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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664890/health-literacy-and-quality-of-physician-trauma-patient-communication-opportunity-for-improvement
#1
Jonathan L Dameworth, Jordan A Weinberg, Pamela W Goslar, Dana J Stout, Sharjeel Israr, Jordan V Jacobs, Thomas L Gillespie, Terrell M Thompson, Scott R Petersen
BACKGROUND: Although physician-patient communication and health literacy (HL) have been studied in diverse patient groups, there has been little focus on trauma patients. A quality improvement project was undertaken at our level 1 trauma center to improve patient perception of physician-patient communication, with consideration of the effect of HL. We report the first phase of this project, namely the reference level of satisfaction with physician-patient communication as measured by levels of interpersonal care among patients at an urban level 1 trauma center...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658316/nmr-based-metabolomics-to-evaluate-the-milk-composition-from-friesian-and-autochthonous-cows-of-northern-italy-at-different-lactation-times
#2
A Tomassini, G Curone, M Solè, G Capuani, F Sciubba, G Conta, A Miccheli, D Vigo
It is well established that different factors affect milk composition in cows and that milk composition, in turn, affect both technological and nutritional qualities. In this respect the comprehension of the metabolic variability of milk composition in relation to the lactation time as well as to the genetic background may be of paramount importance for the agri-food industries. In the present study we investigated the variations of the metabolic profiles during lactation in milks obtained from Friesian and autochthonous races from Northern Italy by 1 H NMR metabolomics...
April 16, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628069/experiences-of-discrimination-are-associated-with-greater-resting-amygdala-activity-and-functional-connectivity
#3
Uraina S Clark, Evan R Miller, Rachal R Hegde
BACKGROUND: Social discrimination, a type of psychological stressor, is associated with poorer physical and mental health outcomes, yet we have little understanding of how discrimination affects neural functions in marginalized populations. By contrast, the effects of psychological stress on neural functions are well documented, with evidence of significant effects on the amygdala-a neural region that is central to psychosocial functions. Accordingly, we conducted an examination of the relation between self-reported discrimination exposure and amygdala activity in a diverse sample of adults...
April 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624409/validation-of-a-host-response-assay-septicyte%C3%A2-lab-for-discriminating-sepsis-from-sirs-in-the-icu
#4
Russell R Miller Iii, Bert K Lopansri, John P Burke, Mitchell Levy, Steven Opal, Richard E Rothman, Franco R D'Alessio, Venkataramana K Sidhaye, Neil R Aggarwal, Robert Balk, Jared A Greenberg, Mark Yoder, Gourang Patel, Emily Gilbert, Majid Afshar, Jorge P Parada, Greg S Martin, Annette M Esper, Jordan A Kempker, Mangala Narasimhan, Adey Tsegaye, Stella Hahn, Paul Mayo, Tom van der Poll, Marcus J Schultz, Brendon P Scicluna, Peter Klein Klouwenberg, Antony Rapisarda, Therese A Seldon, Leo C McHugh, Thomas D Yager, Silvia Cermelli, Dayle Sampson, Victoria Rothwell, Richard Newman, Shruti Bhide, James T Kirk, Krupa Navalkar, Roy F Davis, Roslyn A Brandon, Richard B Brandon
RATIONALE: A molecular test to distinguish between sepsis and systemic inflammation of non-infectious etiology could potentially have clinical utility. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of a molecular host response assay (SeptiCyte™ LAB) designed to distinguish between sepsis and non-infectious systemic inflammation in critically ill adults. METHODS: The study employed a prospective, observational, non-interventional design, and recruited a heterogeneous cohort of adult critical care patients from seven sites in the USA (N=249)...
April 6, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623839/identifying-patterns-in-signs-and-symptoms-preceding-the-clinical-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-retrospective-medical-record-review-study-and-a-nested-case-control-design
#5
Fidelia Bature, Dong Pang, Anthea Robinson, Norma Polson, Yannis Pappas, Barbara Guinn
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are often diagnosed in the later stages of their disease with a poor prognosis. This study aimed to identify patterns in signs and symptoms preceding the clinical diagnosis of AD to suggest a predictive model for earlier diagnosis of the disease in the primary care. DESIGN: A retrospective medical record review; nested case control design. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included one hundred and nine patients from three general practice (GP) surgeries in Milton Keynes and Luton Clinical Commissioning groups (CCG) (37 cases with AD and 72 controls without AD)...
April 4, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623576/understanding-racial-ethnic-differences-in-breast-cancer-related-physical-well-being-the-role-of-patient-provider-interactions
#6
Devon K Check, Neetu Chawla, Marilyn L Kwan, Laura Pinheiro, Janise M Roh, Isaac J Ergas, Anita L Stewart, Tatjana Kolevska, Christine Ambrosone, Lawrence H Kushi
PURPOSE: Racial/ethnic differences in cancer symptom burden are well documented, but limited research has evaluated modifiable factors underlying these differences. Our objective was to examine the role of patient-provider interactions to help explain the relationship between race/ethnicity and cancer-specific physical well-being (PWB) among women with breast cancer. METHODS: The Pathways Study is a prospective cohort study of 4505 women diagnosed with breast cancer at Kaiser Permanente Northern California between 2006 and 2013...
April 5, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616572/science-reflects-history-as-society-influences-science-brief-history-of-race-race-correction-and-the-spirometer
#7
Heidi L Lujan, Stephen E DiCarlo
Spirometers are used globally to diagnose respiratory diseases, and most commercially available spirometers "correct" for race. "Race correction" is built into the software of spirometers. To evaluate pulmonary function and to make recordings, the operator must enter the subject's race. In fact, the Joint Working Party of the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society recommends the use of race- and ethnic-specific reference values. In the United States, spirometers apply correction factors of 10-15% for individuals labeled "Black" and 4-6% for people labeled "Asian...
June 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616469/racial-disparities-in-obesity-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Angel S Byrd, Alexander T Toth, Fatima Cody Stanford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity rates in the USA have reached pandemic levels with one third of the population with obesity in 2015-2016 (39.8% of adults and 18.5% of youth). It is a major public health concern, and it is prudent to understand the factors which contribute. Racial and ethnic disparities are pronounced in both the prevalence and treatment of obesity and must be addressed in the efforts to combat obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: Disparities in prevalence of obesity in racial/ethnic minorities are apparent as early as the preschool years and factors including genetics, diet, physical activity, psychological factors, stress, income, and discrimination, among others, must be taken into consideration...
April 3, 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602244/internalized-stigma-in-adults-with-early-phase-versus-prolonged-psychosis
#9
Ruth L Firmin, Paul H Lysaker, Lauren Luther, Philip T Yanos, Bethany Leonhardt, Alan Breier, Jenifer L Vohs
AIM: Although internalized stigma is associated with negative outcomes among those with prolonged psychosis, surprisingly little work has focused on when in the course of one's illness stigma is internalized and the impact of internalization on symptoms or social functioning over the course of the illness. Therefore, this study investigated whether (1) internalized stigma is greater among those later in the course of psychosis and (2) whether internalized stigma has a stronger negative relationship with social functioning or symptoms among those with prolonged compared to early phase psychosis...
March 30, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599737/development-of-the-sexual-minority-adolescent-stress-inventory
#10
Sheree M Schrager, Jeremy T Goldbach, Mary Rose Mamey
Although construct measurement is critical to explanatory research and intervention efforts, rigorous measure development remains a notable challenge. For example, though the primary theoretical model for understanding health disparities among sexual minority (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual) adolescents is minority stress theory, nearly all published studies of this population rely on minority stress measures with poor psychometric properties and development procedures. In response, we developed the Sexual Minority Adolescent Stress Inventory (SMASI) with N = 346 diverse adolescents ages 14-17, using a comprehensive approach to de novo measure development designed to produce a measure with desirable psychometric properties...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593100/development-and-validation-of-a-clinical-score-for-cardiovascular-risk-stratification-of-long-term-childhood-cancer-survivors
#11
Evangelos K Oikonomou, Sofia G Athanasopoulou, Polydoros N Kampaktsis, Damianos G Kokkinidis, Christos A Papanastasiou, Attila Feher, Richard M Steingart, Kevin C Oeffinger, Dipti Gupta
BACKGROUND: Long-term childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events; however, there is a paucity of risk-stratification tools to identify those at higher-than-normal risk. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS: This was a population-based study using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (1973-2013). Long-term CCS (age at diagnosis ≤19 years, survival ≥5 years) were followed up over a median time period of 12...
March 28, 2018: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571534/informant-similarities-twin-studies-and-the-assessment-of-externalizing-behavior-a-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Elizabeth Talbott, George Karabatsos, Jaime L Zurheide
The purpose of this study was to examine similarity within informant ratings of the externalizing behavior of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs. To do this, we conducted a meta-analysis of correlations within ratings completed by mothers, fathers, teachers, and youth. We retrieved n=204 correlations for MZ twins and n=267 correlations for DZ twins from n=54 studies containing n=55 samples. Results indicated that all four informants were significant negative predictors of within-informant correlations in their ratings of MZ, but not DZ twins...
April 2018: Journal of School Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563059/neurocognitive-basis-of-racial-ingroup-bias-in-empathy
#13
REVIEW
Shihui Han
Racial discrimination in social behavior, although disapproved of by many contemporary cultures, has been widely reported. Because empathy plays a key functional role in social behavior, brain imaging researchers have extensively investigated the neurocognitive underpinnings of racial ingroup bias in empathy. This research has revealed consistent evidence for increased neural responses to the perceived pain of same-race compared with other-race individuals in multiple brain regions and across multiple time-windows...
March 18, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562298/the-subgingival-microbiome-in-patients-with-established-rheumatoid-arthritis
#14
Ted R Mikuls, Clay Walker, Fang Qiu, Fang Yu, Geoffrey M Thiele, Barnett Alfant, Eric C Li, Lisa Y Zhao, Gary P Wang, Susmita Datta, Jeffrey B Payne
Objectives: To profile and compare the subgingival microbiome of RA patients with OA controls. Methods: RA (n = 260) and OA (n = 296) patients underwent full-mouth examination and subgingival samples were collected. Bacterial DNA was profiled using 16 S rRNA Illumina sequencing. Following data filtering and normalization, hierarchical clustering analysis was used to group samples. Multivariable regression was used to examine associations of patient factors with membership in the two largest clusters...
March 19, 2018: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558249/lgbtq-latinx-young-adults-health-autonomy-in-resisting-cultural-stigma
#15
Rachel M Schmitz, Julissa Sanchez, Bianca Lopez
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer/questioning (LGBTQ+) young people of colour are exposed to intersecting dynamics of social prejudice and discrimination related to sexuality and gender as well as race/ethnicity. In particular, Latinx-identifying LGBTQ+ young people face unique challenges in their lives, due to cultural stressors that stigmatise expansive gender and sexual identities. While it is crucial to examine the effects of multiple stressors on the well-being of LGBTQ+ young people of colour, this risk-based focus can overshadow the resilient capacities of multiply marginalised groups...
March 20, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557297/-why-even-bother-they-are-not-going-to-do-it-the-structural-roots-of-racism-and-discrimination-in-lactation-care
#16
Erin V Thomas
Through semi-structured interviews with 36 International Board Certified Lactation Consultants (IBCLCs) who assist mothers with breastfeeding, this study takes a systematic look at breastfeeding disparities. Specifically, this study documents race-based discrimination against patients in the course of lactation care and links the implicit bias literature to breastfeeding disparities. IBCLCs report instances of race-based discrimination against patients such as unequal care provided to patients of color and overt racist remarks said in front of or behind patient's backs...
March 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549869/discrimination-hurts-the-effect-of-discrimination-on-the-development-of-chronic-pain
#17
Timothy T Brown, Juulia Partanen, Linh Chuong, Vaughn Villaverde, Ann Chantal Griffin, Aaron Mendelson
We examine the hypothesis that psychological distress due to perceived discrimination can result in chronic pain, where perceived discrimination is based on age, gender, race, ethnicity, disability, sexual orientation, height/weight, religion, and other characteristics. Using a sample of 1908 individuals from the two most recent waves (2004-2006 and 2013-2014) of panel data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States, we apply instrumental variables regression where measures of daily and lifetime perceived discrimination are instruments whose effects on chronic pain are mediated by psychological distress...
March 8, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543653/nonantiretroviral-polypharmacy-and-adverse-health-outcomes-among-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-individuals
#18
Amy C Justice, Kirsha S Gordon, Melissa Skanderson, Eva Jennifer Edelman, Kathleen M Akgün, Cynthia L Gibert, Vincent Lo Re, David Rimland, Julie A Womack, Christina M Wyatt, Janet P Tate
BACKGROUND: HIV-positive individuals (HIV+) on antiretrovirals commonly take enough other medications to cross a threshold for polypharmacy but little is known about associated outcomes. We asked whether non-antiretroviral polypharmacy is associated with hospitalization and mortality and whether associations differ by HIV status. METHODS: Data on HIV+ and uninfected individuals in the US Veterans Affairs Healthcare System were analyzed. Eligible HIV+ were on antiretrovirals with suppressed HIV-1 RNA and uninfected individuals received at least one medication...
March 27, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542440/should-race-be-used-as-a-variable-in-research-on-preterm-birth
#19
Kacey Y Eichelberger, Julianna G Alson, Kemi M Doll
Racial variations in preterm birth (PTB) outcomes are well described, but causal mechanisms linking race and PTB are not. In clinical research, race is typically treated as representing fixed biological traits. In reality, race is a social construct that approximates lived experiences of historical and ongoing systematic discrimination and, in the case of PTB, particular stressors of black womanhood and reproduction. These experiences are embodied as adverse multigenerational health outcomes. Race thus presents a dilemma for researchers...
March 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540798/application-of-a-genetic-risk-score-to-racially-diverse-type-1-diabetes-populations-demonstrates-the-need-for-diversity-in-risk-modeling
#20
Daniel J Perry, Clive H Wasserfall, Richard A Oram, MacKenzie D Williams, Amanda Posgai, Andrew B Muir, Michael J Haller, Desmond A Schatz, Mark A Wallet, Clayton E Mathews, Mark A Atkinson, Todd M Brusko
Prior studies identified HLA class-II and 57 additional loci as contributors to genetic susceptibility for type 1 diabetes (T1D). We hypothesized that race and/or ethnicity would be contextually important for evaluating genetic risk markers previously identified from Caucasian/European cohorts. We determined the capacity for a combined genetic risk score (GRS) to discriminate disease-risk subgroups in a racially and ethnically diverse cohort from the southeastern U.S. including 637 T1D patients, 46 at-risk relatives having two or more T1D-related autoantibodies (≥2AAb+ ), 790 first-degree relatives (≤1AAb+ ), 68 second-degree relatives (≤1 AAb+ ), and 405 controls...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
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