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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080997/tackling-emerging-fungal-threats-to-animal-health-food-security-and-ecosystem-resilience
#1
Matthew C Fisher, Neil A R Gow, Sarah J Gurr
Emerging infections caused by fungi have become a widely recognized global phenomenon. Their notoriety stems from their causing plagues and famines, driving species extinctions, and the difficulty in treating human mycoses alongside the increase of their resistance to antifungal drugs. This special issue comprises a collection of articles resulting from a Royal Society discussion meeting examining why pathogenic fungi are causing more disease now than they did in the past, and how we can tackle this rapidly emerging threat to the health of plants and animals worldwide...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076319/impact-of-nutrition-on-pollutant-toxicity-an-update-with-new-insights-into-epigenetic-regulation
#2
Jessie B Hoffman, Michael C Petriello, Bernhard Hennig
Exposure to environmental pollutants is a global health problem and is associated with the development of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. There is a growing body of evidence that nutrition can both positively and negatively modulate the toxic effects of pollutant exposure. Diets high in proinflammatory fats, such as linoleic acid, can exacerbate pollutant toxicity, whereas diets rich in bioactive and anti-inflammatory food components, including omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols, can attenuate toxicant-associated inflammation...
January 11, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057132/-association-between-famine-exposure-during-early-life-and-bmi-in-adulthood
#3
R R Meng, J H Si, J Lyu, Y Guo, Z Bian, C Q Yu, H Y Zhou, Y L Tan, P Pei, J S Chen, Z M Chen, L M Li
Objective: To examine the influence of famine exposure during early life on BMI in adulthood. Methods: A total of 94 052 participants recruited in the baseline survey of China Kadoorie Biobank were included in this study. The participants who were born between October 1956 and September 1958, between October 1959 and September 1961 and between October 1962 and September 1964 were classified as group born before famine, group born during famine and group born after famine (control group). The regression coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for BMI of famine exposure groups were estimated by linear regression model...
November 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052487/the-coexistence-of-generalist-and-specialist-clonal-lineages-in-natural-populations-of-the-irish-famine-pathogen-phytophthora-infestans-explains-local-adaptation-to-potato-and-tomato
#4
Alexander Kröner, Romain Mabon, Roselyne Corbière, Josselin Montarry, Didier Andrivon
Phytophthora infestans, causing late blight on Solanaceae, is a serious threat to potato and tomato crops worldwide. P. infestans populations sampled on either potato or tomato differ in genotypes and pathogenicity, suggesting niche exclusion in the field. We hypothesized that such niche separation can reflect differential host exploitation by different P. infestans genotypes. We thus compared genotypes and phenotypes in 21 isolates sampled on potato (n = 11) or tomato (n = 10). Typing at 12 microsatellite loci assigned potato isolates to the 13_A2, 6_A1 and 1_A1 lineages, and tomato isolates to the 23_A1, 2_A1 and unclassified multi-locus genotypes...
January 4, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051192/global-warming-and-its-health-impact
#5
Antonella Rossati
Since the mid-19th century, human activities have increased greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the Earth's atmosphere that resulted in increased average temperature. The effects of rising temperature include soil degradation, loss of productivity of agricultural land, desertification, loss of biodiversity, degradation of ecosystems, reduced fresh-water resources, acidification of the oceans, and the disruption and depletion of stratospheric ozone. All these have an impact on human health, causing non-communicable diseases such as injuries during natural disasters, malnutrition during famine, and increased mortality during heat waves due to complications in chronically ill patients...
January 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030580/historic-late-blight-outbreaks-caused-by-a-widespread-dominant-lineage-of-phytophthora-infestans-mont-de-bary
#6
Amanda C Saville, Michael D Martin, Jean B Ristaino
Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, the causal agent of potato late blight, was responsible for the Irish potato famine of the 1840s. Initial disease outbreaks occurred in the US in 1843, two years prior to European outbreaks. We examined the evolutionary relationships and source of the 19th-century outbreaks using herbarium specimens of P. infestans from historic (1846-1970) and more recent isolates (1992-2014) of the pathogen. The same unique SSR multilocus genotype, named here as FAM-1, caused widespread outbreaks in both US and Europe...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027575/dual-role-of-the-bile-acid-receptor-tgr5-for-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-in-feast-and-famine
#7
EDITORIAL
Dieter Häussinger, Verena Keitel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 27, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018025/facing-famine-somali-experiences-in-the-famine-of-2011
#8
Daniel Maxwell, Nisar Majid, Guhad Adan, Khalif Abdirahman, Jeeyon Janet Kim
In 2011-12, Somalia experienced the worst famine of the twenty- first century. Since then, research on the famine has focused almost exclusively on the external response, the reasons for the delay in the international response, and the implications for international humanitarian action in the context of the "global war on terror." This paper focuses on the internal, Somali response to the famine. Themes of diversification, mobility and flexibility are all important to understanding how people coped with the famine, but this paper focuses on the factor that seemed to determine whether and how well people survived the famine: social connectedness, the extent of the social networks of affected populations, and the ability of these networks to mobilize resources...
December 2016: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000636/a-review-of-the-health-problems-of-the-internally-displaced-persons-in-africa
#9
REVIEW
Eme T Owoaje, Obioma C Uchendu, Tumininu O Ajayi, Eniola O Cadmus
Globally, over 40 million people were displaced as a result of wars and violence due to religious and ethnic conflicts in 2015 while 19.2 million were displaced by natural disasters such as famine and floods. In Africa, 12 million people were displaced by armed conflict and violence and there were hundreds of thousands of people displaced by natural disasters. Despite these large numbers of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Sub-Saharan African countries and the potentially negative impact of displacement on the health of these populations, there is limited information on the health problems of IDPs in the region...
October 2016: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999932/association-of-famine-exposure-during-early-life-with-the-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-in-adulthood-a-meta-analysis
#10
Li Liu, Weijing Wang, Jianping Sun, Zengchang Pang
PURPOSE: The association between famine exposure (defined as lengthy and continuous deprivation of food) during early life and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in adulthood remains controversial. A meta-analysis was performed to better clarify the relation of famine exposure to later T2DM risk. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and China National Knowledge Infrastructure for relevant available articles. The articles were limited to those in English or Chinese from January 1990 to June 2016...
December 20, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997869/effect-of-extended-famine-conditions-on-aerobic-granular-sludge-stability-in-the-treatment-of-brewery-wastewater
#11
Santo Fabio Corsino, Alessandro di Biase, Tanner Ryan Devlin, Giulio Munz, Michele Torregrossa, Jan A Oleszkiewicz
Results obtained from three aerobic granular sludge reactors treating brewery wastewater are presented. Reactors were operated for 60d days in each of the two periods under different cycle duration: (Period I) short 6h cycle, and (Period II) long 12h cycle. Organic loading rates (OLR) varying from 0.7kgCODm(-3)d(-1) to 4.1kgCODm(-3)d(-1) were tested. During Period I, granules successfully developed in all reactors, however, results revealed that the feast and famine periods were not balanced and the granular structure deteriorated and became irregular...
December 8, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981427/the-enrichment-of-microbial-community-for-accumulating-polyhydroxyalkanoates-using-propionate-rich-waste
#12
Bo Wu, Dan Zheng, Zheng Zhou, Jing-Li Wang, Xiao-Lan He, Zheng-Wei Li, Hong-Nan Yang, Han Qin, Min Zhang, Guo-Quan Hu, Ming-Xiong He
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are promising alternatives to plastics since they have similar properties to polyolefin but are biodegradable and biocompatible. Recently, the conversion of propionate wastewater to PHAs by undefined mixed microbial cultures becomes attractive. However, how microbial community changes remains unclear during the enrichment step, which is critical for a robust PHA-producing system. In this study, PHA-accumulating cultures were enriched under feast/famine condition using propionate-rich substrates...
December 15, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968880/exposure-to-the-chinese-famine-of-1959-61-in-early-life-and-current-health-conditions-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Chihua Li, L H Lumey
BACKGROUND: Many middle-aged Chinese people have experienced the Great Leap Forward Famine of 1959-61, which could have profound long-term health consequences for exposed birth cohorts. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarise reported famine effects on long-term health. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Chinese Wanfang Data, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases up to December, 2015, for health outcomes related to the Chinese famine, with the keywords "China", "famine", "undernutrition", "Chinese famine", "Great Leap Forward", and "Great famine", and the MESH terms "starvation" or "malnutrition" combined with "China" or "Chinese"...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959965/functional-analyses-of-the-crohn-s-disease-risk-gene-lacc1
#14
Ghazaleh Assadi, Liselotte Vesterlund, Ferdinando Bonfiglio, Luca Mazzurana, Lina Cordeddu, Danika Schepis, Jenny Mjösberg, Sabrina Ruhrmann, Alessia Fabbri, Vladana Vukojevic, Piergiorgio Percipalle, Florian A Salomons, Jurga Laurencikiene, Leif Törkvist, Jonas Halfvarson, Mauro D'Amato
BACKGROUND: Genetic variation in the Laccase (multicopper oxidoreductase) domain-containing 1 (LACC1) gene has been shown to affect the risk of Crohn's disease, leprosy and, more recently, ulcerative colitis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. LACC1 function appears to promote fatty-acid oxidation, with concomitant inflammasome activation, reactive oxygen species production, and anti-bacterial responses in macrophages. We sought to contribute to elucidating LACC1 biological function by extensive characterization of its expression in human tissues and cells, and through preliminary analyses of the regulatory mechanisms driving such expression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957885/changing-ploidy-as-a-strategy-the-irish-potato-famine-pathogen-shifts-ploidy-in-relation-to-its-sexuality
#15
Ying Li, He Shen, Qian Zhou, Kun Qian, Theo van der Lee, Sanwen Huang
The oomycete Phytophthora infestans was the causal agent of the Irish Great Famine and is a recurring threat to global food security. The pathogen can reproduce both sexually and asexually, with high potential to adapt to various environments and great risk to break disease resistance genes in potato. As other oomycetes, P. infestans is regarded to be diploid during the vegetative phase of its life cycle, although some studies reported trisomy, and polyploidy. Using microsatellite fingerprinting, genome-wide assessment of SNP polymorphism, nuclear DNA quantification, and microscopic counting of chromosome numbers we assessed the ploidy level of isolates...
December 13, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927634/prenatal-exposure-to-famine-and-the-development-of-hyperglycemia-and-type-2-diabetes-in-adulthood-across-consecutive-generations-a-population-based-cohort-study-of-families-in-suihua-china
#16
Jie Li, Simin Liu, Songtao Li, Rennan Feng, Lixin Na, Xia Chu, Xiaoyan Wu, Yucun Niu, Zongxiang Sun, Tianshu Han, Haoyuan Deng, Xing Meng, Huan Xu, Zhe Zhang, Qiannuo Qu, Qiao Zhang, Ying Li, Changhao Sun
BACKGROUND: There has been increased recognition that prenatal or perinatal nutrition has an effect on the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adulthood, although studies that have directly examined whether the effect could be transmitted to the next generation remain sparse. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of prenatal exposure to the Chinese famine in affecting future T2D risk in adulthood in 2 consecutive generations. DESIGN: A total of 1034 families, including 2068 parents [parental generation (F1)] and 1183 offspring [offspring generation (F2)], were recruited from the Suihua rural area that was affected by the Chinese Famine of 1959-1961...
January 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905931/a-temporal-assessment-of-nematode-community-structure-and-diversity-in-the-rhizosphere-of-cisgenic-phytophthora-infestans-resistant-potatoes
#17
Vilma Ortiz, Sinead Phelan, Ewen Mullins
BACKGROUND: Nematodes play a key role in soil processes with alterations in the nematode community structure having the potential to considerably influence ecosystem functioning. As a result fluctuations in nematode diversity and/or community structure can be gauged as a 'barometer' of a soil's functional biodiversity. However, a deficit exists in regards to baseline knowledge and on the impact of specific GM crops on soil nematode populations and in particular in regard to the impact of GM potatoes on the diversity of nematode populations in the rhizosphere...
December 1, 2016: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894821/schizophrenia-in-mid-adulthood-after-prenatal-exposure-to-the-chinese-famine-of-1959-1961
#18
Cuntong Wang, Yudong Zhang
Analyzing data from a large-scale, nationally representative sample, this study examines the association between prenatal exposure to the Chinese Famine (1959-1961) and schizophrenia risk in mid-adulthood and its urban/rural-specific and gender-specific patterns. The results showed that the cohort conceived and born during the famine had a higher risk of schizophrenia in mid-adulthood than cohorts conceived and born before or after the famine. In addition, schizophrenia risk was higher for urban residents than for rural residents and higher for females than for males...
November 25, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881521/is-famine-exposure-during-developmental-life-in-rural-bangladesh-associated-with-a-metabolic-and-epigenetic-signature-in-young-adulthood-a-historical-cohort-study
#19
S Finer, M S Iqbal, R Lowe, B W Ogunkolade, S Pervin, C Mathews, M Smart, D S Alam, G A Hitman
OBJECTIVES: Famine exposure in utero can 'programme' an individual towards type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. We sought to identify, (1) whether Bangladeshis exposed to famine during developmental life are programmed towards diabetes and obesity, (2) whether this programming was specific to gestational or postnatal exposure windows and (3) whether epigenetic differences were associated with famine exposure. DESIGN: A historical cohort study was performed as part of a wider cross-sectional survey...
November 23, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881174/juvenile-arthritis-caused-by-a-novel-famin-lacc1-mutation-in-two-children-with-systemic-and-extended-oligoarticular-course
#20
Tilmann Kallinich, Anne Thorwarth, Sae-Lim von Stuckrad, Angela Rösen-Wolff, Hella Luksch, Patrick Hundsdoerfer, Kirsten Minden, Peter Krawitz
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiological origin of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is largely unknown. However, individuals with presumably pathogenic mutations in FAMIN have been reported, associating this gene with a rare subtype of this disorder. FAMIN, that is formerly also referred to as LACC1 or C13orf31, has recently been shown to play a crucial role in immune-metabolic functions and is involved in regulation of inflammasome activation and promotion of ROS production. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe two siblings with severe familial forms of juvenile arthritis in which whole-exome-sequencing revealed a novel homozygous frameshift mutation (NM_153218...
November 24, 2016: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
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