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"Brain plasticity"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343415/paradigms-for-restoration-of-somatosensory-feedback-via-stimulation-of-the-peripheral-nervous-system
#1
REVIEW
Cristian Pasluosta, Patrick Kiele, Thomas Stieglitz
The somatosensory system contributes substantially to the integration of multiple sensor modalities into perception. Tactile sensations, proprioception and even temperature perception are integrated to perceive embodiment of our limbs. Damage of somatosensory networks can severely affect the execution of daily life activities. Peripheral injuries are optimally corrected via direct interfacing of the peripheral nerves. Recent advances in implantable devices, stimulation paradigms, and biomimetic sensors enabled the restoration of natural sensations after amputation of the limb...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327219/pharmacological-insights-into-the-use-of-apomorphine-in-parkinson-s-disease-clinical-relevance
#2
REVIEW
Manon Auffret, Sophie Drapier, Marc Vérin
The present paper consists of a comprehensive review of the literature on apomorphine pharmacological properties and its usefulness in Parkinson's disease (PD). The chemistry, structure-activity relationship, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of apomorphine are described with regard to its effects on PD symptoms, drug interactions, interindividual variability and adverse events. Apomorphine chemical structure accounts for most of its beneficial and deleterious properties, both dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323291/neurexin-controls-plasticity-of-a-mature-sexually-dimorphic-neuron
#3
Michael P Hart, Oliver Hobert
During development and adulthood, brain plasticity is evident at several levels, from synaptic structure and function to the outgrowth of dendrites and axons. Whether and how sex impinges on neuronal plasticity is poorly understood. Here we show that the sex-shared GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)-releasing DVB neuron in Caenorhabditis elegans displays experience-dependent and sexually dimorphic morphological plasticity, characterized by the stochastic and dynamic addition of multiple neurites in adult males. These added neurites enable synaptic rewiring of the DVB neuron and instruct a functional switch of the neuron that directly modifies a step of male mating behaviour...
January 10, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323046/non-concomitant-cortical-structural-and-functional-alterations-in-sensorimotor-areas-following-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Yu Pan, Wei-Bei Dou, Yue-Heng Wang, Hui-Wen Luo, Yun-Xiang Ge, Shu-Yu Yan, Quan Xu, Yuan-Yuan Tu, Yan-Qing Xiao, Qiong Wu, Zhuo-Zhao Zheng, Hong-Liang Zhao
Brain plasticity, including anatomical changes and functional reorganization, is the physiological basis of functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). The correlation between brain anatomical changes and functional reorganization after SCI is unclear. This study aimed to explore whether alterations of cortical structure and network function are concomitant in sensorimotor areas after incomplete SCI. Eighteen patients with incomplete SCI (mean age 40.94 ± 14.10 years old; male:female, 7:11) and 18 healthy subjects (37...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321175/upregulation-of-gh-but-not-igf1-in-the-hippocampus-of-the-lactating-dam-after-kainic-acid-injury
#5
Elvira C Arellanes-Licea, Jose Avila-Mendoza, Elizabeth C Ramirez-Martinez, Eugenia Ramos, Nancy Uribe-Gonzalez, Carlos Aramburo, Teresa Morales, Maricela Luna
Lactation embodies a natural model of morphological, neurochemical, and functional brain plasticity. In this reproductive stage, the hippocampus of the female is less sensitive to excitotoxins in contrast to nulliparity. Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) are known to be neuroprotective in several experimental models of brain lesion. Here, activation of the GH-IGF1 pituitary-brain axis following kainic acid (7.5 mg/kg ip KA) lesion was studied in lactating and nulliparous rats. Serum concentrations of GH and IGF1 were uncoupled in lactation...
January 10, 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321138/sensorimotor-functional-and-structural-networks-after-intracerebral-stem-cell-grafts-in-the-ischemic-mouse-brain
#6
Claudia Green, Anuka Minassian, Stefanie Vogel, Michael Diedenhofen, Andreas Beyrau, Dirk Wiedermann, Mathias Hoehn
Past investigations on stem cell mediated recovery after stroke have limited their focus on the extent and morphological development of the ischemic lesion itself over time or on the integration capacity of the stem cell graft ex vivo However, an assessment of the long-term functional and structural improvement in vivo is essential to reliably quantify the regenerative capacity of cell implantation after stroke.We induced ischemic stroke in nude mice and implanted human neural stem cells (H9 derived) into the ipsilateral cortex in the acute phase...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278685/brain-plasticity-and-sleep-implication-for-movement-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Serena Caverzasio, Ninfa Amato, Mauro Manconi, Chiara Prosperetti, Alain Kaelin-Lang, William Duncan Hutchison, Salvatore Galati
Brain plasticity is a lifelong process and involves both Hebbian and non-Hebbian synaptic plasticity. The latter, such as intrinsic plasticity and homeostatic synaptic plasticity or synaptic scaling, is thought to counteract Hebbian plasticity, in order to maintain a balanced network. Recent studies support the role of sleep in the regulation of homeostatic synaptic plasticity involved in memory and learning processes. Most evidence focus on the dependence of memory and plasticity in sleep mechanisms. Abnormal brain plasticity during sleep might be implicated in the development of movement disorders, particularly Parkinson's disease (PD) and dystonia...
December 23, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274291/enriched-physical-environment-reverses-spatial-cognitive-impairment-of-socially-isolated-appswe-ps1de9-transgenic-mice-before-amyloidosis-onset
#8
Min Cao, Pan-Pan Hu, Yan-Li Zhang, Yi-Xin Yan, Christopher B Shields, Yi-Ping Zhang, Gang Hu, Ming Xiao
AIMS: Social isolation increases the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Environmental enrichment, a complicated social and physical construct, plays beneficial effects on brain plasticity and function. This study was designed to determine whether physical enrichment can reduce the deleterious consequences of social isolation on the onset of AD. METHODS: One-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic AD model mice were singly housed in the enriched physical environment for 8 weeks and then received behavioral tests, neuropathological analyses, and Western blot of the hippocampus...
December 23, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258869/tactile-recognition-of-visual-stimuli-specificity-versus-generalization-of-perceptual-learning
#9
Gabriel Arnold, Malika Auvray
Sensory substitution devices aim at assisting a deficient sensory modality by means of another sensory modality. For instance, to perceive with visual-to-tactile devices, users learn to recognize visual stimuli through their tactile conversion. A crucial characteristic of learning lies in the ability to generalize, that is, the ability to extend the acquired perceptual abilities to both new stimuli and new perceptual conditions. The study reported here investigated the perceptual learning of tactile alphanumerical stimuli...
December 16, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250703/plasticity-in-deep-and-superficial-white-matter-a-dti-study-in-world-class-gymnasts
#10
Feng Deng, Ling Zhao, Chunlei Liu, Min Lu, Shufei Zhang, Huiyuan Huang, Lixiang Chen, Xiaoyan Wu, Chen Niu, Yuan He, Jun Wang, Ruiwang Huang
Brain white matter (WM) could be generally categorized into two types, deep and superficial WM. Studies combining these two types WM are important for a better understanding of brain plasticity induced by motor training. In this study, we applied both univariate and multivariate approaches to study gymnastic training-induced plasticity in brain WM. Specifically, we acquired diffusion tensor imaging data from 13 world class gymnasts and 14 non-athlete normal controls, reconstructed brain deep and superficial WM tracts, estimated and compared their fractional anisotropy (FA) difference between the two groups...
December 18, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240813/feature-reliability-determines-specificity-and-transfer-of-perceptual-learning-in-orientation-search
#11
Amit Yashar, Rachel N Denison
Training can modify the visual system to produce a substantial improvement on perceptual tasks and therefore has applications for treating visual deficits. Visual perceptual learning (VPL) is often specific to the trained feature, which gives insight into processes underlying brain plasticity, but limits VPL's effectiveness in rehabilitation. Under what circumstances VPL transfers to untrained stimuli is poorly understood. Here we report a qualitatively new phenomenon: intrinsic variation in the representation of features determines the transfer of VPL...
December 14, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239328/leap-motion-based-virtual-reality-training-for-improving-motor-functional-recovery-of-upper-limbs-and-neural-reorganization-in-subacute-stroke-patients
#12
Zun-Rong Wang, Ping Wang, Liang Xing, Li-Ping Mei, Jun Zhao, Tong Zhang
Virtual reality is nowadays used to facilitate motor recovery in stroke patients. Most virtual reality studies have involved chronic stroke patients; however, brain plasticity remains good in acute and subacute patients. Most virtual reality systems are only applicable to the proximal upper limbs (arms) because of the limitations of their capture systems. Nevertheless, the functional recovery of an affected hand is most difficult in the case of hemiparesis rehabilitation after a stroke. The recently developed Leap Motion controller can track the fine movements of both hands and fingers...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234304/hypothesis-on-the-role-of-cryptochromes-in-inflammation-and-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-outcome
#13
Adriano Barreto Nogueira, Ariel Barreto Nogueira, José Carlos Esteves Veiga, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
We have recently found that the temperature variability (TV) in the day-night cycle may predict the mean intracranial pressure in the following 24 h (ICP24) in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients under multimodality monitoring, sedation, and hypothermia (<35°C). Specifically, we found that ICP24 = 6 (4 - TV) mmHg. TV is the ratio between the coefficient of variation of temperature during the nocturnal and the preceding diurnal periods. This result suggests that the circadian clock reflects brain plasticity mechanisms and its malfunctioning leads to deterioration of the neurologic status...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214654/role-of-the-innate-immune-system-in-the-neuropathological-consequences-induced-by-adolescent-binge-drinking
#14
REVIEW
María Pascual, Jorge Montesinos, Consuelo Guerri
Adolescence is a critical stage of brain maturation in which important plastic and dynamic processes take place in different brain regions, leading to development of the adult brain. Ethanol drinking in adolescence disrupts brain plasticity and causes structural and functional changes in immature brain areas (prefrontal cortex, limbic system) that result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. These changes, along with secretion of sexual and stress-related hormones in adolescence, may impact self-control, decision making, and risk-taking behaviors that contribute to anxiety and initiation of alcohol consumption...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213522/memory-specificity-training-can-improve-working-and-prospective-memory-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#15
Golita Emsaki, Hamid Taher NeshatDoost, Mahgol Tavakoli, Majid Barekatain
Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is one of the cognitive profiles of aging. OBJECTIVE: In this study, Memory Specificity Training (MEST) was used as cognitive training in patients with amnestic MCI to understand the effectiveness of the intervention on memory dimensions. METHODS: Twenty patients that met the criteria for amnestic MCI were selected and randomly assigned to experimental (n=10) or control (n=10) groups. The experimental group received five sessions of training on memory specificity while the participants in the control group took part in two general placebo sessions...
July 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208665/cognitive-trajectories-from-infancy-to-early-adulthood-in-the-epicure-cohort-time-to-refocus-research-on-how-to-break-the-natural-limits-of-brain-plasticity
#16
EDITORIAL
Thuy Mai Luu, Anne-Monique Nuyt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203796/aerobic-exercise-and-a-bdnf-mimetic-therapy-rescue-learning-and-memory-in-a-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome
#17
Martina Parrini, Diego Ghezzi, Gabriele Deidda, Lucian Medrihan, Enrico Castroflorio, Micol Alberti, Pietro Baldelli, Laura Cancedda, Andrea Contestabile
Down syndrome (DS) is caused by the triplication of human chromosome 21 and represents the most frequent genetic cause of intellectual disability. The trisomic Ts65Dn mouse model of DS shows synaptic deficits and reproduces the essential cognitive disabilities of the human syndrome. Aerobic exercise improved various neurophysiological dysfunctions in Ts65Dn mice, including hippocampal synaptic deficits, by promoting synaptogenesis and neurotransmission at glutamatergic terminals. Most importantly, the same intervention also prompted the recovery of hippocampal adult neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity and restored cognitive performance in trisomic mice...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201010/microglia-and-brain-plasticity-in-acute-psychosis-and-schizophrenia-illness-course-a-meta-review
#18
REVIEW
Livia J De Picker, Manuel Morrens, Steven A Chance, Delphine Boche
Objective: Schizophrenia poses a tremendous health, social, and economic burden upon patients and society, indicating current treatment options remain inadequate. Recent findings from several lines of evidence have pointed to the importance of immune system involvement in not only premorbid neurodevelopmental but also subsequent symptom generation and aging processes of brain change in schizophrenia. In this meta-review, we use the summarized evidence from recent quantitative systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses of several subspecialties to critically evaluate the hypothesis that immune-related processes shape the symptomatic presentation and illness course of schizophrenia, both directly and indirectly through altered neuroplasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187547/effect-of-sensory-attenuation-on-cortical-movement-related-oscillations
#19
Joseph J Lee, Brian D Schmit
This study examined the impact of induced sensory deficits on cortical, movement-related oscillations measured using electroencephalography (EEG). We hypothesized that EEG patterns in healthy subjects with induced sensory reduction would be comparable to EEG found after chronic loss of sensory feedback. EEG signals from 64 scalp locations were measured from 10 healthy subjects. Participants dorsiflexed their ankle after prolonged vibration of the tibialis anterior (TA). Beta band time frequency decompositions were calculated using wavelets and compared across conditions...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183683/cellular-diversity-of-the-somatosensory-cortical-map-plasticity
#20
REVIEW
Koen Kole, Wim Scheenen, Paul Tiesinga, Tansu Celikel
Sensory maps are representations of the sensory epithelia in the brain. Despite the intuitive explanatory power behind sensory maps as being neuronal precursors to sensory perception, and sensory cortical plasticity as a neural correlate of perceptual learning, molecular mechanisms that regulate map plasticity are not well understood. Here we perform a meta-analysis of transcriptional and translational changes during altered whisker use to nominate the major molecular correlates of experience-dependent map plasticity in the barrel cortex...
November 25, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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