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Antimicrobial surveillance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326004/health-care-associated-infections-in-iran-a-national-update-for-the-year-2015
#1
Babak Eshrati, Hossein Masoumi Asl, Shirin Afhami, Zahra Pezeshki, Arash Seifi
BACKGROUND: A national surveillance system for health care-associated infections (HAIs) in Iran is relatively new, and an update on incidence and mortality rates can aid clinicians and stakeholders in development of new guidelines and imperative modifications to be made. METHODS: Data were extracted from the national HAIs surveillance software for more than 7 million hospitalizations during 2015. Data regarding age, gender, deaths, ward of admission, and microbiologic findings were collected and analyzed...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324629/susceptibility-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-to-gentamicin-gonococcal-isolate-surveillance-project-2015-2016
#2
Laura M Mann, Robert D Kirkcaldy, John R Papp, Elizabeth A Torrone
The gentamicin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates were determined. Seventy-three percent of isolates demonstrated an MIC range of 8 to 16 μg/mL, and 27% demonstrated an MIC of 4 μg/mL or less. Significant associations between gentamicin MIC and resistance or reduced susceptibility to other antimicrobials were found.
February 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306582/surveillance-of-iclaprim-activity-in-vitro-susceptibility-of-gram-positive-pathogens-collected-from-2012-to-2014-from-the-united-states-asia-pacific-latin-american-and-europe
#3
David B Huang, Thomas M File, Matthew Dryden, G Ralph Corey, Antoni Torres, Mark H Wilcox
Iclaprim is a diaminopyrimidine, which inhibits bacterial dihydrofolate reductase, and it is highly active against Gram-positive pathogens including emerging drug-resistant pathogens. In vitro activity of iclaprim and comparators against 2814 Gram-positive clinical isolates from the United States, Asia Pacific, Latin American and Europe collected between 2012 and 2014 were tested. Susceptibility testing was performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) interpretations were based on CLSI and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) criteria...
December 7, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306009/genotyping-and-high-flux-sequencing-of-the-bacterial-pathogenic-elements-integrons
#4
REVIEW
Yanmei Li, Ling Yang, Jie Fu, Muxia Yan, Dingqiang Chen, Li Zhang
Regarded as a common genetic element responsible for horizontal gene transfer and wide spread of antimicrobial resistance among a large variety of bacteria, integrons are commonly distributed and considered as a determinant in the acquisition and evolution of virulence and antibiotic resistance. To date, the surveillances of integrons have been widely conducted in clinic, community even husbandry. For exact and accurate integron screening, as well as resistant cassettes, reliable monitoring methods is need...
January 3, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298323/implementation-of-global-antimicrobial-resistance-surveillance-system-glass-in-patients-with-bacteremia
#5
Rujipas Sirijatuphat, Kantarida Sripanidkulchai, Adhiratha Boonyasiri, Pinyo Rattanaumpawan, Orawan Supapueng, Pattarachai Kiratisin, Visanu Thamlikitkul
The global antimicrobial resistance surveillance system (GLASS) was launched by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2015. GLASS is a surveillance system for clinical specimens that are sent to microbiology laboratory for clinical purposes. The unique feature of GLASS is that clinical data is combined with microbiological data, and deduplication of the microbiological results is performed. The objective of the study was to determine feasibility and benefit of GLASS for surveillance of blood culture specimens...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298133/epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-isolation-of-multi-drug-resistant-organisms-in-patients-with-complicated-intra-abdominal-infections
#6
Francesco M Labricciosa, Massimo Sartelli, Lilian M Abbo, Pamela Barbadoro, Luca Ansaloni, Federico Coccolini, Fausto Catena
BACKGROUND: Patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) caused by multi-drug-resistant organisms (MDROs) have been identified as being at increased risk for adverse outcomes. Prompt identification and stratification of these patients is essential in the clinical management, allowing the physician timely optimization of empiric antimicrobial therapy while awaiting results of intra-operative cultures to streamline antibiotic treatment. METHODS: The study is a secondary analysis from two prospective multi-center color surveillance studies...
January 3, 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298125/nontyphoidal-salmonella-enterica-nonsusceptible-to-both-levofloxacin-and-ceftriaxone-in-nebraska-united-states-2014-2015
#7
Caitlin N Murphy, Randal C Fowler, Andrea J Williams, Peter C Iwen, Paul D Fey
Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica is a common cause of illness in humans ranging from gastroenteritis to invasive disease. National surveillance programs continually monitor trends in antimicrobial resistance patterns and mechanisms of resistance to identify emerging public health threats. Our study shows the emergence of nonsusceptibility to both levofloxacin and ceftriaxone, a concerning phenotype that threatens first-line antibiotic therapy, in Salmonella isolates recovered between 2014 and 2015. From 2010 to 2013 the rate of resistance increased from 0...
January 3, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288004/targeted-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-for-transrectal-ultrasound-guided-prostate-biopsy-during-active-surveillance-effect-on-hospitalization
#8
Carling Cheung, Hiten D Patel, Patricia Landis, H Ballentine Carter, Misop Han
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effect of targeted antibiotic prophylaxis using rectal swab cultures on hospitalization for infectious complications after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUSP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of men (1995-2016) with prostate cancer on active surveillance receiving annual TRUSP biopsies was surveyed to determine the incidence of hospitalization for suspected postbiopsy sepsis. We compared biopsy events (i.e., unique biopsies) in the era of empiric prophylaxis to those in the era of targeted prophylaxis based on culture...
December 26, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281716/trends-and-patterns-of-antibiotic-consumption-in-china-s-tertiary-hospitals-based-on-a-5-year-surveillance-with-sales-records-2011-2015
#9
Haishaerjiang Wushouer, Ye Tian, Xiao-Dong Guan, Sheng Han, Lu-Wen Shi
The consumption of antibiotics is a major driver in the development of antimicrobial resistance. This study aims to identify the trends and patterns of the total antibiotic consumption in China's tertiary hospitals from 2011 to 2015 by retrospectively analyzing aggregated monthly surveillance data on antibiotic sales made to 468 hospitals from 28 provinces. Antibiotic consumption was expressed in DDD per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DID). We compared population weighted antibiotic consumption patterns in China with European countries using indicators from the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279442/surveillance-of-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-from-2013-to-2015-in-guangxi-province-china
#10
Wei Li, Bang-Yong Zhu, Shui-Qing Qin, Mao-Chun Yang, Ming Liang, Shao He, Huai-Zhong Chen, Quan Gan, Yin-Jie Huang, Jiang-Ping Wei, Ji-Zhao He, Zhen Chen, Jin Bu
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae) is a sexually transmitted pathogen popular worldwide with increased trend of resistance to antimicrobial treatment. We conducted this study to trace the antimicrobial susceptibilities of N. gonorrhoeae to penicillin, spectinomycin, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, cefixime and ceftriaxone in Guangxi. Totally 303 NG isolates were sampled from patients infected with N. gonorrhoeae from five cities in Guangxi 2013-2015, and the antibiotic susceptibilities were tested by Agar dilution assay...
December 26, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274463/how-to-surveillance-of-clostridium-difficile-infections
#11
REVIEW
Marcela Krutova, Pete Kinross, Frédéric Barbut, Agnes Hajdu, Mark Wilcox, Ed Kuijper
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in healthcare settings in Europe since 2003 has affected both patients and healthcare systems. The implementation of effective CDI surveillance is key to enable monitoring of the occurrence and spread of C. difficile in healthcare and the timely detection of outbreaks. AIMS: The aim of this review is to provide a summary of key components of effective CDI surveillance and to provide some practical recommendations...
December 20, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273972/the-first-report-of-japanese-antimicrobial-use-measured-by-national-database-based-on-health-insurance-claims-data-2011-2013-comparison-with-sales-data-and-trend-analysis-stratified-by-antimicrobial-category-and-age-group
#12
Daisuke Yamasaki, Masaki Tanabe, Yuichi Muraki, Genta Kato, Norio Ohmagari, Tetsuya Yagi
PURPOSE: Our objective was to evaluate the utility of the national database (NDB) based on health insurance claims data for antimicrobial use (AMU) surveillance in medical institutions in Japan. METHODS: The population-weighted total AMU expressed as defined daily doses (DDDs) per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID) was measured by the NDB. The data were compared with our previous study measured by the sales data. Trend analysis of DID from 2011 to 2013 and subgroup analysis stratified by antimicrobial category and age group were performed...
December 22, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273584/vibrio-cholerae-amino-acids-go-on-the-defense
#13
Jose A Bengoechea
Gram-negative bacteria remodel their surfaces to interact with the environment, particularly to protect pathogens from immune surveillance and host defenses. The enzyme AlmG is known to be involved in remodeling the Vibrio cholerae surface, but its specific role was not clear. A new study characterizes AlmG at the molecular level, showing it defies phylogenetic expectations to add amino acids to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This LPS modification plays a pivotal role in V. cholerae resistance to antimicrobial peptides, weapons of the innate immune system against infections...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273509/diversity-of-virulence-genes-in-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-burn-wound-infections
#14
Fakhri Haghi, Habib Zeighami, Arefeh Monazami, Farnaz Toutouchi, Shima Nazaralian, Ghazal Naderi
Multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa has frequently been reported as the cause of nosocomial outbreaks of burn wound infections. The pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa is partly due to the production of several cell-associated and extracellular virulence factors. A total of 93 P. aeruginosa isolated from burn wound infections were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility and distribution of virulence genes. All (100%) isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. The most frequent resistance found against ampicillin (91...
December 19, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250905/validity-of-diagnostic-codes-to-identify-hospitalizations-for-infections-among-patients-treated-with-oral-anti-diabetic-drugs
#15
M Elle Saine, Mona Gizaw, Dena M Carbonari, Craig W Newcomb, Jason A Roy, Serena Cardillo, Daina B Esposito, Harshvinder Bhullar, Arlene M Gallagher, Brian L Strom, Vincent Lo Re
PURPOSE: Identification of hospitalizations for infection is important for post-marketing surveillance of drugs, but the validity of using diagnosis codes to identify these events is unknown. Differentiating between hospitalization for and with infection is important, as the latter is common and less likely to arise from pre-admission exposure to drugs. We determined positive predictive values (PPVs) of diagnostic coding-based algorithms to identify hospitalization for infection among patients prescribed oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs)...
December 18, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244831/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-clinical-enterobacter-cloacae-bloodstream-isolates-in-shanghai-china
#16
Su Wang, Shu-Zhen Xiao, Fei-Fei Gu, Jin Tang, Xiao-Kui Guo, Yu-Xing Ni, Jie-Ming Qu, Li-Zhong Han
BACKGROUND: Enterobacter cloacae is a major nosocomial pathogen causing bloodstream infections. We retrospectively conducted a study to assess antimicrobial susceptibility and phylogenetic relationships of E. cloacae bloodstream isolates in two tertiary university-affiliated hospitals in Shanghai, in order to facilitate managements of E. cloacae bloodstream infections and highlight some unknowns for future prevention. METHODS: Fifty-three non-duplicate E. cloacae bloodstream isolates were consecutively collected from 2013 to 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241191/evaluation-of-behavioral-and-susceptibility-patterns-in-premenopausal-women-with-recurrent-urinary-tract-infections-a-case-control-study
#17
Saddam Al Demour, Mera A Ababneh
Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) are a major source of morbidity and healthcare costs. Risk factors associated with recurrence rates in premenopausal women can be attributed to patient lifestyle behavior. The aim of this study was to assess hygienic risk factors, determine pathogen distribution, and susceptibility patterns in premenopausal women with recurrent UTI. This was case-control study in which a face-to-face interview was conducted to obtain information from premenopausal women with recurrent UTI...
December 14, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240786/time-trend-analysis-2009-2016-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-in-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolated-in-italy-following-the-introduction-of-the-combined-antimicrobial-therapy
#18
Paola Stefanelli, Maria Fenicia Vescio, Maria Paola Landini, Ivano Dal Conte, Alberto Matteelli, Antonio Cristaudo, Marina Gaino, Marco Cusini, Anna Maria Barbui, Antonella Mencacci, Rosella De Nittis, Valeria Ghisetti, Elena Stroppiana, Anna Carannante
INTRODUCTION: Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) antimicrobial susceptibility trends to azithromycin, cefixime and ceftriaxone were analyzed, from 2009 to 2016, to monitor changing antimicrobial susceptibility concomitant with the change in prescribing practice in 2012 from cefixime, or ceftriaxone, to ceftriaxone plus azithromycin. Patient characteristics predictive to be infected by antibiotic resistant N. gonorrhoeae were estimated. Finally, the protocol for the treatment of gonorrhoea, in comparison with the international guidelines, was also evaluated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239248/use-of-and-microbial-resistance-to-antibiotics-in-china-a-path-to-reducing-antimicrobial-resistance
#19
Dan Cui, Xinliang Liu, Peter Hawkey, Hao Li, Quan Wang, Zongfu Mao, Jing Sun
We analyzed China's current use of and microbial resistance to antibiotics, and possible means of reducing antimicrobial resistance. Interventions like executive orders within clinical settings and educational approach with vertical approaches rather than an integrated strategy to curb the use of antimicrobials remain limited. An underlying problem is the system of incentives that has resulted in the intensification of inappropriate use by health professionals and patients. There is an urgent need to explore the relationship between financial and non-financial incentives for providers and patients, to eliminate inappropriate incentives...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237995/recovery-of-bordetella-bronchiseptica-sequence-type-82-and-b-pseudohinzii-from-urban-rats-in-terengganu-malaysia
#20
Shih Keng Loong, Nurul-Asma-Anati Che-Mat-Seri, Osama Abdulrazak, Benacer Douadi, Siti-Noraisah Ahmad-Nasrah, Jefree Johari, Siti-Nursheena Mohd-Zain, Sazaly Abubakar
Rodents have historically been associated with zoonotic pandemics that claimed the lives of large human populations. Appropriate pathogen surveillance initiatives could contribute to early detection of zoonotic infections to prevent future outbreaks. Bordetella species are bacteria known to cause mild to severe respiratory disease in mammals and, some have been described to infect, colonize and spread in rodents. There is a lack of information on the population diversity of bordetellae among Malaysian wild rodents...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
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