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Anaerobic respiration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439033/genome-wide-identification-of-resd-nsrr-and-fur-binding-in-bacillus-subtilis-during-anaerobic-fermentative-growth-by-in-vivo-footprinting
#1
Onuma Chumsakul, Divya P Anantsri, Tai Quirke, Taku Oshima, Kensuke Nakamura, Shu Ishikawa, Michiko M Nakano
Upon oxygen limitation, the Bacillus subtilis ResE sensor kinase and its cognate ResD response regulator play primary roles in transcriptional activation of genes functioning in anaerobic respiration. The nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive NsrR repressor controls transcription to support nitrate respiration. In addition, the ferric uptake repressor (Fur) can modulate transcription under anaerobic conditions. However, whether these controls are direct or indirect has been investigated only in a gene-specific manner...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432382/two-distinct-periplasmic-enzymes-are-responsible-for-tellurite-tellurate-and-selenite-reduction-by-strain-er-te-48-associated-with-the-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-tube-worms-at-the-juan-de-fuca-ridge-black-smokers
#2
Chris Maltman, Lynda J Donald, Vladimir Yurkov
Strain ER-Te-48 isolated from a deep-ocean hydrothermal vent tube worm is capable of resisting and reducing extremely high levels of tellurite, tellurate, and selenite, which are used for respiration anaerobically. Tellurite and tellurate reduction is accomplished by a periplasmic enzyme of 215 kDa comprised of 3 subunits (74, 42, and 25 kDa) in a 2:1:1 ratio. The optimum pH and temperature for activity is 8.0 and 35 °C, respectively. Tellurite reduction has a V max of 5.6 µmol/min/mg protein and a K m of 3...
April 21, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431199/staphylococcus-aureus-nitric-oxide-synthase-sanos-modulates-aerobic-respiratory-metabolism-and-cell-physiology
#3
Austin B Mogen, Ronan K Carroll, Kimberly L James, Genevy Lima, Dona Silva, Jeffrey A Culver, Christopher Petucci, Lindsey N Shaw, Kelly C Rice
Nitric oxide (NO) is generated from arginine and oxygen via NO synthase (NOS). Staphylococcus aureus NOS (saNOS) has previously been shown to affect virulence and resistance to exogenous oxidative stress, yet the exact mechanism is unknown. Herein, we report a previously-undescribed role of saNOS in S. aureus aerobic physiology. Specifically, aerobic S. aureus nos mutant cultures presented with elevated endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide levels, as well as increased membrane potential, increased respiratory dehydrogenase activity, and slightly elevated oxygen consumption...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428423/fructose-driven-glycolysis-supports-anoxia-resistance-in-the-naked-mole-rat
#4
Thomas J Park, Jane Reznick, Bethany L Peterson, Gregory Blass, Damir Omerbašić, Nigel C Bennett, P Henning J L Kuich, Christin Zasada, Brigitte M Browe, Wiebke Hamann, Daniel T Applegate, Michael H Radke, Tetiana Kosten, Heike Lutermann, Victoria Gavaghan, Ole Eigenbrod, Valérie Bégay, Vince G Amoroso, Vidya Govind, Richard D Minshall, Ewan St J Smith, John Larson, Michael Gotthardt, Stefan Kempa, Gary R Lewin
The African naked mole-rat's (Heterocephalus glaber) social and subterranean lifestyle generates a hypoxic niche. Under experimental conditions, naked mole-rats tolerate hours of extreme hypoxia and survive 18 minutes of total oxygen deprivation (anoxia) without apparent injury. During anoxia, the naked mole-rat switches to anaerobic metabolism fueled by fructose, which is actively accumulated and metabolized to lactate in the brain. Global expression of the GLUT5 fructose transporter and high levels of ketohexokinase were identified as molecular signatures of fructose metabolism...
April 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414739/an-in-silico-pan-genomic-probe-for-the-molecular-traits-behind-lactobacillus-ruminis-gut-autochthony
#5
Ravi Kant, Airi Palva, Ingemar von Ossowski
As an ecological niche, the mammalian intestine provides the ideal habitat for a variety of bacterial microorganisms. Purportedly, some commensal genera and species offer a beneficial mix of metabolic, protective, and structural processes that help sustain the natural digestive health of the host. Among these sort of gut inhabitants is the Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus ruminis, a strict anaerobe with both pili and flagella on its cell surface, but also known for being autochthonous (indigenous) to the intestinal environment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414427/enhancing-extracellular-electron-transfer-of-shewanella-oneidensis-mr-1-through-coupling-improved-flavin-synthesis-and-metal-reducing-conduit-for-pollutant-degradation
#6
Di Min, Lei Cheng, Feng Zhang, Xue-Na Huang, Dao-Bo Li, Dong-Feng Liu, Tai-Chu Lau, Yang Mu, Han-Qing Yu
Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (DMRB) are capable of extracellular electron transfer (EET) to insoluble metal oxides, which are used as external electron acceptors by DMRB for their anaerobic respiration. The EET process has important contribution to environmental remediation mineral cycling, and bioelectrochemical systems. However, the low EET efficiency remains to be one of the major bottlenecks for its practical applications for pollutant degradation. In this work, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model DMRB, was used to examine the feasibility of enhancing the EET and its biodegradation capacity through genetic engineering...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401391/temporal-abundance-and-activity-trends-of-vinyl-chloride-vc-degrading-bacteria-in-a-dilute-vc-plume-at-naval-air-station-oceana
#7
Yi Liang, Laura J Cook, Timothy E Mattes
Assessment and monitoring of microbial community dynamics is useful when tracking the progress of vinyl chloride (VC) bioremediation strategies, particularly in dilute plumes where apparent VC attenuation rates are low. In a long-term field study, the abundance and the activity of microbial VC degraders were tracked in three monitoring wells (MW05, MW25, and MW19) along a dilute VC plume at Naval Air Station (NAS) Oceana. High-throughput sequencing of partial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and transcripts revealed diverse groundwater microbial communities and showed that methanotrophs and anaerobic respirers (e...
April 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396169/the-effect-of-airflow-rates-and-aeration-mode-on-the-respiration-activity-of-four-organic-wastes-implications-on-the-composting-process
#8
Laura Mejias, Dimitrios Komilis, Teresa Gea, Antoni Sánchez
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the airflow and of the aeration mode on the composting process of non-urban organic wastes that are found in large quantities worldwide, namely: (i) a fresh, non-digested, sewage sludge (FSS), (ii) an anaerobically digested sewage sludge (ADSS), (iii) cow manure (CM) and (iv) pig sludge (PS). This assessment was done using respirometric indices. Two aeration modes were tested, namely: (a) a constant air flowrate set at three different initial fixed airflow rates, and (b) an oxygen uptake rate (OUR)-controlled airflow rate...
April 7, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390281/analysis-of-msw-full-scale-facilities-based-on-anaerobic-digestion-and-or-composting-using-respiration-indices-as-performance-indicators
#9
J Colón, S Ponsá, C Álvarez, M Vinot, F J Lafuente, D Gabriel, A Sánchez
The Landfill Directive (1999/31/EC) forces European States to reduce the amount of biodegradable municipal waste landfilled to 35% of 1995 levels. Mechanical-Biological Treatment (MBT) plants are the main alternative to waste incineration and landfilling. In this work, the waste treatment efficiency of six full-scale MBT facilities has been analysed using respiration indices (Dynamic Respiration Index and Cumulative Oxygen Consumption) to monitor plant performance. MBTs relying on anaerobic digestion plus composting achieved a high grade of stability on final compost (0...
March 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389712/implications-from-distinct-sulfate-reducing-bacteria-populations-between-cattle-manure-and-digestate-in-the-elucidation-of-h2s-production-during-anaerobic-digestion-of-animal-slurry
#10
Benoit St-Pierre, André-Denis G Wright
Biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion of animal slurry consists mainly of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), but also includes other minor gases, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Since it can act as a potent corrosive agent and presents a health hazard even at low concentrations, H2S is considered an undesirable by-product of anaerobic digestion. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) have been identified as the main biological source of H2S in a number of natural, biological, and human-made habitats, and thus represent likely candidate microorganisms responsible for the production of H2S in anaerobic manure digesters...
April 7, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386962/comparative-analyses-of-h2-photoproduction-in-magnesium-and-sulfur-starved-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-cultures
#11
Alena A Volgusheva, Martina Jokel, Yagut Allahverdiyeva, Galina P Kukarskikh, Eugeni P Lukashev, Maya D Lambreva, Tatayana E Krendeleva, Taras K Antal
Magnesium (Mg)-deprived Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells are capable to sustain hydrogen (H2 ) photoproduction at relatively high PSII activity levels for an extended time period as compared with sulfur (S)-deprived cells. Herein, we present a comparative study of H2 photoproduction induced by Mg and S shortage to unravel the specific rearrangements of photosynthetic machinery and cell metabolism occurring under the two deprivation protocols. The exhaustive analysis of photosynthetic activity and regulatory pathways, respiration, and starch metabolism revealed the specific rearrangements of photosynthetic machinery and cellular metabolism, which occur under the two deprivation conditions...
April 7, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382331/a-genome-scale-model-of-shewanella-piezotolerans-simulates-mechanisms-of-metabolic-diversity-and-energy-conservation
#12
Keith Dufault-Thompson, Huahua Jian, Ruixue Cheng, Jiefu Li, Fengping Wang, Ying Zhang
Shewanella piezotolerans strain WP3 belongs to the group 1 branch of the Shewanella genus and is a piezotolerant and psychrotolerant species isolated from the deep sea. In this study, a genome-scale model was constructed for WP3 using a combination of genome annotation, ortholog mapping, and physiological verification. The metabolic reconstruction contained 806 genes, 653 metabolites, and 922 reactions, including central metabolic functions that represented nonhomologous replacements between the group 1 and group 2 Shewanella species...
March 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378313/microbial-degradation-of-chloroethenes-a-review
#13
Iva Dolinová, Martina Štrojsová, Miroslav Černík, Jan Němeček, Jiřina Macháčková, Alena Ševců
Contamination by chloroethenes has a severe negative effect on both the environment and human health. This has prompted intensive remediation activity in recent years, along with research into the efficacy of natural microbial communities for degrading toxic chloroethenes into less harmful compounds. Microbial degradation of chloroethenes can take place either through anaerobic organohalide respiration, where chloroethenes serve as electron acceptors; anaerobic and aerobic metabolic degradation, where chloroethenes are used as electron donors; or anaerobic and aerobic co-metabolic degradation, with chloroethene degradation occurring as a by-product during microbial metabolism of other growth substrates, without energy or carbon benefit...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376491/glycobiology-modifications-in-intratumoral-hypoxia-the-breathless-side-of-glycans-interaction
#14
Antônio F Silva-Filho, Wanessa L B Sena, Luiza R A Lima, Lidiane V N Carvalho, Michelly C Pereira, Lucas G S Santos, Renata V C Santos, Lucas B Tavares, Maira G R Pitta, Moacyr J B M Rêgo
Post-translational and co-translational enzymatic addition of glycans (glycosylation) to proteins, lipids, and other carbohydrates, is a powerful regulator of the molecular machinery involved in cell cycle, adhesion, invasion, and signal transduction, and is usually seen in both in vivo and in vitro cancer models. Glycosyltransferases can alter the glycosylation pattern of normal cells, subsequently leading to the establishment and progression of several diseases, including cancer. Furthermore, a growing amount of research has shown that different oxygen tensions, mainly hypoxia, leads to a markedly altered glycosylation, resulting in altered glycan-receptor interactions...
April 3, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373574/mass-spectrometric-identification-of-intermediates-in-the-o2-driven-4fe-4s-to-2fe-2s-cluster-conversion-in-fnr
#15
Jason C Crack, Andrew J Thomson, Nick E Le Brun
The iron-sulfur cluster containing protein Fumarate and Nitrate Reduction (FNR) is the master regulator for the switch between anaerobic and aerobic respiration in Escherichia coli and many other bacteria. The [4Fe-4S] cluster functions as the sensory module, undergoing reaction with O2 that leads to conversion to a [2Fe-2S] form with loss of high-affinity DNA binding. Here, we report studies of the FNR cluster conversion reaction using time-resolved electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The data provide insight into the reaction, permitting the detection of cluster conversion intermediates and products, including a [3Fe-3S] cluster and persulfide-coordinated [2Fe-2S] clusters [[2Fe-2S](S) n , where n = 1 or 2]...
April 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372543/giardia-intestinalis-mitosomes-undergo-synchronized-fission-but-not-fusion-and-are-constitutively-associated-with-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#16
Luboš Voleman, Vladimíra Najdrová, Ásgeir Ástvaldsson, Pavla Tůmová, Elin Einarsson, Zdeněk Švindrych, Guy M Hagen, Jan Tachezy, Staffan G Svärd, Pavel Doležal
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria of opisthokonts undergo permanent fission and fusion throughout the cell cycle. Here, we investigated the dynamics of the mitosomes, the simplest forms of mitochondria, in the anaerobic protist parasite Giardia intestinalis, a member of the Excavata supergroup of eukaryotes. The mitosomes have abandoned typical mitochondrial traits such as the mitochondrial genome and aerobic respiration and their single role known to date is the formation of iron-sulfur clusters...
April 3, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368386/a-mechanism-for-water-splitting-and-oxygen-production-in-photosynthesis
#17
James Barber
Sunlight is absorbed and converted to chemical energy by photosynthetic organisms. At the heart of this process is the most fundamental reaction on Earth, the light-driven splitting of water into its elemental constituents. In this way molecular oxygen is released, maintaining an aerobic atmosphere and creating the ozone layer. The hydrogen that is released is used to convert carbon dioxide into the organic molecules that constitute life and were the origin of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these organic molecules, either by respiration or combustion, leads to the recombination of the stored hydrogen with oxygen, releasing energy and reforming water...
April 3, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366172/the-effects-of-phosphanegold-i-thiolates-on-the-biological-properties-of-acanthamoeba-castellanii-belonging-to-the-t4-genotype
#18
Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Farhat Abjani, Chien Ing Yeo, Edward R T Tiekink, Naveed Ahmed Khan
BACKGROUND: Gold compounds have shown promise in the treatment of non-communicable diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer, and are considered of value as anti-microbial agents against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and have anti-parasitic properties against Schistosoma mansoni, Trypanosoma brucei, Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania infantinum, Giardia lamblia, and Entamoeba histolytica. They are known to affect enzymatic activities that are required for the cellular respiration processes...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Negative Results in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353340/cysteine-addition-promotes-sulfide-production-and-4-fold-hg-ii-s-coordination-in-actively-metabolizing-escherichia-coli
#19
Sara A Thomas, Jean-François Gaillard
The bacterial uptake of mercury(II), Hg(II), is believed to be energy-dependent and is enhanced by cysteine in diverse species of bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. To gain insight into this Hg(II) biouptake pathway, we have employed X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to investigate the relationship between exogenous cysteine, cellular metabolism, cellular localization, and Hg(II) coordination in aerobically respiring Escherichia coli (E. coli). We show that cells harvested in exponential growth phase consistently display mixtures of 2-fold and 4-fold Hg(II) coordination to sulfur (Hg-S2 and Hg-S4), with added cysteine enhancing Hg-S4 formation...
April 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340452/a-study-of-photosynthetic-biogas-upgrading-based-on-a-high-rate-algal-pond-under-alkaline-conditions-influence-of-the-illumination-regime
#20
Mariana Franco-Morgado, Cynthia Alcántara, Adalberto Noyola, Raúl Muñoz, Armando González-Sánchez
Microalgal-bacterial processes have emerged as environmental friendly systems for the cost-effective treatment of anaerobic effluents such as biogas and nutrients-laden digestates. Environmental parameters such as temperature, irradiation, nutrient concentration and pH effect the performance of the systems. In this paper, the potential of a microalgal-bacterial photobioreactor operated under high pH (≈9.5) and high alkalinity to convert biogas into biomethane was evaluated. The influence of the illumination regime (continuous light supply vs 12h/12h light/dark cycles) on the synthetic biogas upgrading efficiency, biomass productivity and nutrient removal efficiency was assessed in a High-Rate Algal Pond interconnected to a biogas absorption bubble column...
March 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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