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Antimicrobial surveillance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638594/high-burden-of-antimicrobial-resistance-among-gram-negative-bacteria-causing-healthcare-associated-infections-in-a-critical-care-unit-of-nepal
#1
Narayan Prasad Parajuli, Subhash Prasad Acharya, Shyam Kumar Mishra, Keshab Parajuli, Basista Prasad Rijal, Bharat Mani Pokhrel
BACKGROUND: Healthcare associated infections (HCAI) and antimicrobial resistance are principal threats to the patients of intensive care units and are the major determining factors for patient outcome. They are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, excess hospitalization and financial costs. The present study is an attempt to investigate the spectrum and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial isolates involved in healthcare associated infections (HCAI) in the patients of a critical care unit at a tertiary care university hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637576/antimicrobial-use-and-resistance-in-australia-aura-surveillance-system-coordinating-national-data-on-antimicrobial-use-and-resistance-for-australia
#2
John D Turnidge, Kathy T Meleady
Objective The aim of the present study was to describe the process of establishment and coordination of the national Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Australia (AURA) surveillance system.Methods Existing surveillance programs conducted by health organisations at state or multi-jurisdictional levels were reviewed, and gaps and opportunities identified for the development of a national system. In view of the time frame available as part of the Australian Government Department of Health funding agreement, the strategy used by the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care was to commence work with existing surveillance programs, expanding and enhancing them and developing new systems where gaps were identified...
June 22, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630688/prevalence-of-antimicrobial-resistant-pathogens-from-blood-cultures-results-from-a-laboratory-based-nationwide-surveillance-in-ghana
#3
Japheth Awuletey Opintan, Mercy Jemima Newman
BACKGROUND: Blood stream infections (BSI) are critical medical conditions with high morbidity and mortality. There is paucity of information on BSI from surveillance studies in Ghana. AIM: This study sought to demonstrate how useful BSI data can be gleaned from population-based surveillance, especially from resource-limited settings. METHODS: Data from a nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial drug resistance (AMR) in Ghana were extracted and analyzed...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630196/antimicrobial-susceptibility-trends-among-staphylococcus-aureus-from-united-states-hospitals-results-from-7-years-of-the-ceftaroline-aware-surveillance-program-2010-2016
#4
Helio S Sader, Rodrigo E Mendes, Jennifer M Streit, Robert K Flamm
We evaluated trends in Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial susceptibility in United States hospitals in the 2010-2016 period. A total of 21,056 clinical isolates from 42 medical centers were tested for susceptibility by broth microdilution methods. MRSA rates decreased from 50.0% (2010) to 42.2% (2016). Susceptibility to erythromycin, levofloxacin, and clindamycin increased slightly, whereas susceptibility to ceftaroline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline remained stable. Ceftaroline retained potent activity against MSSA and MRSA (97...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629753/active-identification-of-patients-who-are-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-colonized-is-not-associated-with-longer-duration-of-vancomycin-therapy
#5
Carlos Acuna-Villaorduna, Westyn Branch-Elliman, Judith Strymish, Kalpana Gupta
BACKGROUND: Excessive prescribing of vancomycin among patients admitted to inpatient wards is a challenge for antimicrobial stewardship programs, especially in the setting of expanded screening programs for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Studies examining factors associated with longer duration of vancomycin use are limited. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess the impact of universal MRSA admission screening on duration of vancomycin use at the VA Boston Healthcare System during the period from January 2013-November 2015...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629721/a-16-year-retrospective-surveillance-report-on-the-pathogenic-features-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-from-fahju-in-guangzhou-representative-of-southern-china
#6
Jinhong Xie, Ling Yang, Brian M Peters, Lequn Chen, Dingqiang Chen, Bing Li, Lin Li, Guangchao Yu, Zhenbo Xu, Mark E Shirtliff
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major pathogen responsible for nosocomial infections. A 16-year retrospective report from 2000 to 2015 was conducted to assess the antimicrobial resistance of P. aeruginosa in Southern China. A total of 1387 P. aeruginosa were collected from inpatients and outpatients. Susceptibility testing results were interpreted according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, 2015). Piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, aminoglycosides and carbapenems remained to be active against P...
June 16, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626738/streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-prevalence-and-antibiotic-resistance-among-young-children-with-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-south-india
#7
Savitha Nagaraj, Bhuvanesh Sukhlal Kalal, Anand Manoharan, Anita Shet
INTRODUCTION: We performed a study to describe the clinical profile, antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalent serotypes of pneumococcal isolates from children with suspected invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) admitted to a tertiary care hospital in South India. METHODS: Hospitalized children, ≤ 5 years with fever (>38 °C); increased respiratory rate or neurological symptoms were recruited, (as part of the Alliance for Surveillance of Invasive Pneumococci - ASIP - project) from January 2011 to March 2013...
June 2017: Germs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626539/resistance-to-colistin-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-a-4-0-strain
#8
REVIEW
Guido Granata, Nicola Petrosillo
The global rise of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria represents an increasing threat to patient safety. From the first observation of a carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria a global spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and carbapenemases producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has been observed. Treatment options for multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae are actually limited to combination therapy with some aminoglycosides, tigecycline and to older antimicrobial agents. Unfortunately, the prevalence of colistin-resistant and tigecycline-resistant K...
May 31, 2017: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625025/-causative-bacterial-strains-and-sensitivityto-antimicrobial-agents-in-female-acute-uncomplicated-cystitis
#9
Takuya Owari, Tomoki Yamamoto, Shinichiro Mizobuchi, Yositaka Itami, Tomonori Nakahama, Yosihiro Matsumoto, Kaoru Yamada, Hitoshi Momose
Recently, wide spreading of fluoloquinolone resistant Escherichia coli is a serious problem inthe treatment of urinary tract infection. To investigate the causative bacterial strains of female acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) in the community and their sensitivity to antimicrobial agents, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 215 female AUC patients treated at our clinics from April 2014 to June 2015. Two hundred and nineteen strains were isolated as the causative bacteria from the patients'urine samples, including E...
May 2017: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619611/an-insight-into-selection-specificity-of-quinolone-resistance-determinants-within-enterobacteriaceae-family
#10
Nivedita Dasgupta, Deepjyoti Paul, Debadatta DharChanda, Birson Ingti, Dibyojyoti Bhattacharjee, Atanu Chakravarty, Amitabha Bhattacharjee
OBJECTIVES: Quinolone antimicrobials are frequently misused due to self-medication and suboptimal dose administration, leading to the development of resistance as well as treatment failure. The present study aimed to characterise plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants and their genetic selection in the presence of quinolone stress within members of the Enterobacteriaceae. METHODS: A total of 209 non-duplicate Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected from hospital and community health centres over the period July 2013 to June 2014...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619166/surveillance-of-antimicrobial-resistance-among-escherichia-coli-from-chicken-and-swine-china-2008-2015
#11
Peng Zhang, Zhangqi Shen, Chunping Zhang, Li Song, Bing Wang, Jun Shang, Xiuying Yue, Zhina Qu, Xinnan Li, Liqin Wu, Yongjun Zheng, Anand Aditya, Yang Wang, Shixin Xu, Congming Wu
The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance trend in Escherichia coli from food animals in China. During 2008-2015, a total of 15,130 E. coli were isolated from chicken and swine from seven provinces. The susceptibilities of these isolates to nine classes of antimicrobial agents were determined using broth microdilution susceptibility method. The findings of this study include: (1) multi-drug resistance was highly prevalent in E. coli; (2) these E. coli isolates showed high resistant rate (>80%) to several old drugs, including ampicillin, tetracycline and sulfisoxazole; (3) increasing resistance to colistin, florfenicol and ceftiofur was observed; (4) the E...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606485/a-10-year-surveillance-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-in-shigella-sonnei-isolates-circulating-in-jiangsu-province-china
#12
Bing Gu, Ting Xu, Haiquan Kang, Yanling Xu, Genyan Liu, Shiyang Pan, Huimin Qian, Ping Ma
OBJECTIVES: The rapid emergence of drug-resistant Shigella sonnei is a serious public health problem. This study aimed to characterise the antimicrobial resistance patterns, molecular subtypes, and integron types and resistance gene cassettes in S. sonnei from Jiangsu Province, China. METHODS: In total, 340 S. sonnei were collected in 2002-2011 throughout Jiangsu Province. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), PCR amplification of integrons, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing of cassette regions were performed...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599616/a-survey-of-methods-used-for-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-in-veterinary-diagnostic-laboratories-in-the-united-states
#13
David A Dargatz, Matthew M Erdman, Beth Harris
Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat to animal and human health worldwide, requiring a collaborative, holistic approach. The U.S. Government has developed a national strategy to address antimicrobial resistance, with one component being to monitor antimicrobial resistance in agricultural settings. We developed a survey to collect information about antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) from the veterinary diagnostic laboratory community in the United States, assessing current practices and technologies and determining how AST information is shared...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591819/comparison-of-phenotypic-and-wgs-derived-antimicrobial-resistance-profiles-of-shigella-sonnei-isolated-from-cases-of-diarrhoeal-disease-in-england-and-wales-2015
#14
Zahra Sadouki, Martin R Day, Michel Doumith, Marie A Chattaway, Timothy J Dallman, Katie L Hopkins, Richard Elson, Neil Woodford, Gauri Godbole, Claire Jenkins
Objectives: Phenotypic and genotypic methods for the detection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Shigella sonnei in England and Wales were compared and evaluated. Methods: WGS data from 341 isolates of S. sonnei isolated between June 2015 and January 2016 were mapped to genes known to be associated with phenotypic AMR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on all viable isolates (n = 335). Results: Fifteen of 335 isolates had a discrepancy between phenotypic and genotypic testing for 1 of the 10 antimicrobial classes tested, equating to 15 (0...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584241/e-coli-promotes-human-v%C3%AE-9v%C3%AE-2%C3%A2-t-cell-transition-from-cytokine-producing-bactericidal-effectors-to-professional-phagocytic-killers-in-a-tcr-dependent-manner
#15
M Barisa, A M Kramer, Y Majani, D Moulding, L Saraiva, M Bajaj-Elliott, J Anderson, K Gustafsson
γδT cells provide immune-surveillance and host defense against infection and cancer. Surprisingly, functional details of γδT cell antimicrobial immunity to infection remain largely unexplored. Limited data suggests that γδT cells can phagocytose particles and act as professional antigen-presenting cells (pAPC). These potential functions, however, remain controversial. To better understand γδT cell-bacterial interactions, an ex vivo co-culture model of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) responses to Escherichia coli was employed...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576453/epidemiology-of-infections-and-antimicrobial-use-in-australian-haemodialysis-outpatients-findings-from-a-victorian-surveillance-network-2008-2015
#16
Leon J Worth, Tim Spelman, Steven G Holt, Judith A Brett, Ann L Bull, Michael J Richards
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic renal failure who require haemodialysis are at high risk for infections. The objectives of this study were to determine the burden of bloodstream and local access-related infections and prescribing patterns for intravenous antibiotics in Australian haemodialysis outpatients. METHODS: A surveillance network was established following stakeholder consultation, with voluntary participation by haemodialysis centres and data collation by the Victorian Healthcare Associated Infection Surveillance System Coordinating Centre...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569339/high-resolution-melting-as-a-rapid-reliable-accurate-and-cost-effective-emerging-tool-for-genotyping-pathogenic-bacteria-and-enhancing-molecular-epidemiological-surveillance-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-literature
#17
M Tamburro, G Ripabelli
INTRODUCTION: Rapid, reliable and accurate molecular typing methods are essential for outbreaks detection and infectious diseases control, for monitoring the evolution and dynamics of microbial populations, and for effective epidemiological surveillance. The introduction of a novel method based on the analysis of melting temperature of amplified products, known as High Resolution Melting (HRM) since 2002, has found applications in epidemiological studies, either for identification of bacterial species or molecular typing, as well as an extensive and increasing use in many research fields...
July 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569141/disease-burden-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-invasive-group-b-streptococcus-among-infants-in-china-a-protocol-for-a-national-prospective-observational-study
#18
Wenjing Ji, Haiying Liu, Zhengjiang Jin, Aimin Wang, Xiaoping Mu, Xiaosong Qin, Weidong Wang, Chunyan Gao, Yuning Zhu, Xiaodan Feng, Jine Lei, Shangyang She, Lan Jiang, Jing Liu, Shuhua Yang, Zeshi Liu, Gang Li, Qiuhong Li, Dawen Guo, Muhammad Majid Aziz, Ali Hassan Gillani, Yu Fang
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a cause of neonatal sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis that can lead to neurological sequelae in infants less than 3 months of age. The GBS disease burden is not known in China, therefore it cannot receive major attention. The main objectives of this study are the evaluation of the incidence of neonatal GBS infection, GBS case-fatality ratio, its serotypes and genotypes, bacterial resistance, clinical treatment and outcomes in China. METHODS: We are conducting a nation-wide, population-based, multi-center, prospective, observational cohort study in China from May 2016 to December 2017...
May 31, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569113/antimicrobial-resistance-control-strategies-a-coordinated-research-initiative-experience-in-the-asia-pacific-region
#19
Lisette Lapierre, Gabriela Asenjo, Constanza Vergara, Javiera Cornejo
The objective was to gather information on the status of antimicrobial surveillance in the Asia Pacific region and suggest control strategies. Twenty-one economies of the Asia Pacific region participated in this initiative. A survey was conducted on antimicrobial use and surveillance throughout the region. A workshop was carried out to create awareness about the issue and discuss the implementation of control strategies. Based on the survey results and workshop conclusions, it can be established that there is better understanding of the implications of antimicrobial resistance in the human medicine area...
May 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559268/circulation-of-blakpc-3-carrying-incx3-plasmids-among-c-freundii-isolates-in-an-italian-hospital
#20
Carolina Venditti, Daniela Fortini, Laura Villa, Antonella Vulcano, Silvia D'Arezzo, Alessandro Capone, Nicola Petrosillo, Carla Nisii, Alessandra Carattoli, Antonino Di Caro
Colonisations due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a source of antimicrobial resistance transmission in healthcare settings. Eleven Citrobacter freundii strains producing KPC-3 carbapenemase were isolated from rectal swabs during a three-year surveillance programme. In 9/11 strains, blaKPC-3-carrying plasmids were found to belong to the IncX3 group and complete nucleotide sequences were obtained for two of them. Our results highlight the possible role of C. freundii as reservoir of resistance genes...
May 30, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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