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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335447/exposure-to-famine-in-early-life-and-chronic-kidney-diseases-in-adulthood
#1
Ningjian Wang, Zhiyuan Ning, Fangzhen Xia, Chi Chen, Jing Cheng, Yi Chen, Yingli Lu
OBJECTIVE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing contributor to the global disease burden. Previous findings indicated that exposure to famine in early life was associated with various metabolic diseases and urinary protein levels. We aimed to assess whether the exposure to China's Great Famine 1959-1962 during fetal or childhood period was associated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and risk of CKD (eGFR<60 mL/min per 1.73 m2) in adulthood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SPECT-China was a population-based observational study in 2014-2015...
January 15, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333753/comparative-performance-of-different-scale-down-simulators-of-substrate-gradients-in-penicillium-chrysogenum-cultures-the-need-of-a-biological-systems-response-analysis
#2
Guan Wang, Junfei Zhao, Cees Haringa, Wenjun Tang, Jianye Xia, Ju Chu, Yingping Zhuang, Siliang Zhang, Amit T Deshmukh, Walter van Gulik, Joseph J Heijnen, Henk J Noorman
In a 54 m3 large-scale penicillin fermentor, the cells experience substrate gradient cycles at the timescales of global mixing time about 20-40 s. Here, we used an intermittent feeding regime (IFR) and a two-compartment reactor (TCR) to mimic these substrate gradients at laboratory-scale continuous cultures. The IFR was applied to simulate substrate dynamics experienced by the cells at full scale at timescales of tens of seconds to minutes (30 s, 3 min and 6 min), while the TCR was designed to simulate substrate gradients at an applied mean residence time (τc) of 6 min...
January 15, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311321/women-live-longer-than-men-even-during-severe-famines-and-epidemics
#3
Virginia Zarulli, Julia A Barthold Jones, Anna Oksuzyan, Rune Lindahl-Jacobsen, Kaare Christensen, James W Vaupel
Women in almost all modern populations live longer than men. Research to date provides evidence for both biological and social factors influencing this gender gap. Conditions when both men and women experience extremely high levels of mortality risk are unexplored sources of information. We investigate the survival of both sexes in seven populations under extreme conditions from famines, epidemics, and slavery. Women survived better than men: In all populations, they had lower mortality across almost all ages, and, with the exception of one slave population, they lived longer on average than men...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301183/north-korean-children-nutrition-and-growth
#4
REVIEW
Soo-Kyung Lee
North Korea suffered from severe famine in the mid-1990s; this impacted many areas, including people's transnational movement, child growth, and mortality. This review carefully examined nutritional status trends of children in North Korea using published reports from national nutrition assessment surveys. Nutritional adaptation of North Korean child refugees living in South Korea was also studied with their growth and food consumption, using published researches. The nutritional status of children in North Korea has recovered to a "low" level acute malnutrition status and a "medium" level chronic malnutrition status...
December 2017: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299735/exposure-to-chinese-famine-in-early-life-and-the-risk-of-dyslipidemia-in-adulthood
#5
Xueling Xin, Weijing Wang, Hui Xu, Zongyao Li, Dongfeng Zhang
PURPOSE: Early life exposure to famine may affect the susceptibility to metabolic disorders including dyslipidemia. However, few studies explored the association between them in Chinese population. We aimed to evaluate the association between Chinese famine (1959-1961) exposure during early life and the risk of dyslipidemia in adulthood. METHODS: The study performed a historic cohort study and data were from China Health and Nutrition Survey conducted in 2009. A total of 4843 subjects born between 1941 and 1966 were categorized into fetal-infant exposed group (N = 433), childhood exposed group (N = 2132), adolescence exposed group (N = 1140), and unexposed group (N = 1138), respectively...
January 3, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281810/insights-into-feast-famine-polyhydroxyalkanoate-pha-producer-selection-microbial-community-succession-relationships-with-system-function-and-underlying-driving-forces
#6
Long Huang, Zhiqiang Chen, Qinxue Wen, Lizhi Zhao, Duu-Jong Lee, Lian Yang, Yao Wang
The Feast-Famine (FF) process has been frequently used to select polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-accumulating mixed cultures (MCs), but there has been little insight into the ecophysiology of the microbial community during the selection process. In three FF systems with well-defined conditions, synchronized variations in higher-order properties of MCs and complicate microbial community succession mainly including enrichment and elimination of non-top competitors and unexpected turnover of top competitors, were observed...
December 18, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275991/phytochrome-a-negatively-regulates-the-shade-avoidance-response-by-increasing-auxin-indole-acidic-acid-protein-stability
#7
Chuanwei Yang, Famin Xie, Yupei Jiang, Zhen Li, Xu Huang, Lin Li
The reduction in the red to far-red light ratio (R/FR) and photosynthetically active radiation caused by dense planting initiates shade avoidance responses (SARs) to help plants compete against their neighbors. However, deep shade attenuates shade-induced stem elongation to suppress excessive reversion toward skotomorphogenic development, in which photoreceptor phytochrome A (PHYA) has been known to play the major role. However, the molecular mechanism underlying PHYA function in deep shade is poorly understood...
December 18, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227902/china-s-great-leap-forward-an-estimate-of-total-and-additional-excess-male-birth-losses
#8
Victor Grech
INTRODUCTION: Stress reduces the male to female ratio at birth (M/T). China's Great Leap Forward (11/1957-1/1961) had disastrous consequences with a catastrophic national famine that lasted between 1959 and 1961. This resulted in a reduction in births and an additional male birth deficit. This study was carried out in order to estimate the total pregnancy losses and M/T, along with these value's perinatal mortality rates equivalents. METHODS: Estimated M/T and births for 1956-61 and for the aggregates of 1956-58 and 1959-61 were calculated...
December 8, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225471/glucose-tolerance-testing-and-anthropometric-comparisons-among-rural-residents-of-kyiv-region-investigating-the-possible-effect-of-childhood-starvation-a-community-based-study
#9
Mykola D Khalangot, Volodymir A Kovtun, Nadia V Okhrimenko, Vitaly G Gurianov, Victor I Kravchenko
A relationship between childhood starvation and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) in adulthood was previously indicated. Ukraine suffered a series of artificial famines between 1921 and 1947. Famines of 1932 to 1933 and 1946 were most severe among them. Long-term health consequences of these famines remain insufficiently investigated. Type 2 diabetes mellitus screening was conducted between June 2013 and December 2014. A total of 198 rural residents of Kyiv region more than 44 years of age, not registered as patients with T2D, were randomly selected...
2017: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221761/enrichment-of-pha-producing-bacteria-under-continuous-substrate-supply
#10
Leonie Marang, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Robbert Kleerebezem
To enrich polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) producing microbial communities, generally, a feast-famine regime is applied. Here we investigated the impact of continuous substrate feeding on the enrichment of PHA-producing bacteria in two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). In the first reactor, the substrate (acetate) was dosed continuously and Zoogloea sp. was enriched. The culture accumulated PHA upon exposure to excess carbon, but the PHA production rate and storage capacity (53wt.%) were one-fifth of that observed for enrichment cultures in a standard, pulse-fed SBR dominated by the PHA producer Plasticicumulans acidivorans...
December 5, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209352/melatonin-attenuates-potato-late-blight-by-disrupting-cell-growth-stress-tolerance-fungicide-susceptibility-and-homeostasis-of-gene-expression-in-phytophthora-infestans
#11
Shumin Zhang, Xianzhe Zheng, Russel J Reiter, Shun Feng, Ying Wang, Sen Liu, Liang Jin, Zhengguo Li, Raju Datla, Maozhi Ren
Phytophthora infestans (P. infestans) is the causal agent of potato late blight, which caused the devastating Irish Potato Famine during 1845-1852. Until now, potato late blight is still the most serious threat to potato growth and has caused significant economic losses worldwide. Melatonin can induce plant innate immunity against pathogen infection, but the direct effects of melatonin on plant pathogens are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the direct effects of melatonin on P. infestans. Exogenous melatonin significantly attenuated the potato late blight by inhibiting mycelial growth, changing cell ultrastructure, and reducing stress tolerance of P...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207944/incidence-of-breast-cancer-in-chinese-women-exposed-to-the-1959-1961-great-chinese-famine
#12
Dandan He, Yuan Fang, Marc J Gunter, Dongli Xu, Yanping Zhao, Jie Zhou, Hong Fang, Wang Hong Xu
BACKGROUND: The association of malnutrition in early life with breast cancer risk has been studied in Europe by investigating survivors of the Dutch Hunger Winter Famine, but not in China. We evaluated the effect of exposure to the 1959-1961 Great Leap Forward famine on subsequent breast cancer risk in Chinese women. METHODS: A total of 59,060 women born in 1955~1966 were recruited from Minhang district, Shanghai, China, during the period 2008 to 2012. A baseline survey was conducted to collect demographic characteristics and known risk factors for breast cancer...
December 5, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203968/-i-should-have-thought-that-wales-was-a-wet-part-of-the-world-drought-rural-communities-and-public-health-1870-1914
#13
Keir Waddington
From 1884 onwards, Britain experienced a series of major droughts, which reached their peak in the 'Long Drought' (1890-1909). Despite being imagined as a wet part of the world, rural Wales was hard hit as many communities did not have access to reliable water supplies. As medical officers of health and newspapers talked about water famines, alarm focused on questions of purity and disease as drought was presented as a serious health risk. Using rural Wales as a case study, this essay explores vulnerabilities to water scarcity during periods of drought to examine the material and socio-political impact of water scarcity and the resulting public health problems faced in rural areas...
August 2017: Social History of Medicine: the Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203222/methanol-assimilation-in-escherichia-coli-is-improved-by-co-utilization-of-threonine-and-deletion-of-leucine-responsive-regulatory-protein
#14
Jacqueline E Gonzalez, R Kyle Bennett, E Terry Papoutsakis, Maciek R Antoniewicz
Methane, the main component of natural gas, can be used to produce methanol which can be further converted to other valuable products. There is increasing interest in using biological systems for the production of fuels and chemicals from methanol, termed methylotrophy. In this work, we have examined methanol assimilation metabolism in a synthetic methylotrophic E. coli strain. Specifically, we applied 13C-tracers and evaluated 25 different co-substrates for methanol assimilation, including amino acids, sugars and organic acids...
December 2, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198238/the-effect-of-adverse-intrauterine-conditions-early-childhood-growth-and-famine-exposure-on-age-at-menopause-a-systematic-review
#15
S Sadrzadeh, M Verschuuren, L J Schoonmade, C B Lambalk, R C Painter
When the follicle reserve, which is developed solely during the fetal period, is depleted, women enter menopause. Intrauterine and childhood adverse conditions might affect the ovarian capacity by influencing follicle production in the first trimester, limiting the initial follicle pool or mediate an accelerated follicular loss thereafter. To investigate if adverse early life influences result in younger age at menopause, the following online databases were systematically searched: PubMed, EMBASE, CINHAL (EBSCO) and Cochrane library (Wiley) up to 1 January 2017...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168439/drivers-of-measles-mortality-the-historic-fatality-burden-of-famine-in-bangladesh
#16
A S Mahmud, N Alam, C J E Metcalf
Measles is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. Estimates of the case-fatality rate (CFR) of measles have varied widely from place to place, as well as in the same location over time. Amongst populations that have experienced famine or armed conflict, measles CFR can be especially high, although past work has mostly focused on refugee populations. Here, we estimate measles CFR between 1970 and 1991 in a rural region of Bangladesh, which experienced civil war and famine in the 1970s...
November 23, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165159/increase-in-the-prevalence-of-hypertension-among-adults-exposed-to-the-great-chinese-famine-during-early-life
#17
Lingli Liu, Xianglong Xu, Huan Zeng, Yong Zhang, Zumin Shi, Fan Zhang, Xianqing Cao, Yao Jie Xie, Cesar Reis, Yong Zhao
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the association between exposure to the Great Chinese Famine (1959-1961) during early life and hypertension in adulthood. METHODS: From July to September 2009, 1224 eligible adults were recruited in a cross-sectional survey using a multi-stage stratified random sampling method in Chongqing China. A questionnaire was used to collect information of hypertension and sociodemographic factors. Participants were categorized as childhood, fetal, and none exposure to famine based on the date of birth...
August 25, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161448/prenatal-famine-exposure-adulthood-obesity-patterns-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes
#18
Ruogu Meng, Jun Lv, Canqing Yu, Yu Guo, Zheng Bian, Ling Yang, Yiping Chen, Hui Zhang, Xiaofang Chen, Junshi Chen, Zhengming Chen, Lu Qi, Liming Li
Background: Prenatal exposure to famine and adulthood obesity have been independently related to the risk of type 2 diabetes; however, little is known about the joint effects of these risk factors at different stages of life on adulthood diabetes risk. Methods: The analysis included 88 830 participants of the China Kadoorie Biobank, who were born around the time of the Chinese Great Famine and without diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, or cancer at baseline. We defined famine exposure subgroups as nonexposed (born between 1 October 1962 and 30 September 964), fetal-exposed (born between 1 October 1959 and 30 September 1961) and early-childhood exposed (born between 1 October 1956 and 30 September 1958)...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157974/stability-of-aerobic-granules-during-long-term-bioreactor-operation
#19
REVIEW
Rita D G Franca, Helena M Pinheiro, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Nídia D Lourenço
Aerobic granular sludge technology has been extensively studied over the past 20 years and is regarded as the upcoming new standard for biological treatment of domestic and industrial wastewaters. Aerobic granules (AG) are dense, compact, self-immobilized microbial aggregates that allow better sludge-water separation and thereby higher biomass concentrations in the bioreactor than conventional activated sludge aggregates. This brings potential practical advantages in terms of investment cost, energy consumption and footprint...
November 17, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149858/famine-food-of-vegetal-origin-consumed-in-the-netherlands-during-world-war-ii
#20
Tom Vorstenbosch, Ingrid de Zwarte, Leni Duistermaat, Tinde van Andel
BACKGROUND: Periods of extreme food shortages during war force people to eat food that they normally do not consider edible. The last time that countries in Western Europe experienced severe scarcities was during World War II. The so-called Dutch famine or Hunger Winter (1944-1945) made at least 25,000 victims. The Dutch government took action by opening soup kitchens and providing information on wild plants and other famine food sources in "wartime cookbooks." The Dutch wartime diet has never been examined from an ethnobotanical perspective...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
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