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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225756/prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-and-its-toxigenic-genotype-in-beef-samples-in-west-of-iran
#1
Malihe Kheradmand, Somayeh Jalilian, Amirhooshang Alvandi, Ramin Abiri
Background and Objectives: Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. The prevalence of C. difficile infection differs in various geographical areas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. difficile isolates and the prevalence of cdd3, tcdA and tcdB genes in beef samples in Kermanshah Province. Materials and Methods: One hundred ground beef samples were randomly collected from the butchers of Kermanshah province during March 2014 to March 2015...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213177/new-interest-in-wild-forest-products-in-europe-as-an-expression-of-biocultural-dynamics
#2
K F Wiersum
In Europe, interest in wild forest products is increasing. Such products may be interpreted in a biological sense as deriving from autonomously growing forest species or in a biocultural sense as reflecting dynamics in human living with biodiversity through re-wilding of earlier domesticated species. In this article I elaborate the idea that the new interests reflect biocultural dynamics. First, I identify these dynamics as involving both domestication and re-wilding and characterize these processes as involving biological, environmental, and cultural dimensions...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212502/a-spatial-analysis-of-dietary-patterns-in-a-large-representative-population-in-the-north-of-the-netherlands-the-lifelines-cohort-study
#3
Louise H Dekker, Richard H Rijnks, Dirk Strijker, Gerjan J Navis
BACKGROUND: Diet is an important modifiable risk factor for chronic diseases. In the search for effective strategies to improve dietary patterns in order to promote healthy ageing, new approaches considering contextual factors in public health medicine are warranted. The aim of this study is to examine the spatial clustering of dietary patterns in a large representative sample of adults. METHODS: Dietary patterns were defined on the basis of a 111 item Food Frequency Questionnaire among n = 117,570 adults using principal components analysis...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210465/25%C3%A2-years-of-eu-quality-schemes-for-agricultural-products-and-foodstuffs-across-eu-member-states
#4
REVIEW
Tânia G Albuquerque, M Beatriz P P Oliveira, Helena S Costa
Nowadays consumers are increasing their attention to the quality and origin of products they consume. EU quality schemes are associated with a label, which was introduced to allow consumers to perform an informed choice and to protect producers from unfair practices. This paper provides an overview of the last 25 years of EU quality schemes (Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) and Traditional Speciality Guaranteed (TSG)) on agricultural products and foodstuffs across the 28 EU Member States...
December 6, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209290/enterotoxigenicity-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-retail-food-in-china
#5
Wei Wang, Zulqarnain Baloch, Tao Jiang, Cunshan Zhang, Zixin Peng, Fengqin Li, Séamus Fanning, Aiguo Ma, Jin Xu
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of zoonotic agent in the world, which are attributable to the contamination of food with enterotoxins. In this study, a total of 1,150 S. aureus isolates were cultured from 27,000 retail foods items from 203 cities of 24 provinces in China in 2015 and were test for antimicrobial susceptibility. Additionally, the role of the genes responsible for the staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEA to SEE), methicillin resistance (mecA) and the toxigenic capabilities were also assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196291/shotgun-metagenomics-and-volatilome-profile-of-the-microbiota-of-fermented-sausages
#6
Ilario Ferrocino, Alberto Bellio, Manuela Giordano, Guerrino Macori, Angelo Romano, Kalliopi Rantsiou, Lucia Decastelli, Luca Cocolin
Changes in the microbial gene content and abundance can be analyzed to detect shifts in the microbiota composition due to the use of a starter culture in food fermentation process with the consequent shift of key metabolic pathways directly connected with product acceptance. Meat fermentation is a complex process involving microbes that metabolize the main components in meat. The breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids can lead to the formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can drastically affect the organoleptic characteristics of the final products...
December 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196005/inactivation-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-and-bacillus-cereus-by-power-ultrasound-during-the-curing-processing-in-brining-liquid-and-beef
#7
Dacheng Kang, Yuhe Jiang, Lujuan Xing, Guanghong Zhou, Wangang Zhang
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ultrasound on the number of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus in brining and beef during the curing processing. The mechanisms of the inactivation for the pathogens were preliminarily explored. The ultrasound intensity (2.39, 6.23, 11.32 and 20.96Wcm-2) and sonication time (30, 60, 90 and 120min) at 10°C were assessed in brine and meat. Plate count data indicated that 20.96Wcm-2 for 120min was the optimal treatment for bacterial reductions...
December 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190664/a-systematic-review-of-zoonotic-enteric-parasitic-diseases-among-nomadic-and-pastoral-people
#8
Amber N Barnes, Anu Davaasuren, Uyanga Baasandagva, Gregory C Gray
INTRODUCTION: Zoonotic enteric parasites are ubiquitous and remain a public health threat to humans due to our close relationship with domestic animals and wildlife, inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and diet. While most communities are now sedentary, nomadic and pastoral populations still exist and experience unique exposure risks for acquiring zoonotic enteric parasites. Through this systematic review we sought to summarize published research regarding pathogens present in nomadic populations and to identify the risk factors for their infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184377/virulence-and-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-encoding-genes-in-escherichia-coli-recovered-from-chicken-meat-intended-for-hospitalized-human-consumption
#9
Gamal A Younis, Rasha M Elkenany, Mohamed A Fouda, Noura F Mostafa
Aim: This study describes the prevalence of Escherichia coli in frozen chicken meat intended for human consumption with emphasis on their virulence determinants through detection of the virulence genes and recognition of the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) encoding genes (blaOXA and blaTEM genes). Materials and Methods: A total of 120 frozen chicken meat samples were investigated for isolation of E. coli. All isolates were subjected to biochemical and serological tests...
October 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173645/different-lactobacillus-populations-dominate-in-chorizo-de-le%C3%A3-n-manufacturing-performed-in-different-production-plants
#10
Narciso M Quijada, Francesca De Filippis, José Javier Sanz, María Del Camino García-Fernández, David Rodríguez-Lázaro, Danilo Ercolini, Marta Hernández
"Chorizo de Léon" is a high-value Spanish dry fermented sausage traditionally manufactured without the use of starter cultures, owing to the activity of a house-specific autochthonous microbiota that naturally contaminates the meat from the environment, the equipment and the raw materials. Lactic acid bacteria (particularly Lactobacillus) and coagulase-negative cocci (mainly Staphylococcus) have been reported as the most important bacterial groups regarding the organoleptic and safety properties of the dry fermented sausages...
April 2018: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173642/diversity-of-bacterial-communities-in-french-chicken-cuts-stored-under-modified-atmosphere-packaging
#11
Amélie Rouger, Nicolas Moriceau, Hervé Prévost, Benoît Remenant, Monique Zagorec
Poultry meat, the second most consumed meat in France, is commercialized mainly as portions of chicken cuts with various quality labels, stored under various modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), with shelf-life ranging from 9 to 17 days. We used 16S rDNA pyrosequencing to describe microbiota of chicken legs. Ten samples representing a wide diversity of labels and MAP available on the market were collected from local supermarkets and stored at 4 °C. Microbiota were collected, total DNA was extracted, and V1-V3 fragment of 16S rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced...
April 2018: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172985/impact-of-desiccation-and-heat-exposure-stress-on-salmonella-tolerance-to-acidic-conditions
#12
Kurt E Richardson, Nelson A Cox, Douglas E Cosby, Mark E Berrang
In a recent study, the pH of commonly used Salmonella pre-enrichment media became acidic (pH 4.0 to 5.0) when feed or feed ingredients were incubated for 24 h. Acidic conditions have been reported to injure or kill Salmonella. In this study, cultures of four known feed isolates (S. montevideo, S. senftenberg, S. tennessee, and S. schwarzengrund) and four important processing plant isolates (S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, S. infantis, and S. heidelberg) were grown on meat and bone meal and later subjected to desiccation and heat exposure to stress the microorganism...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168443/francisella-tularensis-in-muscle-from-diseased-hares-a-risk-factor-for-humans
#13
G Hestvik, H Uhlhorn, T Jinnerot, S Åkerström, F Södersten, D Gavier-Widén
Tularemia caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis is a zoonotic disease. Tularemia is a common disease in the hare, and as a game species can be an important source of infection for humans. In this study, hares diagnosed with tularemia were examined with the aim to investigate whether the muscle (meat) had any pathological changes and/or contained F. tularensis. Real-time PCR and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC) detected the bacteria in muscle samples from 40 out of 43 investigated hares. IHC showed that bacteria were few and most commonly located in the peri- and endomysium...
November 23, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166270/detection-of-yersinia-enterocolitica-species-in-pig-tonsils-and-raw-pork-meat-by-the-real-time-pcr-and-culture-methods
#14
M A Stachelska
The aim of the present study was to establish a rapid and accurate real-time PCR method to detect pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in pork. Yersinia enterocolitica is considered to be a crucial zoonosis, which can provoke diseases both in humans and animals. The classical culture methods designated to detect Y. enterocolitica species in food matrices are often very time-consuming. The chromosomal locus _tag CH49_3099 gene, that appears in pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, was applied as DNA target for the 5' nuclease PCR protocol...
September 26, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150355/contribution-of-nitric-oxide-synthase-from-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-to-the-development-of-red-myoglobin-derivatives
#15
Geoffrey Ras, Xavier Bailly, Jean-Paul Chacornac, Véronique Zuliani, Patrick Derkx, Tim M Seibert, Régine Talon, Sabine Leroy
As part of the microbial community of meat or as starter cultures, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) serve several essential technological purposes in meat products, such as color development through the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. As the safety of nitrite as an additive has been questioned, we explored the potential of CNS to develop red myoglobin derivatives such as oxymyoglobin and nitrosomyoglobin. Nitrosoheme was extracted to evaluate NO production. This production could be due to a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143081/generation-in-yeast-and-antigenic-characterization-of-hepatitis-e-virus-capsid-protein-virus-like-particles
#16
Martynas Simanavicius, Paulius Lukas Tamosiunas, Rasa Petraityte-Burneikiene, Reimar Johne, Rainer G Ulrich, Aurelija Zvirbliene, Indre Kucinskaite-Kodze
Hepatitis E is a globally distributed human disease caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). In Europe, it spreads through undercooked pork meat or other products and with blood components through transfusions. There are no approved or golden standard serologic systems for HEV diagnostics. Commercially available HEV tests often provide inconsistent results which may differ among the assays. In this study, we describe generation in yeast and characterization of HEV genotype 3 (HEV-3) and rat HEV capsid proteins self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) and the development of HEV-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs)...
November 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140661/an-international-model-for-antibiotics-regulation
#17
Emilie Aguirre
We face a global antibiotics resistance crisis. Antibiotic drugs are rapidly losing their effectiveness, potentially propelling us toward a post-antibiotic world. The largest use of antibiotics in the world is in food-producing animals. Food producers administer these drugs in routine, low doses—the types of doses that are incidentally the most conducive to breeding antibiotic resistance. In general, individual countries have been too slow to act in regulating misuse and overuse of antibiotics in foodproducing animals...
2017: Food and Drug Law Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131334/antioxidant-activities-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-for-quality-improvement-of-fermented-sausage
#18
Yulong Zhang, Ping Hu, Lijiao Lou, Jianlong Zhan, Min Fan, Dan Li, Qianwei Liao
Lactobacillus curvatus (SR6) and Lactobacillus paracasei (SR10-1) were assessed for their antioxidant activities and inoculated into sausages to investigate their effects on quality during fermentation. The results showed that L. curvatus SR6 had better DPPH• scavenging activity (59.67% ± 6.68%) and reducing power (47.31% ± 4.62%) and L. paracasei SR10-1 had better OH• scavenging activity (285.67% ± 2.00%) and anti-lipid peroxidation capacity (63.89% ± 0.93%). The superoxide dismutase activity of the cell culture fluid was greater than 47...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130778/lack-of-induced-mutagenesis-in-e-coli-or-human-lymphoblast-cell-line-upon-long-term-sub-culturing-in-medium-from-irradiated-meat
#19
Sachin N Hajare, Jyoti Tripathi, Satyendra Gautam
PURPOSE: Current study was aimed to enhance the confidence of consumers as well as entrepreneurs towards food irradiation program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this work, safety of high dose (25 kGy) irradiated meat samples (HDIMS) was ascertained by scoring mutation frequency through a long-term sub-culturing study in Escherichia coli MG1655 cells (ATCC 700926) up to 1500 generations (at 1%), 250 generations (at 5 and 10%) and human lymphoblast thymidine kinase heterozygote (TK6) cell line (ATCC CRL-8015) [at two gene loci, tk(-/+) (thymidine kinase) and hprt(+) (Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase)] up to 156 generations using goat meat sample...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130766/molecular-characterization-of-salmonella-from-beef-carcasses-and-fecal-samples-from-an-integrated-feedlot-and-abattoir-in-mexico
#20
Diana Ayala, Kendra Nightingale, Claudia Narvaez-Bravo, Mindy M Brashears
Nontyphoid Salmonella strains are some of the leading causes of foodborne illnesses worldwide; however, there is very limited information on the presence and characteristics of Salmonella in the food production chain in developing countries. In this study, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used for molecular subtyping and for monitoring the ecology and transmission of Salmonella isolates in a slaughter facility in Mexico in an attempt to determine specific steps that need to be improved to reduce Salmonella contamination in beef carcasses...
December 2017: Journal of Food Protection
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