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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931270/a-powerful-protector-of-the-japanese-people-the-history-of-the-japanese-hospital-in-steveston-british-columbia-canada-18961942
#1
Helen Vandenberg
From 1896 to 1942, a Japanese hospital operated in the village of Steveston, British Columbia, Canada. For the first 4 years, Japanese Methodist missionaries utilized a small mission building as a makeshift hospital, until a larger institution was constructed by the local Japanese Fishermen's Association in 1900. The hospital operated until the Japanese internment, after the attack on Pearl Harbor during World War II. This study offers important commentary about the relationships between health, hospitals, and race in British Columbia during a period of increased immigration and economic upheaval...
January 2017: Nursing History Review: Official Journal of the American Association for the History of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926804/the-impact-of-racism-and-midwifery-s-lack-of-racial-diversity-a-literature-review
#2
REVIEW
Jyesha Wren Serbin, Elizabeth Donnelly
INTRODUCTION: The United States is increasingly racially diverse. Racial disparities in maternal-child health persist. Despite national calls for workforce diversification, more than 90% of certified nurse-midwives are white. This systematic review examines how racism and midwifery's lack of racial diversity impact both midwives and their patients. METHODS: Databases were searched in January 2016 for studies that explored 1) racially concordant or racially discordant maternity care provided, at least in part, by midwives; 2) women of color's experience of race and discrimination in maternity care provided, at least in part, by midwives; and 3) midwives of color's experience of race and discrimination in clinical, educational, and/or professional settings...
November 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925867/psychosocial-stressors-and-alcohol-use-severity-and-treatment-receipt-across-hiv-status-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-u-s-residents
#3
Emily C Williams, Young Sun Joo, Lauren Lipira, Joseph E Glass
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is stigmatized and disproportionately impacts vulnerable populations. Thus people living with HIV (PLWH) may have greater exposure to psychosocial stressors than those without HIV. Exposure to psychosocial stressors may increase alcohol use and serve as barriers to alcohol treatment receipt. We evaluate whether psychosocial stressors, and alcohol use, symptom severity, and treatment receipt vary across HIV status in a general population sample of U...
December 7, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921339/perceptual-narrowing-towards-adult-faces-is-a-cross-cultural-phenomenon-in-infancy-a-behavioral-and-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study-with-japanese-infants
#4
Megumi Kobayashi, Viola Macchi Cassia, So Kanazawa, Masami K Yamaguchi, Ryusuke Kakigi
Recent data showed that, in Caucasian infants, perceptual narrowing occurs for own-race adult faces between 3 and 9 months of age, possibly as a consequence of the extensive amount of social and perceptual experience accumulated with caregivers and/or other adult individuals of the same race of the caregiver. The neural correlates of this developmental process remain unexplored, and it is currently unknown whether perceptual tuning towards adult faces can be extended to other cultures. To this end, in the current study we tested the ability of 3- and 9-month-old Japanese infants to discriminate among adult and infant Asian faces in a visual familiarization task (Experiment 1), and compared 9-month-olds' cerebral hemodynamic responses to adult and infant faces as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) (Experiment 2)...
December 5, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906447/validation-of-the-parental-facilitation-of-mastery-scale-ii
#5
Alyson K Zalta, Kelly M Allred, Eranda Jayawickreme, Laura E R Blackie, Dianne L Chambless
To develop a more reliable and comprehensive version of the Parental Facilitation of Mastery Scale (PFMS) METHOD: In Study 1, 387 undergraduates completed an expanded PFMS (PFMS-II) and measures of parenting, perceived control, responses to early life challenges, and psychopathology. In Study 2, 182 trauma-exposed community participants completed the PFMS-II and measures of perceived control, psychopathology, and well-being RESULTS: In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis of the PFMS-II revealed two factors...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885665/can-cephalometrics-discriminate-between-the-sexes-in-a-diverse-juvenile-sample
#6
Alexis O'Donnell, Shamsi Daneshvari Berry, Heather J H Edgar
A critical component of the biological profile is sex estimation. Methods commonly used for sex estimation in adults do not work well for juveniles. Population-specific studies have used cephalometrics to estimate juvenile sex with 80-90% accuracy. Our study attempts to estimate sex in individuals less than 18 years of age using a sample of 1618 lateral cephalograms incorporating all three Angle Class occlusions as well as population diversity. For the sample as a whole, 10 skeletal cephalometrics were found to have significant differences between the sexes...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875830/stigma-in-an-aging-context
#7
Charles A Emlet
Both the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS and the US National HIV/AIDS Strategy identify HIV stigma as a barrier to care, a barrier to service access, and deleterious to personal and social well-being. This chapter discusses the topic of HIV stigma from a conceptual basis, including the mechanisms of prejudice and discrimination, and defining anticipated, enacted, and internalized stigma. Stigma is then placed in a historical context of HIV and AIDS, and events exacerbating HIV stigma are discussed...
2017: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873081/awareness-and-acceptability-of-pre-exposure-hiv-prophylaxis-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-baltimore
#8
Susan A Fallon, Ju Nyeong Park, Christine Powell Ogbue, Colin Flynn, Danielle German
This paper assessed characteristics associated with awareness of and willingness to take pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among Baltimore men who have sex with men (MSM). We used data from BESURE-MSM3, a venue-based cross-sectional HIV surveillance study conducted among MSM in 2011. Multivariate regression was used to identify characteristics associated with PrEP knowledge and acceptability among 399 participants. Eleven percent had heard of PrEP, 48% would be willing to use PrEP, and none had previously used it...
November 21, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869461/race-differences-in-depression-vulnerability-following-hurricane-katrina
#9
Jeanelle S Ali, Amy S Farrell, Adam C Alexander, David R Forde, Michelle Stockton, Kenneth D Ward
Objective: This study investigated whether racial disparities in depression were present after Hurricane Katrina. Method: Data were gathered from 932 New Orleans residents who were present when Hurricane Katrina struck, and who returned to New Orleans the following year. Multiple logistic regression models evaluated racial differences in screening positive for depression (a score ≥16 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), and explored whether differential vulnerability (prehurricane physical and mental health functioning and education level), differential exposure to hurricane-related stressors, and loss of social support moderated and/or reduced the association of race with depression...
November 21, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861237/psychosocial-predictors-of-engagement-in-sexual-risk-behavior-among-trans-female-youth-ages-16-24-years-in-san-francisco
#10
Caitlin M Turner, Glenn-Milo Santos, Sean Arayasirikul, Erin C Wilson
BACKGROUND: Trans*female youth (TFY) carry a disproportionate burden of HIV. Few longitudinal studies have analyzed both proximal and upstream predictors of changes in HIV-related risk behaviors for TFY. The present analysis aims to identify psychosocial predictors of changes in sexual risk behavior over time for TFY in the San Francisco Bay area. METHODS: Data come from the SHINE cohort study conducted at the San Francisco Department of Public Health from 2012-2014 (n=263)...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860214/infusing-diversity-and-equity-into-clinical-teaching-training-the-trainers
#11
Karline Wilson-Mitchell, Manavi Handa
Clinical instructors in health care disciplines are charged with engaging students in experiential learning wherein respect and cultural sensitivity is applied. This article reports on the results of 3 diversity workshops conducted for clinical preceptors and field instructors from various disciplines. The workshops were developed in response to students' growing concerns that their academic learning experiences were negatively affected by dissatisfying management of differences between students, faculty, and preceptors with respect to ethno-racial group membership, socioeconomic level, and degree of privilege and power...
November 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852107/a-multi-group-path-analysis-of-the-relationship-between-perceived-racial-discrimination-and-self-rated-stress-how-does-it-vary-across-racial-ethnic-groups
#12
Tse-Chuan Yang, Danhong Chen
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to answer three questions: (1) Is perceived discrimination adversely related to self-rated stress via the social capital and health care system distrust pathways? (2) Does the relationship between perceived discrimination and self-rated stress vary across race/ethnicity groups? and (3) Do the two pathways differ by one's race/ethnicity background? DESIGN: Using the Philadelphia Health Management Corporation's Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Survey, we classified 9831 respondents into 4 race/ethnicity groups: non-Hispanic White (n = 6621), non-Hispanic Black (n = 2359), Hispanic (n = 505), and non-Hispanic other races (n = 346)...
November 16, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830371/discrimination-between-lineage-specific-shelters-by-bat-and-human-associated-bed-bugs-does-not-constitute-a-stable-reproductive-barrier
#13
Ondřej Balvín, Tomáš Bartonička, Kateřina Pilařová, Zachary DeVries, Coby Schal
The common bed bug Cimex lectularius, has been recently shown to constitute two host races, which are likely in the course of incipient speciation. The human-associated lineage splits from the ancestral bat-associated species deep in the history of modern humans, likely even prior to the Neolithic Period and establishment of the first permanent human settlements. Hybridization experiments between these two lineages show that post-mating reproductive barriers are incomplete due to local variation. As mating takes place in off-host refugia marked by aggregation semiochemicals, the present investigation tested the hypothesis that bed bugs use these semiochemicals to differentiate between refugia marked by bat- and human-associated bed bugs; this would constitute a pre-copulation isolation mechanism...
November 9, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822270/psychosocial-correlates-of-body-mass-index-in-the-united-states-intersection-of-race-gender-and-age
#14
Shervin Assari
BACKGROUND: Studies on the association between psychosocial factors and obesity have provided mixed findings. OBJECTIVES: Current study used a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults to investigate how intersection of race, gender and age alters the psychosocial correlates of body mass index (BMI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data came from the national health measurement study (NHMS), a cross-sectional study with nationally representative sample of Black and White (n = 3,648) adults ages 35 - 89...
June 2016: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817250/evidence-for-a-confidence-accuracy-relationship-in-memory-for-same-and-cross-race-faces
#15
Thao B Nguyen, Kathy Pezdek, John T Wixted
Discrimination accuracy is usually higher for same- than for cross-race faces, a phenomenon known as the cross-race effect (CRE). According to prior research, the CRE occurs because memories for same- and cross-race faces rely on qualitatively different processes. However, according to a continuous dual-process model of recognition memory, memories that rely on qualitatively different processes do not differ in recognition accuracy when confidence is equated. Thus, although there are differences in overall same- and cross-race discrimination accuracy, confidence-specific accuracy (i...
November 5, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807427/developing-the-own-race-advantage-in-4-6-and-9-month-old-taiwanese-infants-a-perceptual-learning-perspective
#16
Sarina Hui-Lin Chien, Jing-Fong Wang, Tsung-Ren Huang
Previous infant studies on the other-race effect have favored the perceptual narrowing view, or declined sensitivities to rarely exposed other-race faces. Here we wish to provide an alternative possibility, perceptual learning, manifested by improved sensitivity for frequently exposed own-race faces in the first year of life. Using the familiarization/visual-paired comparison paradigm, we presented 4-, 6-, and 9-month-old Taiwanese infants with oval-cropped Taiwanese, Caucasian, Filipino faces, and each with three different manipulations of increasing task difficulty (i...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794711/a-steep-mountain-to-climb
#17
Petra Kendall-Raynor
The RCN has warned there has been a 'negative and toxic climate' around race equality in the NHS that has hampered efforts to bring discrimination to an end.
September 7, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792911/towards-greater-understanding-of-addiction-stigma-intersectionality-with-race-ethnicity-and-gender
#18
Magdalena Kulesza, Mauri Matsuda, Jason J Ramirez, Alexandra J Werntz, Bethany A Teachman, Kristen P Lindgren
BACKGROUND: In spite of the significant burden associated with substance use disorders, especially among persons who inject drugs (PWIDs), most affected individuals do not engage with any type of formal or informal treatment. Addiction stigma, which is represented by negative social attitudes toward individuals who use alcohol and/or other drugs, is one of the barriers to care that is poorly understood. The current study: a) assessed implicit (indirect and difficult to consciously control) and explicit (consciously controlled) beliefs about PWIDs among visitors to a public web site; and b) experimentally investigated the effects of ethnicity/race and gender on those implicit and explicit beliefs...
December 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784037/deconstructing-pretest-risk-enrichment-to-optimize-prediction-of-psychosis-in-individuals-at-clinical-high-risk
#19
Paolo Fusar-Poli, Grazia Rutigliano, Daniel Stahl, André Schmidt, Valentina Ramella-Cravaro, Shetty Hitesh, Philip McGuire
Importance: Pretest risk estimation is routinely used in clinical medicine to inform further diagnostic testing in individuals with suspected diseases. To our knowledge, the overall characteristics and specific determinants of pretest risk of psychosis onset in individuals undergoing clinical high risk (CHR) assessment are unknown. Objectives: To investigate the characteristics and determinants of pretest risk of psychosis onset in individuals undergoing CHR assessment and to develop and externally validate a pretest risk stratification model...
December 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783644/attitudes-toward-bisexual-men-and-women-among-a-nationally-representative-probability-sample-of-adults-in-the-united-states
#20
Brian Dodge, Debby Herbenick, M Reuel Friedman, Vanessa Schick, Tsung-Chieh Jane Fu, Wendy Bostwick, Elizabeth Bartelt, Miguel Muñoz-Laboy, David Pletta, Michael Reece, Theo G M Sandfort
: As bisexual individuals in the United States (U.S.) face significant health disparities, researchers have posited that these differences may be fueled, at least in part, by negative attitudes, prejudice, stigma, and discrimination toward bisexual individuals from heterosexual and gay/lesbian individuals. Previous studies of individual and social attitudes toward bisexual men and women have been conducted almost exclusively with convenience samples, with limited generalizability to the broader U...
2016: PloS One
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