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Brain MRI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088078/genetically-tailored-magnetosomes-used-as-mri-probe-for-molecular-imaging-of-brain-tumor
#1
M Boucher, F Geffroy, S Prévéral, L Bellanger, E Selingue, G Adryanczyk-Perrier, M Péan, C T Lefèvre, D Pignol, N Ginet, S Mériaux
We investigate here the potential of single step production of genetically engineered magnetosomes, bacterial biogenic iron-oxide nanoparticles embedded in a lipid vesicle, as a new tailorable magnetic resonance molecular imaging probe. We demonstrate in vitro the specific binding and the significant internalization into U87 cells of magnetosomes decorated with RGD peptide. After injection at the tail vein of glioblastoma-bearing mice, we evidence in the first 2 h the rapid accumulation of both unlabeled and functionalized magnetosomes inside the tumor by Enhanced Permeability and Retention effects...
December 19, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087916/-a-case-of-idiopathic-hypertrophic-cranial-pachymeningitis-presenting-as-chronic-subdural-hematoma
#2
Zhan He, Fang Ding, Jiandong Rong, Yongli Gan
A 26-year-old male presented with a 6-day history of paroxysmal headache which was worsen with nausea and vomiting for 1 day. Head CT on admission revealed left chronic subdural hematoma with midline shift. An emergency Burr hole drainage for hematoma was performed. Headache recurred 6 days later. MRI of the brain revealed a diffuse thickening and a gadolinium-enhancement of the falx, cranial dura mater and tentorium cerebelli on the left side with pia mater involved. Lumber puncture showed increased intracranial pressure and elevated IgG level in cerebrospinal fluid...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087826/comparison-of-brain-mri-findings-with-language-and-motor-function-in-the-dystroglycanopathies
#3
Brianna N Brun, Shelley R H Mockler, Katie M Laubscher, Carrie M Stephan, Anne M Wallace, Julia A Collison, M Bridget Zimmerman, William B Dobyns, Katherine D Mathews
OBJECTIVE: To describe the spectrum of brain MRI findings in a cohort of individuals with dystroglycanopathies (DGs) and relate MRI results to function. METHODS: All available brain MRIs done for clinical indications on individuals enrolled in a DG natural history study (NCT00313677) were reviewed. Reports were reviewed when MRI was not available. MRIs were categorized as follows: (1) cortical, brainstem, and cerebellar malformations; (2) cortical and cerebellar malformations; or (3) normal...
January 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087721/joubert-syndrome-neuroimaging-findings-in-110-patients-in-correlation-with-cognitive-function-and-genetic-cause
#4
Andrea Poretti, Joseph Snow, Angela C Summers, Aylin Tekes, Thierry A G M Huisman, Nafi Aygun, Kathryn A Carson, Dan Doherty, Melissa A Parisi, Camilo Toro, Deniz Yildirimli, Meghana Vemulapalli, Jim C Mullikin, Andrew R Cullinane, Thierry Vilboux, William A Gahl, Meral Gunay-Aygun
BACKGROUND: Joubert syndrome is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous ciliopathy. Neuroimaging findings have not been systematically evaluated in a large cohort of patients with Joubert syndrome in correlation with molecular genetic cause and cognitive function. METHODS: Brain MRI of 110 patients with Joubert syndrome was included in this study. A comprehensive evaluation of brain MRI studies for infratentorial and supratentorial morphological abnormalities was performed...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087439/cerebrovascular-heterogeneity-and-neuronal-excitability
#5
REVIEW
Laura Librizzi, Marco de Curtis, Damir Janigro, Leonie Runtz, Frederic deBock, Emmanuel L Barbier, Nicola Marchi
The cerebral vasculature is a complex tridimensional network of arterial and venous vessels which are anatomically in proximity of and functionally coupled to neurons. Depending on the cellular composition of the vascular wall and its anatomical arrangement, cerebral vessels control regional blood flow, define interstitial homeostasis or cerebrospinal fluid circulation and influence immune cell patrolling. Pathological deviations from these functions promote or are a consequence of brain diseases, directly impacting neuronal firing...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087280/increased-homocysteine-levels-impair-reference-memory-and-reduce-cortical-levels-of-acetylcholine-in-a-mouse-model-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#6
Kevin Dam, Martina Füchtemeier, Tracy D Farr, Philipp Boehm-Sturm, Marco Foddis, Ulrich Dirnagl, Olga Malysheva, Marie A Caudill, Nafisa M Jadavji
Folates are B-vitamins that are vital for normal brain function. Deficiencies in folates either genetic (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, MTHFR) or dietary intake of folic acid result in elevated levels of homocysteine. Clinical studies have shown that elevated levels of homocysteine (Hcy) may be associated with the development of dementia, however this link remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of increased Hcy levels on a mouse model of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) produced by chronic hypoperfusion...
January 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087191/alterations-of-brain-activity-in-fibromyalgia-patients
#7
REVIEW
Passakorn Sawaddiruk, Sahattaya Paiboonworachat, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome, characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain with diffuse tenderness at multiple tender points. Despite intense investigations, the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia remains elusive. Evidence shows that it could be due to changes in either the peripheral or central nervous system (CNS). For the CNS changes, alterations in the high brain area of fibromyalgia patients have been investigated but the definite mechanisms are still unclear. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Functional Magnetic Resonance (fMRI) have been used to gather evidence regarding the changes of brain morphologies and activities in fibromyalgia patients...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086899/evaluations-of-diffusion-tensor-image-registration-based-on-fiber-tractography
#8
Yi Wang, Yu Shen, Dongyang Liu, Guoqin Li, Zhe Guo, Yangyu Fan, Yilong Niu
BACKGROUND: Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DT-MRI, also known as DTI) measures the diffusion properties of water molecules in tissues and to date is one of the main techniques that can effectively study the microstructures of the brain in vivo. Presently, evaluation of DTI registration techniques is still in an initial stage of development. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this paper, six well-known open source DTI registration algorithms: Elastic, Rigid, Affine, DTI-TK, FSL and SyN were applied on 11 subjects from an open-access dataset, among which one was randomly chosen as the template...
January 10, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081463/analysis-of-the-results-of-recurrent-intracranial-meningiomas-treated-with-re-radiosurgery
#9
Moinay Kim, Do Hee Lee, Hyun Jung Kim Rn, Young Hyun Cho, Jeong Hoon Kim, Do Hoon Kwon
OBJECTS: Meningioma is the most common intracranial neoplasm, comprising approximately 30% of all primary intracranial tumors (Claus et al., 2005) [1]. Treatment options include observation, microsurgical resection, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT). Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is a very effective treatment for intracranial meningiomas; previous studies showed the tumor control rate at 5-10 years of follow-up as 84.3%-100% in all cases (Feigl et al...
December 29, 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081157/simultaneous-quantitative-mri-mapping-of-t1-t2-and-magnetic-susceptibility-with-multi-echo-mp2rage
#10
Riccardo Metere, Tobias Kober, Harald E Möller, Andreas Schäfer
The knowledge of relaxation times is essential for understanding the biophysical mechanisms underlying contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. Quantitative experiments, while offering major advantages in terms of reproducibility, may benefit from simultaneous acquisitions. In this work, we demonstrate the possibility of simultaneously recording relaxation-time and susceptibility maps with a prototype Multi-Echo (ME) Magnetization-Prepared 2 RApid Gradient Echoes (MP2RAGE) sequence. T1 maps can be obtained using the MP2RAGE sequence, which is relatively insensitive to inhomogeneities of the radio-frequency transmit field, [Formula: see text]...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079713/interrogating-idh-mutation-in-brain-tumor-magnetic-resonance-and-hyperpolarization
#11
Jingzhe Hu, Travis C Salzillo, Napapon Sailasuta, Frederick F Lang, Pratip Bhattacharya
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) offers the possibility to noninvasively quantify 2HG concentration in the brain in the clinic, thereby serving as a valuable tool for patient-stratification as well as targeted treatment monitoring. Recently, hyperpolarized magnetic resonance techniques have opened up new opportunities for metabolic imaging not possible with conventional MRS in the brain. With over 10,000-fold increase in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), dynamic metabolic processes can be interrogated in vivo with very high specificity by hyperpolarized MRI...
January 11, 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079257/a-safe-cheap-and-easy-to-use-isotropic-diffusion-mri-phantom-for-clinical-and-multicenter-studies
#12
Pim Pullens, Piet Bladt, Jan Sijbers, Andrew I R Maas, Paul M Parizel
PURPOSE: Since Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) data acquisition and processing are not standardized, substantial differences in DWI derived measures such as Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) may arise which are related to the acquisition or MRI processing method, but not to the sample under study. Quality assurance using a standardized test object, or phantom, is a key factor in standardizing DWI across scanners. METHODS: Current diffusion phantoms are either complex to use, not available in larger quantities, contain substances unwanted in a clinical environment, or are expensive...
January 12, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079104/longitudinal-measurement-and-hierarchical-classification-framework-for-the-prediction-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Meiyan Huang, Wei Yang, Qianjin Feng, Wufan Chen
Accurate prediction of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is important for the early diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an early stage of AD. Therefore, patients with MCI who are at high risk of fully developing AD should be identified to accurately predict AD. However, the relationship between brain images and AD is difficult to construct because of the complex characteristics of neuroimaging data. To address this problem, we present a longitudinal measurement of MCI brain images and a hierarchical classification method for AD prediction...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079057/functional-mri-of-the-reserpine-induced-putative-rat-model-of-fibromyalgia-reveals-discriminatory-patterns-of-functional-augmentation-to-acute-nociceptive-stimuli
#14
Jack A Wells, Sayaka Shibata, Akihiko Fujikawa, Masayasu Takahashi, Tsuneo Saga, Ichio Aoki
Functional neuroimaging, applied to pre-clinical models of chronic pain, offers unique advantages in the drive to discover new treatments for this prevalent and oppressive condition. The high spatial and temporal resolution of fMRI affords detailed mapping of regional pharmacodynamics that underlie mechanisms of pain suppression by new analgesics. Despite evidence supporting the translational relevance of this approach, relatively few studies have investigated fMRI abnormalities in rodent models of chronic pain...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078795/a-continuous-infusion-dynamic-mri-model-at-3-0-tesla-for-the-serial-quantitative-evaluation-of-microvascular-proliferation-in-an-animal-model-of-glioblastoma-multiforme
#15
Hunter R Underhill
PURPOSE: To develop a continuous-infusion dynamic MRI technique to characterize tumor-associated microvascular proliferation (MVP) in a rat brain model of glioblastoma multiforme. METHODS: The proposed model assumes effects due to tumor-associated MVP (eg, vascular permeability, K(trans) ; intravascular plasma fraction, vp ) cannot be individually separated and solves for a single parameter (k(vasc) ) that quantifies the T1 -weighted contrast enhancement from dynamic images acquired during continuous contrast agent (CA) infusion...
January 12, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078760/a-study-of-volumetric-variations-of-basal-nuclei-in-the-normal-human-brain-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
Amal Elkattan, Amal Mahdy, Mohamed Eltomey, Radwa Ismail
Knowledge of the effects of healthy aging on brain structures is necessary to identify abnormal changes due to diseases. Many studies have demonstrated age-related volume changes in the brain using MRI. 60 healthy individuals who had normal MRI aged from 20 years to 80 years were examined and classified into three groups: Group I: 21 persons; nine males and 12 females aging between 20-39 years old. Group II: 22 persons; 11 males and 11 females aging between 40-59 years old. Group III: 17 persons; eight males and nine females aging between 60-80 years old...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077892/accuracy-of-conventional-diagnostic-methods-for-identifying-structural-changes-in-patients-with-focal-epilepsy
#17
Nazim Dakaj, Jera Kruja, Fisnik Jashari, Dren Boshnjaku, Nexhat Shatri, Kamber Zeqiraj
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by abnormal firing of nerve impulses in the brain. AIM: This study aims to investigate the frequency of appearance of pathological changes in conventional examination methods (electroencephalography-EEG, brain computerized tomography -CT or brain magnetic resonance imaging - MRI) in patients with epilepsy, and relationship between clinical manifestations and localization of changes in CT or MRI. METHODS: In this study we have included 110 patients with focal epilepsy who fulfilled the inclusion criteria out of 557 initially diagnosed patients...
October 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077708/dynamic-shifts-in-large-scale-brain-network-balance-as-a-function-of-arousal
#18
Christina B Young, Gal Raz, Daphne Everaerd, Christian F Beckmann, Indira Tendolkar, Talma Hendler, Guillén Fernández, Erno J Hermans
: The ability to temporarily prioritize rapid and vigilant reactions over slower higher-order cognitive functions is essential for adaptive responding to threat. This reprioritization is believed to reflect shifts in resource allocation between large-scale brain networks that support these cognitive functions, including the salience and executive control networks. However, how changes in communication within and between such networks dynamically unfold as a function of threat-related arousal remains unknown...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076974/topological-organization-of-whole-brain-white-matter-in-hiv-infection
#19
Laurie M Baker, Sarah Cooley, Ryan P Cabeen, David H Laidlaw, John A Joska, Jacqueline Hoare, Dan J Stein, Jodi Heaps-Woodruff, Lauren E Salminen, Robert H Paul
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with neuroimaging alterations. However, little is known about the topological organization of whole-brain networks and the corresponding association with cognition. As such, we examined structural whole-brain white matter connectivity patterns and cognitive performance in 29 HIV+ young adults (mean age = 25.9) with limited or no HIV treatment history. HIV+ participants and demographically similar HIV- controls (n = 16) residing in South Africa underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing...
January 11, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076893/-pseudo-feeders-on-fetal-mri-predict-outcome-in-vein-of-galen-malformations
#20
Guillaume Saliou, Irène Vraka, Jean-Paul Teglas, Marie-Victoire Senat, Philippe Durand, Claire Colmant, Augustin Ozanne, Jelena Martinovic, Pierre Tissiere, Catherine Adamsbaum
OBJECTIVE: While vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAM) can be diagnosed in the fetus, the challenge is predicting the occurrence of its two major complications: cardiopulmonary failure and encephalomalacia. This study attempts to determine which fetal brain MRI features might be used to predict the development of these complications at birth. METHODS: The cohort was extracted from a prospectively-assembled database of VGAM cases managed at a single referral centre from 2000 to 2014...
January 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
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