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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819265/the-chemical-signatures-underlying-host-plant-discrimination-by-aphids
#1
David P Hopkins, Duncan D Cameron, Roger K Butlin
The diversity of phytophagous insects is largely attributable to speciation involving shifts between host plants. These shifts are mediated by the close interaction between insects and plant metabolites. However, there has been limited progress in understanding the chemical signatures that underlie host preferences. We use the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) to address this problem. Host-associated races of pea aphid discriminate between plant species in race-specific ways. We combined metabolomic profiling of multiple plant species with behavioural tests on two A...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813327/recent-developments-in-understanding-ethnocultural-and-race-differences-in-trauma-exposure-and-ptsd
#2
REVIEW
Anu Asnaani, Brittany Hall-Clark
Our understanding of demographic specifications that put certain individuals at greater risk for trauma exposure and subsequent development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has grown significantly over the past few decades. This brief review specifically examines the studies exploring the potential influence of ethnocultural and racial group status on trauma exposure and PTSD, with a focus on findings published recently in the past five years. We first provide a brief review of current epidemiological data examining associations among ethnicity/culture/race and trauma exposure/PTSD...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812287/racial-discrimination-and-mental-health-in-the-usa-testing-the-reverse-racism-hypothesis
#3
Bongki Woo
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined whether the health disadvantages consequent of racial discrimination experienced by four racial/ethnic minority groups are equivalent with that of the dominant racial group. METHOD: Data was derived from the 2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression and heterogeneous choice models were used to test the moderating role of race/ethnicity in regards to the associations between racial discrimination and ten DSM-V diagnoses...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812239/social-status-discrimination-and-minority-individuals-mental-health-a-secondary-analysis-of-us-national-surveys
#4
Celia C Lo, Tyrone C Cheng
OBJECTIVES: Our study measured minority individuals' social status factors and frequency of discrimination experiences, in order to delineate social mechanisms linking race/ethnicity to mental status (specifically, to current mood/anxiety disorder and self-rated mental health). METHODS: In this nationally representative secondary research, our data analyses drew on the cross-sectional "Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys," dating 2001-2003. The sample for the final model numbered 9368 respondents (2016 Asians, 2676 Latinos, 4676 blacks)...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810416/is-disclosure-a-privilege-race-and-disclosure-patterns-of-hepatitis-c
#5
Alicia E Suarez
Research suggests that decisions to disclose hepatitis C status are affected by individual and interpersonal factors. However, no existing studies have examined the role of race in disclosure, despite the potential implications of being doubly marginalized on the basis of both race and hepatitis C status. Drawing on qualitative research with 53 persons with hepatitis C in the Southeastern United States, findings indicate that participants practiced four patterns of disclosure: activist disclosure, open disclosure, limited disclosure, and reluctant disclosure...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806365/associations-between-perceived-race-based-discrimination-and-contraceptive-use-among-women-veterans-in-the-ecuun-study
#6
Serena MacDonald, Leslie R M Hausmann, Florentina E Sileanu, Xinhua Zhao, Maria K Mor, Sonya Borrero
OBJECTIVE: To describe perceived race-based discrimination in Veterans Affairs (VA) health care settings and assess its associations with contraceptive use among a sample of women Veterans. METHODOLOGY: This study used data from a national telephone survey of women Veterans aged 18-44 receiving health care in VA who were at risk of unintended pregnancy. Participants were asked about their perceptions of race-based discrimination while seeking VA health care and about their contraceptive use at last heterosexual intercourse...
September 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798757/establishing-the-bases-for-introducing-the-unexplored-portuguese-common-bean-germplasm-into-the-breeding-world
#7
Susana T Leitão, Marco Dinis, Maria M Veloso, Zlatko Šatović, Maria C Vaz Patto
Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is among the most important grain legumes for human consumption worldwide. Portugal has a potentially promising common bean germplasm, resulting from more than five centuries of natural adaptation and farmers' selection. Nevertheless, limited characterization of this resource hampers its exploitation by breeding programs. To support a more efficient conservation of the national bean germplasm and promote its use in crop improvement, we performed, for the first time, a simultaneous molecular marker (21 microsatellites and a DNA marker for phaseolin-type diversity analysis) and seed and plant morphological characterization (14 traits) of 175 accessions from Portuguese mainland and islands traditional bean-growing regions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792515/distortion-in-time-perception-as-a-result-of-concern-about-appearing-biased
#8
Gordon B Moskowitz, Irmak Olcaysoy Okten, Cynthia M Gooch
Two experiments illustrate that the perception of a given time duration slows when white participants observe faces of black men, but only if participants are concerned with appearing biased. In Experiment 1 the concern with the appearance of bias is measured as a chronic state using the external motivation to respond without prejudice scale (Plant & Devine, 1998). In Experiment 2 it is manipulated by varying the race of the experimenter (black versus white). Time perception is assessed via a temporal discrimination task commonly used in the literature...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760206/prevention-of-sudden-cardiac-death-in-the-young-developing-a-rational-reliable-and-sustainable-national-health-care-resource-a-report-from-the-cardiac-safety-research-consortium
#9
REVIEW
Salim F Idriss, Stuart Berger, Kimberly G Harmon, Allen Kindman, Robert Kleiman, Martha Lopez-Anderson, Silvana Molossi, Tess Elizabeth Saarel, Colette Strnadova, Thomas Todaro, Kaori Shinagawa, Valarie Morrow, Mitchell Krucoff, Victoria Vetter, Theressa J Wright
This White Paper, prepared by members of the Cardiac Safety Research Consortium, discusses important issues regarding sudden cardiac death in the young (SCDY), a problem that does not discriminate by gender, race, ethnicity, education, socioeconomic level, or athletic status. The occurrence of SCDY has devastating impact on families and communities. Sudden cardiac death in the young is a matter of national and international public health, and its prevention has generated deep interest from multiple stakeholders, including families who have lost children, advocacy groups, academicians, regulators, and the medical industry...
August 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758764/meta-analytic-review-of-the-development-of-face-discrimination-in-infancy-face-race-face-gender-infant-age-and-methodology-moderate-face-discrimination
#10
Nicole A Sugden, Alexandra R Marquis
Infants show facility for discriminating between individual faces within hours of birth. Over the first year of life, infants' face discrimination shows continued improvement with familiar face types, such as own-race faces, but not with unfamiliar face types, like other-race faces. The goal of this meta-analytic review is to provide an effect size for infants' face discrimination ability overall, with own-race faces, and with other-race faces within the first year of life, how this differs with age, and how it is influenced by task methodology...
July 31, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753588/chronic-discrimination-and-bodily-pain-in-a-multiethnic-cohort-of-midlife-women-in-the-study-of-women-s-health-across-the-nation
#11
Sheila A Dugan, Tené T Lewis, Susan A Everson-Rose, Elizabeth A Jacobs, Siobán D Harlow, Imke Janssen
A growing literature links discrimination to key markers of biobehavioral health. While racial or ethnic differences in pain are seen in experimental and clinical studies, the authors were interested in how chronic discrimination contributes to pain within multiple racial or ethnic groups over time. Participants were 3056 African American, Caucasian, Chinese, Hispanic, and Japanese women from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. The Everyday Discrimination Scale was assessed from baseline through 13 follow-up examinations...
September 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731440/challenges-and-considerations-related-to-studying-dementia-in-african-americans
#12
Eseosa T Ighodaro, Peter T Nelson, Walter A Kukull, Frederick A Schmitt, Erin L Abner, Allison Caban-Holt, Shoshana H Bardach, Derrick C Hord, Crystal M Glover, Gregory A Jicha, Linda J Van Eldik, Alexander X Byrd, Anita Fernander
Blacks/African Americans have been reported to be ∼2-4 times more likely to develop clinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to Whites. Unfortunately, study design challenges (e.g., recruitment bias), racism, mistrust of healthcare providers and biomedical researchers, confounders related to socioeconomic status, and other sources of bias are often ignored when interpreting differences in human subjects categorized by race. Failure to account for these factors can lead to misinterpretation of results, reification of race as biology, discrimination, and missed or delayed diagnoses...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728040/measures-and-predictors-of-varenicline-adherence-in-the-treatment-of-nicotine-dependence
#13
Annie R Peng, Mark Morales, E Paul Wileyto, Larry W Hawk, Paul Cinciripini, Tony P George, Neal L Benowitz, Nicole L Nollen, Caryn Lerman, Rachel F Tyndale, Robert Schnoll
INTRODUCTION: While adherence to medication in smoking cessation clinical trials is strongly associated with clinical outcome, very few studies have evaluated the validity of pill count as a measure of adherence relative to a biological assay, and evaluated a broad range of correlates of adherence. METHODS: In a smoking cessation clinical trial of varenicline, we compared pill counts collected over 4 different time periods to varenicline salivary levels taken after 2weeks of treatment, as well as evaluated predictors of adherence to varenicline...
July 12, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721501/examining-transgender-health-through-the-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health-s-icf-contextual-factors
#14
REVIEW
Melissa Jacob, Steven R Cox
PURPOSE: For many transgender individuals, medical intervention is necessary to live as their desired gender. However, little is known about Contextual Factors (i.e., Environmental and Personal) that may act as facilitators and barriers in the health of transgender individuals. Therefore, this paper sought to examine Contextual Factors of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health that may facilitate or negatively impact the physical, psychological, and social functioning of transgender individuals...
July 18, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720250/cardiovascular-disease-and-perceived-weight-racial-and-gender-discrimination-in-u-s-adults
#15
Tomoko Udo, Carlos M Grilo
OBJECTIVE: To date, most research on perceived discrimination and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has examined racial discrimination although other forms of discrimination may also impact physical and mental health. The current study investigated the relationship between three forms of discrimination (weight, race, and gender) and 3-year incidence of CVD in a large national sample of U.S. adults. METHODS: 26,992 adults (55.5% women) who participated in the 2001-2002 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were included in this study...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717258/children-s-perceptions-of-social-resource-inequality
#16
Laura Elenbaas, Melanie Killen
Children's perceptions of social resource inequalities were investigated by measuring spontaneous explanations for race-based disparities in access to societal resources. Fifth graders (N = 139, M = 11.14 years, SD = .61 years) viewed animated vignettes depicting hypothetical resource inequalities between institutions serving children of African-American and European-American background. Children frequently explained disparities in terms of institutions' differing financial resources, revealing awareness that economic inequalities often underlie groups' differential access to societal resources...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715555/application-of-a-lifestyle-based-tool-to-estimate-premature-cardiovascular-disease-events-in-young-adults-the-coronary-artery-risk-development-in-young-adults-cardia-study
#17
Holly C Gooding, Hongyan Ning, Matthew W Gillman, Christina Shay, Norrina Allen, David C Goff, Donald Lloyd-Jones, Stephanie Chiuve
Importance: Few tools exist for assessing the risk for early atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events in young adults. Objective: To assess the performance of the Healthy Heart Score (HHS), a lifestyle-based tool that estimates ASCVD events in older adults, for ASCVD events occurring before 55 years of age. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included 4893 US adults aged 18 to 30 years from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study...
July 17, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709519/racial-discrimination-and-perinatal-sleep-quality
#18
Brittney Francis, Mark Klebanoff, Reena Oza-Frank
OBJECTIVE: This research examined the association between perceived everyday racial discrimination, as a psychosocial stressor, and perinatal sleep quality. DESIGN: Cross-sectional (N=640) and longitudinal associations (N=133) between everyday experiences of discrimination and sleep quality were examined using a pregnancy and postpartum data registry. PARTICIPANTS: We studied a sample of 640 unique women from the Perinatal Research Repository (PRR), a longitudinal study of mothers, fathers, and babies recruited from Nationwide Children's Hospital and The Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio...
August 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703300/a-point-based-prediction-model-for-cardiovascular-risk-in-orthotopic-liver-transplantation-the-car-olt-score
#19
Lisa B VanWagner, Hongyan Ning, Maureen Whitsett, Josh Levitsky, Sarah Uttal, John T Wilkins, Michael M Abecassis, Daniela P Ladner, Anton I Skaro, Donald M Lloyd-Jones
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). There is currently no preoperative risk assessment tool that allows physicians to estimate the risk for CVD events following OLT. We sought to develop a point-based prediction model (risk score) for CVD complications after OLT, the CAR-OLT risk score, among a cohort of 1024 consecutive patients aged 18-75 years who underwent first OLT in a tertiary-care teaching hospital (2002-2011)...
July 13, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692705/right-wing-authoritarianism-is-associated-with-race-bias-in-face-detection
#20
Amélie Bret, Brice Beffara, Jessica McFadyen, Martial Mermillod
Racial discrimination can be observed in a wide range of psychological processes, including even the earliest phases of face detection. It remains unclear, however, whether racially-biased low-level face processing is influenced by ideologies, such as right wing authoritarianism or social dominance orientation. In the current study, we hypothesized that socio-political ideologies such as these can substantially predict perceptive racial bias during early perception. To test this hypothesis, 67 participants detected faces within arrays of neutral objects...
2017: PloS One
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