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Hannah Stes, Sven Aerts, Michel Caluwé, Thomas Dobbeleers, Sander Wuyts, Filip Kiekens, Jolien D'aes, Piet De Langhe, Jan Dries
A laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated for 450 days to assess aerobic granule formation when treating brewery/bottling plant wastewater by consistent application of a feast/famine regime. The experiment was divided into three major periods according to the different operational conditions: (I) no pH control and strong fluctuations in organic loading rate (OLR) (1.18 ± 0.25 kgCOD·(m3 ·day)-1 ), (II) pH control and aeration control strategy to reduce OLR fluctuations (1.45 ± 0.65 kgCOD·(m3 ·day)-1 ) and (III) no pH control and stable OLR (1...
May 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Tariq Shah, Tayyaba Andleeb, Sadia Lateef, Mehmood Ali Noor
Genome manipulation technology is one of emerging field which brings real revolution in genetic engineering and biotechnology. Targeted editing of genomes pave path to address a wide range of goals not only to improve quality and productivity of crops but also permit to investigate the fundamental roots of biological systems. These goals includes creation of plants with valued compositional properties and with characters that confer resistance to numerous biotic and abiotic stresses. Numerous novel genome editing systems have been introduced during the past few years; these comprise zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9)...
May 7, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Chi Chen, Li Zhao, Zhiyuan Ning, Qin Li, Bing Han, Jing Cheng, Yi Chen, Xiaomin Nie, Fangzhen Xia, Ningjian Wang, Yingli Lu
PURPOSE: Epidemiologic studies have revealed that early life malnutrition increases later risk of metabolic diseases. The visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a novel sex-specific index that shows promise as a marker of visceral adipose dysfunction. We aimed to explore whether exposure to the Chinese famine between 1959 and 1962 during fetal and childhood periods was related to VAI in adulthood. METHODS: Our data source was SPECT-China, a population-based cross-sectional study in East China...
May 11, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Zhipeng Gao, Katherine Bischoping
To people familiar with Confucian teachings about revering elders, it may be surprising that, over the last decade and a half, a discourse has emerged and spread widely in China in which elders are denigrated as out-of-date and corrupt. Using newspaper articles, commentaries and videos, this paper first traces the emergence of intergenerational conflicts over bus seats, along with related phenomena that have become flashpoints in the new elder-blaming discourse. Second, this paper delineates and challenges popular and academic notions that intergenerational differences in values and dispositions entirely account for intergenerational conflict...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Cross-cultural Gerontology
Ping He, Li Liu, J M Ian Salas, Chao Guo, Yunfei Cheng, Gong Chen, Xiaoying Zheng
The current measures of cognitive functioning in adulthood do not indicate a long-term association with prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine. However, whether such association emerges in China is poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the potential effect of prenatal exposure to the 1959-1961 Chinese famine on adult cognitive impairment. We obtained data from the Second National Sample Survey on Disability implemented in thirty-one provinces in 2006, and restricted our analysis to 387 093 individuals born in 1956-1965...
May 3, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Victor Cazalis, Michel Loreau, Kirsten Henderson
The ability of the human population to continue growing depends strongly on the ecosystem services provided by nature. Nature, however, is becoming more and more degraded as the number of individuals increases, which could potentially threaten the future well-being of the human population. We use a dynamic model to conceptualise links between the global proportion of natural habitats and human demography, through four categories of ecosystem services (provisioning, regulating, cultural recreational and informational) to investigate the common future of nature and humanity in terms of size and well-being...
April 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Britt-Marie Wilén, Raquel Liébana, Frank Persson, Oskar Modin, Malte Hermansson
Granular activated sludge has gained increasing interest due to its potential in treating wastewater in a compact and efficient way. It is well-established that activated sludge can form granules under certain environmental conditions such as batch-wise operation with feast-famine feeding, high hydrodynamic shear forces, and short settling time which select for dense microbial aggregates. Aerobic granules with stable structure and functionality have been obtained with a range of different wastewaters seeded with different sources of sludge at different operational conditions, but the microbial communities developed differed substantially...
April 28, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Alexandra Moraru, Maria Moitinho de Almeida, Jean-Marie Degryse
Evidence suggests that nutritional status during fetal development and early life leaves an imprint on the genome, which leads to health outcomes not only on a person as an adult but also on his offspring. The purpose of this study is to bring forth an overview of the relevant parameters that need to be collected to assess the long-term and transgenerational health outcomes of famine. A literature search was conducted for the most pertinent articles on the epigenetic effects of famine. The results were compiled, synthesized and discussed with an expert in genetics for critical input and validation...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Zhenghe Wang, Zhiyong Zou, Bin Dong, Jun Ma, Luke Arnold
BACKGROUND: The association between famine exposure in early life and risk of arthritis (combination of osteoarthritis and inflammatory arthritis) in adulthood is unclear. The aim of this study is to explore the association. METHODS: A total of 4124 subjects were selected from the national data of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2011-2012. Doctor-diagnosed arthritis was self-reported in participants' questionnaire. Birthdates were used to categorise participants into famine-exposed and non-exposed groups...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Samantha L Yaussy, Sharon N DeWitte
Famine has the potential to target frail individuals who are at greater risk of mortality than their peers. Although children have been at elevated risk of mortality during recent famines, little is known about the risks posed to children during the medieval period. This study uses burials from the St. Mary Spital cemetery (SRP98), London (c. 1120-1540) to examine the relationships among non-adult age at death, burial type (attritional or famine), and four skeletal lesions (porotic hyperostosis, cribra orbitalia, linear enamel hypoplasia [LEH], and periosteal new bone formation)...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Caizheng Yu, Jing Wang, Fei Wang, Xu Han, Hua Hu, Jing Yuan, Xiaoping Miao, Ping Yao, Sheng Wei, Youjie Wang, Yuan Liang, Xiaomin Zhang, Huan Guo, An Pan, Dan Zheng, Yuhan Tang, Handong Yang, Tangchun Wu, Meian He
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of exposure to the Chinese famine during early life with metabolic syndrome risk in adults. METHODS: There were 7,915 participants from Dongfeng-Tongji cohort were included in the present study. Participants were classified as non-exposed group, fetal exposed group, early childhood-, mid childhood-, and late childhood-exposed groups, respectively. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to International Diabetes Foundation criteria (2005)...
February 5, 2018: Nutrition
Timothy R Kent, Charles B Bott, Zhi-Wu Wang
In the wake of the success of aerobic granulation in sequential batch reactors (SBRs) for treating wastewater, attention is beginning to turn to continuous flow applications. This is a necessary step given the advantages of continuous flow treatment processes and the fact that the majority of full-scale wastewater treatment plants across the world are operated with aeration tanks and clarifiers in a continuous flow mode. As in SBRs, applying a selection pressure, based on differences in either settling velocity or the size of the biomass, is essential for successful granulation in continuous flow reactors (CFRs)...
March 26, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Shigehisa Yanagi, Takahiro Sato, Kenji Kangawa, Masamitsu Nakazato
Ghrelin, a gastric-derived acylated peptide, regulates energy homeostasis by transmitting information about peripheral nutritional status to the brain, and is essential for protecting organisms against famine. Ghrelin operates brain circuits to regulate homeostatic and hedonic feeding. Recent research advances have shed new light on ghrelin's multifaceted roles in cellular homeostasis, which could maintain the internal environment and overcome metaflammation in metabolic organs. Here, we highlight our current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of the ghrelin system in energy metabolism and cellular homeostasis and its clinical trials...
April 3, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Rémi Soret, Jean-Louis Fanlo, Luc Malhautier, Philippe Geiger, Sandrine Bayle
New emerging issues appears regarding the possible aerosolization of micro-organisms from biofilters to the ambient air. Traditional bioaerosol sampling and cultural methods used in literature offer relative efficiencies. In this study, a new method revolving around a particle counter capable of detecting total and viable particles in real time was used. This counter (BioTrak 9510-BD) uses laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technology to determine the biological nature of the particle. The concentration of viable particles was measured on two semi-industrial pilot scale biofilters in order to estimate the Removal Efficiency in viable particles (REvp ) in stable conditions and to examine the influence of pollutant feeding and relative humidification of the gaseous effluent on the REvp ...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Lingli Liu, Xianglong Xu, Huan Zeng, Yong Zhang, Zumin Shi, Fan Zhang, Xianqing Cao, Yao Jie Xie, Cesar Reis, Yong Zhao
The 'Conclusion' section in the Abstract was published incorrectly in the original publication of the article [1] and is corrected with this erratum as below: "Fetal exposure to the Chinese famine may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension in adulthood in women."
March 15, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Santo Fabio Corsino, Daniele Di Trapani, Michele Torregrossa, Gaspare Viviani
In the present paper, the feasibility of citrus wastewater treatment with aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactors (AGSBR) was investigated. Two AGSBRs (named R1 and R2, respectively) were operated for 90 days under different organic loading rates (OLR) and pH in two experimental periods. The OLR ranged approximately between 3.0 kg TCOD m-3 d-1 and 7 kg TCOD m-3 d-1 during Period I, whereas between 7 kg TCOD m-3 d-1 and 15 kg TCOD m-3 d-1 during Period II. pH was maintained at 7.0 and 5.5 in R1 and R2, respectively...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
John R Speakman
Human obesity has a large genetic component, yet has many serious negative consequences. How this state of affairs has evolved has generated wide debate. The thrifty gene hypothesis was the first attempt to explain obesity as a consequence of adaptive responses to an ancient environment that in modern society become disadvantageous. The idea is that genes (or more precisely, alleles) predisposing to obesity may have been selected for by repeated exposure to famines. However, this idea has many flaws: for instance, selection of the supposed magnitude over the duration of human evolution would fix any thrifty alleles (famines kill the old and young, not the obese) and there is no evidence that hunter-gatherer populations become obese between famines...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Ping He, Gong Chen, Chao Guo, Xu Wen, Xinming Song, Xiaoying Zheng
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a common major mental disorder and prenatal nutritional deficiency may increase its risk. We aimed to investigate long-term impact of prenatal exposure to malnutrition on risk of schizophrenia in adulthood using the Chinese famine of 1959-1961 as a natural experiment. METHODS: We obtained data from the Second National Sample Survey on Disability implemented in 31 provinces in 2006, and restricted our analysis to 387,093 individuals born from 1956 to 1965...
March 4, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Mohammad Tajparast, Dominic Frigon
Feast-famine cycles in biological wastewater resource recovery systems select for bacterial species that accumulate intracellular storage compounds such as poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), glycogen, and triacylglycerols (TAG). These species survive better the famine phase and resume rapid substrate uptake at the beginning of the feast phase faster than microorganisms unable to accumulate storage. However, ecophysiological conditions favouring the accumulation of either storage compounds remain to be clarified, and predictive capabilities need to be developed to eventually rationally design reactors producing these compounds...
2018: PloS One
Jiuxiao Hao, Hui Wang, Xiujin Wang
The feast-to-famine ratio (F/F) represents the extent of selective pressure during polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) culture selection. This study evaluated the effects of F/F on a new PHA production system by an enriched culture with valerate-dominant sludge hydrolysate and selected the optimal F/F. After the original F/F 1/3 was modified to 1/1, 1/2, 1/4, and 1/5, F/F did not affect their lengths of feast phase, but affected their biomass growth behaviors during the famine phase and PHA-producing abilities. The optimal F/F was 1/2, and compared with 1/3, it increased the maximal PHA content and the fraction of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) and 3-hydroxy-2-methylvalerate (3H2MV) monomers, with higher productivity and better polymer properties...
April 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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