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"Brain plasticity"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222547/brain-plasticity-after-implanted-peroneal-nerve-electrical-stimulation-to-improve-gait-in-chronic-stroke-patients-two-case-reports
#1
Aurore Thibaut, Florent Moissenet, Carol Di Perri, Céline Schreiber, Angélique Remacle, Elisabeth Kolanowski, Frédéric Chantraine, Claire Bernard, Roland Hustinx, Jean-Flory Tshibanda, Paul Filipetti, Steven Laureys, Olivia Gosseries
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that stimulation of the peroneal nerve using an implantable 4-channel peroneal nerve stimulator could improve gait in stroke patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess structural cortical and regional cerebral metabolism changes associated with an implanted peroneal nerve electrical stimulator to correct foot drop related to a central nervous system lesion. METHODS: Two stroke patients presenting a foot drop related to a central nervous system lesion were implanted with an implanted peroneal nerve electrical stimulator...
February 6, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220070/neural-correlates-of-mirror-visual-feedback-induced-performance-improvements-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#2
Viola Rjosk, Jöran Lepsien, Elisabeth Kaminski, Maike Hoff, Bernhard Sehm, Christopher J Steele, Arno Villringer, Patrick Ragert
Mirror visual feedback (MVF) is a promising approach to enhance motor performance without training in healthy adults as well as in patients with focal brain lesions. There is preliminary evidence that a functional modulation within and between primary motor cortices as assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) might be one candidate mechanism mediating the observed behavioral effects. Recently, studies using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have indicated that MVF-induced functional changes might not be restricted to the primary motor cortex (M1) but also include higher order regions responsible for perceptual-motor coordination and visual attention...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212927/patients-with-chronic-dizziness-following-traumatic-head-injury-typically-have-multiple-diagnoses-involving-combined-peripheral-and-central-vestibular-dysfunction
#3
Q Arshad, R E Roberts, H Ahmad, R Lobo, M Patel, T Ham, D J Sharp, B M Seemungal
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesised that chronic vestibular symptoms (CVS) of imbalance and dizziness post-traumatic head injury (THI) may relate to: (i) the occurrence of multiple simultaneous vestibular diagnoses including both peripheral and central vestibular dysfunction in individual patients increasing the chance of missed diagnoses and suboptimal treatment; (ii) an impaired response to vestibular rehabilitation since the central mechanisms that mediate rehabilitation related brain plasticity may themselves be disrupted...
February 7, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197747/upper-alpha-based-neurofeedback-training-in-chronic-stroke-brain-plasticity-processes-and-cognitive-effects
#4
Silvia Erika Kober, Daniela Schweiger, Johanna Louise Reichert, Christa Neuper, Guilherme Wood
In the present study, we investigated the effects of upper alpha based neurofeedback (NF) training on electrical brain activity and cognitive functions in stroke survivors. Therefore, two single chronic stroke patients with memory deficits (subject A with a bilateral subarachnoid hemorrhage; subject B with an ischemic stroke in the left arteria cerebri media) and a healthy elderly control group (N = 24) received up to ten NF training sessions. To evaluate NF training effects, all participants performed multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) resting measurements and a neuropsychological test battery assessing different cognitive functions before and after NF training...
February 14, 2017: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197403/network-plasticity-and-intraoperative-mapping-for-personalized-multimodal-management-of-diffuse-low-grade-gliomas
#5
REVIEW
Cristina Diana Ghinda, Hugues Duffau
Gliomas are the most frequent primary brain tumors and include a variety of different histological tumor types and malignancy grades. Recent achievements in terms of molecular and imaging fields have created an unprecedented opportunity to perform a comprehensive interdisciplinary assessment of the glioma pathophysiology, with direct implications in terms of the medical and surgical treatment strategies available for patients. The current paradigm shift considers glioma management in a comprehensive perspective that takes into account the intricate connectivity of the cerebral networks...
2017: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191467/effects-of-tibolone-on-the-central-nervous-system-clinical-and-experimental-approaches
#6
REVIEW
Rodolfo Pinto-Almazán, Julia J Segura-Uribe, Eunice D Farfán-García, Christian Guerra-Araiza
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) increases the risk of endometrial and breast cancer. A strategy to reduce this incidence is the use of tibolone (TIB). The aim of this paper was to address the effects of TIB on the central nervous system (CNS). For the present review, MEDLINE (via PubMed), LILACS (via BIREME), Ovid Global Health, SCOPUS, Scielo, and PsycINFO (ProQuest Research Library) electronic databases were searched for the results of controlled clinical trials on peri- and postmenopausal women published from 1990 to September 2016...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178375/melatonin-restores-hippocampal-neural-precursor-proliferation-and-prevents-cognitive-deficits-induced-by-jet-lag-simulation-in-adult-mice
#7
Deetje Iggena, York Winter, Barbara Steiner
Frequent flyers and shift workers undergo circadian dysrhythmia with adverse impact on body and mind. The circadian rhythm disorder "jet lag" disturbs hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial cognition, which represent morphological and functional adult brain plasticity. This raises the question if pro-neurogenic stimuli might prevent those consequences. However, suitable measures to mitigate jet lag induced adverse effects on brain plasticity have been neglected so far. Here, we used adult C57Bl6 mice to investigate the pro-neurogenic stimuli melatonin (8mg/kg i...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173964/sleep-deprivation-disrupts-the-contribution-of-the-hippocampus-to-the-formation-of-novel-lexical-associations
#8
Virginie Sterpenich, Leonardo Ceravolo, Sophie Schwartz
Sleep is involved in the mechanisms underlying memory consolidation and brain plasticity. Consolidation refers to a process through which labile memories are reorganized into more stable ones. An intriguing but often neglected question concerns how pre-existing knowledge is modified when new information enters memory, and whether sleep can influence this process. We investigated how nonword learning may modify the neural representations of closely-related existing words. We also tested whether sleep contributes to any such effect by comparing a group of participants who slept during the night following a first encoding session to a sleep deprived group...
February 4, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165616/advancing-the-neurophysiological-understanding-of-delirium
#9
Mouhsin M Shafi, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Tamara G Fong, Richard N Jones, Edward R Marcantonio, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Sharon K Inouye
Delirium is a common problem associated with substantial morbidity and increased mortality. However, the brain dysfunction that leads some individuals to develop delirium in response to stressors is unclear. In this article, we briefly review the neurophysiologic literature characterizing the changes in brain function that occur in delirium, and in other cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Based on this literature, we propose a conceptual model for delirium. We propose that delirium results from a breakdown of brain function in individuals with impairments in brain connectivity and brain plasticity exposed to a stressor...
February 6, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160750/repetitive-peripheral-magnetic-neurostimulation-of-multifidus-muscles-combined-with-motor-training-influences-spine-motor-control-and-chronic-low-back-pain
#10
Hugo Massé-Alarie, Louis-David Beaulieu, Richard Preuss, Cyril Schneider
OBJECTIVE: The study tested whether combining repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (RPMS) and motor training of the superficial multifidus muscle (MF) better improved the corticomotor control of spine than training alone in chronic low back pain (CLBP). METHODS: Twenty-one participants with CLBP were randomly allocated to [RPMS+training] and [Sham+training] groups for three sessions (S1-S3) over a week where MF was stimulated before training (volitional contraction)...
March 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107174/biological-bases-of-human-musicality
#11
Carla Perrone-Capano, Floriana Volpicelli, Umberto di Porzio
Music is a universal language, present in all human societies. It pervades the lives of most human beings and can recall memories and feelings of the past, can exert positive effects on our mood, can be strongly evocative and ignite intense emotions, and can establish or strengthen social bonds. In this review, we summarize the research and recent progress on the origins and neural substrates of human musicality as well as the changes in brain plasticity elicited by listening or performing music. Indeed, music improves performance in a number of cognitive tasks and may have beneficial effects on diseased brains...
January 20, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078981/resilience-to-alzheimer-s-disease-the-role-of-physical-activity
#12
Anna Pedrinolla, Federico Schena, Massimo Venturelli
BACKGROUND: Although Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative pathology characterized by accumulation of β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles at cerebral level, recent studies highlighted that AD might be the result of many altered physiological processes occurring at whole-organism level. The ability to adapt to stressors by "bending" but not "breaking" can be considered as "resilience". Individuals incline to withstand such pathophysiological challenges, can be considered more resilient than those that do not...
11, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072803/neural-correlates-of-maladaptive-pain-behavior-in-chronic-neck-pain-a-single-case-control-fmri-study
#13
Konstantin Beinert, Audrey Mouthon, Martin Keller, Michael Mouthon, Jean-Marie Annoni, Wolfgang Taube
Chronic neck pain patients display functional impairments like decreased range of motion, decreased strength, and reduced sensorimotor function. In patients without structural damage, the reason for the persistence of pain is not well understood. Therefore, it is assumed that in chronic pain states, memory processes play an important role. We have now detected and tested a patient that might help us to better understand the neural correlates of maladaptive pain expectation/memory. This patient displays chronic neck pain and restricted unilateral motion of the cervical spine to the left...
January 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040643/adult-neurogenesis-beyond-the-niche-its-potential-for-driving-brain-plasticity
#14
REVIEW
Kurt A Sailor, Alejandro F Schinder, Pierre-Marie Lledo
Adult neurogenesis emerges as a tremendous form of plasticity with the continuous addition and loss of neurons in the adult brain. It is unclear how preexisting adult circuits generated during development are capable of modifying existing connections to accommodate the thousands of new synapses formed and exchanged each day. Here we first make parallels with sensory deprivation studies and its ability to induce preexisting non-neurogenic adult circuits to undergo massive reorganization. We then review recent studies that show high structural and synaptic plasticity in circuits directly connected to adult-born neurons...
December 29, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038829/tooth-matrix-biomarkers-to-reconstruct-critical-periods-of-brain-plasticity
#15
Hirofumi Morishita, Manish Arora
Developmental brain plasticity involves complex, time-dependent dynamic molecular interactions that cannot be observed directly in humans. We propose that the shared evolutionary homology of teeth and the neurosensory system, and the archival nature of dentine microstructure, allows the development of 'biologic hard drives' that can characterize perinatal temporal dynamics in neuroplasticity.
January 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028808/structural-gray-matter-alterations-in-chronic-migraine-implications-for-a-progressive-disease
#16
Lars Neeb, Kaili Bastian, Kersten Villringer, Heike Israel, Uwe Reuter, Jochen B Fiebach
OBJECTIVE: To identify possible gray matter alterations in patients with chronic migraine using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). BACKGROUND: VBM studies demonstrate structural alterations of gray matter (GM) in episodic migraine (EM) patients. Some of these alterations correlate with disease duration and headache frequency. We assessed GM alterations in chronic migraine (CM) and EM to evaluate the concept of migraine as a progressive disorder of the brain. METHODS: Individually age and sex-matched subjects with CM or EM (both without aura) and healthy controls (n = 21 per group) underwent magnetic resonance imaging-based VBM...
December 28, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009255/translational-control-of-auditory-imprinting-and-structural-plasticity-by-eif2%C3%AE
#17
Gervasio Batista, Jennifer Leigh Johnson, Elena Dominguez, Mauro Costa-Mattioli, Jose L Pena
The formation of imprinted memories during a critical period is crucial for vital behaviors, including filial attachment. Yet, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Using a combination of behavior, pharmacology, in vivo surface sensing of translation (SUnSET) and DiOlistic labeling we found that, translational control by the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) bidirectionally regulates auditory but not visual imprinting and related changes in structural plasticity in chickens...
December 23, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008309/role-of-drosophila-amyloid-precursor-protein-in-memory-formation
#18
REVIEW
Thomas Preat, Valérie Goguel
The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a membrane protein engaged in complex proteolytic pathways. APP and its derivatives have been shown to play a central role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by memory decline. Despite a huge effort from the research community, the primary cause of AD remains unclear, making it crucial to better understand the physiological role of the APP pathway in brain plasticity and memory. Drosophila melanogaster is a model system well-suited to address this issue...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999362/body-machine-interfaces-after-spinal-cord-injury-rehabilitation-and-brain-plasticity
#19
Ismael Seáñez-González, Camilla Pierella, Ali Farshchiansadegh, Elias B Thorp, Xue Wang, Todd Parrish, Ferdinando A Mussa-Ivaldi
The purpose of this study was to identify rehabilitative effects and changes in white matter microstructure in people with high-level spinal cord injury following bilateral upper-extremity motor skill training. Five subjects with high-level (C5-C6) spinal cord injury (SCI) performed five visuo-spatial motor training tasks over 12 sessions (2-3 sessions per week). Subjects controlled a two-dimensional cursor with bilateral simultaneous movements of the shoulders using a non-invasive inertial measurement unit-based body-machine interface...
December 19, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991807/practice-makes-it-better-a-psychophysical-study-of-visual-perceptual-learning-and-its-transfer-effects-on-aging
#20
Xuan Li, Philip A Allen, Mei-Ching Lien, Naohide Yamamoto
Previous studies on perceptual learning, acquiring a new skill through practice, appear to stimulate brain plasticity and enhance performance (Fiorentini & Berardi, 1981). The present study aimed to determine (a) whether perceptual learning can be used to compensate for age-related declines in perceptual abilities, and (b) whether the effect of perceptual learning can be transferred to untrained stimuli and subsequently improve capacity of visual working memory (VWM). We tested both healthy younger and older adults in a 3-day training session using an orientation discrimination task...
February 2017: Psychology and Aging
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