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Anaerobic respiration

Xiaowen Liu, Sophia Montissol, Amy Uber, Sarah Ganley, Anne V Grossestreuer, Katherine Berg, Stanley Heydrick, Michael W Donnino
(1) Background: Thiamine is an important cofactor for multiple metabolic processes. Its role in cancer has been debated for years. Our aim is to determine if thiamine can convert the cellular metabolic state of breast cancer cells from anaerobic to aerobic, thus reducing their growth. (2) Methods: Breast cancer (MCF7) and non-tumorigenic (MCF10A) cell lines were treated with various doses of thiamine and assessed for changes in cell growth. The mechanism of this relationship was identified through the measurement of enzymatic activity and metabolic changes...
June 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Robert A Skolik, Mary E Konkle, Michael A Menze
Many cell lines used in basic biological and biomedical research maintain energy homeostasis through a combination of both aerobic and anaerobic respiration. However, the extent to which both pathways contribute to the landscape of cellular energy production is consistently overlooked. Transformed cells cultured in saturating levels of glucose often show a decreased dependency on oxidative phosphorylation for ATP production, which is compensated by an increase in substrate-level phosphorylation. This shift in metabolic poise allows cells to proliferate despite the presence of mitochondrial toxins...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Lei Wang, Sufen Cui, Zhicheng Liu, Yong Ping, Jiangping Qiu, Xueqing Geng
Regulating the air in low-oxygen environments protects hermetically stored grains from storage pests damage. However, pests that can tolerate hypoxic stress pose a huge challenge in terms of grain storage. We used various biological approaches to determine the fundamental mechanisms of Tribolium castaneum to cope with hypoxia. Our results indicated that limiting the available oxygen to T. castaneum increased glycolysis and inhibited the Krebs cycle, and that accumulated pyruvic acid was preferentially converted to lactic acid via anaerobic metabolism...
2018: PloS One
Julian Lange, Eugenia Münch, Jan Müller, Tobias Busche, Jörn Kalinowski, Ralf Takors, Bastian Blombach
Zero-growth processes are a promising strategy for the production of reduced molecules and depict a steady transition from aerobic to anaerobic conditions. To investigate the adaptation of Corynebacterium glutamicum to altering oxygen availabilities, we conceived a triple-phase fermentation process that describes a gradual reduction of dissolved oxygen with a shift from aerobiosis via microaerobiosis to anaerobiosis. The distinct process phases were clearly bordered by the bacteria’s physiologic response such as reduced growth rate, biomass substrate yield and altered yield of fermentation products...
June 13, 2018: Genes
Xuemeng He, Lili Ding, Wenbo Su, Haijun Ma, Hui Huang, Yanru Wang, Hongqiang Ren
Endotoxins are potential toxics impacting human health through respiration derived in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), yet the formation of endotoxins during wastewater treatment processes is still lacking research. In our study, the distribution of endotoxins and bacterial community structure in the wastewater of three full scale pharmaceutical WWTPs were explored using the limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test and MiSeq technique. Results showed that higher endotoxin activities in the influent of Plant A and Plant C (560 and 1140 EU/mL), stemming from the fermentation process, were found compared to that of Plant B (135 EU/mL), coming from the process of chemical synthesis...
June 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Dominique Türkowsky, Patrick Lohmann, Marie Mühlenbrink, Torsten Schubert, Lorenz Adrian, Tobias Goris, Nico Jehmlich, Martin von Bergen
Thermal proteome profiling (TPP) is increasingly applied in eukaryotes to investigate protein-ligand binding through protein melting curve shifts induced by the presence of a ligand. In anaerobic bacteria, identification of protein-substrate interactions is a major challenge. We applied TPP to Sulfurospirillum multivorans, which is able to use trichloroethene as electron acceptor for growth, to investigate the interaction of its tetrachloroethene reductive dehalogenase PceA with trichloroethene. Several modifications in the protocol (e...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Christian Kirchhoff, Matthias Ebert, Dieter Jahn, Heribert Cypionka
Dinoroseobacter shibae is an aerobic anoxygenic phototroph and able to utilize light energy to support its aerobic energy metabolism. Since the cells can also grow anaerobically with nitrate and nitrite as terminal electron acceptor, we were interested in how the cells profit from photosynthesis during denitrification and what the steps of chemiosmotic energy conservation are. Therefore, we conducted proton translocation experiments and compared O2 - , NO3 - , and NO2 - respiration during different light regimes and in the dark...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xian Wu, Long Zou, Yunhong Huang, Yan Qiao, Zhong-Er Long, Haoping Liu, Chang Ming Li
The extracellular electron transfer (EET) process of Shewanella species is believed to be indispensable for their anaerobic respiration with an electrode. However, the function of outer membrane c-type cytochromes (OM c-Cyts, the primary components of the EET pathway) is still controversial. In this study, we investigated the effect of two OM c-Cyts (MtrC and UndA) of Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 with respect to electricity production and anodic EET efficiency. Deletion of the mtrC gene severely prolonged the microbial fuel cell (MFC) start-up time and decreased electricity production due to depressed flavin-mediated electron transfer, whereas deletion of the undA gene did not have a significant impact...
August 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Diwei Zheng, Bin Li, Lu Xu, Qiu-Ling Zhang, Jin-Xuan Fan, Chu-Xin Li, Xian-Zheng Zhang
Tumor hypoxia has attained the status of a core hallmark of cancer that globally affected the entire tumor phenotype. Reversing tumor hypoxia might offer alternative therapeutic opportunities for current anticancer therapies. In this research, a Photosynthetic Leaf-inspired Abiotic/biotic Nano-Thylakoid (PLANT) system was designed by fusing thylakoid membrane with synthetic nanoparticles for efficient O2 generation in vivo. Under 660 nm laser irradiation, PLANT system exhibited intracellular O2 generation and the anaerobic respiration of multicellular tumor spheroid was suppressed by PLANT as well...
May 23, 2018: ACS Nano
Wei Zhu, Qian Meng, Huan Zhang, Meng-Long Wang, Xuan Li, Hong-Tuo Wang, Gui-Ling Zhou, Lin Miao, Qi-Lian Qin, Ji-Hong Zhang
Ghost moths inhabiting the alpine meadows of the Tibetan Plateau are cold-adapted stenothermal organisms that are susceptible to heat (dead within 7 days of 27 °C exposure). Exploring the metabolic basis of their heat susceptibility would extend our understanding of the thermal biology of alpine dwelling invertebrates. Here, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics was combined with physiological and transcriptional approaches to determine the metabolic mechanisms of heat susceptibility in Thitarodes xiaojinensis larvae...
May 23, 2018: Insect Science
Masanori Toyofuku, Sang-Sun Yoon
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium, is characterized by its versatility that enables persistent survival under adverse conditions. It can grow on diverse energy sources and readily acquire resistance to antimicrobial agents. As an opportunistic human pathogen, it also causes chronic infections inside the anaerobic mucus airways of cystic fibrosis patients. As a strict respirer, P. aeruginosa can grow by anaerobic nitrate ( [Formula: see text] ) respiration. Nitric oxide (NO) produced as an intermediate during anaerobic respiration exerts many important effects on the biological characteristics of P...
2018: Advances in Microbial Physiology
Feng Ju, Yubo Wang, Tong Zhang
Background: Methanogenic biodegradation of aromatic compounds depends on syntrophic metabolism. However, metabolic enzymes and pathways of uncultured microorganisms and their ecological interactions with methanogenic consortia are unknown because of their resistance to isolation and limited genomic information. Results: Genome-resolved metagenomics approaches were used to reconstruct and dissect 23 prokaryotic genomes from 37 and 20 °C methanogenic phenol-degrading reactors...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Colin C Anderson, Stefanos Aivazidis, Crystal L Kuzyk, Abhilasha Jain, James R Roede
The pesticides paraquat (PQ) and maneb (MB) have been described as environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD), with mechanisms associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. A combined exposure of PQ and MB in murine models and neuroblastoma cells has been utilized to further advance understanding of the PD phenotype. MB acts as a redox modulator through alkylation of protein thiols and has been previously characterized to inhibit complex III of the electron transport chain (ETC) and uncouple the mitochondrial proton gradient...
May 14, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Aaron M Jubb, Jeremy R Eskelsen, Xiangping Yin, Jianqiu Zheng, Michael J Philben, Eric M Pierce, David E Graham, Stan D Wullschleger, Baohua Gu
Massive amounts of organic carbon have accumulated in Arctic permafrost and soils due to anoxic and low temperature conditions that limit aerobic microbial respiration. Alternative electron acceptors are thus required for microbes to degrade organic carbon in these soils. Iron or iron oxides have been recognized to play an important role in carbon cycle processes in Arctic soils, although the exact form and role as an electron acceptor or donor remain poorly understood. Here, Arctic biofilms collected during the summers of 2016 and 2017 from tundra surface waters on the Seward Peninsula of western Alaska were characterized with a suite of microscopic and spectroscopic methods...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Simon Leitner, Thomas G Reichenauer, Andrea Watzinger
The evaluation of groundwater contaminant e.g. tetrachloroethene (PCE) degradation processes requires complete quantification of and pathway analysis of the groundwater contaminant under investigation. For example the reduction of PCE concentrations in the groundwater by unknown dissolution and/or sorption processes will impede interpretation of the fate and behaviour of such contaminants. In the present study PCE dissolution and sorption processes during anaerobic microbial degradation of chlorinated ethenes were investigated...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Géraldine F Buttet, Mathilde S Willemin, Romain Hamelin, Aamani Rupakula, Julien Maillard
Organohalide respiration (OHR) is the energy metabolism of anaerobic bacteria able to use halogenated organic compounds as terminal electron acceptors. While the terminal enzymes in OHR, so-called reductive dehalogenases, are well-characterized, the identity of proteins potentially involved in electron transfer to the terminal enzymes remains elusive. Among the accessory genes identified in OHR gene clusters, the C subunit ( rdhC ) could well code for the missing redox protein between the quinol pool and the reductive dehalogenase, although it was initially proposed to act as transcriptional regulator...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Torsten Schubert, Lorenz Adrian, R Gary Sawers, Gabriele Diekert
The utilization of halogenated organic compounds as terminal electron acceptors separates the phylogenetically diverse organohalide-respiring bacteria from other respiratory anaerobes that predominantly use nitrate, fumarate, sulfate or oxidized metals. Organohalide respiration is unique in recruiting a cobamide-containing iron-sulfur protein, the extracellular membrane-bound reductive dehalogenase, as terminal reductase in the electron transfer chain. In recent years substantial contributions have been made to the understanding of how electron transfer paths couple mechanistically to chemiosmosis in the organohalide-respiring bacteria...
April 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
James K H Fang, Christine A Rooks, Cathinka M Krogness, Tina Kutti, Friederike Hoffmann, Raymond J Bannister
To meet the increasing global energy demand, expanding exploration for oil and gas reserves as well as associated drilling activities are expected in the Arctic-boreal region where sponge aggregations contribute to up to 90% of benthic biomass. These deep-water sponges along with their microbial endobionts play key roles in the nitrogen cycling in Arctic-boreal ecosystems. This study aimed to investigate the effects of drilling discharges and associated sediment resuspension events on net fluxes of oxygen, ammonium, nitrate and nitrite in three common deep-water sponge species in the form of explants...
April 26, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jeremy F Chignell, Susan K De Long, Kenneth F Reardon
Background: Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) harness electrons from microbial respiration to generate power or chemical products from a variety of organic feedstocks, including lignocellulosic biomass, fermentation byproducts, and wastewater sludge. In some BESs, such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs), bacteria living in a biofilm use the anode as an electron acceptor for electrons harvested from organic materials such as lignocellulosic biomass or waste byproducts, generating energy that may be used by humans...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Zhuolin Liu, Chen Zhou, Aura Ontiveros-Valencia, Yi-Hao Luo, Min Long, Hua Xu, Bruce E Rittmann
Although benzene can be biodegraded when dissolved oxygen is sufficient, delivering oxygen is energy intensive and can lead to air stripping the benzene. Anaerobes can biodegrade benzene by using electron acceptors other than O2 , and this may reduce costs and exposure risks; the drawback is a remarkably slower growth rate. We evaluated a two-step strategy that involved O2 -dependent benzene activation and cleavage followed by intermediate oxidation coupled to NO3 - respiration. We employed a membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) featuring nonporous hollow fibers as the means to deliver O2 directly to a biofilm at an accurately controlled rate...
April 28, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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