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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306386/perceived-discrimination-among-racial-and-ethnic-minority-drug-users-and-the-association-with-health-care-utilization
#1
Courtney McKnight, Martha Shumway, Carmen L Masson, Enrique R Pouget, Ashly E Jordan, Don C Des Jarlais, James L Sorensen, David C Perlman
People who use drugs (PWUDs) are at increased risk for several medical conditions, yet they delay seeking medical care and utilize emergency departments (EDs) as their primary source of care. Limited research regarding perceived discrimination and PWUDs' use of health care services exists. This study explores the association between interpersonal and institutional racial/ethnic and drug use discrimination in health care settings and health care utilization among respondents (N = 192) recruited from methadone maintenance treatment programs (36%), HIV primary care clinics (35%), and syringe exchange programs (29%) in New York City (n = 88) and San Francisco (n = 104)...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301703/best-evidence-aside-why-trump-s-executive-order-makes-america-less-healthy
#2
Lawrence O Gostin
What are the health impacts of President Trump's January 27, 2017, executive order suspending the resettlement of refugees and temporarily banning entry of nationals from Iraq, Syria, Iran, Sudan, Libya, Somalia, and Yemen? Even if the President's constitutional arguments are credible, the order is deeply troubling under international law and humanitarian values. Under the 1967 Refugee Protocol, the United States has assumed a legal obligation to examine the claims of asylum seekers who reach U.S. territory without discrimination based on race, nationality, or religion...
March 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296933/are-duplicated-genes-responsible-for-anthracnose-resistance-in-common-bean
#3
Larissa Carvalho Costa, Rafael Storto Nalin, Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho, Elaine Aparecida de Souza
The race 65 of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, etiologic agent of anthracnose in common bean, is distributed worldwide, having great importance in breeding programs for anthracnose resistance. Several resistance alleles have been identified promoting resistance to this race. However, the variability that has been detected within race has made it difficult to obtain cultivars with durable resistance, because cultivars may have different reactions to each strain of race 65. Thus, this work aimed at studying the resistance inheritance of common bean lines to different strains of C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287782/socioeconomic-health-and-psychosocial-mediators-of-racial-disparities-in-cognition-in-early-middle-and-late-adulthood
#4
Laura B Zahodne, Jennifer J Manly, Jacqui Smith, Teresa Seeman, Margie E Lachman
Racial disparities in cognitive performance exist across the life course, but it is not known whether mediators of disparities differ by age. Understanding sources of cognitive disparities at different ages can inform policies and interventions. Data were obtained for non-Hispanic Black and White respondents to The National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States from 3 age groups: 28-44 (N = 1210; 20% Black); 45-64 (N = 2693; 15% Black); and 65-85 (N = 1298; 11% Black). Moderated mediation models characterized direct and indirect effects of race on episodic memory and executive function composite scores through economic, health, and psychosocial variables as a function of age group...
March 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282421/comparison-of-vitality-states-of-finishers-and-withdrawers-in-trail-running-an-enactive-and-phenomenological-perspective
#5
Nadège Rochat, Denis Hauw, Roberta Antonini Philippe, Fabienne Crettaz von Roten, Ludovic Seifert
Studies on ultra-endurance suggest that during the races, athletes typically experience three vitality states (i.e., preservation, loss, and revival) at the phenomenological level. Nevertheless, how these states contribute to the management and outcome of performance remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether and how the vitality states experienced by runners and their evolution during a trail race can be used to distinguish finishers from withdrawers. From an enactive and phenomenological framework, we processed enactive interviews and blog posts of race narratives...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277684/it-is-not-black-and-white-discrimination-and-distress-in-hawai-i
#6
Krysia N Mossakowski, Turro Wongkaren, Fàanofo Lisaclaire Uperesa
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates whether the strength of the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress varies by race/ethnicity, gender, and the number of years of residence in Hawai'i. METHOD: Our sample consisted of 1,036 undergraduate students at a university in Hawai'i and the survey was conducted in 2012-2013. The sample was composed of 55% women and the average age was 21. The students reported their racial/ethnic backgrounds as White (19%), Japanese (21%), Filipino (16%), Chinese (10%), Native Hawaiian (14%), Pacific Islander (4%), other Asian (6%), and other race/ethnicity (10%)...
March 9, 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267756/a-stillbirth-calculator-development-and-internal-validation-of-a-clinical-prediction-model-to-quantify-stillbirth-risk
#7
Amanda S Trudell, Methodius G Tuuli, Graham A Colditz, George A Macones, Anthony O Odibo
OBJECTIVE: To generate a clinical prediction tool for stillbirth that combines maternal risk factors to provide an evidence based approach for the identification of women who will benefit most from antenatal testing for stillbirth prevention. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Midwestern United States quaternary referral center. POPULATION: Singleton pregnancies undergoing second trimester anatomic survey from 1999-2009...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266903/the-drug-abuse-prevention-and-control-act-of-1970-retrospective-assessments-of-disparate-treatment-and-consequential-impact
#8
Hide Yamatani, Marvin Feit, Aaron Mann
Although the basic paradigm of the U.S. federal drug policy targeting the supply and demand reduction has not changed since its enactment in 1970, there have been seriously undesirable disparate treatments and impacts among various population groups. Although U.S. Congress could not define what is discrimination, it did provide two major criteria for the assessment of discriminatory practices as follows: (a) disparate treatment-basing a key decision on association with any of the five prohibited individual's demographic classifications (race, color, religion, sex, or national origin); and (b) disparate impact-correlation between any of the five prohibited demographic classifications and the key outcomes...
March 7, 2017: Social Work in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255541/the-commodification-of-mobile-workers-in-europe-a-comparative-perspective-on-capital-and-labour-in-austria-the-netherlands-and-sweden
#9
Mark van Ostaijen, Ursula Reeger, Karin Zelano
One of the defining features of contemporary Europe is the freedom of movement of persons. Despite its advantages, this 'freedom of movement' is also contested, since it has been shown to cause discrimination, exploitation and pave the way for a 'race to the bottom'. How can we understand the social-economic consequences of free movement in Europe? To answer this question, we developed a typology along the dimensions value of work and degree of power which delivers four ideal types of labour relationships: exploitative, deprived, greedy and esteemed...
2017: Comp Migr Stud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254762/risk-stratification-of-survival-in-injured-patients-with-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-within-the-first-hour-of-arrival-to-trauma-centre-retrospective-analysis-from-the-national-trauma-data-bank
#10
Nasim Ahmed, Patricia Greenberg, Victor M Johnson, John Mihran Davis
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate overall survival and associated survival factors for patients with trauma who had cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) within 1 hour after arrival to a hospital. METHODS: Retrospective patient data was retrieved from the 2007-2010 edition of the US National Trauma Data Bank. Inhospital survival was the primary outcome; only patients with a known outcome were included in the analysis. Summary statistics and univariate analyses were first reported...
March 2, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254479/predicting-hypertension-among-children-with-incident-elevated-blood-pressure
#11
Matthew F Daley, Liza M Reifler, Eric S Johnson, Alan R Sinaiko, Karen L Margolis, Emily D Parker, Louise C Greenspan, Joan C Lo, Patrick J O'Connor, David J Magid
OBJECTIVE: To develop a model to predict hypertension risk among children with incident elevated blood pressure (BP); to test the external validity of the model. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 3 organizations: Kaiser Permanente Colorado was the model derivation site; HealthPartners of Minnesota and Kaiser Permanente Northern California served as external validation sites. During study years 2006 through 2012, all children aged 3 through 17 years with incident elevated BP in an outpatient setting were identified...
February 18, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253029/predictors-of-long-term-school-based-behavioral-outcomes-in-the-multimodal-treatment-study-of-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#12
Margot O Reed, Ewgeni Jakubovski, Jessica A Johnson, Michael H Bloch
OBJECTIVE: To explore predictors of 8-year school-based behavioral outcomes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We examined potential baseline predictors of school-based behavioral outcomes in children who completed the 8-year follow-up in the multimodal treatment study of children with ADHD. Stepwise logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis identified baseline predictors that were associated with a higher risk of truancy, school discipline, and in-school fights...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237530/evaluation-of-prostate-cancer-risk-calculators-for-shared-decision-making-across-diverse-urology-practices-in-michigan
#13
Gregory B Auffenberg, Selin Merdan, David C Miller, Karandeep Singh, Benjamin R Stockton, Khurshid R Ghani, Brian T Denton
OBJECTIVE: To compare the predictive performance of a logistic regression model developed with contemporary data from a diverse group of urology practices to that of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) risk calculator version 2.0. METHODS: With data from all first-time prostate biopsies performed between January 2012 and March 2015 across the Michigan Urological Surgery Improvement Collaborative (MUSIC), we developed a multinomial logistic regression model to predict the likelihood of finding high-grade (Gleason Score ≥7), low-grade (Gleason Score ≤6), or no cancer on prostate biopsy...
February 22, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230275/the-development-and-correlates-of-gender-role-attitudes-in-african-american-youth
#14
Chun Bun Lam, Christine Stanik, Susan M McHale
This research examined the longitudinal trajectories and family correlates of gender role attitudes in African American youth in a sample of 166 sibling pairs residing with their mothers and fathers. Multilevel modelling revealed that (1) girls and boys exhibited significant declines in gender attitude traditionality from ages 9 to 15 that levelled off through age 18, (2) mothers' (but not fathers') gender role attitude traditionality was positively related to youth's attitude traditionality, and (3) within-person variation in mothers' (but not fathers') racial discrimination experiences was negatively related to within-person variation in youth's gender role attitude traditionality...
February 23, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220311/examining-the-effects-of-transphobic-discrimination-and-race-on-hiv-risk-among-transwomen-in-san-francisco
#15
Sean Arayasirikul, Erin C Wilson, Henry F Raymond
Transwomen, in particular transwomen of color (TWOC), are among the most vulnerable populations at risk for HIV. This secondary analysis is organized using a gender minority stress framework to examine the effects of transphobic discrimination and race on HIV risk factors. We describe the sample of 149 HIV- adult transwomen in San Francisco and use binary logistic regression to examine the relationship between levels of transphobic discrimination and TWOC status on binge drinking and condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI), controlling for potential confounders...
February 20, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198537/racial-discrimination-associated-with-higher-diastolic-blood-pressure-in-a-sample-of-american-indian-adults
#16
Zaneta M Thayer, Irene V Blair, Dedra S Buchwald, Spero M Manson
OBJECTIVES: Hypertension prevalence is high among American Indians (AIs). AIs experience a substantial burden of interpersonal racial discrimination, which in other populations has been associated with higher blood pressure. The purpose of this study is to understand whether racial discrimination experiences are associated with higher blood pressure in AIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the Everyday Discrimination Scale to evaluate the relationship between discrimination and measured blood pressure among 77 AIs from two reservation communities in the Northern Plains...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155003/discrimination-and-the-hpa-axis-current-evidence-and-future-directions
#17
REVIEW
David Busse, Ilona S Yim, Belinda Campos, Christopher K Marshburn
Numerous studies suggest that discrimination is associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes. Whereas the cardiovascular system has been extensively studied as a potential pathway linking discrimination with disease, the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis remains understudied. We conducted a systematic review of research on discrimination and related constructs as predictors and correlates of HPA axis activity. Twenty seven studies (10 experimental, 17 observational) met inclusion criteria...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153960/race-dependent-association-of-sulfidogenic-bacteria-with-colorectal-cancer
#18
Cemal Yazici, Patricia G Wolf, Hajwa Kim, Tzu-Wen L Cross, Karin Vermillion, Timothy Carroll, Gaius J Augustus, Ece Mutlu, Lisa Tussing-Humphreys, Carol Braunschweig, Rosa M Xicola, Barbara Jung, Xavier Llor, Nathan A Ellis, H Rex Gaskins
OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence is higher in African Americans (AAs) compared with non-Hispanic whites (NHWs). A diet high in animal protein and fat is an environmental risk factor for CRC development. The intestinal microbiota is postulated to modulate the effects of diet in promoting or preventing CRC. Hydrogen sulfide, produced by autochthonous sulfidogenic bacteria, triggers proinflammatory pathways and hyperproliferation, and is genotoxic. We hypothesised that sulfidogenic bacterial abundance in colonic mucosa may be an environmental CRC risk factor that distinguishes AA and NHW...
February 2, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147207/discrimination-and-telomere-length-among-older-adults-in-the-united-states
#19
Sze Yan Liu, Ichiro Kawachi
OBJECTIVES: Chronic stress from experiencing discrimination can lead to long-term changes in psychological and physiologic responses, including shorter leukocyte telomere length. We examined the association between leukocyte telomere length and variations in the association by race or type of discrimination. METHODS: Our study consisted of 3868 US-born non-Hispanic black (hereinafter, black) and non-Hispanic white (hereinafter, white) adult participants from the 2008 Health and Retirement Study biomarker sample with complete sociodemographic and discrimination information...
March 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141847/best-anthropometric-discriminators-of-incident-type-2-diabetes-among-white-and-black-adults-a-longitudinal-aric-study
#20
Dale S Hardy, Devita T Stallings, Jane T Garvin, Hongyan Xu, Susan B Racette
OBJECTIVE: To determine which anthropometric measures are the strongest discriminators of incident type 2 diabetes (T2DM) among White and Black males and females in a large U.S. cohort. METHODS: We used Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study data from 12,121 participants aged 45-64 years without diabetes at baseline who were followed for over 11 years. Anthropometric measures included a body shape index (ABSI), body adiposity index (BAI), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR), waist to height ratio (WHtR), and waist to hip to height ratio (WHHR)...
2017: PloS One
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