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Anaerobic respiration

Clara Bien Peek, Daniel C Levine, Jonathan Cedernaes, Akihiko Taguchi, Yumiko Kobayashi, Stacy J Tsai, Nicolle A Bonar, Maureen R McNulty, Kathryn Moynihan Ramsey, Joseph Bass
Circadian clocks are encoded by a transcription-translation feedback loop that aligns energetic processes with the solar cycle. We show that genetic disruption of the clock activator BMAL1 in skeletal myotubes and fibroblasts increased levels of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) under hypoxic conditions. Bmal1(-/-) myotubes displayed reduced anaerobic glycolysis, mitochondrial respiration with glycolytic fuel, and transcription of HIF1α targets Phd3, Vegfa, Mct4, Pk-m, and Ldha, whereas abrogation of the clock repressors CRY1/2 stabilized HIF1α in response to hypoxia...
October 19, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Jianhe Peng, Jing Cao, Fui Mee Ng, Jeffrey Hill
: Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is difficult to treat because of its drug resistance, but how it develops drug resistance remains largely unknown. In this study we investigated Ciprofloxacin resistance development in P. aeruginosa. Different Ciprofloxacin concentrations selected different low level resistant mutants, and high level resistant mutants emerged from low level resistant mutants if stressed further by Ciprofloxacin. A deep quantitative proteomic study of the Ciprofloxacin resistant mutants uncovered the cellular pathways that supported such resistances...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Trey K Sato, Mary Tremaine, Lucas S Parreiras, Alexander S Hebert, Kevin S Myers, Alan J Higbee, Maria Sardi, Sean J McIlwain, Irene M Ong, Rebecca J Breuer, Ragothaman Avanasi Narasimhan, Mick A McGee, Quinn Dickinson, Alex La Reau, Dan Xie, Mingyuan Tian, Jennifer L Reed, Yaoping Zhang, Joshua J Coon, Chris Todd Hittinger, Audrey P Gasch, Robert Landick
The inability of native Saccharomyces cerevisiae to convert xylose from plant biomass into biofuels remains a major challenge for the production of renewable bioenergy. Despite extensive knowledge of the regulatory networks controlling carbon metabolism in yeast, little is known about how to reprogram S. cerevisiae to ferment xylose at rates comparable to glucose. Here we combined genome sequencing, proteomic profiling, and metabolomic analyses to identify and characterize the responsible mutations in a series of evolved strains capable of metabolizing xylose aerobically or anaerobically...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Tiffany S Louie, Donato Giovannelli, Nathan Yee, Priya Narasingarao, Valentin Starovoytov, Markus Göker, Hans-Peter Klenk, Elke Lang, Nikos C Kyrpides, Tanja Woyke, Elisabetta Bini, Max M Häggblom
Sedimenticola selenatireducens strain AK4OH1(T) (= DSM 17993(T) = ATCC BAA-1233(T)) is a microaerophilic bacterium isolated from sediment from the Arthur Kill intertidal strait between New Jersey and Staten Island, NY. S. selenatireducens is Gram-negative and belongs to the Gammaproteobacteria. Strain AK4OH1(T) was the first representative of its genus to be isolated for its unique coupling of the oxidation of aromatic acids to the respiration of selenate. It is a versatile heterotroph and can use a variety of carbon compounds, but can also grow lithoautotrophically under hypoxic and anaerobic conditions...
2016: Standards in Genomic Sciences
Bruna Matturro, Carla Ubaldi, Simona Rossetti
The toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) can be efficiently reduced in contaminated marine sediments through the reductive dechlorination (RD) process lead by anaerobic organohalide bacteria. Although the process has been extensively investigated on PCB-spiked sediments, the knowledge on the identity and metabolic potential of PCB-dechlorinating microorganisms in real contaminated matrix is still limited. Aim of this study was to explore the composition and the dynamics of the microbial communities of the marine sediment collected from one of the largest Sites of National Interest (SIN) in Italy (Mar Piccolo, Taranto) under conditions promoting the PCBs RD...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kuldeep Sarvaiya, Sunita Goswami
AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the effectiveness of TRPV1 modulators in animal model of Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). To assess central and peripheral behavioral activity of TRPV1 modulators. MATERIAL AND METHODS: CFS was induced by forcing the rats to swim for 10min for 21 consecutive days. The rats were treated with capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist, 2.5mg/kg) and n-tert-butylcyclohexanol (TRPV1 antagonist, 10mg/kg) for 21days 30min before the exposure to stress procedure...
September 28, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Sara Zenoni, Marianna Fasoli, Flavia Guzzo, Silvia Dal Santo, Alessandra Amato, Andrea Anesi, Mauro Commisso, Markus Herderich, Stefania Ceoldo, Linda Avesani, Mario Pezzotti, Giovanni Battista Tornielli
The molecular events that characterize post-ripening grapevine berries have rarely been investigated and are poorly defined. In particular, a detailed definition of changes occurring during the postharvest dehydration, a process undertaken to make some particularly special wine styles, would be of great interest for both winemakers and plant biologists. We report an exhaustive survey of transcriptomic and metabolomic responses in berries representing six grapevine genotypes subjected to postharvest dehydration under identical controlled conditions...
September 26, 2016: Plant Physiology
Balaram Mohapatra, Angana Sarkar, Swati Joshi, Atrayee Chatterjee, Sufia Khannam Kazy, Mrinal Kumar Maiti, Tulasi Satyanarayana, Pinaki Sar
A novel arsenic (As)-resistant, arsenate-respiring, alkane-metabolizing bacterium KAs 5-22(T), isolated from As-rich groundwater of West Bengal was characterized by physiological and genomic properties. Cells of strain KAs 5-22(T) were Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, motile, and facultative anaerobic. Growth occurred at optimum of pH 6.0-7.0, temperature 30 °C. 16S rRNA gene affiliated the strain KAs 5-22(T) to the genus Rhizobium showing maximum similarity (98.4 %) with the type strain of Rhizobium naphthalenivorans TSY03b(T) followed by (98...
September 23, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
Janneke P Ouwerkerk, Kees C H van der Ark, Mark Davids, Nico J Claassens, Teresa Robert Finestra, Willem M de Vos, Clara Belzer
: Akkermansia muciniphila colonizes the mucus layer of the gastrointestinal tract where the organism can be exposed to the oxygen that diffuses from epithelial cells. To understand how A. muciniphila is able to survive and grow at this oxic-anoxic interface, its oxygen tolerance, response and reduction capacities were studied. A. muciniphila was found to be oxygen-tolerant. On top of this, under aerated conditions, A. muciniphila showed significant oxygen reduction capacities and its growth rate and yield were increased as compared to strict anaerobic conditions...
September 23, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Maria V Orlova, Sergey V Tarlachkov, Galina A Dubinina, Elena V Belousova, Maria N Tutukina, Margarita Y Grabovich
Diazotrophic Alphaproteobacteria of the genus Azospirillum are usually organotrophs, although some strains of Azospirillum lipoferum are capable of hydrogen-dependent autotrophic growth. Azospirillum thiophilum strain was isolated from a mineral sulfide spring, a biotope highly unusual for azospirilla. Here, the metabolic pathways utilized by A. thiophilum were revealed based on comprehensive analysis of its genomic organization, together with physiological and biochemical approaches. The A. thiophilum genome contained all the genes encoding the enzymes of carbon metabolism via glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle and glyoxylate cycle...
December 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Yehouda Marcus, Noam Tal, Mordechai Ronen, Raanan Carmieli, Michael Gurevitz
Ornidazole of the 5-nitroimidazole drug family is used to treat protozoan and anaerobic bacterial infections via a mechanism that involves pre-activation by reduction of the nitro group, and production of toxic derivatives and radicals. Metronidazole, another drug family member, has been suggested to affect photosynthesis by draining electrons from the electron carrier, ferredoxin, thus inhibiting NADP(+) reduction and stimulating radical and peroxide production. Here we show, however, that ornidazole inhibits photosynthesis via a different mechanism...
September 19, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Lu Cai, David Johnson, Min Fang, Prashant Mandal, Zhiying Tu, Yingping Huang
The objective of this study is to provide information on changes in swimming capability and respiration of the sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus, Linnaeus 1758) caused by different levels of fasting. Before testing, the four groups of sturgeon (body length: 12.1-15.4 cm, body mass: 10.0-20.2 g) fasted for 6 h, 2 days, 1 and 2 weeks, respectively. Swimming tests were then performed to measure critical swimming speed and oxygen consumption at 20 ± 0.5 °C. Results show: (1) Fasting times shorter than 2 days has little effect on swimming capability, but it decreases significantly when the fasting time is longer than a week...
September 8, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Yong Lai, Zeling Xu, Aixin Yan
Indole is a widely distributed microbial secondary metabolite. It mediates a broad range of physiological processes in both its producing and surrounding species. Yet, indole biosynthesis during the anaerobiosis of bacteria remains largely uncharacterized. Here we find that while indole production is promoted during fermentation and anaerobic respiration of fumarate and trimethylamine N-oxide in E. coli, its biosynthesis is repressed during anaerobic respiration of nitrate especially during exponential growth...
September 15, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Lydia Krasper, Hauke Lilie, Anja Kublik, Lorenz Adrian, Ralph Golbik, Ute Lechner
: Reductive dehalogenases are essential enzymes in organohalide respiration and consist of a catalytic subunit A and a membrane protein B, encoded by rdhAB genes. Thirty-two rdhAB genes exist in the genome of Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain CBDB1. To get a first insight into the regulation of rdh operons, the control of gene expression of rdhA1453/rdhB1452 and rdhA1455/rdhB1454 by a MarR-type regulator RdhR1456 encoded directly upstream was studied using heterologous expression and in vitro studies...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Fang Liu, Jinlong Li, Guofang Feng, Zhiyong Li
"Entotheonella" (phylum "Tectomicrobia") is a filamentous symbiont that produces almost all known bioactive compounds derived from the Lithistida sponge Theonella swinhoei. In contrast to the comprehensive knowledge of its secondary metabolism, knowledge of its lifestyle, resilience, and interaction with the sponge host and other symbionts remains rudimentary. In this study, we obtained two "Entotheonella" genomes from T. swinhoei from the South China Sea through metagenome binning, and used a RASTtk pipeline to achieve better genome annotation...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Charlotte I Carlström, Lauren N Lucas, Robert A Rohde, Aryan Haratian, Anna L Engelbrektson, John D Coates
The recent recognition of the environmental prevalence of perchlorate and its discovery on Mars, Earth's moon, and in meteorites, in addition to its novel application to controlling oil reservoir sulfidogenesis, has resulted in a renewed interest in this exotic ion and its associated microbiology. However, while plentiful data exists on freshwater perchlorate respiring organisms, information on their halophilic counterparts and microbial communities is scarce. Here, we investigated the temporal evolving structure of perchlorate respiring communities under a range of NaCl concentrations (1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 % wt/vol) using marine sediment amended with acetate and perchlorate...
September 5, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jianfei Zeng, Xiuli Shen, Lujia Han, Guangqun Huang
This study characterized some physicochemical and biological parameters to systematically evaluate the dynamics of oxygen supply and consumption during large-scale trough composting in China. The results showed that long active phases, low maximum temperatures, low organic matter losses and high pore methane concentrations were observed in different composting layers. Pore oxygen concentrations in the top, middle and bottom layers maintained <5vol.% for 40, 42 and 45days, respectively, which accounted for more than 89% of the whole period...
November 2016: Bioresource Technology
Matthias Egger, Wytze Lenstra, Dirk Jong, Filip J R Meysman, Célia J Sapart, Carina van der Veen, Thomas Röckmann, Santiago Gonzalez, Caroline P Slomp
Globally, the methane (CH4) efflux from the ocean to the atmosphere is small, despite high rates of CH4 production in continental shelf and slope environments. This low efflux results from the biological removal of CH4 through anaerobic oxidation with sulfate in marine sediments. In some settings, however, pore water CH4 is found throughout the sulfate-bearing zone, indicating an apparently inefficient oxidation barrier for CH4. Here we demonstrate that rapid sediment accumulation can explain this limited capacity for CH4 removal in coastal sediments...
2016: PloS One
Graciana Willis Poratti, Amira Suriaty Yaakop, Chia Sing Chan, M Sofía Urbieta, Kok-Gan Chan, Robson Ee, Adrian Tan-Guan-Sheng, Kian Mau Goh, Edgardo R Donati
Desulfotomaculum copahuensis strain CINDEFI1 is a novel spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from the Copahue volcano area, Argentina. Here, we present its draft genome in which we found genes related with the anaerobic respiration of sulfur compounds similar to those present in the Copahue environment.
2016: Genome Announcements
Elizabeth M Selleck, Michael S Gilmore
Infections caused by multiple organisms, or polymicrobial infections, are likely more common than is broadly appreciated. Interaction among microbial communities (and with their host) can change the infection landscape by subverting immunity, providing nutrients and inhibiting competing microbes. Stacy et al. (A. Stacy, D. Fleming, R. J. Lamont, K. P. Rumbaugh, and M. Whiteley, mBio 7:e00782-16, 2016, described a novel mechanism that results in synergistic growth of oral microbes Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Streptococcus gordonii The authors used whole-genome fitness profiling by transposon sequencing (Tn-seq) to identify genes differentially required for growth in vitro versus in a mono- or coinfection in a thigh abscess model...
2016: MBio
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