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Anaerobic respiration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182951/microbial-respiration-and-formate-oxidation-as-metabolic-signatures-of-inflammation-associated-dysbiosis
#1
Elizabeth R Hughes, Maria G Winter, Breck A Duerkop, Luisella Spiga, Tatiane Furtado de Carvalho, Wenhan Zhu, Caroline C Gillis, Lisa Büttner, Madeline P Smoot, Cassie L Behrendt, Sara Cherry, Renato L Santos, Lora V Hooper, Sebastian E Winter
Intestinal inflammation is frequently associated with an alteration of the gut microbiota, termed dysbiosis, which is characterized by a reduced abundance of obligate anaerobic bacteria and an expansion of facultative Proteobacteria such as commensal E. coli. The mechanisms enabling the outgrowth of Proteobacteria during inflammation are incompletely understood. Metagenomic sequencing revealed bacterial formate oxidation and aerobic respiration to be overrepresented metabolic pathways in a chemically induced murine model of colitis...
February 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176017/hypoxia-and-aerobic-metabolism-adaptations-of-human-endothelial-cells
#2
Agnieszka Koziel, Wieslawa Jarmuszkiewicz
The goal of our study was to assess the influence of chronic exposure to hypoxia on mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926 line) cultured for 6 days at 1% O2 tension. The hypoxia-induced effects were elucidated at the cellular and isolated mitochondria levels. Hypoxia elevated fermentation but did not change mitochondrial biogenesis or the aerobic respiratory capacity of endothelial cells. In endothelial cells, hypoxia caused a general decrease in mitochondrial respiration during carbohydrate, fatty acid, and amino acid oxidation but increased exclusively ketogenic amino acid oxidation...
February 8, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164386/a-class-c-radical-s-adenosylmethionine-methyltransferase-synthesizes-8-methylmenaquinone
#3
Sascha Hein, Oliver Klimmek, Markus Polly, Melanie Kern, Jörg Simon
The membranous quinone/quinol pool is essential to the majority of life forms and has been widely used as an important biomarker in microbial taxonomy. In the anaerobic world, the most important quinones are menaquinone (MK) and a methylated form of MK, designated methylmenaquinone (MMK), which is anticipated to serve specifically in low-potential electron transport chains involved in anaerobic respiration. However, it has remained unclear how MMK is generated. Here we show that a novel enzyme homologous to class C radical SAM methyltransferases (RSMTs) synthesizes MMK using MK as substrate...
February 6, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154498/reverse-methanogenesis-and-respiration-in-methanotrophic-archaea
#4
REVIEW
Peer H A Timmers, Cornelia U Welte, Jasper J Koehorst, Caroline M Plugge, Mike S M Jetten, Alfons J M Stams
Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is catalyzed by anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) via a reverse and modified methanogenesis pathway. Methanogens can also reverse the methanogenesis pathway to oxidize methane, but only during net methane production (i.e., "trace methane oxidation"). In turn, ANME can produce methane, but only during net methane oxidation (i.e., enzymatic back flux). Net AOM is exergonic when coupled to an external electron acceptor such as sulfate (ANME-1, ANME-2abc, and ANME-3), nitrate (ANME-2d), or metal (oxides)...
2017: Archaea: An International Microbiological Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152601/quantitative-proteomics-charts-the-landscape-of-salmonella-carbon-metabolism-within-host-epithelial-cells
#5
Yanhua Liu, Kaiwen Yu, Fan Zhou, Tao Ding, Yufei Yang, Mo Hu, Xiaoyun Liu
We performed a proteomic survey of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium during infection of host epithelial cells. Our data reveal substantial metabolic reshuffling of Salmonella in the host in addition to severe degeneration of bacterial flagella and chemotaxis systems. The large-scale quantitative data allowed us to chart an overview of intracellular Salmonella carbon metabolism. Notably, we found preferential utilization of glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, mixed acid fermentation, and nucleotide metabolism...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139713/thicker-three-dimensional-tissue-from-a-symbiotic-recycling-system-combining-mammalian-cells-and-algae
#6
Yuji Haraguchi, Yuki Kagawa, Katsuhisa Sakaguchi, Katsuhisa Matsuura, Tatsuya Shimizu, Teruo Okano
In this paper, we report an in vitro co-culture system that combines mammalian cells and algae, Chlorococcum littorale, to create a three-dimensional (3-D) tissue. While the C2C12 mouse myoblasts and rat cardiac cells consumed oxygen actively, intense oxygen production was accounted for by the algae even in the co-culture system. Although cell metabolism within thicker cardiac cell-layered tissues showed anaerobic respiration, the introduction of innovative co-cultivation partially changed the metabolism to aerobic respiration...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138101/significance-of-a-post-translational-modification-of-the-pila-protein-of-geobacter-sulfurreducens-for-surface-attachment-biofilm-formation-and-growth-on-insoluble-extracellular-electron-acceptors
#7
Lubna V Richter, Ashley E Franks, Robert M Weis, Steven J Sandler
: Geobacter sulfurreducens, an anaerobic metal-reducing bacterium, possesses type IV pili. These pili are intrinsic structural elements in biofilm formation and together with a number of c-type cytochromes are thought to serve as conductive nanowires enabling long-range electron transfer (ET) to metal oxides and graphite anodes. Here, we report that a post-translational modification of a non-conserved amino acid residue within the PilA protein, the structural subunit of the type IV pili, is crucial for growth on insoluble extracellular electron acceptors...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126048/dehalogenimonas-formicexedens-sp-nov-a-chlorinated-alkane-respiring-bacterium-isolated-from-contaminated-groundwater
#8
Trent A Key, Kimberly S Bowman, Imchang Lee, Jongsik Chun, Milton da Costa, Luciana Albuquerque, Fred A Rainey, William M Moe
A strictly anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming bacterium designated NSZ-14T, isolated from contaminated groundwater in Louisiana (USA), was characterized using a polyphasic approach. Strain NSZ-14T reductively dehalogenated a variety of polychlorinated aliphatic alkanes, producing ethene from 1,2-dichloroethane, propene from 1,2-dichloropropane, a mixture of cis- and trans-1,2-dichloroethene from 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, vinyl chloride from 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and allyl chloride (3-chloro-1-propene) from 1,2,3-trichloropropane...
January 23, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108159/influence-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-benthic-oxygen-consumption-of-microbial-communities-in-freshwater-sediments-determined-by-microelectrodes
#9
Lingzhan Miao, Chao Wang, Jun Hou, Peifang Wang, Yanhui Ao, Yi Li, Yu Yao, Bowen Lv, Yangyang Yang, Guoxiang You, Yi Xu
The increased use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) will inevitably result in the release of these particles into aquatic environments, with sediments as a substantial sink. However, we do not know whether AgNPs present potential impacts in sediment functioning. In this study, a microcosm approach was constructed, and the potential impacts of AgNPs and PVP-coated AgNPs on oxygen consumption in freshwater sediments (collected from Taihu Lake) were determined using oxygen microelectrodes. To our knowledge, this is the first time that microelectrodes have been used to estimate the impacts of AgNPs in sediments...
January 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106880/discovery-of-anaerobic-lithoheterotrophic-haloarchaea-ubiquitous-in-hypersaline-habitats
#10
Dimitry Y Sorokin, Enzo Messina, Francesco Smedile, Pawel Roman, Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté, Sergio Ciordia, Maria Carmen Mena, Manuel Ferrer, Peter N Golyshin, Ilya V Kublanov, Nazar I Samarov, Stepan V Toshchakov, Violetta La Cono, Michail M Yakimov
Hypersaline anoxic habitats harbour numerous novel uncultured archaea whose metabolic and ecological roles remain to be elucidated. Until recently, it was believed that energy generation via dissimilatory reduction of sulfur compounds is not functional at salt saturation conditions. Recent discovery of the strictly anaerobic acetotrophic Halanaeroarchaeum compels to change both this assumption and the traditional view on haloarchaea as aerobic heterotrophs. Here we report on isolation and characterization of a novel group of strictly anaerobic lithoheterotrophic haloarchaea, which we propose to classify as a new genus Halodesulfurarchaeum...
January 20, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104644/draft-genome-sequence-of-hydrogenibacillus-schlegelii-ma48-a-deep-branching-member-of-the-bacilli-class-of-firmicutes
#11
Allison Maker, James Hemp, Laura A Pace, Lewis M Ward, Woodward W Fischer
We report here the draft genome sequence of Hydrogenibacillus schlegelii MA48, a thermophilic facultative anaerobe that can oxidize hydrogen aerobically. H. schlegelii MA48 belongs to a deep-branching clade of the Bacilli class and provides important insight into the acquisition of aerobic respiration within the Firmicutes phylum.
January 19, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103744/strategies-to-enhance-implantation-and-survival-of-stem-cells-after-their-injection-in-ischemic-neural-tissue
#12
Ioanna Sandvig, Ivana Gadjanski, Marija Vlaski, Leonora Buzanska, Darija Loncaric, Anna Sarnowska, Laura Rodriguez, Axel Sandvig, Zoran Ivanovic
High post-transplantation cell mortality is the main limitation of various approaches aimed to improve regeneration of injured neural tissue by injection of neural stem cells (NSCs) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MStroCs) in and/or around the lesion. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to identify efficient ways to increase cell transplant viability. We have previously proposed the "evolutionary stem cell paradigm", which explains the association between stem cell anaerobic/microaerophilic metabolic set-up and stem cell self-renewal and inhibition of differentiation...
January 19, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094795/impacts-of-chemical-gradients-on-microbial-community-structure
#13
Jianwei Chen, Anna Hanke, Halina E Tegetmeyer, Ines Kattelmann, Ritin Sharma, Emmo Hamann, Theresa Hargesheimer, Beate Kraft, Sabine Lenk, Jeanine S Geelhoed, Robert L Hettich, Marc Strous
Succession of redox processes is sometimes assumed to define a basic microbial community structure for ecosystems with oxygen gradients. In this paradigm, aerobic respiration, denitrification, fermentation and sulfate reduction proceed in a thermodynamically determined order, known as the 'redox tower'. Here, we investigated whether redox sorting of microbial processes explains microbial community structure at low-oxygen concentrations. We subjected a diverse microbial community sampled from a coastal marine sediment to 100 days of tidal cycling in a laboratory chemostat...
January 17, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094552/glucose-metabolism-in-cancer-and-ischemia-possible-therapeutic-consequences-of-the-warburg-effect
#14
Spela Salamon, Eva Podbregar, Peter Kubatka, Dietrich Büsselberg, Martin Caprnda, Radka Opatrilova, Vanda Valentova, Mariusz Adamek, Peter Kruzliak, Matej Podbregar
The Warburg effect states that the main source of energy for cancer cells is not aerobic respiration, but glycolysis-even in normoxia. The shift from one to the other is governed by mutually counteracting enzymes: pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). Anaerobic metabolism of cancer cells promotes cell proliferation, local tissue immunosuppression, resistance to hypoxic conditions, and metastatic processes. By switching glucose back to oxidative metabolism, these effects might be reversed...
January 17, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094526/-1-h-nmr-based-global-metabolic-studies-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-upon-exposure-of-the-quorum-sensing-inhibitor-resveratrol
#15
Tongtong Chen, Jiyang Sheng, Yonghong Fu, Minghui Li, Junsong Wang, Ai-Qun Jia
Quorum sensing (QS) is a process of bacterial communication that has been a novel target for drug discovery. Pyocyanin quantification assay confirmed that resveratrol was an effective quorum sensing inhibitor (QSI) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. In this study, the global metabolite changes of P. aeruginosa PAO1 exposed to QSI resveratrol were investigated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. A total of 40 metabolites containing amino acids, organic acid, organic amine, and energy storage compounds were identified...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087526/rapid-enrichment-of-dehalococcoides-like-bacteria-by-partial-hydrophobic-separation
#16
Hanna R Temme, Kipp Sande, Tao Yan, Paige J Novak
: Organohalide respiring bacteria can be difficult to enrich and isolate, which can limit research on these important organisms. The goal of this research was to develop a method to rapidly (minutes to days) enrich these organisms from a mixed community. The method presented is based on the hypothesis that organohalide respiring bacteria would be more hydrophobic than other bacteria as they dehalogenate hydrophobic compounds. The developed method tests this hypothesis by separating a portion of putative organohalide respiring bacteria, those phylogenetically related to Dehalococcoides mccartyi, at the interface between a hydrophobic organic solvent and aqueous media...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087421/physiology-anaerobes-and-the-origin-of-mitosing-cells-50-years-on
#17
William F Martin
Endosymbiotic theory posits that some organelles or structures of eukaryotic cells stem from free-living prokaryotes that became endosymbionts within a host cell. Endosymbiosis has a long and turbulent history of controversy and debate going back over 100 years. The 1967 paper by Lynn Sagan (later Lynn Margulis) forced a reluctant field to take endosymbiotic theory seriously and to incorporate it into the fabric of evolutionary thinking. Margulis envisaged three cellular partners associating in series at eukaryotic origin: the host (an engulfing bacterium), the mitochondrion (a respiring bacterium), and the flagellum (a spirochaete), with lineages descended from that flagellated eukaryote subsequently acquiring plastids from cyanobacteria, but on multiple different occasions in her 1967 account...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069396/multi-level-evaluation-of-escherichia-coli-polyphosphate-related-mutants-using-global-transcriptomic-proteomic-and-phenomic-analyses
#18
Macarena Varas, Camilo Valdivieso, Cecilia Mauriaca, Javiera Ortíz-Severín, Alberto Paradela, Ignacio Poblete-Castro, Ricardo Cabrera, Francisco P Chávez
BACKGROUND: Polyphosphate (polyP) is a linear biopolymer found in all living cells. In bacteria, mutants lacking polyphosphate kinase 1 (PPK1), the enzyme responsible for synthesis of most polyP, have many structural and functional defects. However, little is known about the causes of these pleiotropic alterations. The link between ppk1 deletion and those numerous phenotypes observed can be the result of complex molecular interactions that can be elucidated via a systems biology approach...
January 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067254/unusual-respiratory-capacity-and-nitrogen-metabolism-in-a-parcubacterium-od1-of-the-candidate-phyla-radiation
#19
Cindy J Castelle, Christopher T Brown, Brian C Thomas, Kenneth H Williams, Jillian F Banfield
The Candidate Phyla Radiation (CPR) is a large group of bacteria, the scale of which approaches that of all other bacteria. CPR organisms are inferred to depend on other community members for many basic cellular building blocks and all appear to be obligate anaerobes. To date, there has been no evidence for any significant respiratory capacity in an organism from this radiation. Here we report a curated draft genome for 'Candidatus Parcunitrobacter nitroensis' a member of the Parcubacteria (OD1) superphylum of the CPR...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067226/syntrophic-anaerobic-photosynthesis-via-direct-interspecies-electron-transfer
#20
Phuc T Ha, Stephen R Lindemann, Liang Shi, Alice C Dohnalkova, James K Fredrickson, Michael T Madigan, Haluk Beyenal
Microbial phototrophs, key primary producers on Earth, use H2O, H2, H2S and other reduced inorganic compounds as electron donors. Here we describe a form of metabolism linking anoxygenic photosynthesis to anaerobic respiration that we call 'syntrophic anaerobic photosynthesis'. We show that photoautotrophy in the green sulfur bacterium Prosthecochloris aestaurii can be driven by either electrons from a solid electrode or acetate oxidation via direct interspecies electron transfer from a heterotrophic partner bacterium, Geobacter sulfurreducens...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
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