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Anaerobic respiration

Alexander Andreyev, Pratistha Tamrakar, Robert E Rosenthal, Gary Fiskum
At abnormally elevated levels of intracellular Ca(2+), mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake may compromise mitochondrial electron transport activities and trigger membrane permeability changes that allow for release of cytochrome c and other mitochondrial apoptotic proteins into the cytosol. In this study, a clinically relevant canine cardiac arrest model was used to assess the effects of global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion on mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake capacity, Ca(2+) uptake-mediated inhibition of respiration, and Ca(2+)-induced cytochrome c release, as measured in vitro in a K(+)-based medium in the presence of Mg(2+), ATP, and NADH-linked oxidizable substrates...
October 14, 2017: Neurochemistry International
Thomas Kruse, Tobias Goris, Julien Maillard, Tanja Woyke, Ute Lechner, Willem de Vos, Hauke Smidt
The Desulfitobacterium genus comprises anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria, of which the majority are facultative organohalide-respirers. We here present the genomes of eight strains of Desulfitobacterium spp., including five strains of D. hafniense, one strain each from D. dichloroeliminans and D. metallireducens, and one strain that had not been assigned to any species prior to this study. The newly sequenced genomes were compared with four previously published desulfitobacterial genomes. The average genome sizes are 5...
October 11, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Nicolas Carels, Marcial Gumiel, Fabio Faria da Mota, Carlos José de Carvalho Moreira, Patricia Azambuja
The digestive tract of triatomines (DTT) is an ecological niche favored by microbiota whose enzymatic profile is adapted to the specific substrate availability in this medium. This report describes the molecular enzymatic properties that promote bacterial prominence in the DTT. The microbiota composition was assessed previously based on 16S ribosomal DNA, and whole sequenced genomes of bacteria from the same genera were used to calculate the GC level of rare and prominent bacterial species in the DTT. The enzymatic reactions encoded by coding sequences of both rare and common bacterial species were then compared and revealed key functions explaining why some genera outcompete others in the DTT...
2017: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
Joost M Lambooij, Michel A Hoogenkamp, Bernd W Brandt, Marleen M Janus, Bastiaan P Krom
Fungi are commonly encountered as part of a healthy oral ecosystem. Candida albicans is the most often observed and investigated fungal species in the oral cavity. The role of fungi in the oral ecosystem has remained enigmatic for decades. Recently, it was shown that C. albicans, in vitro, influences the bacterial composition of young oral biofilms, indicating it possibly plays a role in increasing diversity in the oral ecosystem. C. albicans favored growth of strictly anaerobic species under aerobic culture conditions...
October 5, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Tongchu Deng, Xingjuan Chen, Qin Zhang, Yuming Zhong, Jun Guo, Guoping Sun, Meiying Xu
Two facultative chemolithotrophic, nitrate-reducing thiosulfate-oxidizing strains, F43b(T) and F21, were isolated from the sulfide-rich anoxic sediment of an urban creek in Pearl River Delta, China. Both strains were Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped with a flagellum. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA genes and the thrC, recA, glnII and atpD housekeeping genes revealed that the type strain shared high sequence similarities to Ciceribacter lividus MSSRFBL1(T), with 98.8, 90...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Allison R Eberly, Kyle A Floyd, Connor J Beebout, Spencer J Colling, Madison J Fitzgerald, Charles W Stratton, Jonathan E Schmitz, Maria Hadjifrangiskou
One of the most common urologic problems afflicting millions of people worldwide is urinary tract infection (UTI). The severity of UTIs ranges from asymptomatic bacteriuria to acute cystitis, and in severe cases, pyelonephritis and urosepsis. The primary cause of UTIs is uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), for which current antibiotic therapies often fail. UPEC forms multicellular communities known as biofilms on urinary catheters, as well as on and within bladder epithelial cells. Biofilm formation protects UPEC from environmental conditions, antimicrobial therapy, and the host immune system...
September 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Gao Chen, Sara Kleindienst, Daniel R Griffiths, E Erin Mack, Edward S Seger, Frank E Löffler
The microbial mixed culture RM grows with dichloromethane (DCM) as the sole energy source generating acetate, methane, chloride and biomass as products. Chloromethane (CM) was not an intermediate during DCM utilization consistent with the observation that CM could not replace DCM as a growth substrate. Interestingly, cultures that received DCM and CM together degraded both compounds concomitantly. Transient hydrogen (H2 ) formation reaching a maximum concentration of 205 ± 13 ppmv was observed in cultures growing with DCM, and the addition of exogenous H2 at concentrations exceeding 3000 ppmv impeded DCM degradation...
October 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Yajuan Shi, Xiangbo Xu, Juan Chen, Ruoyu Liang, Xiaoqi Zheng, Yajing Shi, Yurong Wang
Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), a ubiquitous suspected contaminant, is one of the world's most prominent brominated flame retardants (BFRs). In the present study, earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were exposed to HBCD. The expression of selected antioxidant enzyme genes was measured, and the metabolic responses were assessed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to identify the molecular mechanism of the antioxidant stress reaction and the metabolic reactions of earthworms to HBCD. A significant up-regulation (p < 0...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Elizabeth G Wilbanks, Verena Salman-Carvalho, Ulrike Jaekel, Parris T Humphrey, Jonathan A Eisen, Daniel H Buckley, Stephen H Zinder
Microbial interactions driving key biogeochemical fluxes often occur within multispecies consortia that form spatially heterogeneous microenvironments. Here, we describe the "green berry" consortia of the Sippewissett salt marsh (Falmouth, MA, United States): millimeter-sized aggregates dominated by an uncultured, diazotrophic unicellular cyanobacterium of the order Chroococcales (termed GB-CYN1). We show that GB-CYN1 is closely related to Crocosphaera watsonii (UCYN-B) and "Candidatus Atelocyanobacterium thalassa" (UCYN-A), two groups of unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria that play an important role in marine primary production...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Qihong Lu, Ling Yu, Zhiwei Liang, Qingyun Yan, Zhili He, Tiangang Luan, Dawei Liang, Shanquan Wang
The massive production and improper disposal of organohalides resulted in worldwide contamination in soil and water. However, their environmental survey based on chromatographic methods was hindered by challenges in testing the extremely wide variety of organohalides. Dehalococcoides as obligate organohalide-respiring bacteria exclusively use organohalides as electron acceptors to support their growth, of which the presence could be coupled with organohalides and, therefore, could be employed as a biomarker of the organohalide pollution...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Elena Ferrari, Mathias C Walter, Christopher Huptas, Siegfried Scherer, Stefanie Müller-Herbst
The aim of this study was to analyze the adaptation of the environmental Listeria weihenstephanensis DSM 24698 to anaerobiosis. The complete circular genome sequence of this species is reported and the adaptation of L. weihenstephanensis DSM 24698 to oxygen availability was investigated by global transcriptional analyses via RNAseq at 18 and 34°C. A list of operons was created based on the transcriptional data. Forty-two genes were upregulated anaerobically and 62 genes were downregulated anaerobically. The oxygen dependent gene expression of selected genes was further validated via qPCR...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Martinus J A Daas, Bastienne Vriesendorp, Antonius H P van de Weijer, John van der Oost, Richard van Kranenburg
In attempt to obtain a thermophilic host for the conversion of lignocellulose derived substrates into lactic acid, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans T12 was isolated from a compost heap. It was selected from over 500 isolates as a genetically tractable hemicellulolytic lactic acid producer, requiring little nutrients. The strain is able to ferment glucose and xylose simultaneously and can produce lactic acid from xylan, making it a potential host for biotechnological applications. The genome of strain T12 consists of a 3...
September 12, 2017: Current Microbiology
Hang Zhu, Hao Xue, Qin-Hua Jin, Jun Guo, Yun-Dai Chen
Dysfunction of cardiac cells under hypoxia has been identified as an essential event leading to myocytes functional failure. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are importantly regulatory small-noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression through the direct binding of 3'UTR region of their target mRNAs (12). Recent studies have demonstrated that miRNAs are aberrantly expressed in the cardiovascular system under pathological conditions (13-17). Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 1 (PDK1) is a kinase which phosphorylates Pyruvate Dehydrogenase to inactivate it, leading to elevated anaerobic glycolysis and decreased cellular respiration...
September 12, 2017: Bioscience Reports
Sharon E Bone, Melanie R Cahill, Morris E Jones, Scott Fendorf, James Davis, Kenneth H Williams, John R Bargar
Uranium (U) contamination occurs as a result of mining and ore processing; often in alluvial aquifers that contain organic-rich, reduced sediments that accumulate tetravalent U, U(IV). Uranium(IV) is sparingly soluble, but may be mobilized upon exposure to nitrate (NO3(-)) and oxygen (O2), which become elevated in groundwater due to seasonal fluctuations in the water table. The extent to which oxidative U mobilization can occur depends upon the transport properties of the sediments, the rate of U(IV) oxidation, and the availability of inorganic reductants and organic electron donors that consume oxidants...
September 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Matthew J Reichlen, Rachel L Leistikow, Micah S Scobey, Sarah E M Born, Martin I Voskuil
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a strict aerobe capable of prolonged survival in the absence of oxygen. We investigated the ability of anaerobic Mtb to counter challenges to internal pH homeostasis in the absence of aerobic respiration, the primary mechanism of proton efflux for aerobic bacilli. Anaerobic Mtb populations were markedly impaired for survival under a mildly acidic pH relative to standard culture conditions. Acidic environmental pH greatly increased the susceptibility of anaerobic bacilli to collapse of proton motive force by protonophores, to antimicrobial compounds that target entry into the electron transport system, and to small organic acids with uncoupling activity...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
José Manuel Borrero-de Acuña, Kenneth N Timmis, Martina Jahn, Dieter Jahn
The most efficient means of generating cellular energy is through aerobic respiration. Under anaerobic conditions, several prokaryotes can replace oxygen by nitrate as final electron acceptor. During denitrification, nitrate is reduced via nitrite, NO and N2 O to molecular nitrogen (N2 ) by four membrane-localized reductases with the simultaneous formation of an ion gradient for ATP synthesis. These four multisubunit enzyme complexes are coupled in four electron transport chains to electron donating primary dehydrogenases and intermediate electron transfer proteins...
August 31, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Audrey Campeau, Marcus B Wallin, Reiner Giesler, Stefan Löfgren, Carl-Magnus Mörth, Sherry Schiff, Jason J Venkiteswaran, Kevin Bishop
It is well established that stream dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) fluxes play a central role in the global C cycle, yet the sources of stream DIC remain to a large extent unresolved. Here, we explore large-scale patterns in δ(13)C-DIC from streams across Sweden to separate and further quantify the sources and sinks of stream DIC. We found that stream DIC is governed by a variety of sources and sinks including biogenic and geogenic sources, CO2 evasion, as well as in-stream processes. Although soil respiration was the main source of DIC across all streams, a geogenic DIC influence was identified in the northernmost region...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Zhanfei He, Qingying Zhang, Yudong Feng, Hongwei Luo, Xiangliang Pan, Geoffrey Michael Gadd
Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) can be coupled to the reduction of sulfate, nitrate and nitrite, which effectively reduces methane emission into the atmosphere. Recently, metal-dependent AOM (metal-AOM, AOM coupled to metal reduction) was demonstrated to occur in both environmental samples and enrichment cultures. Anaerobic methanotrophs are capable of respiration using Fe(III) or Mn(IV), whether they are in the form of soluble metal species or insoluble minerals. Given the wide distribution of Fe(III)/Mn(IV)-bearing minerals in aquatic methane-rich environments, metal-AOM is considered to be globally important, although it has generally been overlooked in previous studies...
January 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sean P Gilmore, John K Henske, Jessica A Sexton, Kevin V Solomon, Susanna Seppälä, Justin I Yoo, Lauren M Huyett, Abe Pressman, James Z Cogan, Veronika Kivenson, Xuefeng Peng, YerPeng Tan, David L Valentine, Michelle A O'Malley
BACKGROUND: The metabolism of archaeal methanogens drives methane release into the environment and is critical to understanding global carbon cycling. Methanogenesis operates at a very low reducing potential compared to other forms of respiration and is therefore critical to many anaerobic environments. Harnessing or altering methanogen metabolism has the potential to mitigate global warming and even be utilized for energy applications. RESULTS: Here, we report draft genome sequences for the isolated methanogens Methanobacterium bryantii, Methanosarcina spelaei, Methanosphaera cuniculi, and Methanocorpusculum parvum...
August 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
Kai Zhou, Paige Fleet, Eviatar Nevo, Xinquan Zhang, Genlou Sun
Colchicine was commonly used to artificially double chromosomes while the transcriptome changes in colchicine treated plants has rarely been characterized. To understand the molecular mechanism of colchicine on chromosome doubling, we characterized transcriptome data of diploid orchardgrass root after colchicine treatment. Our results showed that 3381 of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were mainly affected by water stress, 1258 DEGs that were expressed significantly in sample DacR5tr but not in DacR5ck were considered to be mainly affected by colchicine and combination of water and colchicine...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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