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Anaerobic respiration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819246/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-plant-response-to-colchicine-treatment-during-on-chromosome-doubling
#1
Kai Zhou, Paige Fleet, Eviatar Nevo, Xinquan Zhang, Genlou Sun
Colchicine was commonly used to artificially double chromosomes while the transcriptome changes in colchicine treated plants has rarely been characterized. To understand the molecular mechanism of colchicine on chromosome doubling, we characterized transcriptome data of diploid orchardgrass root after colchicine treatment. Our results showed that 3381 of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were mainly affected by water stress, 1258 DEGs that were expressed significantly in sample DacR5tr but not in DacR5ck were considered to be mainly affected by colchicine and combination of water and colchicine...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805260/determination-of-carbon-isotope-enrichment-factors-of-cis-dce-after-precursor-amendment
#2
Simon Leitner, Thomas G Reichenauer, Andrea Watzinger
RATIONALE: Bacterial reductive dechlorination of the groundwater contaminant tetrachloroethene (PCE) involves the formation of lower chlorinated metabolites. Metabolites can be instantaneously formed and consumed in this sequential process; quantification and validation of their isotopic effects conventionally rely on separate laboratory microcosm studies. Here, we present an evaluation method enabling the determination of the carbon isotope enrichment factor (ε) for the intermediate cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) by a single laboratory microcosm study initially amending the precursor PCE only...
August 14, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800567/a-comparative-evaluation-of-anaerobic-dechlorination-of-pcb-118-and-aroclor-1254-in-sediment-microcosms-from-three-pcb-impacted-environments
#3
Devrim Kaya, Ipek Imamoglu, F Dilek Sanin, Kevin R Sowers
Aroclor 1254 (A1254) is the most toxic commercial PCB mixture produced, primarily due to its relatively high concentrations of dioxin-like congeners. This study demonstrates a comparative evaluation of dechlorination of A1254 and PCB-118 by indigenous organohalide respiring bacteria enriched from three PCB impacted sites: Grasse River (GR), NY; Fox River (FR), WI; and Baltimore Harbor (BH), MD. PCB-118 dechlorination rates in GR, BH, and FR was 0.0308, 0.015, and 0.0006 Cl(-)/biphenyl/day, respectively. A1254 dechlorination rates in GR, FR, and BH were 0...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783509/dysbiotic-proteobacteria-expansion-a-microbial-signature-of-epithelial-dysfunction
#4
REVIEW
Yael Litvak, Mariana X Byndloss, Renée M Tsolis, Andreas J Bäumler
A balanced gut microbiota is important for health, but the mechanisms maintaining homeostasis are incompletely understood. Anaerobiosis of the healthy colon drives the composition of the gut microbiota towards a dominance of obligate anaerobes, while dysbiosis is often associated with a sustained increase in the abundance of facultative anaerobic Proteobacteria, indicative of a disruption in anaerobiosis. The colonic epithelium is hypoxic, but intestinal inflammation or antibiotic treatment increases epithelial oxygenation in the colon, thereby disrupting anaerobiosis to drive a dysbiotic expansion of facultative anaerobic Proteobacteria through aerobic respiration...
August 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777963/biochar-accelerates-microbial-reductive-debromination-of-2-2-4-4-tetrabromodiphenyl-ether-bde-47-in-anaerobic-mangrove-sediments
#5
Juan Chen, Chao Wang, Ying Pan, Shazia Shyla Farzana, Nora Fung-Yee Tam
A common congener of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), is a prevalent, persistent and toxic pollutant. It could be removed by reduction debromination by microorganisms but the rate is often slow. The study hypothesized that spent mushroom substrate derived biochar amendment could accelerate the microbial reductive debromination of BDE-47 in anaerobic mangrove sediment slurries and evaluated the mechanisms behind. At the end of 20-week experiment, percentages of residual BDE-47 in slurries amended with biochar were significantly lower but debromination products were higher than those without biochar...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777815/biochemical-adaptations-of-four-submerged-macrophytes-under-combined-exposure-to-hypoxia-and-hydrogen-sulphide
#6
Mahfuza Parveen, Takashi Asaeda, Md H Rashid
A hydroponic experiment was performed to investigate the stress responses and biochemical adaptations of four submerged macrophytes, Potamogeton crispus, Myriophyllum spicatum, Egeria densa, and Potamogeton oxyphyllus, to the combined exposure of hypoxia and hydrogen sulfide (H2S, provided by NaHS). The investigated plants were subjected to a control, hypoxia, 0.1mM NaHS, 0.5 mM NaHS, 0.1 mM NaHS+hypoxia and 0.5 mM NaHS+hypoxia conditions. All experimental plants grew optimally under control, hypoxic and NaHS conditions in comparison to that grown in the combined exposure of hypoxia and hydrogen sulfide...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766244/sulfur-cycling-and-the-intestinal-microbiome
#7
REVIEW
Larry L Barton, Nathaniel L Ritz, Guy D Fauque, Henry C Lin
In this review, we focus on the activities transpiring in the anaerobic segment of the sulfur cycle occurring in the gut environment where hydrogen sulfide is produced. While sulfate-reducing bacteria are considered as the principal agents for hydrogen sulfide production, the enzymatic desulfhydration of cysteine by heterotrophic bacteria also contributes to production of hydrogen sulfide. For sulfate-reducing bacteria respiration, molecular hydrogen and lactate are suitable as electron donors while sulfate functions as the terminal electron acceptor...
August 1, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765215/methane-fueled-syntrophy-through-extracellular-electron-transfer-uncovering-the-genomic-traits-conserved-within-diverse-bacterial-partners-of-anaerobic-methanotrophic-archaea
#8
Connor T Skennerton, Karuna Chourey, Ramsunder Iyer, Robert L Hettich, Gene W Tyson, Victoria J Orphan
The anaerobic oxidation of methane by anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME) archaea in syntrophic partnership with deltaproteobacterial sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is the primary mechanism for methane removal in ocean sediments. The mechanism of their syntrophy has been the subject of much research as traditional intermediate compounds, such as hydrogen and formate, failed to decouple the partners. Recent findings have indicated the potential for extracellular electron transfer from ANME archaea to SRB, though it is unclear how extracellular electrons are integrated into the metabolism of the SRB partner...
August 1, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752088/electron-transfer-between-electrically-conductive-minerals-and-quinones
#9
Olga Taran
Long-distance electron transfer in marine environments couples physically separated redox half-reactions, impacting biogeochemical cycles of iron, sulfur and carbon. Bacterial bio-electrochemical systems that facilitate electron transfer via conductive filaments or across man-made electrodes are well-known, but the impact of abiotic currents across naturally occurring conductive and semiconductive minerals is poorly understood. In this paper I use cyclic voltammetry to explore electron transfer between electrodes made of common iron minerals (magnetite, hematite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, mackinawite, and greigite), and hydroquinones-a class of organic molecules found in carbon-rich sediments...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746792/rate-of-warming-affects-temperature-sensitivity-of-anaerobic-peat-decomposition-and-greenhouse-gas-production
#10
Debjani Sihi, Patrick W Inglett, Stefan Gerber, Kanika Sharma Inglett
Temperature sensitivity of anaerobic carbon mineralization in wetlands remains poorly represented in most climate models and is especially unconstrained for warmer subtropical and tropical systems which account for a large proportion of global methane emissions. Several studies of experimental warming have documented thermal acclimation of soil respiration involving adjustments in microbial physiology or carbon use efficiency (CUE), with an initial decline in CUE with warming followed by a partial recovery in CUE at a later stage...
July 26, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738779/anion-selective-formate-nitrite-transporters-taxonomic-distribution-phylogenetic-analysis-and-subfamily-specific-conservation-pattern-in-prokaryotes
#11
Mishtu Mukherjee, Manu Vajpai, Ramasubbu Sankararamakrishnan
BACKGROUND: The monovalent anions formate, nitrite and hydrosulphide are main metabolites of bacterial respiration during anaerobic mixed-acid fermentation. When accumulated in the cytoplasm, these anions become cytotoxic. Membrane proteins that selectively transport these monovalent anions across the membrane have been identified and they belong to the family of Formate/Nitrite Transporters (FNTs). Individual members that selectively transport formate, nitrite and hydrosulphide have been investigated...
July 24, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735650/prognostic-utility-of-neuroinjury-biomarkers-in-post-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-ohca-patient-management
#12
S S Gul, K W Huesgen, K K Wang, K Mark, J A Tyndall
Despite aggressive intervention, patients who survive an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) generally have very poor prognoses, with nationwide survival rates of approximately 10-20%. Approximately 90% of survivors will have moderate to severe neurological injury ranging from moderate cognitive impairment to brain death. Currently, few early prognostic indicators are considered reliable enough to support patients' families and clinicians' in their decisions regarding medical futility. Blood biomarkers of neurological injury after OHCA may be of prognostic value in these cases...
August 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731532/formate-and-nitrate-utilization-in-enterobacter-aerogenes-for-semi-anaerobic-production-of-isobutanol
#13
Hwi-Min Jung, Yong Hwan Kim, Min-Kyu Oh
Anaerobic bioprocessing is preferred because of its economic advantages. However, low productivity and decreased growth of the host strain have limited the use of the anaerobic process. Anaerobic respiration can be applied to anoxic processing using formate and nitrate metabolism to improve the productivity of value-added metabolites. We constructed isobutanol-producing strains using Enterobacter aerogenes as a host strain by metabolic engineering approaches. The byproduct pathway (ldhA, budA, and pflB) was knocked out, and heterologous keto-acid decarboxylase (kivD) and alcohol dehydrogenase (adhA) were expressed along with the L-valine synthesis pathway (ilvCD and budB)...
July 21, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729646/climate-oscillations-reflected-within-the-microbiome-of-arabian-sea-sediments
#14
William D Orsi, Marco J L Coolen, Cornelia Wuchter, Lijun He, Kuldeep D More, Xabier Irigoien, Guillem Chust, Carl Johnson, Jordon D Hemingway, Mitchell Lee, Valier Galy, Liviu Giosan
Selection of microorganisms in marine sediment is shaped by energy-yielding electron acceptors for respiration that are depleted in vertical succession. However, some taxa have been reported to reflect past depositional conditions suggesting they have experienced weak selection after burial. In sediments underlying the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), we performed the first metagenomic profiling of sedimentary DNA at centennial-scale resolution in the context of a multi-proxy paleoclimate reconstruction...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708460/tolerance-to-hypercarbia-is-repeatable-and-related-to-a-component-of-the-metabolic-phenotype-in-a-freshwater-fish
#15
Caleb T Hasler, Ian A Bouyoucos, Cory D Suski
Freshwater fish may be exposed to high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) because of several actions, including anesthesia and high levels of aquatic respiration and potentially as the result of using high-CO2 plumes as a barrier to the movements of invasive fishes. Metabolic phenotype can potentially drive how freshwater fish respond to high CO2. We therefore quantified how tolerance (measured using time to equilibrium loss [ELT]) was driven by metabolic phenotype in a cosmopolitan freshwater fish species, Micropterus salmoides...
September 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698673/a-quinolinol-based-small-molecule-with-anti-mrsa-activity-that-targets-bacterial-membrane-and-promotes-fermentative-metabolism
#16
Dhanalakshmi R Nair, Ji Chen, João M Monteiro, Michaele Josten, Mariana G Pinho, Hans-Georg Sahl, Jimmy Wu, Ambrose Cheung
In a loss-of-viability screen of small molecules against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) USA300, we found a small molecule, designated DNAC-2, which has an MIC of 8 μg ml(-1). DNAC-2 is a quinolinol derivative that is bactericidal at 2X MIC. Macromolecular synthesis assays at 2 × MIC of DNAC-2 revealed inhibition of DNA, cell wall, RNA and protein synthesis within fifteen to thirty minutes of treatment when compared to the untreated control. Transmission electron microscopy of DNAC-2-treated cells revealed a significantly thicker cell wall and impaired daughter cell separation...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689303/direct-calorimetry-a-brief-historical-review-of-its-use-in-the-study-of-human-metabolism-and-thermoregulation
#17
REVIEW
Glen P Kenny, Sean R Notley, Daniel Gagnon
Direct calorimetry is the gold standard means of measuring human metabolic rate and its use has been fundamental for understanding metabolism in health and disease. While metabolic rate is now more commonly estimated indirectly from measures of the oxygen consumed during respiration, direct calorimetry provides the user with the unique capacity to quantify the heat produced from aerobic and anaerobic metabolism by measuring heat exchange between the body and the environment. This review provides a brief historical overview of the fundamental concepts which underlie direct calorimetry, of pioneer scientists which developed these concepts into functional pieces of equipment and the subsequent use of direct calorimetry to advance our understanding of energy balance, nutrition, and the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases...
July 8, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688222/assembly-pathway-of-a-bacterial-complex-iron-sulfur-molybdoenzyme
#18
REVIEW
Stephana J Cherak, Raymond J Turner
Protein folding and assembly into macromolecule complexes within the living cell are complex processes requiring intimate coordination. The biogenesis of complex iron sulfur molybdoenzymes (CISM) requires use of a system specific chaperone - a redox enzyme maturation protein (REMP) - to help mediate final folding and assembly. The CISM dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase is a bacterial oxidoreductase that utilizes DMSO as a final electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration. The REMP DmsD strongly interacts with DMSO reductase to facilitate folding, cofactor-insertion, subunit assembly and targeting of the multi-subunit enzyme prior to membrane translocation and final assembly and maturation into a bioenergetic catalytic unit...
July 8, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674596/effects-of-nasal-or-oral-breathing-on-anaerobic-power-output-and-metabolic-responses
#19
Christine Recinto, Theodore Efthemeou, P Tony Boffelli, James W Navalta
Nasal and oral exclusive breathing modes have benefits and drawbacks during submaximal exercise. It is unknown whether these responses would extend to anaerobic work performed at high intensity. Nine individuals (males N = 7, females N = 2) performed a standard Wingate Anaerobic cycle test on a cycle ergometer under nose (N) and mouth (M) only respiratory conditions, performed in a counterbalanced order. A 2 (condition: nose, mouth) × 6 (time: 0-5 sec, 5-10 sec, 10-15 sec, 15-20 sec, 20-25 sec, 25-30 sec) repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the data with significance accepted at the p<0...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668633/distinct-and-diverse-anaerobic-respiration-of-methanogenic-community-in-response-to-mno2-nanoparticles-in-anaerobic-digester-sludge
#20
Tian Tian, Sen Qiao, Cong Yu, Yihui Tian, Yue Yang, Jiti Zhou
Recently, the influence of metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) on methanogenesis in anaerobic digestion has drawn much attention, however, the changes in NPs and functioning consortia within the methanogenic community are usually not investigated. Therefore, the methanogenesis performance, NPs transformation and methanogenic community development in anaerobic digester sludge under MnO2 NP supplementation were demonstrated in this study. MnO2 NPs (400 mg/gVSS) stimulated the methane (CH4) yield by 42% for a final CH4 proportion of 81...
June 23, 2017: Water Research
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