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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351507/-i-smoke-like-this-to-suppress-these-issues-that-are-flaws-of-my-character-challenges-and-facilitators-of-cessation-among-smokers-with-bipolar-disorder
#1
Jaimee L Heffner, Noreen L Watson, Jennifer B McClure, Robert M Anthenelli, Sarah Hohl, Jonathan B Bricker
OBJECTIVE: Smokers with bipolar disorder (BD) have low rates of successful quitting, yet no prior studies have evaluated the process of quitting among these smokers in the context of a current quit attempt. To facilitate development of more effective interventions, we conducted a qualitative exploration of challenges and facilitators of quitting in an intervention study for smokers with BD. METHODS: Participants were adult daily smokers with BD (n = 10) who completed a 10-week smoking cessation intervention consisting of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and nicotine patch...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351064/molecular-target-analysis-of-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-genes-of-protozoan-parasites
#2
He Lu, Xin Qin, Jing Zhang, Shuang Zhang, Yu Zhu, Wei Hua Wu
Protozoan parasites can synthesize polyunsaturated fatty acids. They possess stearoyl-CoA desaturase to convert stearate into oleate and linoleate. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase are the key enzymes required for the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. It seems attractive to evaluate the possibility of using unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis pathways as drug targets. In this study, the authors investigate codon usage bias, base composition variations and protein sequence in ten available complete stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene sequences from Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum etc...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349217/the-mothers-on-respect-mor-index-measuring-quality-safety-and-human-rights-in-childbirth
#3
Saraswathi Vedam, Kathrin Stoll, Nicholas Rubashkin, Kelsey Martin, Zoe Miller-Vedam, Hermine Hayes-Klein, Ganga Jolicoeur
Background: Abuse of human rights in childbirth are documented in low, middle and high resource countries. A systematic review across 34 countries by the WHO Research Group on the Treatment of Women During Childbirth concluded that there is no consensus at a global level on how disrespectful maternity care is measured. In British Columbia, a community-led participatory action research team developed a survey tool that assesses women's experiences with maternity care, including disrespect and discrimination...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348040/negative-valence-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-the-relationship-between-amygdala-activity-selective-attention-and-co-occurring-anxiety
#4
John D Herrington, Brenna B Maddox, Alana J McVey, Martin E Franklin, Benjamin E Yerys, Judith S Miller, Robert T Schultz
BACKGROUND: A critical agenda of the National Institutes of Health Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative is establishing whether domains within the RDoC matrix are truly transdiagnostic. Rates of anxiety disorders are elevated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but it is unclear whether the same mechanisms contribute to anxiety in individuals with and without ASD. As changes in selective attention are a hallmark of anxiety disorders in non-ASD samples, the identification of these changes in ASD would support the transdiagnostic nature of anxiety...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347922/characteristics-of-individuals-receiving-disability-benefits-in-the-netherlands-and-predictors-of-leaving-the-disability-benefit-scheme-a-retrospective-cohort-study-with-five-year-follow-up
#5
Ilse Louwerse, Maaike A Huysmans, H Jolanda van Rijssen, Allard J van der Beek, Johannes R Anema
BACKGROUND: Today, work disability is one of the greatest social and labour market challenges for policy makers in most OECD countries, where on average, about 6% of the working-age population relies on disability benefits. Understanding of factors associated with long-term work disability may be helpful to identify groups of individuals at risk for disability benefit entitlement or continuing eligibility, and to develop effective interventions for these groups. The purpose of this study is to provide insight into the main diagnoses of workers who qualify for disability benefits and how these diagnoses differ in age, gender and education...
January 18, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346357/type-of-cows-milk-consumption-and-relationship-to-health-predictors-in-new-zealand-preschool-children
#6
Hajar Mazahery, Carlos A Camargo, Carolyn Cairncross, Lisa A Houghton, Cameron C Grant, Jane Coad, Cathryn A Conlon, Pamela R von Hurst
AIMS: New Zealand dietary guidelines recommend children from two years of age consume low- or reduced-fat milk. We aimed to investigate the predictors of type of milk consumption in preschool children. METHODS: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study which enrolled preschool children (2-<5 years, n=1,329) from throughout New Zealand. RESULTS: Cows' milk was consumed regularly by 88% of children. Of these, 26% consumed plain low- or reduced-fat milk, while 74% consumed full-fat milk...
January 19, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346314/sustainable-transportation-attitudes-and-health-behavior-change-evaluation-of-a-brief-stage-targeted-video-intervention
#7
Norbert Mundorf, Colleen A Redding, Andrea L Paiva
Promoting physical activity and sustainable transportation is essential in the face of rising health care costs, obesity rates, and other public health threats resulting from lack of physical activity. Targeted communications can encourage distinct population segments to adopt active and sustainable transportation modes. Our work is designed to promote the health, social, and environmental benefits of sustainable/active transportation (ST) using the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM), which has been successfully applied to a range of health, and more recently, sustainability behaviors...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345581/premorbid-and-illness-related-social-difficulties-in-eating-disorders-an-overview-of-the-literature-and-treatment-developments
#8
Valentina Cardi, Kate Tchanturia, Janet Treasure
Social difficulties in eating disorders can manifest as predisposing traits and premorbid difficulties, and/or as consequences of the illness. Objective The aim of this paper is to briefly review the evidence for social problems in people with eating disorders and to consider the literature on treatments that target these features. Method A narrative review of the literature was conducted. Results People with eating disorders often manifest traits, such as shyness, increased tendency to submissiveness and social comparison, and problems with peer relationships before illness onset...
January 17, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345535/coping-styles-mediate-perfectionism-associations-with-depression-among-undergraduate-students
#9
Abbas Abdollahi, Simin Hosseinian, Gordon J G Asmundson
To better understand depression among adolescent university students, this study was designed to examine coping style as a potential mediator between perfectionism and depression. Participants comprised 510 undergraduate students from Malaysia. Structural Equation Modelling demonstrated that personal standards perfectionism and task-focused coping style were negatively associated with depression, while emotion-focused coping style, avoidant coping style, and evaluative concerns perfectionism were positively associated with depression...
January 18, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345350/activation-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-modulates-neutrophil-function
#10
Alyce J Nicholls, Shu Wen Wen, Pam Hall, Michael J Hickey, Connie H Y Wong
Emerging evidence has revealed that noradrenaline (NA), the main neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), regulates a variety of immune functions via binding to adrenergic receptors present on immune cells. In this study, we examined the role of NA in the regulation of neutrophil functions. Neutrophils were isolated from the bone marrow of naïve mice and treated with NA at various concentrations to assess the effect on various neutrophil functions. Additionally, we performed cremaster intravital microscopy to examine neutrophil-endothelial cell interactions following NA superfusion in vivo...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344462/introducing-mentoring-to-1st-year-medical-students-of-a-private-medical-college-in-north-india-a-pilot-study
#11
Sahiba Kukreja, Namrata Chhabra, Amandeep Kaur, Rohit Arora, Tejinder Singh
Background: The stress of complex medical course, emotional immaturity, and adaptations to new surroundings are the challenges faced by the new medical entrants. Therefore, mentorship program was introduced to support them for their academic and personal development. Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study is to introduce and to assess the perception of mentors and mentees on mentorship program. Materials and Methods: A mentorship program was designed for Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) First Professional students...
December 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343817/associations-between-body-mass-index-and-the-risk-of-renal-events-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#12
Kamel Mohammedi, John Chalmers, William Herrington, Qiang Li, Giuseppe Mancia, Michel Marre, Neil Poulter, Anthony Rodgers, Bryan Williams, Vlado Perkovic, Josef Coresh, Mark Woodward
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the relationship between BMI and the risk of renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes in the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: PreterAx and DiamicroN Modified-Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) study. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Participants were divided into six baseline BMI categories: <18.5 (underweight, n = 58); ≥18.5 to <25 (normal, n = 2894); ≥25 to <30 (overweight, n = 4340); ≥30 to <35 (obesity grade 1, n = 2265); ≥35 to <40 (obesity grade 2, n = 744); and ≥40 kg/m2 (obesity grade 3, n = 294); those underweight were excluded...
January 17, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343706/caloric-restriction-lowers-endocannabinoid-tonus-and-improves-cardiac-function-in-type-2-diabetes
#13
Huub J van Eyk, Linda D van Schinkel, Vasudev Kantae, Charlotte E A Dronkers, Jos J M Westenberg, Albert de Roos, Hildo J Lamb, J Wouter Jukema, Amy C Harms, Thomas Hankemeier, Mario van der Stelt, Ingrid M Jazet, Patrick C N Rensen, Johannes W A Smit
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Endocannabinoids (ECs) are associated with obesity and ectopic fat accumulation, both of which play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in type 2 diabetes (T2D). The effect of prolonged caloric restriction on ECs in relation to fat distribution and cardiac function is still unknown. Therefore, our aim was to investigate this relationship in obese T2D patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). SUBJECTS/METHODS: In a prospective intervention study, obese T2D patients with CAD (n = 27) followed a 16 week very low calorie diet (VLCD; 450-1000 kcal/day)...
January 17, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339638/a-nomogram-to-characterize-the-severity-of-detrusor-overactivity-during-the-ice-water-test-description-of-the-method-and-proof-of-concept
#14
André Reitz, Tanja Hüsch, Axel Haferkamp
AIMS: To develop a nomogram with severity categories for detrusor overactivity (DO). METHODS: By conducting ice water tests (IWT) in 55 patients with Parkinson's disease, we identified criteria to describe characteristics of the detrusor pressure curves: (1) a gradient of Δpdet over Δt at the maximum detrusor pressure and (2) the area under the curve. In a nomogram, 10 severity categories of DO were established: 1 and 2 were assigned to group A (mild), 3 and 4 to group B (moderate) and 5-10 to group C (severe)...
January 16, 2018: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337847/hiv-care-continuum-disparities-among-bisexual-black-men-and-the-mediating-effect-of-psychosocial-co-morbidities
#15
M Reuel Friedman, Jordan M Sang, Leigh A Bukowski, Derrick D Matthews, Lisa A Eaton, H Fisher Raymond, Ron Stall
INTRODUCTION: Differences across the HIV care continuum between men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) and men who have sex with men only (MSMO) are emerging in recent literature but have not been comprehensively documented among Black MSM. Although MSMW have lower HIV prevalence than MSMO, they are more likely to be HIV-positive unaware and be virally unsuppressed. Explanatory factors for these differences have not previously been assessed. METHODS: Between 2014-2016, we surveyed sexually active Black MSM ≥18 years old at Black Gay Pride events in six U...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334170/representing-causal-knowledge-in-environmental-policy-interventions-advantages-and-opportunities-for-qualitative-influence-diagram-applications
#16
John F Carriger, Brian E Dyson, William H Benson
This article develops and explores a methodology for using qualitative influence diagrams in environmental policy and management to support decision making efforts that minimize risk and increase resiliency. Influence diagrams are representations of the conditional aspects of a problem domain. Their graphical properties are useful for structuring causal knowledge relevant to policy interventions and can be used to enhance inference and inclusivity of multiple viewpoints. Qualitative components of influence diagrams are beneficial tools for identifying and examining the interactions among the critical variables in complex policy development and implementation...
January 15, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334168/representing-causal-knowledge-in-environmental-policy-interventions-advantages-and-opportunities-for-qualitative-influence-diagram-applications
#17
John F Carriger, Brian E Dyson, William H Benson
This article develops and explores a methodology for using qualitative influence diagrams in environmental policy and management to support decision making efforts that minimize risk and increase resiliency. Influence diagrams are representations of the conditional aspects of a problem domain. Their graphical properties are useful for structuring causal knowledge relevant to policy interventions and can be used to enhance inference and inclusivity of multiple viewpoints. Qualitative components of influence diagrams are beneficial tools for identifying and examining the interactions among the critical variables in complex policy development and implementation...
January 15, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333642/early-adolescents-emotional-well-being-in-the-classroom-the-role-of-personal-and-contextual-assets
#18
Eva Oberle
BACKGROUND: The objective was to predict early adolescents' emotional well-being from personal and contextual assets in the classroom. Emotional well-being is a key indicator of health. Aligned with the positive youth development (PYD) framework, a supportive classroom environment and positive relationships with teachers and peers were contextual assets in the present study; positive self-concept was a personal asset. METHODS: The sample was 406 grade 4 to 7 public elementary school students from diverse backgrounds (mean = 11...
February 2018: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332265/review-of-a-parent-s-influence-on-pediatric-procedural-distress-and-recovery
#19
REVIEW
Erin A Brown, Alexandra De Young, Roy Kimble, Justin Kenardy
Understanding how parents influence their child's medical procedures can inform future work to reduce pediatric procedural distress and improve recovery outcomes. Following a pediatric injury or illness diagnosis, the associated medical procedures can be potentially traumatic events that are often painful and distressing and can lead to the child experiencing long-term physical and psychological problems. Children under 6 years old are particularly at risk of illness or injury, yet their pain-related distress during medical procedures is often difficult to manage because of their young developmental level...
January 13, 2018: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331698/exploring-metabolic-factors-and-health-behaviors-in-relation-to-suicide-attempts-a-case-control-study
#20
Stefan Perera, Rebecca B Eisen, Meha Bhatt, Brittany B Dennis, Monica Bawor, Wala El-Sheikh, Jane DeJesus, Sumathy Rangarajan, Heather Sholer, Elisabeth Iordan, Pam Mackie, Shofiqul Islam, Mahshid Dehghan, Jennifer Brasch, David Meyre, Russell de Souza, Lehana Thabane, Zainab Samaan
BACKGROUND: Suicide attempts are a serious public health concern with devastating global impact, thereby necessitating the development of an adequate prevention strategy. Few known risk factors of suicide attempts are directly modifiable. This study sought to investigate potential associations between health behaviors and suicide attempts, identifying novel opportunities for clinicians to help prevent suicidal behavior. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted to compare body weight, serum total cholesterol, physical activity, tobacco use, and dietary food groups among adults who had made a suicide attempt (n = 84) to psychiatric inpatients (n = 104) and community controls (n = 93) without history of suicide attempt...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
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