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Antimicrobial surveillance

Norelle Sherry, Benjamin Howden
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as a major threat to human health globally. This has resulted in the "re-discovery" of some older antimicrobials and development of new agents, however resistance has also rapidly emerged to these agents. Areas Covered: Here we describe recent developments in resistance to three of the most important last-line antimicrobials for treatment of MDR and XDR Gram negatives: fosfomycin, colistin and ceftazidime-avibactam...
March 15, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Jin Yang Baek, Cheol-In Kang, So Hyun Kim, Kwan Soo Ko, Doo Ryeon Chung, Kyong Ran Peck, Nam Yong Lee, Jae-Hoon Song
The use of fluoroquinolones to treat respiratory tract infections and pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae has affected the emergence of resistance to this class of drugs. Increasing pneumococcal resistance to levofloxacin has become a major public health concern. We investigated the prevalence and genetic characteristics of levofloxacin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae (LNSP) clinical isolates in Korea. A total of 43 LNSP isolates collected from a national surveillance study at 13 tertiary hospitals between 2008 and 2014 were analyzed for serotype and antimicrobial susceptibilities to 19 antimicrobial agents as well as the quinolone resistance-determining region mutation...
February 16, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Barbara Albiger, Joana Revez, Katrin Claire Leitmeyer, Marc J Struelens
In an era of global health threats caused by epidemics of infectious diseases and rising multidrug resistance, microbiology laboratories provide essential scientific evidence for risk assessment, prevention, and control. Microbiology has been at the core of European infectious disease surveillance networks for decades. Since 2010, these networks have been coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Activities delivered in these networks include harmonization of laboratory diagnostic, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing methods, multicentre method validation, technical capacity mapping, training of laboratory staff, and continuing quality assessment of laboratory testing...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
R Cantón, E Loza, J Aznar, R Barrón-Adúriz, J Calvo, F J Castillo, E Cercenado, R Cisterna, F González-Romo, J L López-Hontangas, A I Suárez-Barrenechea, F Tubau, B Molloy, D López-Mendoza
OBJECTIVE: The SMART (Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends) surveillance study monitors antimicrobial susceptibility and extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in Gram-negative bacilli recovered from intra-abdominal infections (IAI). METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility of 5,343 isolates from IAI recovered in 11 centres during the 2011-2015 SMART-Spain program was analysed by standard microdilution (EUCAST criteria) and compared with that from 2002-2010...
March 12, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Chris A Whitehouse, Shenia Young, Cong Li, Chih-Hao Hsu, Gordon Martin, Shaohua Zhao
Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has become a rapid and affordable tool for public health surveillance and outbreak detection. In this study, we used the Illuminia MiSeq® to sequence 589 Campylobacter isolates obtained in 2015 from retail poultry meats as part of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). WGS data were used to identify the Campylobacter species and to compare the concordance between resistance genotypes and phenotypes. WGS accurately identified 386 C. jejuni and 203 C. coli using gyrA sequence information...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
A Sommanustweechai, V Tangcharoensathien, K Malathum, N Sumpradit, N Kiatying-Angsulee, N Janejai, S Jaroenpoj
BACKGROUND: Thailand has developed a national strategic plan on antimicrobial resistance (NSP-AMR) and endorsed by the Cabinet in August 2016. This study reviewed the main contents of the NSP-AMR and the mandates of relevant implementing agencies and identified challenges and recommends actions to mitigate implementation gaps. METHODS: This study analysed the contents of NSP-AMR, reviewed institutional mandates and assessed the implementation gaps among agencies responsible for NSP-AMR...
March 7, 2018: Public Health
Omid Nekouei, Sylvia Checkley, Cheryl Waldner, Ben A Smith, Jesse Invik, Carolee Carson, Brent Avery, Javier Sanchez, Sheryl Gow
Emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in food-borne bacteria is a public health issue. Retail meat is considered an important carrier for antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli. Currently, resistance of E. coli strains to third generation cephalosporins are of particular concern, with significant potential animal and public health consequences. Resistance to tetracyclines is also a concern, due to high prevalence of this resistance and important co-resistance patterns. However, the actual likelihood of exposure to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria via the consumption of retail meats, beyond the simple frequencies of resistance found in samples of meat at the grocery store, in Canada remains to be investigated...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
V Ayano Ogawa, Cecilia M Shah, James M Hughes, Lonnie J King
Antimicrobial resistance is a major threat to global health security. While the global community has made recent advances to mitigate the threat of antimicrobial resistance, we continue to face challenges in creating solutions and concrete actions that will yield the greatest immediate impact. To examine the critical areas in human, animal and environmental health that contribute to the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance, the Forum on Microbial Threats of the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine hosted a public workshop on June 20-21, 2017 in Washington, DC...
March 9, 2018: EcoHealth
Giancarlo Ripabelli, Manuela Tamburro, Giuliana Guerrizio, Incoronata Fanelli, Romeo Flocco, Massimiliano Scutellà, Michela L Sammarco
Antimicrobial-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae represent a global public health concern. K. pneumoniae strains isolated during 2010 and 2014-2016 within a single hospital of Molise Region, Central Italy, were analyzed testing antimicrobial susceptibility, clonality by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, and prevalence of carbapenem resistance genes by PCR. Forty isolates (23 wild-type in 2010 and 17 non-wild-type in 2014-2016) were collected from hospitalized patients (65...
March 9, 2018: Current Microbiology
Sara Andrés-Lasheras, Inma Martín-Burriel, Raúl Carlos Mainar-Jaime, Mariano Morales, Ed Kuijper, José L Blanco, Manuel Chirino-Trejo, Rosa Bolea
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is recognised as an emerging disease in both humans and some animal species. During the past few years, insights into human CDI epidemiology changed and C. difficile is also considered as an emerging community-acquired pathogen. Certain ribotypes (RT) are possibly associated with zoonotic transmission. The objective of this study was to assess the presence of C. difficile in a population of pets and to characterise the isolates. RESULTS: Faecal samples from a total of 90 diarrhoeic dogs and 24 from exotic animal species (both diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic) were analysed...
March 9, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Sien Ombelet, Jean-Baptiste Ronat, Timothy Walsh, Cedric P Yansouni, Janneke Cox, Erika Vlieghe, Delphine Martiny, Makeda Semret, Olivier Vandenberg, Jan Jacobs
Low-resource settings are disproportionately burdened by infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance. Good quality clinical bacteriology through a well functioning reference laboratory network is necessary for effective resistance control, but low-resource settings face infrastructural, technical, and behavioural challenges in the implementation of clinical bacteriology. In this Personal View, we explore what constitutes successful implementation of clinical bacteriology in low-resource settings and describe a framework for implementation that is suitable for general referral hospitals in low-income and middle-income countries with a moderate infrastructure...
March 5, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Anno de Jong, Shabbir Simjee, Farid El Garch, Hilde Moyaert, Markus Rose, Myriam Youala, Magdalena Dry
The European Antimicrobial Susceptibility Surveillance in Animals (EASSA) program collects zoonotic and commensal bacteria from food-producing animals at slaughter and tracks their susceptibility to medically important antibiotics. Results of commensal enterococci species (2013-2014) are presented here. Intestinal content from cattle, pigs and chickens were randomly sampled (5-6 countries/host; ≥4 abattoirs/country; 1 sample/animal/farm) for isolation of enterococci, MICs of 9 antibiotics were assessed by CLSI agar dilution in a central laboratory...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Elizabeth A Ashley, Judith Recht, Arlene Chua, David Dance, Mehul Dhorda, Nigel V Thomas, Nisha Ranganathan, Paul Turner, Philippe J Guerin, Nicholas J White, Nicholas P Day
Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) shoulder the bulk of the global burden of infectious diseases and drug resistance. We searched for supranational networks performing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance in LMICs and assessed their organization, methodology, impacts and challenges. Since 2000, 72 supranational networks for AMR surveillance in bacteria, fungi, HIV, TB and malaria have been created that have involved LMICs, of which 34 are ongoing. The median (range) duration of the networks was 6 years (1-70) and the number of LMICs included was 8 (1-67)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Peter M Hawkey, Roderic E Warren, David M Livermore, Cliodna A M McNulty, David A Enoch, Jonathan A Otter, A Peter R Wilson
The Working Party makes more than 100 tabulated recommendations in antimicrobial prescribing for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and suggest further research, and algorithms for hospital and community antimicrobial usage in urinary infection. The international definition of MDR is complex, unsatisfactory and hinders the setting and monitoring of improvement programmes. We give a new definition of multiresistance. The background information on the mechanisms, global spread and UK prevalence of antibiotic prescribing and resistance has been systematically reviewed...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Zahra Hashemizadeh, Davood Kalantar-Neyestanaki, Shahla Mansouri
INTRODUCTION: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli, a species that is a leading cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and is a major global public health concern. This study was designed to detect the differences in antibiotic resistance patterns, the production and type of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), and the clonal relationships among E. coli isolates from UTIs and fecal samples. METHODS: Antibacterial resistance was determined by the disk diffusion method...
January 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Soazig Clifton, Katy Town, Martina Furegato, Michelle Cole, Hamish Mohammed, Sarah C Woodhall, J Kevin Dunbar, Helen Fifer, Gwenda Hughes
OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that treatment of STIs with azithromycin may facilitate development of azithromycin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) by exposing the organism to suboptimal doses. We investigated whether treatment history for non-rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) or NG (proxies for azithromycin exposure) in sexual health (GUM) services was associated with susceptibility of NG to azithromycin. METHODS: Azithromycin susceptibility data from the Gonococcal Resistance to Antimicrobials Surveillance Programme (GRASP 2013-2015, n=4606) and additional high-level azithromycin-resistant isolates (HL-AziR) identified by the Public Health England reference laboratory (2013-2016, n=54) were matched to electronic patient records in the national GUMCAD STI surveillance dataset (2012-2016)...
March 6, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Michael A Pfaller, Michael D Huband, Rodrigo E Mendes, Robert K Flamm, Mariana Castanheira
We evaluated meropenem-vaborbactam activity against 11,559 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, including 330 carbapenem-resistant phenotypes (CRE) and carbapenemase genotypes collected worldwide during 2015. Meropenem-vaborbactam (inhibitor at 8 mg/L) and comparators were susceptibility tested using reference broth microdilution methods. CRE isolates were screened for the presence of genes encoding carbapenemases and 292 (88.5%) of the CRE isolates carried these resistance genes. A total of 209 (63.3% of the CRE; 1...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Young Ah Kim, Yoon Soo Park
Antimicrobial resistance is becoming one of the greatest challenges to public health worldwide. Infections by antimicrobial-resistant organisms could result in the failure of treatment, increased medical costs, prolonged hospital stays, and an increased socioeconomic burden. Antimicrobial usage in Korea remains heavy, even after much effort to reduce their use. According to the Korean antimicrobial resistance surveillance system, the resistance rates of many bacteria are increasing. The resistance rate of Acinetobacter baumannii to imipenem in Korea increased to 85% in 2015, representing a major public threat...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Qiuxia Ma, Yong Huang, Jian Wang, Xuebin Xu, Jane Hawkey, Chaojie Yang, Beibei Liang, Xiaofeng Hu, Fuli Wu, Xiaoxia Yang, Jinyan Wang, Rongrui Li, Peng Li, Jing Xie, Leili Jia, Ligui Wang, Rongzhang Hao, Yigang Tong, Kathryn E Holt, Shaofu Qiu, Yansong Sun, Hongbin Song
Since the plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance gene mcr-1 was first reported in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in China, only one mcr-1-positive isolate of Shigella sonnei, containing inactivated mcr-1, has been reported worldwide. Here, we screened 1650 historical S. sonnei strains isolated from 2003 to 2015 in China for mcr-1. We determined the antimicrobial susceptibilities and resistance genes of mcr-1-positive isolates and investigated the transferability of polymyxin resistance by plasmid conjugation...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Emmanuelle Cambau, Paul Saunderson, Masanori Matsuoka, Stewart T Cole, Masanori Kai, Philip Suffys, Patricia S Rosa, Diana Williams, Umesh D Gupta, Mallika Lavania, Nora Cordona, Yuji Miyamoto, Deanna Hagge, Aparna Srikantam, Wang Hongseng, Agsuni Indropo, Varalakshmi Vissa, Roch C Johnson, Bertrand Cauchoix, Vijaykumar K Pannikar, Erwin Awd Cooreman, Vr Rao Pemmaraju, Laura Gillini
OBJECTIVES: antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a priority for surveillance in bacterial infections. For leprosy, AMR could not be assessed so far since Mycobacterium leprae does not grow in vitro. We aim to obtain AMR data using molecular detection of resistance genes and to conduct a prospective open survey of resistance to antileprosy drugs in endemic countries through a WHO surveillance network. METHODS: From 2009 to 2015, multi-bacillary leprosy cases at sentinel sites of 19 countries, were studied for resistance to rifampicin, dapsone and ofloxacin by PCR sequencing of the drug resistance determining regions (DRDR) of the genes rpoB, folP1 and gyrA...
February 26, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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