coli growth more efficiently in aerobic than in anaerobic conditions. In the attack of the human cathelicidin LL-37 on E. coli, real-time, single-cell fluorescence imaging reveals the timing of membrane permeabilization and the onset of oxidative stress. For cells growing aerobically, a CellROX Green assay indicates that LL-37 induces rapid formation of oxidative species after entry into the periplasm, but before permeabilization of the cytoplasmic membrane (CM)...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651317/effects-of-multi-environmental-factors-on-physiological-and-biochemical-responses-of-large-yellow-croaker-larimichthys-crocea
#10
Qian-Feng Wang, Wei-Liang Shen, Cheng Liu, Dan-Li Mu, Xiong-Fei Wu, Nian-Gang Guo, Jun-Quan Zhu
Land-based recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) and cage culture are important methods of Larimichthys crocea production. The effects of environmental factors on physiological and biochemical aspects of L. crocea require clarification. Temperature and salinity are controlled in RAS and directly affect L. crocea growth and survival. To explore optimal parameters, the oxygen consumption rate (RO), ammonium excretion rate (RN), and O/N ratio at different temperatures (8, 14, 20, 26, and 32 °C) and salinities (5, 15, 25, and 35‰) were determined...
June 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648369/water-diversion-projects-negatively-impact-lake-metabolism-a-case-study-in-lake-dazong-china
#11
Xiaolong Yao, Lu Zhang, Yunlin Zhang, Yingyang Du, Xingyu Jiang, Min Li
Water diversion projects are one of the major tools for counteracting water resource shortage in China. Many diversion projects aimed at diverting water from the Yangtze River or other rivers. This study, using one of the lakes receiving Yangtze River water as a case study, illustrated how nutrient, O2, and N2 fluxes across the sediment-water interface (SWI) changed with increasing nitrate loads during in situ benthic chamber incubation. Increasing nitrate loads in the overlying water caused complex changes in the SWI fluxes...
June 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646634/marinisporobacter-balticus-gen-nov-sp-nov-desulfosporosinus-nitroreducens-sp-nov-and-desulfosporosinus-fructosivorans-sp-nov-new-spore-forming-bacteria-isolated-from-subsurface-sediments-of-the-baltic-sea
#12
Verona Vandieken, Helge Niemann, Bert Engelen, Heribert Cypionka
Four novel Gram-stain-positive, endospore-forming bacteria of the order Clostridiales were isolated from subsurface sediments sampled during International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 347 to the Baltic Sea. One strain (59.4MT) grew as an obligate heterotroph by aerobic respiration and anaerobically by fermentation. Optimum growth was observed with 0.5 % NaCl at 25 °C and pH 7.0-7.3. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of 59.4MT revealed Alkaliphilus transvaalensis (92.3 % identity), Candidatus Geosporobacter ferrireducens (92...
June 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637304/effects-of-alternative-electron-acceptors-on-the-activity-and-community-structure-of-methane-producing-and-consuming-microbes-in-the-sediments-of-two-shallow-boreal-lakes
#13
Antti J Rissanen, Anu Karvinen, Hannu Nykänen, Sari Peura, Marja Tiirola, Anita Mäki, Paula Kankaala
The role of anaerobic CH4 oxidation in controlling lake sediment CH4 emissions remains unclear. Therefore, we tested how relevant EAs (SO42-, NO3-, Fe3+, Mn4+, O2) affect CH4 production and oxidation in the sediments of two shallow boreal lakes. The changes induced to microbial communities by the addition of Fe3+ and Mn4+ were studied using next-generation sequencing targeting the 16S rRNA and methyl-coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes and mcrA transcripts. Putative anaerobic CH4 oxidizing archaea (ANME-2D) and bacteria (NC 10) were scarce (up to 3...
June 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618172/dominance-of-sulfuritalea-species-in-nitrate-depleted-water-of-a-stratified-freshwater-lake-and-arsenate-respiration-ability-within-the-genus
#14
Tomohiro Watanabe, Aya Miura, Tomoya Iwata, Hisaya Kojima, Manabu Fukui
Facultatively autotrophs of the genus Sulfuritalea within the class Betaproteobacteria have been predicted to be an important bacterial population in stratified freshwater lakes based on previous PCR-based studies. Here, we designed a new probe specific for the genus Sulfuritalea and performed catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization to enumerate cells of Sulfuritalea species throughout the water column in a stratified freshwater lake. The cells stained with the Sulfuritalea-specific probe were detected in all hypoxic water samples collected in different seasons and years...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596084/stem-cell-evolutionary-paradigm-and-cell-engineering
#15
Z Ivanovic
Studying hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells for almost three decades revealed some similarities between the stem cell entity and the single-celled eukaryotes exhibiting the anaerobic/facultative aerobic metabolic features. A careful analysis of nowadays knowledge concerning the early eukaryotic evolution allowed us to reveal some analogies between stem cells in the metazoan tissues and the single-celled eukaryotes which existed during the first phase of eukaryotes evolution in mid-Proterozoic era. In fact, it is possible to trace the principle of the self-renewal back to the first eukaryotic common ancestor, the first undifferentiated nucleated cell possessing the primitive, mostly anaerobically-respiring mitochondria and a capacity to reproduction by a simple cell division "à l'identique"...
June 5, 2017: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586527/generation-of-the-membrane-potential-and-its-impact-on-the-motility-atp-production-and-growth-in-campylobacter-jejuni
#16
Anne-Xander van der Stel, Fred C Boogerd, Steven Huynh, Craig T Parker, Linda van Dijk, Jos P M van Putten, Marc M S M Wösten
The generation of a membrane potential (Δψ), the major constituent of the proton motive force (pmf), is crucial for ATP synthesis, transport of nutrients and flagellar rotation. Campylobacter jejuni harbors a branched electron transport chain, enabling respiration with different electron donors and acceptors. Here, we demonstrate that a relatively high Δψ is only generated in the presence of either formate as electron donor or oxygen as electron acceptor, in combination with an acceptor/donor, respectively...
June 6, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584144/peptide-inhibitors-targeting-the-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-pivotal-anaerobic-respiration-factor-ania
#17
Aleksandra E Sikora, Robert H Mills, Jacob V Weber, Adel Hamza, Bryan W Passow, Andrew Romaine, Zachary A Williamson, Robert W Reed, Ryszard A Zielke, Konstantin V Korotkov
Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea, which is highly prevalent worldwide and has a major impact on reproductive and neonatal health. The "superbug" status of N. gonorrhoeae necessitates development of drugs with different mechanisms of action. Here, we focused on targeting the nitrite reductase AniA, which is a pivotal component of N. gonorrhoeae anaerobic respiration and biofilm formation. Our studies showed that gonococci expressing AniA containing altered catalytic residues, D137A and H280A, failed to grow under anaerobic conditions demonstrating that the nitrite reductase function is essential...
June 5, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559887/crp-regulates-d-lactate-oxidation-in-shewanella-oneidensis-mr-1
#18
Takuya Kasai, Atsushi Kouzuma, Kazuya Watanabe
Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a heterotrophic facultative anaerobe that respires using various organic and inorganic compounds. This organism has served as a model to study bacterial metabolic and regulatory systems that facilitate their survival in redox-stratified environments. The expression of many anaerobic respiratory genes in MR-1, including those for the reduction of fumarate, dimethyl sulfoxide, and metal oxides, is regulated by cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP). However, relatively little is known about how this organism regulates the expression of catabolic enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of organic compounds, including lactate...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554617/dynamic-controlled-atmosphere-dca-interaction-between-dca-methods-and-1-methylcyclopropene-on-fuji-suprema-apple-quality
#19
Anderson Weber, Fabio Rodrigo Thewes, Rogerio de Oliveira Anese, Vanderlei Both, Elizandra Pivotto Pavanello, Auri Brackmann
The objective of the present work was to evaluate the appropriate respiratory quotient (RQ) value to achieve a safe lowest oxygen limit (LOL), during storage of 'Fuji Suprema' apples, in dynamic controlled atmosphere (DCA), treated with or without 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). The apples were stored in DCA-RQ, a new technology for storing fruits, and were compared with the HarvestWatch™, a system based on chlorophyll fluorescence DCA (DCA-CF), and static controlled atmosphere. DCA-RQ1.5 is the most suited for the storage of 'Fuji Suprema' apples...
November 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527624/understanding-aerobic-anaerobic-metabolism-in-caldibacillus-debilis-through-a-comparison-with-model-organisms
#20
Scott Wushke, Victor Spicer, Xiang Li Zhang, Brian Fristensky, Oleg V Krokhin, David B Levin, Nazim Cicek, Richard Sparling
Caldibacillus debilis GB1 is a facultative anaerobe isolated from a thermophilic aero-tolerant cellulolytic enrichment culture. There is a lack of representative proteomes of facultative anaerobic thermophilic Bacillaceae, exploring aerobic/anaerobic expression. The C. debilis GB1 genome was sequenced and annotated, and the proteome characterized under aerobic and anaerobic conditions while grown on cellobiose. The draft sequence of C. debilis GB1 contains a 3,340,752 bp chromosome and a 5,386 bp plasmid distributed over 49 contigs...
April 13, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
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