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"Brain plasticity"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138675/benign-effect-of-extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-field-on-brain-plasticity-assessed-by-nitric-oxide-metabolism-during-poststroke-rehabilitation
#1
Natalia Cichoń, Piotr Czarny, Michał Bijak, Elżbieta Miller, Tomasz Śliwiński, Janusz Szemraj, Joanna Saluk-Bijak
Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most important signal molecules, involved in both physiological and pathological processes. As a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, NO regulates cerebral blood flow, neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of the extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on generation and metabolism of NO, as a neurotransmitter, in the rehabilitation of poststroke patients. Forty-eight patients were divided into two groups: ELF-EMF and non-ELF-EMF...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128107/a-systematic-look-at-environmental-modulation-and-its-impact-in-brain-development
#2
REVIEW
Alessandro Sale
Several experimental procedures are currently used to investigate the impact of the environment on brain plasticity under physiological and pathological conditions. The available methodologies are aimed at obtaining global or specific reductions or intensifications of the stimuli, with initial standardization in animal models being paralleled by translational applications to humans. More procedures can be combined together or applied in series to obtain powerful experimental paradigms, and the choice of a given setting should take into account the specific genetic background, age, and phenotypic vulnerabilities of the target subjects...
November 8, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119927/gene-environment-interactions-in-late-life-linking-psychosocial-stress-with-brain-aging
#3
Anthony S Zannas
Gene-environment interactions (GxE) can have lasting consequences on brain structure and function, potentially contributing to diverse neuropsychiatric phenotypes. This has been extensively demonstrated by studies examining GxE in childhood and early adulthood, whereas much fewer studies have addressed this question in late life. The relative paucity of studies examining GxE in late life may stem from the working hypothesis that brains become less malleable to environmental inputs as life progresses. However, while some components of brain plasticity decline with increasing age, others are retained and may even become more pronounced in old ages...
November 9, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118710/cognitive-vulnerability-in-aging-may-be-modulated-by-education-and-reserve-in-healthy-people
#4
María D Roldán-Tapia, Rosa Cánovas, Irene León, Juan García-Garcia
Aging is related to a deterioration of cognitive performance and to multiple alterations in the brain. Even before the beginning of a noticeable cognitive decline, the framework which holds cognitive function experiences these alterations. From a system-vulnerability point of view of cognition, the deterioration associated with age would be the collection of repercussions during a life. Brain function and structure are modified in a multidimensional way, which could concern different aspects like structural integrity, functional activity, connectivity, or glucose metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118205/epigenetic-etiology-of-intellectual-disability
#5
Shigeki Iwase, Nathalie G Bérubé, Zhaolan Zhou, Nael Nadif Kasri, Elena Battaglioli, Marilyn Scandaglia, Angel Barco
Intellectual disability (ID) is a prevailing neurodevelopmental condition associated with impaired cognitive and adaptive behaviors. Many chromatin-modifying enzymes and other epigenetic regulators have been genetically associated with ID disorders (IDDs). Here we review how alterations in the function of histone modifiers, chromatin remodelers, and methyl-DNA binding proteins contribute to neurodevelopmental defects and altered brain plasticity. We also discuss how progress in human genetics has led to the generation of mouse models that unveil the molecular etiology of ID, and outline the direction in which this field is moving to identify therapeutic strategies for IDDs...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113947/diffusion-tensor-and-volumetric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-the-brains-of-professional-musicians
#6
Niyazi Acer, Serap Bastepe-Gray, Ayse Sagiroglu, Kazim Z Gumus, Levent Degirmencioglu, Gokmen Zararsiz, Muhammet Usame Ozic
Professional musicians represent an ideal model to study the training-induced brain plasticity. The current study aimed to investigate the brain volume and diffusion characteristics of musicians using structural magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The combined use of volumetric and diffusion methods in studying musician brain has not been done in literature. Our study group consisted of seven male musicians playing an instrument and seven age- and gender-matched non-musicians. We evaluated the volumes of gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and calculated total intracranial volume (TIV) and measured the fractional anisotropy (FA) of pre-selected WM bundles: corpus callosum (CC), corticospinal tract (CST), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), forceps major (ForMaj), forceps minor (ForMin), and arcuate fasciculus (AF)...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105971/home-based-tactile-discrimination-training-tdt-reduces-phantom-limb-pain
#7
Robert Wakolbinger, Martin Diers, Laura A Hruby, Agnes Sturma, Oskar C Aszmann
BACKGROUND: Phantom limb pain (PLP) affects a high percentage of amputees. Since treatment options are limited, low quality of life and addiction to pain medication is frequent. New attempts, such as mirror therapy or electrical sensory discrimination training, make use of the brain's plasticity to alleviate this centrally derived pain. AIM: This pilot study assessed the question, whether home-based tactile discrimination training (TDT) leads to a stronger decrease in phantom limb pain levels, compared to a standard massage treatment...
November 6, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104424/new-design-of-a-soft-robotics-wearable-elbow-exoskeleton-based-on-shape-memory-alloy-wire-actuators
#8
Dorin Copaci, Enrique Cano, Luis Moreno, Dolores Blanco
The elbow joint is a complex articulation composed of the humeroulnar and humeroradial joints (for flexion-extension movement) and the proximal radioulnar articulation (for pronation-supination movement). During the flexion-extension movement of the elbow joint, the rotation center changes and this articulation cannot be truly represented as a simple hinge joint. The main goal of this project is to design and assemble a medical rehabilitation exoskeleton for the elbow with one degree of freedom for flexion-extension, using the rotation center for proper patient elbow joint articulation...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097017/emerging-roles-of-creb-regulated-transcription-coactivators-in-brain-physiology-and-pathology
#9
REVIEW
Carlos A Saura, Jean-René Cardinaux
The brain has the ability to sense, coordinate, and respond to environmental changes through biological processes involving activity-dependent gene expression. cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB)-regulated transcription coactivators (CRTCs) have recently emerged as novel transcriptional regulators of essential biological functions, while their deregulation is linked to age-related human diseases. In the brain, CRTCs are unique signaling factors that act as sensors and integrators of hormonal, metabolic, and neural signals contributing to brain plasticity and brain-body communication...
October 30, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093221/experience-dependent-mushroom-body-plasticity-in-butterflies-consequences-of-search-complexity-and-host-range
#10
Laura J A van Dijk, Niklas Janz, Alexander Schäpers, Gabriella Gamberale-Stille, Mikael A Carlsson
An ovipositing insect experiences many sensory challenges during her search for a suitable host plant. These sensory challenges become exceedingly pronounced when host range increases, as larger varieties of sensory inputs have to be perceived and processed in the brain. Neural capacities can be exceeded upon information overload, inflicting costs on oviposition accuracy. One presumed generalist strategy to diminish information overload is the acquisition of a focused search during its lifetime based on experiences within the current environment, a strategy opposed to a more genetically determined focus expected to be seen in relative specialists...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079367/astrocytes-as-a-target-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-to-treat-depression
#11
REVIEW
Hiromu Monai, Hajime Hirase
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been reported to be effective in treating mood disorders such as major depressive disorder, however, its detailed mechanism of action is not fully understood. Human and animal experiments have demonstrated that tDCS promotes brain plasticity and have suggested that this consequence may underlie its therapeutic benefits. Nonetheless, the specific neurobiological underpinnings of tDCS-induced brain plasticity have only recently begun to be investigated. While brain plasticity occurs in synapses formed by neurons, astrocytes, a major glial cell type, have recently been shown to support synaptic plasticity via intracellular Ca(2+) signaling...
October 25, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077534/neuroplasticity-and-the-logic-of-cognitive-neuropsychology
#12
Simon Fischer-Baum, Giulia Campana
More than thirty years ago, Alfonso Caramazza laid out assumptions for drawing inferences about the undamaged cognitive system from individuals with brain damage. Since then, these assumptions have been challenged including the transparency or subtractivity assumption, that the cognitive system does not reorganize following brain damage. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that brains are highly plastic. However, there is no clear connection between brain plasticity and cognitive reorganization. Brain plasticity research does not require a rethinking of the core logic of cognitive neuropsychology...
October 27, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073529/oligodendroglia-lineage-cells-in-brain-plasticity-homeostasis-and-psychiatric-disorders
#13
REVIEW
F Birey, A G Kokkosis, A Aguirre
Adult oligodendrocyte progenitor cells are uniformly distributed in both gray and white matter, displaying robust proliferative and migratory potential during health and disease. Recently, developments in new experimental approaches have brought about several novel insights about NG2-glia and myelinating oligodendrocytes, indicating a diverse toolkit of functions in experience-dependent myelination and homeostasis in the adult CNS. In this review, we summarize some of the topical studies that highlight newly emerging findings implicating oligodendroglia-lineage cells in brain plasticity, homeostasis and pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders...
October 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056915/short-duration-maximal-and-long-duration-submaximal-effort-forearm-exercise-achieve-elevations-in-serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#14
Jeremy J Walsh, Robert F Bentley, Brendon J Gurd, Michael E Tschakovsky
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a major orchestrator of exercise-induced brain plasticity and circulating (peripheral) BDNF may have central effects. Approximately 99% of circulating BDNF is platelet-bound, and at rest ~30% of circulating platelets are stored in the spleen. Interestingly, forearm handgrip exercise significantly elevates sympathetic outflow and has been shown to induce splenic constriction, suggesting that small muscle mass exercise could stand as a viable strategy for increasing circulating BDNF; however, the BDNF response to handgrip exercise is currently unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055260/swimming-exercise-reverses-cums-induced-changes-in-depression-like-behaviors-and-hippocampal-plasticity-related-proteins
#15
Weina Liu, Xiangli Xue, Jie Xia, Jiatong Liu, Zhengtang Qi
BACKGROUND: Stress-induced failed resilience of brain plasticity can contribute to the onset and recurrence of depression. Chronic stress has been reported to open windows of epigenetic plasticity in hippocampus. However, how hippocampal plasticity underlies depression-like behaviors and how it adapts in response to stress has not been addressed. The present study aimed to investigate the signaling mechanisms of CUMS affecting hippocampal plasticity-related proteins expression and the regulation of swimming exercise in mice...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054879/domain-specificity-of-oculomotor-learning-after-changes-in-sensory-processing
#16
Yuliy Tsank, Miguel P Eckstein
Humans visually process the world with varying spatial resolution and can program their eye movements optimally to maximize information acquisition for a variety of everyday tasks. Diseases such as macular degeneration can change visual sensory processing, introducing central vision loss (a scotoma). However, humans can learn to direct a new preferred retinal location to regions of interest for simple visual tasks. Whether such learned compensatory saccades are optimal and generalize to more complex tasks, which require integrating information across a large area of the visual field, is not well-understood...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045569/altered-expression-of-reorganized-inputs-as-they-ascend-from-the-cuneate-nucleus-to-cortical-area-3b-in-monkeys-with-long-term-spinal-cord-injuries
#17
Priyabrata Halder, Niranjan Kambi, Prem Chand, Neeraj Jain
Chronic deafferentations in adult mammals result in reorganization of the brain. Lesions of the dorsal columns of the spinal cord at cervical levels in monkeys result in expansion of the intact chin inputs into the deafferented hand representation in area 3b, second somatosensory (S2) and parietal ventral (PV) areas of the somatosensory cortex, ventroposterior lateral nucleus (VPL) of the thalamus, and cuneate nucleus of the brainstem. Here, we describe the extent and nature of reorganization of the cuneate and gracile nuclei of adult macaque monkeys with chronic unilateral lesions of the dorsal columns, and compare it with the reorganization of area 3b in the same monkeys...
October 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038516/eeg-topographies-provide-subject-specific-correlates-of-motor-control
#18
Elvira Pirondini, Martina Coscia, Jesus Minguillon, José Del R Millán, Dimitri Van De Ville, Silvestro Micera
Electroencephalography (EEG) of brain activity can be represented in terms of dynamically changing topographies (microstates). Notably, spontaneous brain activity recorded at rest can be characterized by four distinctive topographies. Despite their well-established role during resting state, their implication in the generation of motor behavior is debated. Evidence of such a functional role of spontaneous brain activity would provide support for the design of novel and sensitive biomarkers in neurological disorders...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038061/structural-and-functional-brain-changes-at-early-and-late-stages-of-complex-regional-pain-syndrome
#19
Mahsa Shokouhi, Collin Clarke, Patricia Morley-Forster, Dwight E Moulin, Karen Davis, Keith St Lawrence
Brain plasticity is demonstrated in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), although it is unclear how it modulates at different stages of CRPS. The observation that symptoms can progress over time suggests that the pattern of brain changes might also evolve. We measured structural and functional changes as well as sensorimotor integration at early and late stages (ES and LS) of CRPS. Twelve ES patients, sixteen LS patients, and sixteen age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Gray matter (GM) volume was estimated using voxel-based morphometry...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033030/how-to-use-stem-cells-for-repair-in-stroke-patients
#20
REVIEW
O Detante, C Rome, J Papassin
Regenerative cell therapy is a promising therapeutic strategy in neurology, most notably to improve stroke recovery. Although tolerability and feasibility have apparently been validated, many questions remain as to what is the best type of cells to use, the best route and the post-stroke delay for administration. Two main strategies have currently emerged: intravenous injection of mesenchymal stem cells with systemic trophic support; and intracerebral grafting of neural stem cells with brain repair effects at the lesion site...
November 2017: Revue Neurologique
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