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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432662/targeting-ldl-cholesterol-beyond-absolute-goals-toward-personalized-risk
#1
REVIEW
Morton Leibowitz, Chandra Cohen-Stavi, Sanjay Basu, Ran D Balicer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to review and assess the evidence for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) treatment goals as presented in current guidelines for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Different sets of guidelines and clinical studies for secondary prevention have centered on lower absolute LDL-C targets [<70 mg/dL (<1.8 mmol/L)], greater percent reductions of LDL-C (≥50%), or more intense treatment to achieve greater reductions in cardiovascular risk...
June 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429955/matrix-metalloproteinase-8-and-tissue-inhibitor-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-1-predict-incident-cardiovascular-disease-events-and-all-cause-mortality-in-a-population-based-cohort
#2
Immi Kormi, Mikko T Nieminen, Aki S Havulinna, Tanja Zeller, Stefan Blankenberg, Taina Tervahartiala, Timo Sorsa, Veikko Salomaa, Pirkko J Pussinen
Background Extracellular matrix degrading proteases and their regulators play an important role in atherogenesis and subsequent plaque rupture leading to acute cardiovascular manifestations. Design and methods In this prospective cohort study, we investigated the prognostic value of circulating matrix metalloproteinase-8, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 concentrations, the ratio of matrix metalloproteinase-8/ tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and, for comparison, myeloperoxidase and C-reactive protein concentrations for incident cardiovascular disease endpoints...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426694/prediction-of-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-mortality-in-a-nationally-representative-cohort-using-a-set-of-risk-factors-from-pooled-cohort-risk-equations
#3
Zefeng Zhang, Cathleen Gillespie, Barbara Bowman, Quanhe Yang
The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association developed Pooled Cohort equations to estimate atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. It is unclear how well the equations predict ASCVD mortality in a nationally representative cohort. We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988-1994 and Linked Mortality through 2006 (n = 6,644). Among participants aged 40-79 years without ASCVD at baseline, we used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the 10-year probability of ASCVD death by sex and race-ethnicity (non-Hispanic white (NHW), non-Hispanic black (NHB) and Mexican American (MA))...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425739/sleep-duration-partially-accounts-for-race-differences-in-diurnal-cortisol-dynamics
#4
Laurel M Peterson, Karissa G Miller, Patricia M Wong, Barbara P Anderson, Thomas W Kamarck, Karen A Matthews, Clemens Kirschbaum, Stephen B Manuck
OBJECTIVE: Emerging research demonstrates race differences in diurnal cortisol slope, an indicator of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA)-axis functioning associated with morbidity and mortality, with African Americans showing flatter diurnal slopes than their White counterparts. Sleep characteristics are associated with both race and with HPA-axis functioning. The present report examines whether sleep duration may account for race differences in cortisol dynamics. METHOD: Participants were 424 employed African American and White adults (mean age = 42...
May 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415034/validation-of-a-new-mortality-risk-prediction-model-for-people-65-years-and-older-in-northwest-russia-the-crystal-risk-score
#5
Anna Turusheva, Elena Frolova, Vaes Bert, Eralda Hegendoerfer, Jean-Marie Degryse
BACKGROUND: Prediction models help to make decisions about further management in clinical practice. This study aims to develop a mortality risk score based on previously identified risk predictors and to perform internal and external validations. METHODS: In a population-based prospective cohort study of 611 community-dwelling individuals aged 65+ in St. Petersburg (Russia), all-cause mortality risks over 2.5 years follow-up were determined based on the results obtained from anthropometry, medical history, physical performance tests, spirometry and laboratory tests...
March 29, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404094/development-and-validation-of-a-dynamic-outcome-prediction-model-for-paracetamol-induced-acute-liver-failure-a-cohort-study
#6
William Bernal, Yanzhong Wang, James Maggs, Christopher Willars, Elizabeth Sizer, Georg Auzinger, Nicholas Murphy, Damian Harding, Ahmed Elsharkawy, Kenneth Simpson, Fin Stolze Larsen, Nigel Heaton, John O'Grady, Roger Williams, Julia Wendon
BACKGROUND: Early, accurate prediction of survival is central to management of patients with paracetamol-induced acute liver failure to identify those needing emergency liver transplantation. Current prognostic tools are confounded by recent improvements in outcome independent of emergency liver transplantation, and constrained by static binary outcome prediction. We aimed to develop a simple prognostic tool to reflect current outcomes and generate a dynamic updated estimation of risk of death...
November 2016: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397943/anthropometric-and-central-obesity-indices-as-predictors-of-long-term-cardiometabolic-risk-among-saudi-young-and-middle-aged-men-and-women
#7
Mahmoud M A Abulmeaty, Ali M Almajwal, Najwa K Almadani, Mona S Aldosari, Ahmed A Alnajim, Saeed B Ali, Heba M Hassan, Hany A Elkatawy
To investigate the prediction of long-term cardiometabolic risk using anthropometric and central obesity parameters.  Methods: A total of 390 Saudi subjects (men 42.8%) aged 18-50 years were enrolled in a cross-sectional study in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between August 2014 and  January 2016. All   participants were instructed to fast for 12 hours before taking blood samples for glucose and lipid panel analyses. A full anthropometric measurement and bioelectric impedance analysis was performed...
April 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396142/atypical-binding-at-dopamine-and-serotonin-transporters-contribute-to-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-mephedrone
#8
Alyssa F DeLarge, Laura L Erwin, Peter J Winsauer
Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone), a constituent of the recreational substances known as "bath salts", is a synthetic cathinone that can produce auditory and visual hallucinations, as well as problematic cardiovascular effects. This study compared the discriminative stimulus effects of mephedrone (0.32-10 mg/kg) with other prototypical drugs of abuse: cocaine (0.56-32 mg/kg), d-amphetamine (0.18-3.2 mg/kg), ketamine (1.8-18 mg/kg), phencyclidine (PCP, 1-5.6 mg/kg), heroin (1-10 mg/kg), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (R-DOI, 0...
April 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392275/exploring-the-influence-of-indololactone-structure-on-selectivity-for-binding-to-the-c1-domains-of-pkc%C3%AE-pkc%C3%AE%C2%B5-and-rasgrp
#9
Eleonora Elhalem, Lucía Gandolfi Donadío, Xiaoling Zhou, Nancy E Lewin, Lia C Garcia, Christopher C Lai, James A Kelley, Megan L Peach, Peter M Blumberg, María J Comin
C1 domain-containing proteins, such as protein kinase C (PKC), have a central role in cellular signal transduction. Their involvement in many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and immunological and neurological disorders has been extensively demonstrated and has prompted a search for small molecules to modulate their activity. By employing a diacylglycerol (DAG)-lactone template, we have been able to develop ultra potent analogs of diacylglycerol with nanomolar binding affinities approaching those of complex natural products such as phorbol esters and bryostatins...
March 10, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389492/external-validation-and-extension-of-a-diagnostic-model-for-obstructive-coronary-artery-disease-a-cross-sectional-predictive-evaluation-in-4888-patients-of-the-austrian-coronary-artery-disease-risk-determination-in-innsbruck-by-diagnostic-angiography-cardiigan
#10
Michael Edlinger, Maria Wanitschek, Jakob Dörler, Hanno Ulmer, Hannes F Alber, Ewout W Steyerberg
OBJECTIVE: To externally validate and extend a recently proposed prediction model to diagnose obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), with the ultimate aim to better select patients for coronary angiography. DESIGN: Analysis of individual baseline data of a prospective cardiology cohort. SETTING: Single-centre secondary and tertiary cardiology clinic. PARTICIPANTS: 4888 patients with suspected CAD, without known previous CAD or other heart diseases, who underwent an elective coronary angiography between 2004 and 2008 as part of the prospective Coronary Artery disease Risk Determination In Innsbruck by diaGnostic ANgiography (CARDIIGAN) cohort...
April 7, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389195/two-long-term-mortality-risk-models-for-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery-produced-in-american-populations-validated-in-an-australian-population
#11
Dr Matthew Kilpin, Dr Arpit Talwar, Dr James Meneguzzi, Dr Lavinia Tran, Professor Christopher Reid, Associate Professor Philip Hayward
BACKGROUND: Short-term mortality prediction models have an important role in current cardiac surgical practice. There has been much less attention paid to prediction of long-term outcomes which are probably an equal marker both of surgeon performance and appropriateness of surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of the New York State Cardiac Surgery Reporting System (NYSCSRS) risk model and the Northern New England Cardiovascular Disease Study Group (NNECDSG) risk model on the Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) patient database...
March 15, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381400/association-of-plasma-7-ketocholesterol-with-cardiovascular-outcomes-and-total-mortality-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#12
Jiayi Song, Duan Wang, Hongen Chen, Xiuwei Huang, Yuan Zhong, Nan Jiang, Chaogang Chen, Min Xia
Rationale: 7-Ketocholesterol (7-KC), a form of cholesterol oxidation product, plays an essential role in the atherogenesis in animal models. Objective: We sought to determine the association of circulating 7-KC with clinical cardiovascular outcomes and total mortality in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods and Results: We measured the plasma 7-KC levels by high performance liquid chromatography in a prospective cohort study of 1016 patients (mean age 63.2 years, male 61.1%) with stable CAD who were recruited from December 2008 to December 2011, and followed up for a median of 4...
April 5, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379333/comparison-of-coronary-artery-calcification-carotid-intima-media-thickness-and-ankle-brachial-index-for-predicting-10-year-incident-cardiovascular-events-in-the-general-population
#13
Marie Henrike Geisel, Marcus Bauer, Frauke Hennig, Barbara Hoffmann, Nils Lehmann, Stefan Möhlenkamp, Knut Kröger, Kaffer Kara, Tobias Müller, Susanne Moebus, Raimund Erbel, André Scherag, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Amir A Mahabadi
Aims: To compare the predictive value of coronary artery calcification (CAC), carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and ankle-brachial index (ABI) in a primary prevention cohort depending on risk factor profile to determine which of the three markers improves cardiovascular (CV) risk discrimination best in which risk group. Methods and results: We quantified CAC, CIMT, and ABI in 3108 subjects (mean age 59.2 ± 7.7, 47.1% male) without prevalent CV diseases from the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study...
March 30, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378321/serum-levels-of-9%C3%AE-11%C3%AE-pgf2-and-apolipoprotein-a1-achieve-high-predictive-power-as-biomarkers-of-anaphylaxis
#14
Marcel Wittenberg, Maria Nassiri, Wojciech Francuzik, Karola Lehmann, Magda Babina, Margitta Worm
Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening hypersensitivity reaction. To identify biomarkers for the condition, we assessed serum levels of apolipoprotein (Apo)A and ApoE. We found a reduction of both lipoproteins in anaphylactic mice as well as in orally challenged food allergic patients. We then compared patients after acute anaphylaxis with several control groups (non-allergic, history of allergen-triggered anaphylaxis, acute cardiovascular/febrile reactions). In this unpaired setting, ApoE levels were unaltered, while ApoA1 was reduced in the anaphylactic group...
April 5, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369481/identification-of-vascular-patients-at-very-high-risk-for-recurrent-cardiovascular-events-validation-of-the-current-acc-aha-very-high-risk-criteria
#15
M Johanneke van den Berg, Deepak L Bhatt, L Jaap Kappelle, Gert J de Borst, Maarten J Cramer, Yolanda van der Graaf, Ph Gabriel Steg, Frank L J Visseren
Aims: To validate and assess performance of the current ACC/AHA very high risk criteria in patients with clinically manifest arterial disease. Methods and results: Data were used from the SMART study (n = 7216) and REACH Registry (n = 48 322), two prospective cohorts of patients with manifest atherosclerotic arterial disease. Prevalence and incidence rates of recurrent major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were calculated, according to the ACC/AHA VHR criteria (cardiovascular disease combined with diabetes, smoking, dyslipidaemia, and/or recent recurrent coronary events)...
March 28, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369148/right-atrial-volume-by-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-predicts-mortality-in-patients-with-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#16
Alexander Ivanov, Ambreen Mohamed, Ahmed Asfour, Jean Ho, Saadat A Khan, Onn Chen, Igor Klem, Kumudha Ramasubbu, Sorin J Brener, John F Heitner
BACKGROUND: Right Atrial Volume Index (RAVI) measured by echocardiography is an independent predictor of morbidity in patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The aim of this study is to evaluate the predictive value of RAVI assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) for all-cause mortality in patients with HFrEF and to assess its additive contribution to the validated Meta-Analysis Global Group in Chronic heart failure (MAGGIC) score. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 243 patients (mean age 60 ± 15; 33% women) with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 35% measured by CMR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360032/a-multimodality-strategy-for-cardiovascular-risk-assessment-performance-in-two-population-based-cohorts
#17
James A de Lemos, Colby R Ayers, Benjamin D Levine, Christopher R deFilippi, Thomas J Wang, W Gregory Hundley, Jarett D Berry, Stephen L Seliger, Darren K McGuire, Pamela Ouyang, Mark H Drazner, Matthew J Budoff, Philip Greenland, Christie M Ballantyne, Amit Khera
Background -Current strategies for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment among adults without known CVD are limited by suboptimal performance and a narrow focus on only atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD). We hypothesized that a strategy combining promising biomarkers across multiple different testing modalities would improve global and atherosclerotic CVD risk assessment among individuals without known CVD. Methods -We included participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA, n=6621) and Dallas Heart Study (DHS, n=2202) who were free from CVD and underwent measurement of left ventricular hypertrophy by electrocardiogram (ECG-LVH), coronary artery calcium (CAC), N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)...
March 30, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357882/pulse-pressure-in-acute-coronary-syndromes-comparative-prognostic-significance-with-systolic-blood-pressure
#18
Nigel S Tan, Bradley Sarak, Keith Aa Fox, David Brieger, Ph Gabriel Steg, Chris P Gale, Deepak L Bhatt, Frederick A Spencer, Francois R Grondin, Shaun G Goodman, Andrew T Yan
BACKGROUND: Pulse pressure is a readily available vital sign that has been shown to independently predict outcomes in several cardiovascular disease states. We investigated the prognostic significance of pulse pressure (PP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) among patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). METHODS: A total of 14,514 patients with ACS in the prospective, multicentre Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE), expanded GRACE (GRACE-2) and Canadian Registry of Acute Coronary Events (CANRACE) were stratified by initial PP on presentation...
March 1, 2017: European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356879/relationship-between-cardiovascular-risk-score-and-traditional-and-nontraditional-cardiometabolic-parameters-in-obese-adolescent-girls
#19
Aleksandra Klisic, Nebojsa Kavaric, Ivan Soldatovic, Bojko Bjelakovic, Jelena Kotur-Stevuljevic
BACKGROUND: Since the cardiovascular (CV) risk score in the young population, children and adolescents, is underestimated, especially in developing countries such as Montenegro, where a strong interaction exists between the genetically conditioned CV risk and environmental factors, the purpose of this study was to estimate CV risk in apparently healthy adolescent girls. Moreover, we aimed to test some new, emerging CV risk factors and their interaction with the traditional ones, such as obesity...
September 2016: Journal of Medical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355396/formula-to-detect-high-sodium-excretion-from-spot-urine-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients
#20
Fabiana Baggio Nerbass, Andrea Emanuela Chaud Hallvass, Maarten W Taal, Roberto Pecoits-Filho
INTRODUCTION: Excessive sodium intake is related to adverse renal and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and assessment of sodium intake is complex and not evaluated very often in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To develop a new formula to estimate 24h sodium excretion from urine sample (second void) of patients with CKD. METHODS: We included 51 participants with CKD who provided 24-hour urine collection and a sample of the second urine of the day to determine the sodium excretion...
March 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
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