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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443508/nutritional-deficiency-in-early-life-facilitates-aging-associated-cognitive-decline
#1
Yu Kang, Yun Zhang, Zijuan Feng, Mingjing Liu, Yanhua Li, Huan Yang, Dan Wang, Lingling Zheng, Dandan Lou, Liangping Cheng, Chunjiang Chen, Weitao Zhou, Yi Feng, Xiaoyong Li, Jianzhong Duan, Mengjiao Yu, Shou Yang, Yuhang Liu, Xin Wang, Bo Deng, Chenghui Liu, Xiuqing Yao, Chi Zhu, Chunrong Liang, Xiaolong Zeng, Sisi Ren, Qunying Li, Yin Zhong, Yong Zhang, Jun Kang, Yong Yan, Huaqing Meng, Zhaohui Zhong, Weihui Zhou, Yanjiang Wang, Tingyu Li, Weihong Song
BACKGROUND: Nutrition is important for the fetal developmental programming. Nutritional deficiency in early life could increase the susceptibility to many aging-related disorders including cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the effect of early famine exposure on aging-associated cognitive function. METHODS: We recruited 6790 subjects born between 1956 to 1964 during which the Great Chinese Famine occurred (1959-1961)...
April 24, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422119/current-lifestyle-factors-that-increase-risk-of-t2dm-in-china
#2
REVIEW
N Zhang, S M Du, G S Ma
The Report on the Status of Nutrition and Chronic Diseases of Chinese residents (2015) indicated that the prevalence of diabetes was 9.7% among adults aged ⩾18 years, which markedly increased from 2.6% in 2002 within 10 years. In addition to the social economic factors, transitions in food consumption, behavioral and lifestyle playing the important roles in the fast increase of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In 2010-2012, the cereal food consumption of Chinese residents was 337 g/d, vegetables consumption 269 g/d, fruit consumption 41 g/d, legume and legume products 11 g/d, dairy and dairy products consumption 25 g/d, meat consumption 90 g/d, edible oil consumption 42 g/d and dietary fiber 10...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390294/season-of-birth-and-schizophrenia-evidence-from-china
#3
Cuntong Wang, Yudong Zhang
Controversies exist whether season of birth is associated with schizophrenia development later in life, and evidence has mainly come from studies done in developed countries. This study examines the association between season of birth and risk for schizophrenia in China, with special attention to geographical region, urbanity, and gender. Using data from China's Second National Sampling Survey on Disability, a large-scale, nationally representative sample (N=2,052,694), this study employs discrete-time hazard models to compare the risk for schizophrenia development for people born in different seasons, and conducts subsample analyses by geographical region, urbanity, and gender...
March 28, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388968/ignoring-alarming-news-brings-indifference-learning-about-the-world-and-the-self
#4
Elizabeth Levy Paluck, Eldar Shafir, Sherry Jueyu Wu
The broadcast of media reports about moral crises such as famine can subtly depress rather than activate moral concern. Whereas much research has examined the effects of media reports that people attend to, social psychological analysis suggests that what goes unattended can also have an impact. We test the idea that when vivid news accounts of human suffering are broadcast in the background but ignored, people infer from their choice to ignore these accounts that they care less about the issue, compared to those who pay attention and even to those who were not exposed...
April 4, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353598/increase-in-the-prevalence-of-arthritis-in-adulthood-among-adults-exposed-to-chinese-famine-of-1959-to-1961-during-childhood-a-cross-sectional-survey
#5
Xianglong Xu, Lingli Liu, Wenxi Xie, Yong Zhang, Huan Zeng, Fan Zhang, Cesar Reis, Xianqing Cao, Yong Zhao
The developmental origins hypothesis postulates that under-nutrition in the early stage of life is associated with an increased risk of disease in adulthood. This study aimed to examine the association of exposure to the Chinese famine of 1959 to 1961 in early life with the risk of arthritis in adulthood.From July to September 2009, the study adopted multistage stratified random sampling cross-sectional survey to recruit 1224 eligible adults in Chongqing. Famine exposure groups were categorized into 3 groups: (1) childhood exposure, (2) fetal exposure, and (3) nonexposure...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338900/exposure-to-the-chinese-famine-of-1959-61-in-early-life-and-long-term-health-conditions-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Chihua Li, L H Lumey
Background: Most Chinese people over 55 years old today have experienced the Great Leap Forward Famine of 1959-61. Many reports suggested that the famine could have profound long-term health effects for exposed birth cohorts. A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out to summarize reported famine effects on long-term health. Methods: Relevant reports were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, Chinese Wanfang Data and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases...
March 3, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322433/a-9-pool-metabolic-structured-kinetic-model-describing-days-to-seconds-dynamics-of-growth-and-product-formation-by-penicillium-chrysogenum
#7
Wenjun Tang, Amit T Deshmukh, Cees Haringa, Guan Wang, Walter van Gulik, Wouter van Winden, Matthias Reuss, Joseph J Heijnen, Jianye Xia, Ju Chu, Henk J Noorman
A powerful approach for the optimization of industrial bioprocesses is to perform detailed simulations integrating large scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and cellular reaction dynamics (CRD). However, complex metabolic kinetic models containing a large number of equations pose formidable challenges in CFD-CRD coupling and computation time afterward. This necessitates to formulate a relatively simple but yet representative model structure. Such a kinetic model should be able to reproduce metabolic responses for short-term (mixing time scale of tens of seconds) and long-term (fed-batch cultivation of hours/days) dynamics in industrial bioprocesses...
March 21, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291790/anaemia-among-children-in-a-drought-affected-community-in-south-central-ethiopia
#8
Taye Gari, Eskindir Loha, Wakgari Deressa, Tarekegn Solomon, Hanibale Atsbeha, Meselech Assegid, Alemayehu Hailu, Bernt Lindtjørn
INTRODUCTION: As part of a field trial (PACTR201411000882128) to provide evidence on the combined use of long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spray for malaria prevention, we measured haemoglobin values among children aged 6 to 59 months. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of anaemia, and to determine the risk factors of anaemia and change in haemoglobin value in Adami Tullu district in south-central Ethiopia. METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional surveys among 2984 children in 2014 and 3128 children in 2015; and a cohort study (malaria as exposure and anaemia as outcome variable) were conducted...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280003/epigenetic-memory-in-response-to-environmental-stressors
#9
Paolo Vineis, Aristotelis Chatziioannou, Vincent T Cunliffe, James M Flanagan, Mark Hanson, Micheline Kirsch-Volders, Soterios Kyrtopoulos
Exposure to environmental stressors, toxicants, and nutrient deficiencies can affect DNA in several ways. Some exposures cause damage and alter the structure of DNA, but there is increasing evidence that the same or other environmental exposures, including those that occur during fetal development in utero, can cause epigenetic effects that modulate DNA function and gene expression. Some epigenetic changes to DNA that affect gene transcription are at least partially reversible (i.e., they can be enzymatically reversed after cessation of exposure to environmental agents), but some epigenetic modifications seem to persist, even for decades...
March 9, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273874/early-life-nutritional-programming-of-type-2-diabetes-experimental-and-quasi-experimental-evidence
#10
REVIEW
Alexander M Vaiserman
Consistent evidence from both experimental and human studies suggest that inadequate nutrition in early life can contribute to risk of developing metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adult life. In human populations, most findings supporting a causative relationship between early-life malnutrition and subsequent risk of T2D were obtained from quasi-experimental studies ('natural experiments'). Prenatal and/or early postnatal exposures to famine were demonstrated to be associated with higher risk of T2D in many cohorts around the world...
March 5, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264526/%C3%AE-n-oxalyl-l-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-diaminopropionic-acid-%C3%AE-odap-content-in-lathyrus-sativus-the-integration-of-nitrogen-and-sulfur-metabolism-through-%C3%AE-cyanoalanine-synthase
#11
REVIEW
Quanle Xu, Fengjuan Liu, Peng Chen, Joseph M Jez, Hari B Krishnan
Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is an important legume crop grown mainly in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. This underutilized legume can withstand harsh environmental conditions including drought and flooding. During drought-induced famines, this protein-rich legume serves as a food source for poor farmers when other crops fail under harsh environmental conditions; however, its use is limited because of the presence of an endogenous neurotoxic nonprotein amino acid β-N-oxalyl-l-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP)...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241183/association-of-gestational-weight-gain-and-maternal-body-mass-index-in-early-pregnancy-with-risk-for-nonaffective-psychosis-in-offspring
#12
Euan Mackay, Christina Dalman, Håkan Karlsson, Renee M Gardner
Importance: Prenatal exposure to famine is associated with a 2-fold risk for nonaffective psychoses. Less is known about whether maternal nutrition states during pregnancy modify offspring risk for nonaffective psychoses in offspring in well-fed populations. Objective: To determine whether gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy and maternal body mass index (BMI) in early pregnancy are associated with risk for nonaffective psychoses in offspring. Design, Setting and Participants: This population-based cohort study used data from Swedish health and population registers to follow up 526 042 individuals born from January 1, 1982, through December 31, 1989, from 13 years of age until December 31, 2011...
April 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240542/community-assembly-and-ecology-of-activated-sludge-under-photosynthetic-feast-famine-conditions
#13
Ben O Oyserman, Joseph M Martirano, Spenser Wipperfurth, Brian R Owen, Daniel R Noguera, Katherine D McMahon
Here, we demonstrate that photosynthetic oxygen production under light-dark and feast-famine cycles with no mechanical aeration and negligible oxygen diffusion is able to maintain phosphorus cycling activity associated with the enrichment of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). We investigate the ecology of this novel system by conducting a time series analysis of prokaryotic and eukaryotic biodiversity using the V3-V4 and V4 regions of the 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequences, respectively. In the Eukaryotic community, the initial dominant alga observed was Desmodesmus...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236828/activated-sludge-production-parameters-and-nutrient-content-of-organic-sludge-components
#14
Marc-André Labelle, Peter L Dold, Alain Gadbois, Stéphane Déléris, Yves Comeau
  An important part of biological treatment system design is quantifying the sludge production and the nutrient removal capacity. Influent wastewater COD fractionation, biomass growth and endogenous respiration directly impacts the composition of the mixed liquor solids in activated sludge systems. The objectives of this project were to determine the model kinetic and stoichiometric parameters associated with activated sludge production and the nutrient content (N and P) of unbiodegradable organic matter components...
January 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195575/a-land-data-assimilation-system-for-sub-saharan-africa-food-and-water-security-applications
#15
Amy McNally, Kristi Arsenault, Sujay Kumar, Shraddhanand Shukla, Pete Peterson, Shugong Wang, Chris Funk, Christa D Peters-Lidard, James P Verdin
Seasonal agricultural drought monitoring systems, which rely on satellite remote sensing and land surface models (LSMs), are important for disaster risk reduction and famine early warning. These systems require the best available weather inputs, as well as a long-term historical record to contextualize current observations. This article introduces the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS), a custom instance of the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework. The FLDAS is routinely used to produce multi-model and multi-forcing estimates of hydro-climate states and fluxes over semi-arid, food insecure regions of Africa...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181990/genomic-insights-into-the-population-structure-and-history-of-the-irish-travellers
#16
Edmund Gilbert, Shai Carmi, Sean Ennis, James F Wilson, Gianpiero L Cavalleri
The Irish Travellers are a population with a history of nomadism; consanguineous unions are common and they are socially isolated from the surrounding, 'settled' Irish people. Low-resolution genetic analysis suggests a common Irish origin between the settled and the Traveller populations. What is not known, however, is the extent of population structure within the Irish Travellers, the time of divergence from the general Irish population, or the extent of autozygosity. Using a sample of 50 Irish Travellers, 143 European Roma, 2232 settled Irish, 2039 British and 6255 European or world-wide individuals, we demonstrate evidence for population substructure within the Irish Traveller population, and estimate a time of divergence before the Great Famine of 1845-1852...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159214/dairy-cows-famines-and-what-neonatologists-can-learn-from-them
#17
EDITORIAL
Lucky Jain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137685/famine-fears-in-northeast-nigeria-as-boko-haram-fight-rages
#18
Sam Loewenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 28, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117150/enrichment-of-a-mixed-microbial-culture-for-polyhydroxyalkanoates-production-effect-of-ph-and-n-and-p-concentrations
#19
Gabriela Montiel-Jarillo, Julián Carrera, María Eugenia Suárez-Ojeda
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biopolymers that can be an alternative against conventional plastics. The study reported herein evaluated the enrichment of a mixed microbial culture (MMC) operated under feast/famine regime and different pHs in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using acetate as sole carbon source to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). The enrichment step was evaluated at controlled pH of 7.5 and also without pH control (averaged value of 9.0). The acetate uptake rate (-qS) of both enrichments at the end of the experimental period exhibited similar behaviour being about 0...
January 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116356/tambora-and-the-mackerel-year-phenology-and-fisheries-during-an-extreme-climate-event
#20
Karen E Alexander, William B Leavenworth, Theodore V Willis, Carolyn Hall, Steven Mattocks, Steven M Bittner, Emily Klein, Michelle Staudinger, Alexander Bryan, Julianne Rosset, Benjamin H Carr, Adrian Jordaan
Global warming has increased the frequency of extreme climate events, yet responses of biological and human communities are poorly understood, particularly for aquatic ecosystems and fisheries. Retrospective analysis of known outcomes may provide insights into the nature of adaptations and trajectory of subsequent conditions. We consider the 1815 eruption of the Indonesian volcano Tambora and its impact on Gulf of Maine (GoM) coastal and riparian fisheries in 1816. Applying complex adaptive systems theory with historical methods, we analyzed fish export data and contemporary climate records to disclose human and piscine responses to Tambora's extreme weather at different spatial and temporal scales while also considering sociopolitical influences...
January 2017: Science Advances
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