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Antimicrobial surveillance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773743/genomic-insights-into-the-emergence-and-spread-of-antimicrobial-resistant-bacterial-pathogens
#1
REVIEW
Stephen Baker, Nicholas Thomson, François-Xavier Weill, Kathryn E Holt
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has been vital for revealing the rapid temporal and spatial evolution of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacterial pathogens. Some antimicrobial-resistant pathogens have outpaced us, with untreatable infections appearing in hospitals and the community. However, WGS has additionally provided us with enough knowledge to initiate countermeasures. Although we cannot stop bacterial adaptation, the predictability of many evolutionary processes in AMR bacteria offers us an opportunity to channel them using new control strategies...
May 18, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770049/pan-canadian-framework-for-action-on-antimicrobial-resistance-and-antimicrobial-use
#2
(no author information available yet)
Antimicrobial-resistant infections are becoming more frequent and increasingly difficult to treat, and this situation is exacerbated by the widespread use of antimicrobials in both human and veterinary medicine and by the agriculture industry. As part of Canada's coordinated response to addressing antimicrobial resistance (AMR), Tackling Antimicrobial Resistance and Antimicrobial Use: A Pan-Canadian Framework for Action, was released in September 2017. The Framework is a high-level policy document that outlines the strategic objectives, outcomes and opportunities to guide collaborative action on AMR and antimicrobial use (AMU)...
November 2, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768458/burden-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-india-preliminary-data-from-a-hospital-based-sentinel-surveillance-network
#3
Yuvaraj Jayaraman, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Girish Kumar Chethrapilly Purushothaman, Bharathy Sukumar, Boopathi Kangusamy, Ambujam Nair Kapoor, Nivedita Gupta, Sanjay Madhav Mehendale
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, acute bacterial meningitis is a major cause of high morbidity and mortality among under five children, particularly in settings where vaccination for H. influenzae type b, S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis is yet to be introduced in the national immunization programs. Estimation of disease burden of bacterial meningitis associated with these pathogens can guide the policy makers to consider inclusion of these newer vaccines in the immunization programs. A network of hospital based sentinel surveillance was established to generate baseline data on the burden of bacterial meningitis among children aged less than 5 years in India and to provide a platform for impact assessment following introduction of the Pentavalent and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines (PCV)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767074/occurrence-of-clostridium-perfringens-contamination-in-poultry-feed-ingredients-isolation-identification-and-its-antibiotic-sensitivity-pattern
#4
Shanmugasundaram Udhayavel, Gopalakrishnamurthy Thippichettypalayam Ramasamy, Vasudevan Gowthaman, Shanmugasamy Malmarugan, Kandasamy Senthilvel
This work has been undertaken to study the occurrence of Clostridium perfringens contamination in the poultry feed ingredients and find out its in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity pattern to various antimicrobial drugs. Two hundred and ninety-eight poultry feed ingredient samples received at Poultry Disease Diagnosis and Surveillance Laboratory, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu in South India were screened for the presence of C. perfringens . The organisms were isolated in Perfringens agar under anaerobic condition and subjected to standard biochemical tests for confirmation...
September 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764520/investigation-of-a-typhoid-fever-epidemic-in-moyale-sub-county-kenya-2014-2015
#5
Dahabo Adi Galgallo, Zeinab Gura Roka, Waqo G Boru, Khalumi Abill, James Ransom
AIM: Typhoid fever is a vaccine-preventable bacterial disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality throughout Africa. This paper describes an upsurge of typhoid fever cases in Moyale Sub-County (MSC), Kenya, 2014-2015. METHODS: We conducted active hospital and health facility surveillance and laboratory and antimicrobial sensitivity testing for all patients presenting with headache, fever, stomach pains, diarrhea, or constipation at five MSC health facilities between December 2014 and January 2015...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762644/indexed-variation-graphs-for-efficient-and-accurate-resistome-profiling
#6
Will P M Rowe, Martyn D Winn
Motivation: Antimicrobial resistance remains a major threat to global health. Profiling the collective antimicrobial resistance genes within a metagenome (the "resistome") facilitates greater understanding of antimicrobial resistance gene diversity and dynamics. In turn, this can allow for gene surveillance, individualised treatment of bacterial infections and more sustainable use of antimicrobials. However, resistome profiling can be complicated by high similarity between reference genes, as well as the sheer volume of sequencing data and the complexity of analysis workflows...
May 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761760/-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-incidence-and-methicillin-resistance-in-rural-thailand-2006-2014
#7
Devan Jaganath, Possawat Jorakate, Sirirat Makprasert, Ornuma Sangwichian, Thantapat Akarachotpong, Somsak Thamthitiwat, Supphachoke Khemla, Triveni Defries, Henry C Baggett, Toni Whistler, Christopher J Gregory, Julia Rhodes
Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of bloodstream infection and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a growing threat worldwide. We evaluated the incidence rate of S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) and MRSA from population-based surveillance in all hospitals from two Thai provinces. Infections were classified as community-onset (CO) when blood cultures were obtained ≤ 2 days after hospital admission and as hospital-onset (HO) thereafter. The incidence rate of HO-SAB could only be calculated for 2009-2014 when hospitalization denominator data were available...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760135/-in-vitro-activity-of-imipenem-relebactam-against-clinical-isolates-of-gram-negative-bacilli-isolated-in-hospital-laboratories-in-the-united-states-smart-2016
#8
James A Karlowsky, Sibylle H Lob, Krystyna M Kazmierczak, Katherine Young, Mary R Motyl, Daniel F Sahm
Relebactam is a non-β-lactam, bicyclic diazabicyclooctane β-lactamase inhibitor of class A and class C β-lactamases, including Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs). It is in phase 3 clinical development in combination with imipenem/cilastatin. The in vitro activities of imipenem-relebactam, imipenem, and comparators were determined using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference broth microdilution method for isolates of Enterobacteriaceae ( n =3,419) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( n =896) collected in 2016 by 21 U...
May 14, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760124/-in-vitro-activity-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-against-clinical-isolates-of-enterobacteriaceae-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-collected-in-asia-pacific-countries-results-from-the-inform-global-surveillance-program-2012-2015
#9
James A Karlowsky, Krystyna M Kazmierczak, Samuel K Bouchillon, Boudewijn L M de Jonge, Gregory G Stone, Daniel F Sahm
The in vitro activities of ceftazidime-avibactam and comparators were determined for 9,149 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and 2,038 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa collected by 42 medical centers in nine countries in the Asia-Pacific region from 2012 to 2015 as part of the International Network For Optimal Resistance Monitoring (INFORM) global surveillance program. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted by CLSI broth microdilution and isolate subset analysis performed based on resistant phenotypes and β-lactamase content...
May 14, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755893/policing-the-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-innate-immune-functions-of-intraepithelial-lymphocytes
#10
Madeleine D Hu, Luo Jia, Karen L Edelblum
Purpose of review: This review will explore the contribution of IELs to mucosal innate immunity and highlight the similarities in IEL functional responses to bacteria, viruses and protozoan parasite invasion. Recent findings: IELs rapidly respond to microbial invasion by activating host defense responses, including the production of mucus and antimicrobial peptides to prevent microbes from reaching the epithelial surface. During active infection, IELs promote epithelial cytolysis, cytokine and chemokine production to limit pathogen invasion, replication and dissemination...
March 2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754209/activity-of-ertapenem-against-enterobacteriaceae-in-seven-global-regions-smart-2012-2016
#11
Sibylle H Lob, Meredith A Hackel, Daryl J Hoban, Katherine Young, Mary R Motyl, Daniel F Sahm
Antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacteriaceae has been increasing globally especially due to extended-spectrum-β-lactamases (ESBLs), which typically necessitate the use of carbapenems for treatment of serious infections. Emerging carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae further complicate therapy. As part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART), this analysis examined the recent activity of a key carbapenem (ertapenem) and other important therapeutic options against Enterobacteriaceae...
May 12, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751127/temporal-trends-and-patterns-in-antimicrobial-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-implicated-in-intensive-care-unit-acquired-infections-a-cohort-based-surveillance-study-in-istanbul-turkey
#12
Bulent Durdu, Evangelos I Kritsotakis, Andrew C K Lee, Perihan Torun, Ismail N Hakyemez, Bilge Gultepe, Turan Aslan
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed trends and patterns in antimicrobial resistant intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Istanbul, Turkey. METHODS: Bacterial culture and antibiotic susceptibility data were collected for all GNB causing nosocomial infections in five adult ICUs of a large university hospital during 2012-2015. Multi-resistance patterns were categorised as multidrug (MDR), extensively-drug (XDR) and pandrug (PDR)-resistance...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750044/successful-control-of-resistance-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-using-antibiotic-stewardship-and-infection-control-programs-at-a-chinese-university-hospital-a-6-year-prospective-study
#13
Lei Liu, Bin Liu, Yu Li, Wei Zhang
Objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is emerging as a highly multidrug-resistant (MDR) nosocomial pathogen. Data on the efficacy of infection control measures in endemic situations are lacking. We investigated the effect of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) and infection control programs (ICPs) in controlling the resistance of P. aeruginosa at a tertiary hospital center. Methods: Susceptibility and resistance were investigated using broth microdilution, as per the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744322/dissemination-of-multidrug-resistant-class-i-and-ii-integrons-and-molecular-typing-of-ctx-m-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#14
Alisha Akya, Azam Elahi, Roya Chegenelorestani, Mahya Rezaee
Introduction: Klebsiella pneumoniae ( K. pneumoniae ) is an important opportunistic pathogen causes serious community and hospital-acquired infections, which is highly resistant to antibiotics. We aimed to determine the frequency of multidrug resistant (MDR) and molecular typing of clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae . Methodology: One hundred isolates of K. pneumoniae were collected from clinical samples in three general hospitals in Kermanshah. The antimicrobial susceptibility and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) production of isolates were determined using disk diffusion and combined disk methods, respectively...
April 2018: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735823/antimicrobial-susceptibility-profiles-of-gram-negative-bacteria-causing-infections-collected-across-india-during-2014-2016-study-for-monitoring-antimicrobial-resistance-trend-report
#15
Balaji Veeraraghavan, Mark Ranjan Jesudason, John Antony Jude Prakasah, Shalini Anandan, Rani Diana Sahni, Agila Kumari Pragasam, Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Rajesh Joseph Selvakumar, T N Dhole, Camilla Rodrigues, Indranil Roy, Sangeetha Joshi, Bhaskar Narayan Chaudhuri, D S Chitnis
Background: The emergence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens in the hospital and community has increased the concern to the health-care providers due to the limited treatment options. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in frequently isolated bacterial pathogens causing severe infections is of great importance. The data generated will be useful for the clinicians to decide empiric therapy on the local epidemiological resistance profile of the antimicrobial agents...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729709/molecular-analysis-of-integron-gene-cassette-arrays-associated-multi-drug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-isolates-from-poultry
#16
Azza S El-Demerdash, Mohamed G Aggour, Mona M El-Azzouny, Sally H Abou-Khadra
The study investigated 110 Enterobacteriaceae isolates from broiler chickens isolated from Sharkia poultry farms and analyzed the isolates antimicrobial resistance and the presence of integrons as a potential basis for this resistance. Antibiotic susceptibilities against 12 different antibiotics were determined by the disk diffusion method. Prevalences and classes of integrons were then detected in multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) followed by sequencing of the variable parts...
April 30, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724223/estimating-the-incidence-of-enteric-fever-in-children-in-india-a-multi-site-active-fever-surveillance-of-pediatric-cohorts
#17
Jacob John, Ashish Bavdekar, Temsunaro Rongsen-Chandola, Shanta Dutta, Gagandeep Kang
BACKGROUND: Salmonella Typhi is responsible for about 20 million episodes of illness and over 140,000 deaths annually globally. South Asia has the highest documented burden of typhoid and is home to the multi-drug resistant H58 strain that makes treatment more challenging. The WHO recommends the use of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccines in typhoid endemic countries. Decisions on the preferred immunization strategy should be based on an analysis of disease burden, availability, affordability, and operational feasibility...
May 3, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721739/evaluation-of-a-pharmacy-driven-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-surveillance-protocol-in-pneumonia
#18
Sarah Dunaway, Kara W Orwig, Zachary Q Arbogast, Zachary L Myers, James A Sizemore, Stephanie E Giancola
Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important cause of pneumonia and clinicians must determine when empiric antimicrobial therapy directed toward MRSA is needed. Objective To evaluate the effect of a pharmacy-driven protocol utilizing the nasal swab MRSA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to discontinue vancomycin on duration of vancomycin therapy and clinical outcomes in patients with suspected community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) or healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). Setting A teaching hospital in Huntington, WV, USA...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717974/surveillance-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-neisseria-meningitidis-strains-isolated-from-invasive-cases-in-brazil-from-2009-to-2016
#19
Maria Cecília Gorla, Juliana Maira Watanabe Pinhata, Ueslei José Dias, Camile de Moraes, Ana Paula Lemos
PURPOSE: To describe the antimicrobial resistance profile of Neisseria meningitidis isolates causing invasive disease in Brazil from 2009 to 2016. METHODOLOGY: Among 3548 N. meningitidis isolates received, 2888 (81.4 %) were analysed for antimicrobial resistance using the broth microdilution technique, as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Isolates were tested for ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, penicillin G, ampicillin and rifampin...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708083/phenotypical-resistance-correlation-networks-for-10-non-typhoidal-salmonella-subpopulations-in-an-active-antimicrobial-surveillance-programme
#20
W J Love, K A Zawack, J G Booth, Y T Gröhn, C Lanzas
Antimicrobials play a critical role in treating cases of invasive non-typhoidal salmonellosis (iNTS) and other diseases, but efficacy is hindered by resistant pathogens. Selection for phenotypical resistance may occur via several mechanisms. The current study aims to identify correlations that would allow indirect selection of increased resistance to ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin to improve antimicrobial stewardship. These are medically important antibiotics for treating iNTS, but these resistances persist in non-Typhi Salmonella serotypes even though they are not licensed for use in US food animals...
April 30, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
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