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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150285/a-review-of-prevalence-studies-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-by-latitude-and-solar-irradiance-impact
#1
Somayya Syed, Kathleen A Moore, Evita March
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a lifelong disability with no known cause or cure. Among the suggested etiologies, is Cannell's hypothesis of a deficiency in Vitamin D the main natural source of which is Solar Ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation. The aim in this paper is to build on this hypothesis and explore the relationship of solar irradiance of which UVB is a component, by latitude with the prevalence rates of ASD. Twenty-five reports published between 2011 and 2016 using comparable diagnostic criteria were reviewed...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149825/dopamine-agonists-and-neurodegenerative-disorders
#2
Saba Khanam, Yasir Hasan Siddique
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta. Despite of many researches, there is still no cure for this disease. Levodopa is first line treatment of PD, but the long term use of it leads to motor impairments and dyskinesias. The dopamine agonists are the preferred choice for the treatment of PD. They are neuroprotective in nature but also have side effects. In this review, we highlighted the metabolism of dopamine, different types of dopamine agonists with their properties and possible side effects...
November 17, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149474/interventions-for-old-world-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#3
REVIEW
Julio Heras-Mosteiro, Begoña Monge-Maillo, Mariona Pinart, Patricia Lopez Pereira, Emely Garcia-Carrasco, Pedro Campuzano Cuadrado, Ana Royuela, Irene Mendez Roman, Rogelio López-Vélez
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by a parasitic infection, is considered one of the most serious skin diseases in many low- and middle-income countries. Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (OWCL) is caused by species found in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, and India. The most commonly prescribed treatments are antimonials, but other drugs have been used with varying success. As OWCL tends to heal spontaneously, it is necessary to justify the use of systemic and topical treatments...
November 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132540/current-strategies-for-the-delivery-of-therapeutic-proteins-and-enzymes-to-treat-brain-disorders
#4
Jason T Duskey, Daniela Belletti, Francesca Pederzoli, Maria Angela Vandelli, Flavio Forni, Barbara Ruozi, Giovanni Tosi
Brain diseases and injuries are growing to be one of the most deadly and costly medical conditions in the world. Unfortunately, current treatments are incapable of ameliorating the symptoms let alone curing the diseases. Many brain diseases have been linked to a loss of function in a protein or enzyme, increasing research for improving their delivery. This is no easy task due to the delicate nature of proteins and enzymes in biological conditions, as well as the many barriers that exist in the body ranging from those in circulation to the more specific barriers to enter the brain...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132303/prevalence-of-naturally-occurring-ns5a-resistance-associated-substitutions-in-patients-infected-with-hepatitis-c-virus-subtype-1a-1b-and-3a-co-infected-or-not-with-hiv-in-brazil
#5
Fernanda Malta, Karine Vieira Gaspareto, Gaspar Lisboa-Neto, Flair José Carrilho, Maria Cássia Mendes-Correa, João Renato Rebello Pinho
BACKGROUND: Non-structural 5A protein (NS5A) resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) have been identified in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), even prior to exposure to direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). Selection for these variants occurs rapidly during treatment and, in some cases, leads to antiviral treatment failure. DAAs are currently the standard of care for hepatitis C treatment in many parts of the world. Nevertheless, in Brazil, the prevalence of pre-existing NS5A RASs is largely unknown...
November 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127762/anti-invasive-and-antiproliferative-effects-of-pleurotus-ostreatus-extract-on-acute-leukemia-cell-lines
#6
Alireza Ebrahimi, Amir Atashi, Masoud Soleimani, Maedeh Mashhadikhan, Ahmadreza Barahimi, Amirhossein Maghari
BACKGROUND: Currently, mushrooms have been used in traditional and folk medicines for their therapeutic activities, such as antibiotic, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antileukemic and immunomodulatory actions. This investigation evaluates the anti-invasive, antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of Pleurotus ostreatus (Pleurotaceae) on leukemia cell lines. METHODS: The proliferation of KG-1 cells was measured by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay after treatment with gradient dilutions of P...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124710/ultraviolet-irradiation-of-blood-the-cure-that-time-forgot
#7
Michael R Hamblin
Ultraviolet blood irradiation (UBI) was extensively used in the 1940s and 1950s to treat many diseases including septicemia, pneumonia, tuberculosis, arthritis, asthma and even poliomyelitis. The early studies were carried out by several physicians in USA and published in the American Journal of Surgery. However with the development of antibiotics, UBI use declined and it has now been called "the cure that time forgot". Later studies were mostly performed by Russian workers and in other Eastern countries and the modern view in Western countries is that UBI remains highly controversial...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119715/glabridin-inhibits-the-activation-of-myofibroblasts-in-human-fibrotic-buccal-mucosal-fibroblasts-through-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-signaling
#8
Ping-Hui Lee, Pei-Ming Chu, Pei-Ling Hsieh, Hui-Wen Yang, Pin Ju Chueh, Yu-Feng Huang, Yi-Wen Liao, Cheng-Chia Yu
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) has been recognized as one of the oral potentially malignant disorders. Areca nut chewing is implicated in this pathological fibrosis, and it causes chronic inflammation and persistent activation of myofibroblasts. As yet, existing treatments only provide temporary symptomatic relief and there is a lack of an effective intervention to cure OSF. Therefore, development of approaches to ameliorate myofibroblast activities becomes a crucial objective to prevent the malignant progression of OSF...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115280/real-time-cerebellar-neuroprosthetic-system-based-on-a-spiking-neural-network-model-of-motor-learning
#9
Tao Xu, Na Xiao, Xiaolong Zhai, Pak Kwan Chan, Chung Tin
Damage to the brain, as a result of various medical conditions, impacts everyday life of patients and there is still no complete cure to neurological disorders. Neuroprostheses that can functionally replace the damaged neural circuit have recently emerged as a possible solution to these problems. Here we describe the development of a real-time cerebellar neuroprosthetic system to substitute neural function in cerebellar circuitry for learning delay eyeblink conditioning (DEC). Approach: The system was empowered by a biologically realistic spiking neural network (SNN) model of the cerebellar neural circuit, which considers the neuronal population and anatomical connectivity of the network...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113928/cerebral-malaria-causes-enduring-behavioral-and-molecular-changes-in-mice-brain-without-causing-gross-histopathological-damage
#10
Thaíze Lopes de Souza, Ana Claudia Beck Grauncke, Leandro Rodrigo Ribeiro, Fernanda Kulinski Mello, Sara Marchesan Oliveira, Fátima Brant, Fabiana S Machado, Mauro Schneider Oliveira
Malaria, parasitic disease considered a major health public problem, is caused by Plasmodium protozoan genus and transmitted by the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquito genus. Cerebral malaria (CM) is the most severe presentation of malaria, caused by P. falciparum and responsible for high mortality and enduring development of cognitive deficits which may persist even after cure and cessation of therapy. In the present study we evaluated selected behavioral, neurochemical and neuropathologic parameters after rescue from experimental cerebral malaria caused by P...
November 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107146/nabi-a-novel-%C3%AE-sheet-breaker-inhibits-a%C3%AE-aggregation-and-neuronal-toxicity-therapeutic-implications-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Ja-Young Jang, Hyangshuk Rhim, Seongman Kang
Amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregates are an important therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease (AD), a fatal neurodegenerative disease. To date, AD still remains a big challenge due to no effective treatments. Based on the property that Aβ aggregates have the cross-β-structure, a common structural feature in amyloids, we systemically designed the Aβ-aggregation inhibitor that maintains Aβ-interacting ability but removes toxic part from SOD1 (superoxide dismutase 1)-G93A. We identified NABi (Natural Aβ Binder and Aβ-aggregation inhibitor) composed of β2-3 strands, a novel breaker of Aβ aggregation, which does not self-aggregate and has no cytotoxicity at all...
January 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090899/thermally-fast-curable-sticky-nanoadhesive-for-strong-adhesion-on-arbitrary-substrates
#12
Munkyu Joo, Moo Jin Kwak, Heeyeon Moon, Eunjung Lee, Siyoung Q Choi, Sung Gap Im
Demand of adhesives that are strong but ultrathin with high flexibility, optical transparency, and long-term stability has been rapidly growing recently. Here, we suggest a thermally curable, "sticky" nanoadhesive with outstanding adhesion strength accomplished by single-side deposition of the nanoadhesive on arbitrary substrates. The sticky nanoadhesive is composed of an ionic copolymer film generated from two acrylate monomers with tertiary amine and alkyl halide functionalities, formed by a solvent-free method, initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD)...
November 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081733/modulation-of-alpha-synuclein-expression-and-associated-effects-by-microrna-let-7-in-transgenic-c-elegans
#13
Shamsuzzama, Lalit Kumar, Aamir Nazir
Neurodegenerative Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multi-factorial disorder lacking complete cure. Understanding the complete mechanism of initiation and progression of this disease has been quite challenging; however, progress has been made toward deciphering certain genetic aspects related to the disease condition. Genetics studies have provided clues toward the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in various disease conditions. One of the crucial miRNA molecules, let-7, is highly conserved miRNA and is known to regulate important functions of development and viability; its altered expression has been reported in C...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080123/beneficial-role-of-some-natural-products-to-attenuate-the-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-through-nrf2-pathway-in-cell-culture-and-animal-models
#14
REVIEW
V V Sathibabu Uddandrao, Parim Brahmanaidu, P R Nivedha, S Vadivukkarasi, Ganapathy Saravanan
Diabetic cardiomyopathy, as one of the main cardiac complications in diabetic patients, is identified to connect with oxidative stress that is due to interruption in balance between reactive oxygen species or/and reactive nitrogen species generation and their clearance by antioxidant protection systems. Transcription factor the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a significant role in maintaining the oxidative homeostasis by regulating multiple downstream antioxidants. The Nrf2 plays a significant role in ARE-mediated basal and inducible expression of more than 200 genes that can be grouped into numerous categories as well as antioxidant genes and phase II detoxifying enzymes...
October 27, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079285/a-novel-orally-available-small-molecule-that-inhibits-hepatitis-b-virus-expression
#15
Henrik Mueller, Steffen Wildum, Souphalone Luangsay, Johanna Walther, Anais Lopez, Philipp Tropberger, Giorgio Ottaviani, Wenzhe Lu, Neil John Parrott, Jitao David Zhang, Roland Schmucki, Tomas Racek, Jean-Christophe Hoflack, Erich Kueng, Floriane Point, Xue Zhou, Guido Steiner, Marc Lütgehetmann, Gianna Rapp, Tassilo Volz, Maura Dandri, Song Yang, John A T Young, Hassan Javanbakht
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The hallmarks of chronic HBV infection are a high viral load (HBV DNA) and even higher levels (>100-fold in excess of virions) of non-infectious membranous particles containing the tolerogenic viral S antigen (HBsAg). Currently, standard treatment effectively reduces viremia but only rarely results in a functional cure (defined as sustained HBsAg loss). There is an urgent need to identify novel therapies that reduce HBsAg levels and restore virus-specific immune responsiveness in patients...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071045/repeated-spontaneous-clearance-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-the-setting-of-long-term-non-progression-of-hiv-infection
#16
Genevieve Kerkerian, Arshia Alimohammadi, Tyler Raycraft, Brian Conway
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are global pandemics that affect 170 million and 35 million individuals, respectively. Up to 45% of individuals infected with HCV clear their infections spontaneously - correlating to factors like aboriginal descent and some host specific immune factors. HIV, however, establishes true latency in infected cells and cannot be cured. In the setting of longterm non-progressors (LTNPs) of HIV, a state of immune preservation and low circulating viral load is established...
October 2, 2017: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069955/shatavarin-iv-elicits-lifespan-extension-and-alleviates-parkinsonism-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Shachi Shuchi Smita, Shreesh Raj Sammi, Tulsankar S Laxman, Rabi S Bhatta, Rakesh Pandey
Shatavarin IV (SIV), a steroidal saponin is a major bioactive phytomolecule present in roots of Asparagus racemosus (Liliaceae) known for its anticancer activity. Age associated neurodegenerative Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by alpha-synuclein aggregation in dopaminergic neuron resulting in neurodegeneration. The invention of bioactive molecules that delay aging and age associated disorders endorses development of natural phytomolecule as a therapeutic agent for curing age related diseases. Therefore, present study for the first time explores the potential of SIV against aging and Parkinsonism utilizing Caenorhabditis elegans model system...
October 25, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062079/the-potential-of-antheraea-pernyi-silk-for-spinal-cord-repair
#18
A Varone, D Knight, S Lesage, F Vollrath, A M Rajnicek, W Huang
One of the most challenging applications for tissue regeneration is spinal cord damage. There is no cure for this, partly because cavities and scar tissue formed after injury present formidable barriers that must be crossed by axons to restore function. Natural silks are considered increasingly for medical applications because they are biocompatible, biodegradable and in selected cases promote tissue growth. Filaments from wild Antheraea pernyi silkworms can support axon regeneration in peripheral nerve injury...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055745/apigenin-as-neuroprotective-agent-of-mice-and-men
#19
REVIEW
Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Haroon Khan, Grazia D'onofrio, Dunja Šamec, Samira Shirooie, Ahmad Reza Dehpour, Sandro Argüelles Castilla, Solomon Habtemariam, Eduardo Sobarzo-Sanchez
Neurodegenerative diseases (NNDs) such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases are the most common age-related pathologies that affect millions of people all over the world. To date, effective therapy for NNDs is not available and current approaches to disease management include neuroprotection strategy with a hope of maintaining and enhancing the function of survising neurons. Of course, such an approach by its own will not offer a cure but is likely to delay the disease progression by ameliorating the increase of neurotoxic agents such reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the associated inflammatory cascades...
October 18, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055715/live-or-let-die-neuroprotective-and-anti-cancer-effects-of-nutraceutical-antioxidants
#20
REVIEW
Xiao-Yuan Mao, Ming-Zhu Jin, Jin-Fei Chen, Qin Li, Hong-Hao Zhou, Wei-Lin Jin
Diet sources are closely involved in the pathogenesis of diverse neuropsychiatric disorders and cancers, in addition to inherited factors. Currently, natural products or nutraceuticals (commonly called medical foods) are increasingly employed for adjunctive therapy of these patients. However, the potential molecular mechanisms of the nutrient efficacy remain elusive. In this review, we summarized the neuroprotective and anti-cancer mechanisms of nutraceuticals. It was concluded that the nutraceuticals exerted neuroprotection and suppressed tumor growth possibly through the differential modulations of redox homeostasis...
October 18, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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