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Santo Fabio Corsino, Daniele Di Trapani, Michele Torregrossa, Gaspare Viviani
In the present paper, the feasibility of citrus wastewater treatment with aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactors (AGSBR) was investigated. Two AGSBRs (named R1 and R2, respectively) were operated for 90 days under different organic loading rates (OLR) and pH in two experimental periods. The OLR ranged approximately between 3.0 kg TCOD m-3 d-1 and 7 kg TCOD m-3 d-1 during Period I, whereas between 7 kg TCOD m-3 d-1 and 15 kg TCOD m-3 d-1 during Period II. pH was maintained at 7.0 and 5.5 in R1 and R2, respectively...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
John R Speakman
Human obesity has a large genetic component, yet has many serious negative consequences. How this state of affairs has evolved has generated wide debate. The thrifty gene hypothesis was the first attempt to explain obesity as a consequence of adaptive responses to an ancient environment that in modern society become disadvantageous. The idea is that genes (or more precisely, alleles) predisposing to obesity may have been selected for by repeated exposure to famines. However, this idea has many flaws: for instance, selection of the supposed magnitude over the duration of human evolution would fix any thrifty alleles (famines kill the old and young, not the obese) and there is no evidence that hunter-gatherer populations become obese between famines...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Ping He, Gong Chen, Chao Guo, Xu Wen, Xinming Song, Xiaoying Zheng
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a common major mental disorder and prenatal nutritional deficiency may increase its risk. We aimed to investigate long-term impact of prenatal exposure to malnutrition on risk of schizophrenia in adulthood using the Chinese famine of 1959-1961 as a natural experiment. METHODS: We obtained data from the Second National Sample Survey on Disability implemented in 31 provinces in 2006, and restricted our analysis to 387,093 individuals born from 1956 to 1965...
March 4, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Mohammad Tajparast, Dominic Frigon
Feast-famine cycles in biological wastewater resource recovery systems select for bacterial species that accumulate intracellular storage compounds such as poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), glycogen, and triacylglycerols (TAG). These species survive better the famine phase and resume rapid substrate uptake at the beginning of the feast phase faster than microorganisms unable to accumulate storage. However, ecophysiological conditions favouring the accumulation of either storage compounds remain to be clarified, and predictive capabilities need to be developed to eventually rationally design reactors producing these compounds...
2018: PloS One
Jiuxiao Hao, Hui Wang, Xiujin Wang
The feast-to-famine ratio (F/F) represents the extent of selective pressure during polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) culture selection. This study evaluated the effects of F/F on a new PHA production system by an enriched culture with valerate-dominant sludge hydrolysate and selected the optimal F/F. After the original F/F 1/3 was modified to 1/1, 1/2, 1/4, and 1/5, F/F did not affect their lengths of feast phase, but affected their biomass growth behaviors during the famine phase and PHA-producing abilities. The optimal F/F was 1/2, and compared with 1/3, it increased the maximal PHA content and the fraction of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) and 3-hydroxy-2-methylvalerate (3H2MV) monomers, with higher productivity and better polymer properties...
February 27, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jianhong Qi, Famin Cao, Yunning Han, Di Xie, Hongqiang Song, Bin Chen, Lu Zhou
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the reliability of cartilage digestion and fluorescein diacetate-ethidium bromide (FDA-EB) fluorescence staining for the detection of chondrocyte viability in osteochondral grafts. Sixteen fresh osteochondral grafts were harvested from pig knee condyles, and the articular cartilage tissue was preserved. Each cartilage graft was cut into two 70-µm thick pieces and randomly allocated to Group A or Group B. The cell viability of Group A was detected using FDA-EB fluorescence staining of the digested cartilage, and the viability of Group B was detected with FDA-EB fluorescence staining of cartilage sections...
February 16, 2018: Cell and Tissue Banking
Yanxin Sun, Longfei Zhang, Wenhou Duan, Xin Meng, Chongqi Jia
BACKGROUND: Some studies have shown that famine in early life may influence T2D. The majority of studies on this topic have revealed an association between famine exposure in early life and T2D in adulthood. However, several studies on the Great Chinese Famine were not conducted nationwide. Because the severity of the Great Chinese Famine varied in different regions, the results of regional studies were usually limited. METHODS: We included 7262 participants who were born between October 1, 1949, and July 1, 1966 who were participants in baseline data collection for CHARLS in 2011...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Diabetes
Julian May
Socio-economic dynamics determine the transition from diets characterized by the risk of famine, to those characterized by the risk of diet-related non-communicable disease (DR-NCD). This transition is of particular concern in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in which key socio-economic interactions that influence diet include economic growth and rapid urbanization; inequality and a growing middle class; and obesogenic food environments and an increasing prevalence of DR-NCD. In each case, countries in SSA are among those experiencing the most rapid change in the world...
February 2018: Food Research International
Rahul Kumar, Sunil Kumar Yadav, Durga M Swain, Gopaljee Jha
Fungal pathogens are responsible for approximately two third of the infectious plant diseases. Historically they have been associated with several devastating famines, causing death and disabilities in humans. Mostly fungal diseases are being controlled by using fungicides which otherwise have adverse side effects on the health of consumers as well as environment. Due to extensive usages, pathogens have evolved resistance against most of the commonly used fungicides and rendered them ineffective. Controlling fungal disease in a sustainable and eco-friendly fashion remains a challenge...
December 31, 2017: Microbial Cell
Jielin Zhou, Liangjian Zhang, Peng Xuan, Yong Fan, Linsheng Yang, Chunqiu Hu, Qingli Bo, Guoxiu Wang, Jie Sheng, Sufang Wang
BACKGROUND: Previous epidemiologic studies have reported famine exposure during early life association with overweight or obesity in adulthood, but a consistent perspective has not been established to date. PURPOSE: To determine, by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis, whether exposure to famine could increase body mass index (BMI) in adult or not, and assess the association between famine exposure and the risk of overweight or obesity. METHODS: Published articles were systematically searched (until August, 2017) from PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure...
2018: PloS One
Yaru Li, Liyun Zhao, Dongmei Yu, Gangqiang Ding
We aimed to investigate whether exposure to the Chinese famine (1959-1961) in early life was associated with depression in adulthood. We included 17,505 participants from the China health and retirement longitudinal study (CHARLS). Participants were classified into indirect and direct exposure groups. And the directly exposure groups including prenatal, childhood, adolescence/adult exposure groups. Depression was diagnosed by Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale-10 (CES-D) score. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to calculate the odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of depression...
February 4, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Elmar W Tobi, Roderick C Slieker, René Luijk, Koen F Dekkers, Aryeh D Stein, Kate M Xu, P Eline Slagboom, Erik W van Zwet, L H Lumey, Bastiaan T Heijmans
Although it is assumed that epigenetic mechanisms, such as changes in DNA methylation (DNAm), underlie the relationship between adverse intrauterine conditions and adult metabolic health, evidence from human studies remains scarce. Therefore, we evaluated whether DNAm in whole blood mediated the association between prenatal famine exposure and metabolic health in 422 individuals exposed to famine in utero and 463 (sibling) controls. We implemented a two-step analysis, namely, a genome-wide exploration across 342,596 cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotides (CpGs) for potential mediators of the association between prenatal famine exposure and adult body mass index (BMI), serum triglycerides (TG), or glucose concentrations, which was followed by formal mediation analysis...
January 2018: Science Advances
Jumin Park, Young Dae Kwon, Hyunchun Park, Shi Eun Yu, Jin-Won Noh
The number of young North Korean refugees (NKRs) entering South Korea to escape famine and poverty and improve their quality of life is drastically increasing. The aims of this study were to identify and compare health promoting lifestyle behaviors (HPLBs) of young NKRs, compared to South Koreans, and to investigate influencing factors related to HPLBs in young NKRs. Data were obtained from 150 NKRs residing in South Korea and 161 South Koreans. Respondents provided their psychological status (depression, stress, and life satisfaction) and HPLBs...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Suping Guo, Chuanyu Gao, Wentao Xiao, Jing Zhang, Yongsheng Qu, Jiang Li, Famin Ye
Studies have shown that matrine showed cardiovascular protective effects; however, its role and mechanism in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remain unknown. The Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) pathway activation and elevated heat shock protein (HSP) 70 are closely related to the prevention of myocardial I/R injury. The cardioprotective effects of matrine were determined in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) treated primary rat cardiomyocytes and left anterior descending coronary artery ligation and reperfusion animal models...
February 1, 2018: Shock
Troy E Dominguez, Graeme O'Connor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Samuli Helama, Laura Arppe, Joonas Uusitalo, Jari Holopainen, Hanna M Mäkelä, Harri Mäkinen, Kari Mielikäinen, Pekka Nöjd, Raimo Sutinen, Jussi-Pekka Taavitsainen, Mauri Timonen, Markku Oinonen
The large volcanic eruptions of AD 536 and 540 led to climate cooling and contributed to hardships of Late Antiquity societies throughout Eurasia, and triggered a major environmental event in the historical Roman Empire. Our set of stable carbon isotope records from subfossil tree rings demonstrates a strong negative excursion in AD 536 and 541-544. Modern data from these sites show that carbon isotope variations are driven by solar radiation. A model based on sixth century isotopes reconstruct an irradiance anomaly for AD 536 and 541-544 of nearly three standard deviations below the mean value based on modern data...
January 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Joshua C Stein, Yeisoo Yu, Dario Copetti, Derrick J Zwickl, Li Zhang, Chengjun Zhang, Kapeel Chougule, Dongying Gao, Aiko Iwata, Jose Luis Goicoechea, Sharon Wei, Jun Wang, Yi Liao, Muhua Wang, Julie Jacquemin, Claude Becker, Dave Kudrna, Jianwei Zhang, Carlos E M Londono, Xiang Song, Seunghee Lee, Paul Sanchez, Andrea Zuccolo, Jetty S S Ammiraju, Jayson Talag, Ann Danowitz, Luis F Rivera, Andrea R Gschwend, Christos Noutsos, Cheng-Chieh Wu, Shu-Min Kao, Jhih-Wun Zeng, Fu-Jin Wei, Qiang Zhao, Qi Feng, Moaine El Baidouri, Marie-Christine Carpentier, Eric Lasserre, Richard Cooke, Daniel da Rosa Farias, Luciano Carlos da Maia, Railson S Dos Santos, Kevin G Nyberg, Kenneth L McNally, Ramil Mauleon, Nickolai Alexandrov, Jeremy Schmutz, Dave Flowers, Chuanzhu Fan, Detlef Weigel, Kshirod K Jena, Thomas Wicker, Mingsheng Chen, Bin Han, Robert Henry, Yue-Ie C Hsing, Nori Kurata, Antonio Costa de Oliveira, Olivier Panaud, Scott A Jackson, Carlos A Machado, Michael J Sanderson, Manyuan Long, Doreen Ware, Rod A Wing
The genus Oryza is a model system for the study of molecular evolution over time scales ranging from a few thousand to 15 million years. Using 13 reference genomes spanning the Oryza species tree, we show that despite few large-scale chromosomal rearrangements rapid species diversification is mirrored by lineage-specific emergence and turnover of many novel elements, including transposons, and potential new coding and noncoding genes. Our study resolves controversial areas of the Oryza phylogeny, showing a complex history of introgression among different chromosomes in the young 'AA' subclade containing the two domesticated species...
January 22, 2018: Nature Genetics
Tanner R Devlin, Jan A Oleszkiewicz
Formation of aerobic granular sludge was examined in a novel continuous flow configuration, at 20 ± 1 °C. Synthetic proteinaceous wastewater with municipal primary effluent characteristics was used (i.e., COD = 370 ± 30 mg/L; TN = 43 ± 7 mg/L; and TP = 10 ± 2 mg/L). Various levels of selective pressure were applied after inoculation with flocculent sludge (i.e., estimated velocity gradients during settling between 1 and 9 1/s). Impeller rpm of 15 and below generated floccular-granular biomass, while 20 rpm and above generated large granules with a filamentous population...
January 11, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Ningjian Wang, Zhiyuan Ning, Fangzhen Xia, Chi Chen, Jing Cheng, Yi Chen, Yingli Lu
OBJECTIVE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing contributor to the global disease burden. Previous findings indicated that exposure to famine in early life was associated with various metabolic diseases and urinary protein levels. We aimed to assess whether the exposure to China's Great Famine 1959-1962 during fetal or childhood period was associated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and risk of CKD (eGFR<60 mL/min per 1.73 m2) in adulthood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SPECT-China was a population-based observational study in 2014-2015...
January 15, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Guan Wang, Junfei Zhao, Cees Haringa, Wenjun Tang, Jianye Xia, Ju Chu, Yingping Zhuang, Siliang Zhang, Amit T Deshmukh, Walter van Gulik, Joseph J Heijnen, Henk J Noorman
In a 54 m3 large-scale penicillin fermentor, the cells experience substrate gradient cycles at the timescales of global mixing time about 20-40 s. Here, we used an intermittent feeding regime (IFR) and a two-compartment reactor (TCR) to mimic these substrate gradients at laboratory-scale continuous cultures. The IFR was applied to simulate substrate dynamics experienced by the cells at full scale at timescales of tens of seconds to minutes (30 s, 3 min and 6 min), while the TCR was designed to simulate substrate gradients at an applied mean residence time (τc) of 6 min...
January 15, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
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