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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291790/anaemia-among-children-in-a-drought-affected-community-in-south-central-ethiopia
#1
Taye Gari, Eskindir Loha, Wakgari Deressa, Tarekegn Solomon, Hanibale Atsbeha, Meselech Assegid, Alemayehu Hailu, Bernt Lindtjørn
INTRODUCTION: As part of a field trial (PACTR201411000882128) to provide evidence on the combined use of long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spray for malaria prevention, we measured haemoglobin values among children aged 6 to 59 months. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of anaemia, and to determine the risk factors of anaemia and change in haemoglobin value in Adami Tullu district in south-central Ethiopia. METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional surveys among 2984 children in 2014 and 3128 children in 2015; and a cohort study (malaria as exposure and anaemia as outcome variable) were conducted...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280003/epigenetic-memory-in-response-to-environmental-stressors
#2
Paolo Vineis, Aristotelis Chatziioannou, Vincent T Cunliffe, James M Flanagan, Mark Hanson, Micheline Kirsch-Volders, Soterios Kyrtopoulos
Exposure to environmental stressors, toxicants, and nutrient deficiencies can affect DNA in several ways. Some exposures cause damage and alter the structure of DNA, but there is increasing evidence that the same or other environmental exposures, including those that occur during fetal development in utero, can cause epigenetic effects that modulate DNA function and gene expression. Some epigenetic changes to DNA that affect gene transcription are at least partially reversible (i.e., they can be enzymatically reversed after cessation of exposure to environmental agents), but some epigenetic modifications seem to persist, even for decades...
March 9, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273874/early-life-nutritional-programming-of-type-2-diabetes-experimental-and-quasi-experimental-evidence
#3
REVIEW
Alexander M Vaiserman
Consistent evidence from both experimental and human studies suggest that inadequate nutrition in early life can contribute to risk of developing metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adult life. In human populations, most findings supporting a causative relationship between early-life malnutrition and subsequent risk of T2D were obtained from quasi-experimental studies ('natural experiments'). Prenatal and/or early postnatal exposures to famine were demonstrated to be associated with higher risk of T2D in many cohorts around the world...
March 5, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264526/%C3%AE-n-oxalyl-l-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-diaminopropionic-acid-%C3%AE-odap-content-in-lathyrus-sativus-the-integration-of-nitrogen-and-sulfur-metabolism-through-%C3%AE-cyanoalanine-synthase
#4
REVIEW
Quanle Xu, Fengjuan Liu, Peng Chen, Joseph M Jez, Hari B Krishnan
Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is an important legume crop grown mainly in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. This underutilized legume can withstand harsh environmental conditions including drought and flooding. During drought-induced famines, this protein-rich legume serves as a food source for poor farmers when other crops fail under harsh environmental conditions; however, its use is limited because of the presence of an endogenous neurotoxic nonprotein amino acid β-N-oxalyl-l-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP)...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241183/association-of-gestational-weight-gain-and-maternal-body-mass-index-in-early-pregnancy-with-risk-for-nonaffective-psychosis-in-offspring
#5
Euan Mackay, Christina Dalman, Håkan Karlsson, Renee M Gardner
Importance: Prenatal exposure to famine is associated with a 2-fold risk for nonaffective psychoses. Less is known about whether maternal nutrition states during pregnancy modify offspring risk for nonaffective psychoses in offspring in well-fed populations. Objective: To determine whether gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy and maternal body mass index (BMI) in early pregnancy are associated with risk for nonaffective psychoses in offspring. Design, Setting and Participants: This population-based cohort study used data from Swedish health and population registers to follow up 526 042 individuals born from January 1, 1982, through December 31, 1989, from 13 years of age until December 31, 2011...
February 22, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240542/community-assembly-and-ecology-of-activated-sludge-under-photosynthetic-feast-famine-conditions
#6
Ben O Oyserman, Joseph M Martirano, Spenser Wipperfurth, Brian R Owen, Daniel R Noguera, Katherine D McMahon
Here, we demonstrate that photosynthetic oxygen production under light-dark and feast-famine cycles with no mechanical aeration and negligible oxygen diffusion is able to maintain phosphorus cycling activity associated with the enrichment of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). We investigate the ecology of this novel system by conducting a time series analysis of prokaryotic and eukaryotic biodiversity using the V3-V4 and V4 regions of the 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequences, respectively. In the Eukaryotic community, the initial dominant alga observed was Desmodesmus...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236828/activated-sludge-production-parameters-and-nutrient-content-of-organic-sludge-components
#7
Marc-André Labelle, Peter L Dold, Alain Gadbois, Stéphane Déléris, Yves Comeau
  An important part of biological treatment system design is quantifying the sludge production and the nutrient removal capacity. Influent wastewater COD fractionation, biomass growth and endogenous respiration directly impacts the composition of the mixed liquor solids in activated sludge systems. The objectives of this project were to determine the model kinetic and stoichiometric parameters associated with activated sludge production and the nutrient content (N and P) of unbiodegradable organic matter components...
January 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195575/a-land-data-assimilation-system-for-sub-saharan-africa-food-and-water-security-applications
#8
Amy McNally, Kristi Arsenault, Sujay Kumar, Shraddhanand Shukla, Pete Peterson, Shugong Wang, Chris Funk, Christa D Peters-Lidard, James P Verdin
Seasonal agricultural drought monitoring systems, which rely on satellite remote sensing and land surface models (LSMs), are important for disaster risk reduction and famine early warning. These systems require the best available weather inputs, as well as a long-term historical record to contextualize current observations. This article introduces the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS), a custom instance of the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework. The FLDAS is routinely used to produce multi-model and multi-forcing estimates of hydro-climate states and fluxes over semi-arid, food insecure regions of Africa...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181990/genomic-insights-into-the-population-structure-and-history-of-the-irish-travellers
#9
Edmund Gilbert, Shai Carmi, Sean Ennis, James F Wilson, Gianpiero L Cavalleri
The Irish Travellers are a population with a history of nomadism; consanguineous unions are common and they are socially isolated from the surrounding, 'settled' Irish people. Low-resolution genetic analysis suggests a common Irish origin between the settled and the Traveller populations. What is not known, however, is the extent of population structure within the Irish Travellers, the time of divergence from the general Irish population, or the extent of autozygosity. Using a sample of 50 Irish Travellers, 143 European Roma, 2232 settled Irish, 2039 British and 6255 European or world-wide individuals, we demonstrate evidence for population substructure within the Irish Traveller population, and estimate a time of divergence before the Great Famine of 1845-1852...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159214/dairy-cows-famines-and-what-neonatologists-can-learn-from-them
#10
EDITORIAL
Lucky Jain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137685/famine-fears-in-northeast-nigeria-as-boko-haram-fight-rages
#11
Sam Loewenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 28, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117150/enrichment-of-a-mixed-microbial-culture-for-polyhydroxyalkanoates-production-effect-of-ph-and-n-and-p-concentrations
#12
Gabriela Montiel-Jarillo, Julián Carrera, María Eugenia Suárez-Ojeda
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biopolymers that can be an alternative against conventional plastics. The study reported herein evaluated the enrichment of a mixed microbial culture (MMC) operated under feast/famine regime and different pHs in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using acetate as sole carbon source to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). The enrichment step was evaluated at controlled pH of 7.5 and also without pH control (averaged value of 9.0). The acetate uptake rate (-qS) of both enrichments at the end of the experimental period exhibited similar behaviour being about 0...
January 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116356/tambora-and-the-mackerel-year-phenology-and-fisheries-during-an-extreme-climate-event
#13
Karen E Alexander, William B Leavenworth, Theodore V Willis, Carolyn Hall, Steven Mattocks, Steven M Bittner, Emily Klein, Michelle Staudinger, Alexander Bryan, Julianne Rosset, Benjamin H Carr, Adrian Jordaan
Global warming has increased the frequency of extreme climate events, yet responses of biological and human communities are poorly understood, particularly for aquatic ecosystems and fisheries. Retrospective analysis of known outcomes may provide insights into the nature of adaptations and trajectory of subsequent conditions. We consider the 1815 eruption of the Indonesian volcano Tambora and its impact on Gulf of Maine (GoM) coastal and riparian fisheries in 1816. Applying complex adaptive systems theory with historical methods, we analyzed fish export data and contemporary climate records to disclose human and piscine responses to Tambora's extreme weather at different spatial and temporal scales while also considering sociopolitical influences...
January 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080997/tackling-emerging-fungal-threats-to-animal-health-food-security-and-ecosystem-resilience
#14
Matthew C Fisher, Neil A R Gow, Sarah J Gurr
Emerging infections caused by fungi have become a widely recognized global phenomenon. Their notoriety stems from their causing plagues and famines, driving species extinctions, and the difficulty in treating human mycoses alongside the increase of their resistance to antifungal drugs. This special issue comprises a collection of articles resulting from a Royal Society discussion meeting examining why pathogenic fungi are causing more disease now than they did in the past, and how we can tackle this rapidly emerging threat to the health of plants and animals worldwide...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076319/impact-of-nutrition-on-pollutant-toxicity-an-update-with-new-insights-into-epigenetic-regulation
#15
Jessie B Hoffman, Michael C Petriello, Bernhard Hennig
Exposure to environmental pollutants is a global health problem and is associated with the development of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. There is a growing body of evidence that nutrition can both positively and negatively modulate the toxic effects of pollutant exposure. Diets high in proinflammatory fats, such as linoleic acid, can exacerbate pollutant toxicity, whereas diets rich in bioactive and anti-inflammatory food components, including omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols, can attenuate toxicant-associated inflammation...
March 1, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057132/-association-between-famine-exposure-during-early-life-and-bmi-in-adulthood
#16
R R Meng, J H Si, J Lyu, Y Guo, Z Bian, C Q Yu, H Y Zhou, Y L Tan, P Pei, J S Chen, Z M Chen, L M Li
Objective: To examine the influence of famine exposure during early life on BMI in adulthood. Methods: A total of 94 052 participants recruited in the baseline survey of China Kadoorie Biobank were included in this study. The participants who were born between October 1956 and September 1958, between October 1959 and September 1961 and between October 1962 and September 1964 were classified as group born before famine, group born during famine and group born after famine (control group). The regression coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for BMI of famine exposure groups were estimated by linear regression model...
November 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052487/the-coexistence-of-generalist-and-specialist-clonal-lineages-in-natural-populations-of-the-irish-famine-pathogen-phytophthora-infestans-explains-local-adaptation-to-potato-and-tomato
#17
Alexander Kröner, Romain Mabon, Roselyne Corbière, Josselin Montarry, Didier Andrivon
Phytophthora infestans, causing late blight on Solanaceae, is a serious threat to potato and tomato crops worldwide. P. infestans populations sampled on either potato or tomato differ in genotypes and pathogenicity, suggesting niche exclusion in the field. We hypothesized that such niche separation can reflect differential host exploitation by different P. infestans genotypes. We thus compared genotypes and phenotypes in 21 isolates sampled on potato (n = 11) or tomato (n = 10). Typing at 12 microsatellite loci assigned potato isolates to the 13_A2, 6_A1 and 1_A1 lineages, and tomato isolates to the 23_A1, 2_A1 and unclassified multi-locus genotypes...
January 4, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051192/global-warming-and-its-health-impact
#18
Antonella Rossati
Since the mid-19th century, human activities have increased greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the Earth's atmosphere that resulted in increased average temperature. The effects of rising temperature include soil degradation, loss of productivity of agricultural land, desertification, loss of biodiversity, degradation of ecosystems, reduced fresh-water resources, acidification of the oceans, and the disruption and depletion of stratospheric ozone. All these have an impact on human health, causing non-communicable diseases such as injuries during natural disasters, malnutrition during famine, and increased mortality during heat waves due to complications in chronically ill patients...
January 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030580/historic-late-blight-outbreaks-caused-by-a-widespread-dominant-lineage-of-phytophthora-infestans-mont-de-bary
#19
Amanda C Saville, Michael D Martin, Jean B Ristaino
Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, the causal agent of potato late blight, was responsible for the Irish potato famine of the 1840s. Initial disease outbreaks occurred in the US in 1843, two years prior to European outbreaks. We examined the evolutionary relationships and source of the 19th-century outbreaks using herbarium specimens of P. infestans from historic (1846-1970) and more recent isolates (1992-2014) of the pathogen. The same unique SSR multilocus genotype, named here as FAM-1, caused widespread outbreaks in both US and Europe...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027575/dual-role-of-the-bile-acid-receptor-takeda-g-protein-coupled-receptor-5-for-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-in-feast-and-famine
#20
EDITORIAL
Dieter Häussinger, Verena Keitel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 27, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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