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Antimicrobial surveillance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934820/molecular-characterisation-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-during-2014-and-2015-collected-across-india
#1
A K Pragasam, S Vijayakumar, Y D Bakthavatchalam, A Kapil, B K Das, P Ray, V Gautam, S Sistla, S C Parija, K Walia, V C Ohri, S Anandan, B Veeraraghavan
BACKGROUND: Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is of great importance. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii are important pathogens and emergence of resistance in these have increased the morbidity and mortality rates. This surveillance study was initiated by the Government of India - Indian Council of Medical Research. The aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile and to characterise the enzyme mediated antimicrobial resistance such as extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemases among multidrug-resistant (MDR) P...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934816/strengthening-surveillance-key-to-addressing-antimicrobial-resistance
#2
EDITORIAL
K Walia, V C Ohri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931396/antimicrobial-resistance-in-the-environment
#3
Maggie R Williams, Robert D Stedtfeld, Xueping Guo, Syed A Hashsham
This review summarizes important publications from 2015 pertaining to the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the environment. Emphasis is placed on sources of antibiotic resistance in the aquatic environment including wastewater treatment plants, hospitals, and agriculture, treatment and mitigation techniques, and surveillance and analysis methodologies for characterizing abundance data. As such, this review is organized into the following sections: i) occurrence of AMR in the environment, including surface waters, aquaculture, and wastewater ii) treatment technologies, and iii) technologies for rapid surveillance of AMR, iv) transmission between matrices, v) databases and analysis methods, and vi) gaps in AMR understanding...
October 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929354/differences-in-mrsa-prevalence-and-resistance-patterns-in-a-tertiary-center-before-and-after-joining-an-international-program-for-surveillance-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#4
Olivera Djuric, Snezana Jovanovic, Branka Stosovic, Tanja Tosic, Milica Jovanovic, Naomi Nartey, Jovana Todorovic, Ljiljana Markovic-Denic
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) emerged as one of the most important causes of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections (BSIs), especially the multidrug resistant clones. The aim of the present study was to compare prevalence and resistance patterns of MRSA bacteremia in the major tertiary-care academic and referral center in Serbia before and after implementing an active antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance. Laboratory-based before-after study was conducted during a two-year period (January 2012 to December 2013) in Clinical Centre of Serbia...
December 8, 2016: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928448/antimicrobial-resistance-temporal-trend-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolated-from-blood
#5
Gavriliu Lc, Benea Oe, Benea S
Background. According to the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network, Romania reports an increasing number of resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from invasive infections every year. Material and Method. We analyzed the antimicrobial susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from blood in 2010 and 2015 in "Matei Bals" National Institute of Infectious Diseases, in order to identify any significant changes in the last five years. Results. We identified 18 strains in 2010 and 37 strains in 2015...
October 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927087/multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-new-zealand-a-current-perspective
#6
L J Toombs-Ruane, J Benschop, S Burgess, P Priest, D R Murdoch, N P French
In this article we review mechanisms and potential transmission pathways of multidrug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, with an emphasis on extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-production. This provides background to better understand challenges presented by this important group of antimicrobial resistant bacteria, and inform measures aimed at prevention and control of antimicrobial resistance in general. Humans and animals interact at various levels; household pets cohabit with humans, and other animals interact with people through direct contact, as well as through the food chain and the environment...
December 7, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920754/culture-based-screening-of-aerobic-microbiome-in-diabetic-foot-subjects-and-developing-non-healing-ulcers
#7
Saba Noor, Jamal Ahmad, Iqbal Parwez, Maaz Ozair
The study was carried on diabetic foot patients to deduce clinical attributes, the occurrence of the range of aerobic microbial flora and to assess their comparative in vitro susceptibility to the customarily used antimicrobials. We also studied the potential risk factors involved in the development of non-healing ulcers. A total of 87 organisms were isolated from 70 specimens, including Escherichia coli (19.5%) among the Gram-negative and Staphylococcus aureus (18.4%) among the Gram-positive as the predominant aerobes explored...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919296/antimicrobial-resistance-in-salmonella-that-caused-foodborne-disease-outbreaks-united-states-2003-2012
#8
A C Brown, J E Grass, L C Richardson, A L Nisler, A S Bicknese, L H Gould
Although most non-typhoidal Salmonella illnesses are self-limiting, antimicrobial treatment is critical for invasive infections. To describe resistance in Salmonella that caused foodborne outbreaks in the United States, we linked outbreaks submitted to the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System to isolate susceptibility data in the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Resistant outbreaks were defined as those linked to one or more isolates with resistance to at least one antimicrobial drug...
December 6, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918266/ecdc-publishes-2015-surveillance-data-on-antimicrobial-resistance-and-antimicrobial-consumption-in-europe
#9
K Weist, L Diaz Högberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917737/a-pediatric-approach-to-ventilator-associated-events-surveillance
#10
Noelle M Cocoros, Gregory P Priebe, Latania K Logan, Susan Coffin, Gitte Larsen, Philip Toltzis, Thomas J Sandora, Marvin Harper, Julia S Sammons, James E Gray, Donald Goldmann, Kelly Horan, Michael Burton, Paul A Checchia, Matthew Lakoma, Shannon Sims, Michael Klompas, Grace M Lee
OBJECTIVE Adult ventilator-associated event (VAE) definitions include ventilator-associated conditions (VAC) and subcategories for infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVAC) and possible ventilator-associated pneumonia (PVAP). We explored these definitions for children. DESIGN Retrospective cohort SETTING Pediatric, cardiac, or neonatal intensive care units (ICUs) in 6 US hospitals PATIENTS Patients ≤18 years old ventilated for ≥1 day METHODS We identified patients with pediatric VAC based on previously proposed criteria...
December 5, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916357/triclosan-sutures-for-surgical-site-infection-in-colorectal-cancer
#11
Kanefumi Yamashita, Shinsuke Takeno, Seiichiro Hoshino, Hironari Shiwaku, Naoya Aisu, Yoichiro Yoshida, Syu Tanimura, Yuichi Yamashita
BACKGROUND: Among all procedures, surgical site infections (SSIs) in colorectal surgery continue to have the highest rate, accounting for 5%-45%. To prevent the bacterial colonization of suture material, which disables local mechanisms of wound decontamination, triclosan-coated sutures were developed. We assessed the effectiveness of triclosan-coated sutures used for skin closure on the rate of SSIs in colorectal cancer surgery. METHODS: Until August 2012, we used conventional methods for skin closure in colorectal cancer surgery at the Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Fukuoka University Faculty of Medicine...
November 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902381/detection-of-escherichia-coli-st131-complex-st705-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-st15-among-fecal-carriage-of-extended-spectrum-betalactamase-and-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#12
Esther Rios, Maria Carmen López, Iciar Rodríguez-Avial, Esther Culebras, Juan Jose Picazo
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal colonization with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and carbapenemases-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in non-selected hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients from the same geographic area of Madrid. Among the 501 patients enrolled, 43 (8.6%) carried ESBL-E and 8 (1.6%) patients exhibited CPE. The main intestinal colonizer among ESBL-E was CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli isolates in both settings (community and hospital)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899569/megares-an-antimicrobial-resistance-database-for-high-throughput-sequencing
#13
Steven M Lakin, Chris Dean, Noelle R Noyes, Adam Dettenwanger, Anne Spencer Ross, Enrique Doster, Pablo Rovira, Zaid Abdo, Kenneth L Jones, Jaime Ruiz, Keith E Belk, Paul S Morley, Christina Boucher
Antimicrobial resistance has become an imminent concern for public health. As methods for detection and characterization of antimicrobial resistance move from targeted culture and polymerase chain reaction to high throughput metagenomics, appropriate resources for the analysis of large-scale data are required. Currently, antimicrobial resistance databases are tailored to smaller-scale, functional profiling of genes using highly descriptive annotations. Such characteristics do not facilitate the analysis of large-scale, ecological sequence datasets such as those produced with the use of metagenomics for surveillance...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898030/assessment-of-the-activity-of-tigecycline-against-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-organisms-collected-from-italy-between-2012-and-2014-as-part-of-the-tigecycline-evaluation-and-surveillance-trial-t-e-s-t
#14
Stefania Stefani, Michael J Dowzicky
As part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T) we report the in vitro activity of tigecycline and its comparators against Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms collected from Italian centers between 2012 and 2014. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined according to the broth microdilution methodology of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and antimicrobial resistance was determined using the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing interpretive criteria...
November 26, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894963/longitudinal-surveillance-on-antibiogram-of-important-gram-positive-pathogens-in-southern-china-2001-to-2015
#15
Zhenbo Xu, Jinhong Xie, Brian M Peters, Bing Li, Lin Li, Guangchao Yu, Mark E Shirtliff
OBJECTIVES: A longitudinal surveillance aimed to investigate the antibiogram of three genus of important Gram-positive pathogens in Southern China during 2001-2015. METHODS: A total of 3849 Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and Streptococcus strains were isolated from Southern China during 2001-2015. Bacteria identification was performed by colony morphology, Gram staining, the API commercial kit and the Vitek 2 automated system. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was determined by disk diffusion method and MIC method...
November 25, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890443/oxa-23-and-isaba1-oxa-66-class-d-%C3%AE-lactamases-in-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates-from-companion-animals
#16
Christa Ewers, Peter Klotz, Ursula Leidner, Ivonne Stamm, Ellen Prenger-Berninghoff, Stephan Göttig, Torsten Semmler, Sandra Scheufen
Acinetobacter baumannii is recognised as a major pathogen of nosocomial infections that frequently show resistance to last-resort antimicrobials. To investigate whether A. baumannii from companion animals harbour carbapenem resistance mechanisms, 223 clinical isolates obtained from veterinary clinics between 2000 and 2013 in Germany were screened for carbapenem-non-susceptibility employing meropenem-containing Mueller-Hinton agar plates. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data were obtained using the VITEK(®)2 system...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889879/plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-in-enterobacteriaceae-a-systematic-review-with-a-focus-on-mediterranean-countries
#17
REVIEW
B Yanat, J-M Rodríguez-Martínez, A Touati
Quinolones are a family of synthetic broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs. These molecules have been widely prescribed to treat various infectious diseases and have been classified into several generations based on their spectrum of activity. Quinolones inhibit bacterial DNA synthesis by interfering with the action of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Mutations in the genes encoding these targets are the most common mechanisms of high-level fluoroquinolone resistance. Moreover, three mechanisms for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) have been discovered since 1998 and include Qnr proteins, the aminoglycoside acetyltransferase AAC(6')-Ib-cr, and plasmid-mediated efflux pumps QepA and OqxAB...
November 26, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888174/phenotypic-and-antibiogram-pattern-of-v-cholerae-isolates-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-mumbai-during-2004-2013-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#18
V Torane, S Kuyare, G Nataraj, P Mehta, S Dutta, B Sarkar
OBJECTIVES: Cholera is a major gastroenteric disease with reports on fluctuation and resistance. Hence, the objective is to determine the trend in seasonality, resistance pattern, prevalent biotypes, serotypes and phage types between 2004 and 2013 among Vibrio cholerae isolates. DESIGN: A retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTINGS: A single-centre study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital in a metropolitan city (Mumbai) of a developing country (India)...
November 25, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886031/pertussis-in-north-central-and-northwestern-regions-of-algeria
#19
Nabila Benamrouche, Hassiba Tali Maamar, Malika Lazri, Sonia Hasnaoui, Abdelkarim Radoui, Ourida Lafer, Rachida Boukari, Chawki Kaddache, Zakia Arrada, Kheira Rahal
INTRODUCTION: Pertussis outbreaks continue to occur in many countries despite high vaccination coverage. Under-diagnosed cases in adolescents and adults may result in increased transmission to infants, who are at risk of severe pertussis. Additional measures to protect both groups should be considered. METHODOLOGY: Nasopharyngeal samples and sera were collected from patients and household contacts with clinically suspected pertussis. Diagnoses were confirmed by culture, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serology...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875856/antimicrobial-resistance-surveillance-in-the-genomic-age
#20
Andrew G McArthur, Kara K Tsang
The loss of effective antimicrobials is reducing our ability to protect the global population from infectious disease. However, the field of antibiotic drug discovery and the public health monitoring of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is beginning to exploit the power of genome and metagenome sequencing. The creation of novel AMR bioinformatics tools and databases and their continued development will advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and threat severity of antibiotic resistance, while simultaneously improving our ability to accurately predict and screen for antibiotic resistance genes within environmental, agricultural, and clinical settings...
November 22, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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