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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100067/race-based-experiences-of-ethnic-minority-health-professionals-arab-physicians-and-nurses-in-israeli-public-healthcare-organizations
#1
Yael Keshet, Ariela Popper-Giveon
: Increasing workforce diversity was found to contribute to the narrowing of disparities in health. However, racism toward ethnic minority health professionals has not been adequately researched. In Israel, public healthcare organizations that serve a mixed Jewish-Arab population employ Arab minority healthcare professionals. Instances of prejudice and manifestations of racism toward them, which frequently surface in public discussion and the media, have unfortunately gained little scholarly attention...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098398/depression-and-discrimination-in-the-lives-of-women-transgender-and-gender-liminal-people-in-ontario-canada
#2
Charmaine C Williams, Deone Curling, Leah S Steele, Margaret F Gibson, Andrea Daley, Datejie Cheko Green, Lori E Ross
This article uses an intersectionality lens to explore how experiences of race, gender, sexuality, class and their intersections are associated with depression and unmet need for mental healthcare in a population of 704 women and transgender/gender liminal people from Ontario, Canada. A survey collecting demographic information, information about mental health and use of mental healthcare services, and data for the Everyday Discrimination Scale and the PHQ-9 Questionnaire for Depression was completed by 704 people via Internet or pen-and-paper between June 2011 and June 2012...
January 18, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087793/race-ethnicity-and-health-related-quality-of-life-among-lgbt-older-adults
#3
Hyun-Jun Kim, Sarah Jen, Karen I Fredriksen-Goldsen
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Few existing studies have addressed racial/ethnic differences in the health and quality of life of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Guided by the Health Equity Promotion Model, this study examines health-promoting and health risk factors that contribute to racial/ethnic health disparities among LGBT adults aged 50 and older. DESIGN AND METHODS: We utilized weighted survey data from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study...
February 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068927/subgroup-identification-of-early-preterm-birth-eptb-informing-a-future-prospective-enrichment-clinical-trial-design
#4
Chuanwu Zhang, Lili Garrard, John Keighley, Susan Carlson, Byron Gajewski
BACKGROUND: Despite the widely recognized association between the severity of early preterm birth (ePTB) and its related severe diseases, little is known about the potential risk factors of ePTB and the sub-population with high risk of ePTB. Moreover, motivated by a future confirmatory clinical trial to identify whether supplementing pregnant women with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has a different effect on the risk subgroup population or not in terms of ePTB prevalence, this study aims to identify potential risk subgroups and risk factors for ePTB, defined as babies born less than 34 weeks of gestation...
January 10, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062535/the-effects-of-bean-leafroll-virus-on-life-history-traits-and-host-selection-behavior-of-specialized-pea-aphid-acyrthosiphon-pisum-hemiptera-aphididae-genotypes
#5
T S Davis, Y Wu, S D Eigenbrode
Intraspecific specialization by insect herbivores on different host plant species contributes to the formation of genetically distinct "host races," but the effects of plant virus infection on interactions between specialized herbivores and their host plants have barely been investigated. Using three genetically and phenotypically divergent pea aphid clones (Acyrthosiphon pisum L.) adapted to either pea (Pisum sativum L.) or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), we tested how infection of these hosts by an insect-borne phytovirus (Bean leafroll virus; BLRV) affects aphid performance and preference...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061997/evaluation-of-the-pooled-cohort-equations-for-prediction-of-cardiovascular-risk-in-a-contemporary-prospective-cohort
#6
Connor A Emdin, Amit V Khera, Pradeep Natarajan, Derek Klarin, Usman Baber, Roxana Mehran, Daniel J Rader, Valentin Fuster, Sekar Kathiresan
Most guidelines suggest a baseline risk assessment to guide atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) prevention strategies. The American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Pooled Cohort Equations (PCEs) is one tool to assess baseline risk; however, the accuracy of this tool has been called into question. We aimed to examine the calibration and discrimination of the PCEs in the BioImage study, a contemporary multiethnic cohort of asymptomatic adults enrolled from 2008 to 2009 in the Humana Health System in Chicago, Illinois, and Fort Lauderdale, Florida...
December 18, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054796/robust-social-categorization-emerges-from-learning-the-identities-of-very-few-faces
#7
Robin S S Kramer, Andrew W Young, Matthew G Day, A Mike Burton
Viewers are highly accurate at recognizing sex and race from faces-though it remains unclear how this is achieved. Recognition of familiar faces is also highly accurate across a very large range of viewing conditions, despite the difficulty of the problem. Here we show that computation of sex and race can emerge incidentally from a system designed to compute identity. We emphasize the role of multiple encounters with a small number of people, which we take to underlie human face learning. We use highly variable everyday 'ambient' images of a few people to train a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model on identity...
January 5, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025923/progression-to-uncontrolled-severe-asthma-a-novel-risk-equation
#8
Julian Casciano, Jerry Krishnan, Mary Buatti Small, Chenghui Li, Zenobia Dotiwala, Bradley C Martin
BACKGROUND: Recently published asthma guidelines by the European Respiratory Society and the American Thoracic Society (ERS-ATS) define severe disease based on medication use and control level. These guidelines also emphasize that asthma severity involves certain biomarker phenotypes, one of them being eosinophilic phenotype. The quantification of the influence of eosinophil level toward predicting disease severity can help decision makers manage therapy better earlier. OBJECTIVE: To develop a risk-scoring algorithm to identify patients at greater risk of developing uncontrolled severe asthma as defined by ERS-ATS guidelines...
January 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003179/proteomic-profiling-of-serial-pre-diagnostic-serum-samples-for-early-detection-of-colon-cancer-in-the-u-s-military
#9
Stephanie Shao, Benjamin A Neely, Tzu-Cheg Kao, Janet Eckhaus, Jolie Bourgeois, Jasmin Brooks, Elizabeth E Jones, Richard R Drake, Kangmin Zhu
BACKGROUND: Serum proteomic biomarkers offer a promising approach for early detection of cancer. In this study, we aimed to identify proteomic profiles that could distinguish colon cancer cases from controls using serial pre-diagnostic serum samples. METHODS: This was a nested case-control study of active duty military members. Cases consisted of 264 patients diagnosed with colon cancer between 2001 and 2009. Controls were matched to cases on age, gender, race, serum sample count, and collection date...
December 21, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002770/neutrality-in-medicine-and-health-professionals-from-ethnic-minority-groups-the-case-of-arab-health-professionals-in-israel
#10
Yael Keshet, Ariela Popper-Giveon
The ethos of neutrality dominates biomedicine. It has, however, been criticized for leading to a disregard for diversity in medicine. In this article we employ the 'inclusion and difference' approach to gain an understanding of why the ethos of neutrality, on the one hand, and tensions associated with race/ethnicity, on the other, are relevant to the work of ethnic minority health professionals. We sought to explore tensions associated with neutrality in medicine from the point of view of ethnic minority professionals who work in a context of political conflict...
December 13, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989297/perceived-discrimination-and-privilege-in-health-care-the-role-of-socioeconomic-status-and-race
#11
Irena Stepanikova, Gabriela R Oates
INTRODUCTION: This study examined how perceived racial privilege and perceived racial discrimination in health care varied with race and socioeconomic status (SES). METHODS: The sample consisted of white, black, and Native American respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2005-2013) who had sought health care in the past 12 months. Multiple logistic regression models of perceived racial privilege and perceived discrimination were estimated...
January 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989295/systemic-inflammation-in-midlife-race-socioeconomic-status-and-perceived-discrimination
#12
Irena Stepanikova, Lori Brand Bateman, Gabriela R Oates
INTRODUCTION: This study investigates social determinants of systemic inflammation, focusing on race, SES, and perceived discrimination. METHODS: Data on 884 white and 170 black participants were obtained from the Survey of Midlife in the U.S., a cross-sectional observational study combining survey measures, anthropometry, and biomarker assay. Data, collected in 2004-2009, were analyzed in 2016. Main outcome measures were fasting blood concentrations of C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, fibrinogen, and E-selectin...
January 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988489/frequent-experience-of-lgbq-microaggression-on-campus-associated-with-smoking-among-sexual-minority-college-students
#13
Thomas Ylioja, Gerald Cochran, Michael R Woodford, Kristen A Renn
INTRODUCTION: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, or queer/questioning (LGBQ) microaggressions refer to often-unintentional insults, assaults, and invalidations that denigrate sexual minorities. While experiencing hostile discrimination and violence has previously been associated with elevated rates of smoking cigarettes for LGBQ college students, the relationship between LGBQ microaggressions and smoking is unknown. METHODS: Data from a national anonymous online survey of sexual and gender minority college students were used to examine the relationship between past month cigarette smoking and interpersonal LGBQ microaggressions...
November 8, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977503/chronic-stress-and-c-reactive-protein-in-mothers-during-the-first-postpartum-year
#14
Christine M Guardino, Christine Dunkel Schetter, Calvin J Hobel, Robin Gaines Lanzi, Peter Schafer, John M Thorp, Madeleine U Shalowitz
OBJECTIVES: Elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. The current study tested associations between psychosocial stress and CRP in a large sample of women during the first postpartum year. METHODS: We analyzed data collected by the five-site Community Child Health Network study, which studied a predominately poor population. Participants (n = 1206 women; 54% African American, 23% white, 23% Hispanic/Latina) were recruited shortly after the birth of a child...
December 13, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931270/a-powerful-protector-of-the-japanese-people-the-history-of-the-japanese-hospital-in-steveston-british-columbia-canada-18961942
#15
Helen Vandenberg
From 1896 to 1942, a Japanese hospital operated in the village of Steveston, British Columbia, Canada. For the first 4 years, Japanese Methodist missionaries utilized a small mission building as a makeshift hospital, until a larger institution was constructed by the local Japanese Fishermen's Association in 1900. The hospital operated until the Japanese internment, after the attack on Pearl Harbor during World War II. This study offers important commentary about the relationships between health, hospitals, and race in British Columbia during a period of increased immigration and economic upheaval...
January 2017: Nursing History Review: Official Journal of the American Association for the History of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926804/the-impact-of-racism-and-midwifery-s-lack-of-racial-diversity-a-literature-review
#16
REVIEW
Jyesha Wren Serbin, Elizabeth Donnelly
INTRODUCTION: The United States is increasingly racially diverse. Racial disparities in maternal-child health persist. Despite national calls for workforce diversification, more than 90% of certified nurse-midwives are white. This systematic review examines how racism and midwifery's lack of racial diversity impact both midwives and their patients. METHODS: Databases were searched in January 2016 for studies that explored 1) racially concordant or racially discordant maternity care provided, at least in part, by midwives; 2) women of color's experience of race and discrimination in maternity care provided, at least in part, by midwives; and 3) midwives of color's experience of race and discrimination in clinical, educational, and/or professional settings...
November 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925867/psychosocial-stressors-and-alcohol-use-severity-and-treatment-receipt-across-hiv-status-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-u-s-residents
#17
Emily C Williams, Young Sun Joo, Lauren Lipira, Joseph E Glass
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is stigmatized and disproportionately impacts vulnerable populations. Thus people living with HIV (PLWH) may have greater exposure to psychosocial stressors than those without HIV. Exposure to psychosocial stressors may increase alcohol use and serve as barriers to alcohol treatment receipt. We evaluate whether psychosocial stressors, and alcohol use, symptom severity, and treatment receipt vary across HIV status in a general population sample of U...
December 7, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921339/perceptual-narrowing-towards-adult-faces-is-a-cross-cultural-phenomenon-in-infancy-a-behavioral-and-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study-with-japanese-infants
#18
Megumi Kobayashi, Viola Macchi Cassia, So Kanazawa, Masami K Yamaguchi, Ryusuke Kakigi
Recent data showed that, in Caucasian infants, perceptual narrowing occurs for own-race adult faces between 3 and 9 months of age, possibly as a consequence of the extensive amount of social and perceptual experience accumulated with caregivers and/or other adult individuals of the same race of the caregiver. The neural correlates of this developmental process remain unexplored, and it is currently unknown whether perceptual tuning towards adult faces can be extended to other cultures. To this end, in the current study we tested the ability of 3- and 9-month-old Japanese infants to discriminate among adult and infant Asian faces in a visual familiarization task (Experiment 1), and compared 9-month-olds' cerebral hemodynamic responses to adult and infant faces as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) (Experiment 2)...
December 5, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906447/validation-of-the-parental-facilitation-of-mastery-scale-ii
#19
Alyson K Zalta, Kelly M Allred, Eranda Jayawickreme, Laura E R Blackie, Dianne L Chambless
To develop a more reliable and comprehensive version of the Parental Facilitation of Mastery Scale (PFMS) METHOD: In Study 1, 387 undergraduates completed an expanded PFMS (PFMS-II) and measures of parenting, perceived control, responses to early life challenges, and psychopathology. In Study 2, 182 trauma-exposed community participants completed the PFMS-II and measures of perceived control, psychopathology, and well-being RESULTS: In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis of the PFMS-II revealed two factors...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885665/can-cephalometrics-discriminate-between-the-sexes-in-a-diverse-juvenile-sample
#20
Alexis O'Donnell, Shamsi Daneshvari Berry, Heather J H Edgar
A critical component of the biological profile is sex estimation. Methods commonly used for sex estimation in adults do not work well for juveniles. Population-specific studies have used cephalometrics to estimate juvenile sex with 80-90% accuracy. Our study attempts to estimate sex in individuals less than 18 years of age using a sample of 1618 lateral cephalograms incorporating all three Angle Class occlusions as well as population diversity. For the sample as a whole, 10 skeletal cephalometrics were found to have significant differences between the sexes...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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