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Dechlorination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675820/pentachlorophenol-dechlorination-with-zero-valent-iron-a-raman-and-gcms-study-of-the-complex-role-of-surficial-iron-oxides
#1
Buddhika Gunawardana, Peter J Swedlund, Naresh Singhal, Michel K Nieuwoudt
The dechlorination of chlorinated organic pollutants by zero valent iron (ZVI) is an important water treatment process with a complex dependence on many variables. This complexity means that there are reported inconsistencies in terms of dechlorination with ZVI and the effect of ZVI acid treatment, which are significant and are as yet unexplained. This study aims to decipher some of this complexity by combining Raman spectroscopy with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to investigate the influence of the mineralogy of the iron oxide phases on the surface of ZVI on the reductive dechlorination of pentachlorophenol (PCP)...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669210/sodium-hydroxide-production-from-seawater-desalination-brine-process-design-and-energy-efficiency
#2
Fengmin Du, David Warsinger, Tamanna Urmi, Gregory P Thiel, Amit Kumar, John H Lienhard
The ability to increase pH is a crucial need for desalination pretreatment (especially in reverse osmosis) and for other industries, but processes used to raise pH often incur significant emissions and non-renewable resource use. Alternatively, waste brine from desalination can be used to create sodium hydroxide, via appropriate concentration and purification pretreatment steps, for input into the chlor-alkali process. In this work, an efficient process train (with variations) is developed and modeled for sodium hydroxide production from seawater desalination brine using membrane chlor-alkali electrolysis...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659266/dechlorinated-analogues-of-dechlorane-plus
#3
Allison L Brazeau, Miren Pena Abaurrea, Li Shen, Nicole Riddell, Eric J Reiner, Alan J Lough, Robert McCrindle, Brock Chittim
Degradation products of the chlorinated additive flame retardant Dechlorane Plus (DP) have been discovered globally. However, the identity of many of these species remains unknown due to a lack of available analytical standards, hindering the ability to quantitatively measure the amounts of these compounds in the environment. In the present study, synthetic routes to possible dechlorinated DP derivatives were investigated in an effort to identify the environmentally significant degradation products. The methano-bridge chlorines of anti- and syn-DP were selectively replaced by hydrogen atoms to give six new hydrodechlorinated DP analogues...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656226/stable-carbon-isotope-fractionation-of-chlorinated-ethenes-by-a-microbial-consortium-containing-multiple-dechlorinating-genes
#4
Na Liu, Longzhen Ding, Haijun Li, Pengpeng Zhang, Jixing Zheng, Chih-Huang Weng
The study aimed to determine the possible contribution of specific growth conditions and community structures to variable carbon enrichment factors (Ɛ-carbon ) values for the degradation of chlorinated ethenes (CEs) by a bacterial consortium with multiple dechlorinating genes. Ɛ-carbon values for trichloroethylene, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride were -7.24% ± 0.59%, -14.6% ± 1.71%, and -21.1% ± 1.14%, respectively, during their degradation by a microbial consortium containing multiple dechlorinating genes including tceA and vcrA...
April 7, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656158/toxicogenetic-study-of-omeprazole-and-the-modulatory-effects-of-retinol-palmitate-and-ascorbic-acid-on-allium-cepa
#5
Antonio Lima Braga, Ag-Anne Pereira Melo de Meneses, José Victor de Oliveira Santos, Antonielly Campinho Dos Reis, Rosália Maria Tôrres de Lima, Ana Maria Oliveira Ferreira da Mata, Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim Paz, Leane Brunelle Dos Santos Alves, Subrata Shaw, Shaikh Jamal Uddin, Razina Rouf, Asish Kumar Das, Shrabanti Dev, Manik Chandra Shil, Jamil A Shilpi, Ishaq N Khan, Muhammad Torequl Islam, Eunüs S Ali, Mohammad S Mubarak, Siddhartha Kumar Mishra, João Marcelo de Castro E Sousa, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante
Omeprazole (OME) is a proton pump inhibitor used for the treatment of various gastric and intestinal disease; however, studies on its effects on the genetic materials are still restricted. The present study aimed to evaluate possible toxicogenic effects of OME in Allium cepa meristems with the application of cytogenetic biomarkers for DNA damage, mutagenic, toxic and cytotoxic effects. Additionally, retinol palmitate (RP) and ascorbic acid (AA) were also co-treated with OME to evaluate possible modulatory effects of OME-induced cytogenetic damages...
April 5, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643842/inhibitory-effects-of-sulfate-and-nitrate-reduction-on-reductive-dechlorination-of-pcp-in-a-flooded-paddy-soil
#6
Yan Xu, Lili Xue, Qi Ye, Ashley E Franks, Min Zhu, Xi Feng, Jianming Xu, Yan He
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is highly toxic and persistent in soils. Bioreduction of PCP often co-occurs with varying concentrations of sulfate and nitrate in flooded paddy soils where each can act as an electron acceptor. Anaerobic soil microcosms were constructed to evaluate the influence of sulfate and nitrate amendments and their redox processes. Microcosms with varying sulfate and nitrate concentrations demonstrated an inhibitory effect on reductive dechlorination of PCP compared to an untreated control. Compared to nitrate, sulfate exhibited a more significant impact on PCP dechlorination, as evidenced by a lower maximum reaction rate and a longer time to reach the maximum reaction rate...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627643/contribution-of-alcohol-radicals-to-contaminant-degradation-in-quenching-studies-of-persulfate-activation-process
#7
Changyin Zhu, Fengxiao Zhu, Dionysios D Dionysiou, Dongmei Zhou, Guodong Fang, Juan Gao
Alcohols such as ethanol (EtOH) and tert-butanol (TBA) are frequently used as quenching agents to identify the primary radical species in the persulfate (PS)-based oxidation processes. However, the contribution of alcohol radicals (ARs) to contaminant degradation in this process has rarely been assessed. In this study, trichloroacetic acid (TCA), phenol, and carbon tetrachloride were selected as probes to test the role of ARs in the thermally activated PS system. It was found that the degradation rates of these compounds were largely depended on their reactivities with ARs and the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the reaction system...
March 31, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625292/magnetic-bionanoparticles-of-penicillium-sp-yz11-22n2-doped-with-fe-3-o-4-and-encapsulated-within-pva-sa-gel-beads-for-atrazine-removal
#8
Jiaping Yu, Huijun He, William L Yang, Chunping Yang, Guangming Zeng, Xin Wu
A novel magnetic bionanomaterial, Penicillium sp. yz11-22N2 doped with nano Fe3 O4 entrapped in polyvinyl alcohol-sodium alginate gel beads (PFEPS), was successfully synthesized. The factors including nutrient substance, temperature, pH, initial concentrations of atrazine and rotational speeds were presented and discussed in detail. Results showed that the highest removal efficiency of atrazine by PFEPS was 91.2% at 8.00 mg/L atrazine. The maximum removal capacity for atrazine was 7.94 mg/g. Meanwhile, it has been found that most of atrazine were removed by metabolism and degradation of Penicillium sp...
March 31, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623641/cathodic-microbial-community-adaptation-to-the-removal-of-chlorinated-herbicide-in-soil-microbial-fuel-cells
#9
Yue Li, Xiaojing Li, Yang Sun, Xiaodong Zhao, Yongtao Li
The microbial fuel cell (MFC) that uses a solid electrode as the inexhaustible electron acceptor is an innovative remediation technology that simultaneously generates bioelectricity. Chlorinated pollutants are better metabolized by reductive dechlorination in proximity to the cathode. Here, the removal efficiency of the herbicide metolachlor (ML) increased by 262 and 176% in soil MFCs that were spiked with 10 (C10) and 20 mg/kg (C20) of ML, respectively, relative to the non-electrode controls. The bioelectricity output of the C10 and C20 increased by over two- and eightfold, respectively, compared to that of the non-ML control, with maximum current densities of 49...
April 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609149/mechanochemical-formation-of-chlorinated-phenoxy-radicals-and-their-roles-in-the-remediation-of-hexachlorobenzene-contaminated-soil
#10
Shanshan Deng, Nannan Feng, Shaoguo Kang, Jianxin Zhu, Bo Yu, Jing Chen, Xiaofeng Xie
Mechanochemical degradation (MCD) is a promising eco-friendly method to dispose persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Mechanically induced free-radical attack was thought to be one of the key elements in initiating and accelerating the dechlorination and degradation of POPs. In this study, mechanochemical formation of free-radicals and their roles in the remediation of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) contaminated soil were explored using both of experimental analysis and quantum chemical calculations. It was found that chlorinated phenoxy radicals(CB-O) can be produced in the milling process and they played a vital role in the dechlorination of HCB, based on the results of electron spin-resonance (ESR) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS)...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597173/comment-on-photo-assisted-degradation-of-2-4-6-trichlorophenol-by-an-advanced-reduction-process-based-on-sulfite-anion-radical-degradation-dechlorination-and-mineralization-chemosphere-191-2018-156-165
#11
Min Tang
The sulfite-mediated photoreduction (SMP) with UV-C light showed promising performances especially for dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds (e.g., 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol (TCP)). The investigation of SMP for TCP is commented and proposed in order to clarify the mechanisms involved.
March 21, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574649/enhanced-effect-of-edds-and-hydroxylamine-on-fe-ii-catalyzed-spc-system-for-trichloroethylene-degradation
#12
Xiaori Fu, Dionysios D Dionysiou, Mark L Brusseau, Waqas Qamar Zaman, Xueke Zang, Shuguang Lu, Zhaofu Qiu, Qian Sui
This study presents a performance comparison of Fe(II)-catalyzed sodium percarbonate (SPC), Fe(II)-EDDS-catalyzed SPC, and of the innovative hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HA)-Fe(II)-EDDS-catalyzed SPC for the degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in water. TCE degradation was greater in the Fe(II)-EDDS-catalyzed SPC system compared to the Fe(II)-catalyzed SPC system, indicating the effectiveness of adding EDDS as an enhancement factor for the removal of TCE. Moreover, TCE degradation was faster in the HA-Fe(II)-EDDS-catalyzed SPC system compared to the Fe(II)-EDDS-catalyzed SPC system, illustrating that HA can play a synergistic role in TCE degradation...
March 25, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574385/effect-of-reducing-agent-on-catalytic-hydrodechlorination-of-aqueous-phase-ocdd-f
#13
Moo Been Chang, Ching Wen Fu, Ching Lan Tsai
Removal/destruction of aqueous-phase octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) and octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF) via hydrodechlorination process (HDC) is experimentally evaluated over palladium/activated carbon (Pd/AC) catalyst. Pd catalyst is mainly used as active component for effectiveness in removing dioxin from wastewater. Studies on the removal of PCDD/Fs accomplished with HDC reaction in aqueous phase are limited and the influencing factors have not been clarified. In this study, high-concentration OCDD/F are selected as targets, and the effects of solvent and operating temperature on dechlorination efficiency are investigated via experimental tests...
March 19, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549742/metabolism-of-the-synthetic-cannabinoids-amb-chmica-and-5c-akb48-in-pooled-human-hepatocytes-and-rat-hepatocytes-analyzed-by-uhplc-ims-hr-ms-e
#14
Marie Mardal, Petur Weihe Dalsgaard, Bing Qi, Christian Brinch Mollerup, Pieter Annaert, Kristian Linnet
The main analytical targets of synthetic cannabinoids are often metabolites. With the high number of new psychoactive substances entering the market, suitable workflows are needed for analytical target identification in biological samples. The aims of this study were to identify the main metabolites of the synthetic cannabinoids, AMB-CHMICA and 5C-AKB48, using an in silico-assisted workflow with analytical data acquired using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-(ion mobility spectroscopy)-high resolution-mass spectrometry in data-independent acquisition mode (UHPLC-(IMS)-HR-MSE )...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530334/dfn-m-field-characterization-of-sandstone-for-a-process-based-site-conceptual-model-and-numerical-simulations-of-tce-transport-with-degradation
#15
Amanda A Pierce, Steven W Chapman, Laura K Zimmerman, Jennifer C Hurley, Ramon Aravena, John A Cherry, Beth L Parker
Plumes of trichloroethene (TCE) with degradation products occur at a large industrial site in California where TCE as a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) entered the fractured sandstone bedrock at many locations beginning in the late 1940s. Groundwater flows rapidly in closely spaced fractures but plume fronts are strongly retarded relative to groundwater flow velocities owing largely to matrix diffusion in early decades and degradation processes in later decades and going forward. Multiple data types show field evidence for both biotic and abiotic dechlorination of TCE and its degradation products, resulting in non-chlorinated compounds...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523456/low-temperature-degradation-of-polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins-and-dibenzofurans-over-a-vo-x-ceo-x-tio-2-catalyst-with-addition-of-ozone
#16
Ming-Xiu Zhan, Ming-Feng Yu, Guangxue Zhang, Tong Chen, Xiao-Dong Li, Alfons Buekens
In order to find a catalyst to destroy polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) with high efficiency, a homemade VOx -CeOx /TiO2 catalyst was prepared, and then tested in the flue gas of a waste incinerator at temperatures of 180-240 °C. The results shows the best removal efficiency (93.4%) was attained already at 200 °C, yet degradation efficiency further raised with temperature, until 240 °C. Ozone (500 ppm) was also introduced into the system to increase the activity of catalyst, and removal efficiency of PCDD/Fs increased further to 97...
March 6, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518721/determination-of-the-sulfate-and-glucuronide-conjugates-of-levornidazole-in-human-plasma-and-urine-and-levornidazole-and-its-five-metabolites-in-human-feces-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#17
Gaoli He, Beining Guo, Jing Zhang, Yi Li, Xiaojie Wu, Yaxin Fan, Yuancheng Chen, Guoying Cao, Jicheng Yu
Levornidazole is a novel third-generation nitroimidazoles antibiotic which metabolism and disposition in human are not well known. We have previously developed two methods to quantify levornidazole and its phase I metabolites, Ml (Hydroxylation metabolite), M2 (N-dealkylation metabolite) and M4 (Oxidative dechlorination metabolite), in human plasma and urine. In this study, we developed three novel liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) methods and analyzed its phase II metabolites, sulfate conjugate (M6) and glucuronide conjugate (M16), in human plasma and urine, and the parent drug and above-mentioned five metabolites in human feces samples...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518190/coexistence-of-two-distinct-sulfurospirillum-populations-respiring-tetrachloroethene-genomic-and-kinetic-considerations
#18
Géraldine Florence Buttet, Alexandra Marie Murray, Tobias Goris, Mélissa Burion, Biao Jin, Massimo Rolle, Christof Holliger, Julien Maillard
Two anaerobic bacterial consortia, each harboring a distinct Sulfurospirillum population, were derived from a ten year old consortium, SL2, previously characterized for the stepwise dechlorination of tetrachloroethene (PCE) to cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) via accumulation of trichloroethene (TCE). Population SL2-1 dechlorinated PCE to TCE exclusively, while SL2-2 produced cis-DCE from PCE without substantial TCE accumulation. The reasons explaining the long-term coexistence of the populations were investigated...
March 6, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516734/release-of-electron-donors-during-thermal-treatment-of-soils
#19
Tyler F Marcet, Natalie L Cápiro, Lawrence A Morris, Sayed M Hassan, Yi Yang, Frank E Löffler, Kurt D Pennell
Thermal treatment of soil and groundwater may provide an in situ source of soluble organic compounds and hydrogen (H2 ) that could stimulate microbial reductive dechlorination (MRD) at sites impacted by chlorinated solvents. The objectives of this study were to identify and quantify the release of electron donors and fermentable precursors during soil heating and to estimate availability of these compounds following thermal treatment. Fourteen solid materials containing <0.01 to 63.81 wt % organic carbon (OC) were incubated at 30, 60, or 90 °C for up to 180 d, leading to the release of direct electron donors (i...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455286/prediction-of-biotransformation-products-of-the-fungicide-fluopyram-by-electrochemistry-coupled-online-to-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-and-comparison-with-in-vitro-microsomal-assays
#20
Tessema F Mekonnen, Ulrich Panne, Matthias Koch
Biotransformation processes of fluopyram (FLP), a new succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicide, were investigated by electrochemistry (EC) coupled online to liquid chromatography (LC) and electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Oxidative phase I metabolite production was achieved using an electrochemical flow-through cell equipped with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. Structural elucidation and prediction of oxidative metabolism pathways were assured by retention time, isotopic patterns, fragmentation, and accurate mass measurements using EC/LC/MS, LC-MS/MS, and/or high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS)...
February 17, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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