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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933922/alan-gregg-the-diary-of-a-thoughtful-eye-witness
#1
Susan Ladwig, Theodore Brown
After two years of discussions and delays surrounding his eventual departure, Alan Gregg, the 37-year-old associate director of the Rockefeller Foundation's Division of Medical Education (DME), set out from his Paris, France, office in late November 1927, destined for a 17-day trip to Moscow and Leningrad in the Soviet Union. His mission-the first time a Rockefeller officer had ever set foot on Soviet soil(1)-was to gather first-hand knowledge about the state of public health and medical education in Russia, as a precursor for offering training fellowships to Russian physicians...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892254/transcriptional-regulation-of-ectoine-catabolism-in-response-to-multiple-metabolic-and-environmental-cues
#2
Annina Schulz, Lucas Hermann, Sven-Andreas Freibert, Tobias Bönig, Tamara Hoffmann, Ramona Riclea, Jeroen S Dickschat, Johann Heider, Erhard Bremer
Ectoine and hydroxyectoine are effective microbial osmostress protectants, but can also serve as versatile nutrients for bacteria. We have studied the genetic regulation of ectoine and hydroxyectoine import and catabolism in the marine Roseobacter species Ruegeria pomeroyi and identified three transcriptional regulators involved in these processes: the GabR/MocR-type repressor EnuR, the feast and famine-type regulator AsnC, and the two-component system NtrYX. The corresponding genes are widely associated with ectoine and hydroxyectoine uptake and catabolic gene clusters (enuR, asnC), and with microorganisms predicted to consume ectoines (ntrYX)...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864726/from-famine-to-feast-developing-early-phase-combination-immunotherapy-trials-wisely
#3
EDITORIAL
Daphne Day, Arta M Monjazeb, Elad Sharon, S Percy Ivy, Eric H Rubin, Gary L Rosner, Marcus O Butler
Not until the turn of this century has immunotherapy become a fundamental component of cancer treatment. While monotherapy with immune modulators, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, provides a subset of patients with durable clinical benefit and possible cure, combination therapy offers the potential for antitumor activity in a greater number of patients. The field of immunology has provided us with a plethora of potential molecules and pathways to target. This abundance makes it impractical to empirically test all possible combinations efficiently...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831526/global-invasive-cochliobolus-species-cohort-of-destroyers-with-implications-in-food-losses-and-insecurity-in-the-twenty-first-century
#4
Louis Bengyella, Elsie Laban Yekwa, Kiran Nawaz, Sehrish Iftikhar, Ernest Tambo, Arghavan Alisoltani, Naser Aliye Feto, Pranab Roy
Matching the global food demand by 2050 and to ensure the stability of food security in over than 99 countries, it is necessary to scale up the production of food such as sorghum, wheat, rice, maize and sugarcane which are however natural hosts of Cochliobolus species. Cochliobolus species major epidemics such as the Great Bengal famine, Southern corn leaf blight, and Northern leaf spot blight were associated with substantial economic losses in the past decades. Thus, there is an urgent need to establish a specific coordinated global surveillance program for the migration of invasive Cochliobolus species, planning contextual control programs engaging all agricultural stakeholders and information sharing in real time for prevention of disastrous Cochliobolus disease outbreak effects...
August 22, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818395/lymphocyte-fate-and-metabolism-a-clonal-balancing-act
#5
REVIEW
Simone A Nish, Wen-Hsuan W Lin, Steven L Reiner
Activated lymphocytes perform a clonal balancing act, yielding a daughter cell that differentiates owing to intense PI3K signaling, alongside a self-renewing sibling cell with blunted anabolic signaling. Divergent cellular anabolism versus catabolism is emerging as a feature of several developmental and regenerative paradigms. Metabolism can dictate cell fate, in part, because lineage-specific regulators are embedded in the circuitry of conserved metabolic switches. Unequal transmission of PI3K signaling during regenerative divisions is reminiscent of compartmentalized PI3K activity during directed motility or polarized information flow in non-dividing cells...
August 14, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810351/-schofield-and-the-first-spread-of-western-medicine-in-shanxi
#6
J Y Zheng
After the Second Opium War, the signing of the Tientsin Treaty and the Peking Treaty legitimized the missionary activities and authorized the missionary the rights to enter inland China for propagating their religious doctrines. In the late 1870s, the"The extraordinary famine of the Ding Wu year"and the subsequent epidemic provided the opportunity for missionaries to enter Shanxi. Dr. Schofield, sent by the China Inland Mission, arrived in Taiyuan in 1880, set up clinics and practised there. He died of typhus after treating a typhus patient in the summer of 1883...
May 28, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761106/overall-process-of-using-a-valerate-dominant-sludge-hydrolysate-to-produce-high-quality-polyhydroxyalkanoates-pha-in-a-mixed-culture
#7
Jiuxiao Hao, Xiujin Wang, Hui Wang
The overall process of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production in a mixed culture fed by thermophilic fermented valerate-dominant sludge hydrolysate with high-level soluble organics (proteins and carbohydrates) and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) was investigated in this study. The valerate-dominant hydrolysate was fed to enrich a PHA culture with an increasing concentration, and the enriched culture displayed a strong PHA-producing capacity under feast-famine conditions. Valerate in the feedstock was preferentially utilized over acetate and butyrate, and its uptake correlated with the production of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) and 3-hydroxy-2-methylvalerate (3H2MV)...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731930/early-life-exposure-to-chinese-famine-modifies-the-association-between-hypertension-and-cardiovascular-disease
#8
Zumin Shi, Stephen J Nicholls, Anne W Taylor, Dianna J Magliano, Sarah Appleton, Paul Zimmet
OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that famine exposure during early life may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, and diabetes during adulthood. We aimed to assess whether exposure to the Chinese famine (1959-1961) modifies the association between hypertension and CVD. METHODS: We investigated data of 5772 adults born between 1954 and 1964 from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. CVD was based on self-reported doctor's diagnosis of heart problems (heart attack, coronary heart disease, angina, congestive heart failure, or other heart problems) and stroke...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716879/international-issues-teleneurology-in-humanitarian-crises-lessons-from-the-m%C3%A3-decins-sans-fronti%C3%A3-res-experience
#9
Altaf Saadi, Farrah J Mateen
Humanitarian emergencies defined by armed conflict, political strife, famine, or natural disaster can devastate populations rapidly. Neurologic disorders accompany these complex humanitarian emergencies but often go unheeded, exacerbated by a scarcity of neurologists. Teleneurology offers the promise of neurologic care remotely in the face of this inadequate local clinician supply. We describe our experiences as voluntary neurology teleconsultants with Médecins Sans Frontières in order to highlight both the promises and challenges of teleneurology in humanitarian contexts...
July 18, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712116/multi-century-tree-ring-precipitation-record-reveals-increasing-frequency-of-extreme-dry-events-in-the-upper-blue-nile-river-catchment
#10
Mulugeta Mokria, Aster Gebrekirstos, Abrham Abiyu, Meine Van Noordwijk, Achim Bräuning
Climate-related environmental and humanitarian crisis are important challenges in the Great Horn of Africa (GHA). In the absence of long-term past climate records in the region, tree-rings are valuable climate proxies, reflecting past climate variations and complementing climate records prior to the instrumental era. We established annually resolved multi-century tree-ring chronology from Juniperus procera trees in northern Ethiopia, the longest series yet for the GHA. The chronology correlates significantly with wet-season (r = ...
July 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702255/diabetes-and-its-drivers-the-largest-epidemic-in-human-history
#11
EDITORIAL
Paul Z Zimmet
The "Diabesity" epidemic (obesity and type 2 diabetes) is likely to be the biggest epidemic in human history. Diabetes has been seriously underrated as a global public health issue and the world can no longer ignore "the rise and rise" of type 2 diabetes. Currently, most of the national and global diabetes estimates come from the IDF Atlas. These estimates have significant limitations from a public health perspective. It is apparent that the IDF have consistently underestimated the global burden. More reliable estimates of the future burden of diabetes are urgently needed...
2017: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679438/an-ethnobotanical-survey-of-medicinal-and-edible-plants-of-yalo-woreda-in-afar-regional-state-ethiopia
#12
Tilahun Teklehaymanot
BACKGROUND: The Afar people inhabit the sub-arid and arid part of Ethiopia. Recurrent drought and invasive encroaching plants are taking out plants that have cultural importance, and threaten the biodiversity and the associated traditional knowledge. Thus, the aim of the current study is to conduct an ethnobotanical survey and document medicinal and edible plants in Yalo Woreda in Afar regional state. METHODS: A cross-sectional ethnobotanical study was carried out in eight kebeles of Yalo Woreda from October 2015 to December 2016...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673566/cancer-is-an-adaptation-that-selects-in-animals-against-energy-dissipation
#13
Anthonie W J Muller
As cancer usually follows reproduction, it is generally assumed that cancer does not select. Graham has however argued that juvenile cancer, which precedes reproduction, could during evolution have implemented a "cancer selection" that resulted in novel traits that suppress this juvenile cancer; an example is protection against UV sunlight-induced cancer, required for the emergence of terrestrial animals from the sea. We modify the cancer selection mechanism to the posited "cancer adaptation" mechanism, in which juvenile mortality is enhanced through the diminished care received by juveniles from their (grand) parents when these suffer from cancer in old age...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670095/a-great-grandfather-s-account-of-the-irish-potato-famine-1845-1850
#14
EDITORIAL
John Davis Cantwell
My great-grandfather, Rodger Cantwell, and his family managed to survive the Irish famine that began in 1845. Blending what family records we have with Kelly's outstanding 2012 book about the era, the following is an historical fictional account of Rodger's saga.
July 2017: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659214/the-risk-of-stroke-after-prenatal-exposure-to-famine
#15
J Horenblas, S R de Rooij, T J Roseboom
Prenatal exposure to famine is associated with an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in the offspring at adult age. The aim of this study was to assess whether prenatal exposure to undernutrition increases the risk of stroke. This study was performed in the Dutch famine birth cohort, which consist of 2414 members who were born between 1943 and 1947 in the Netherlands. In a subsample of 1177 individuals, interviews were conducted using standardized questionnaires to obtain information about medical history (which included specific questions regarding stroke) and lifestyle...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646248/-psychiatric-care-of-refugees-in-africa-and-the-middle-east-challenges-and-solutions
#16
REVIEW
K Adorjan, S Mulugeta, M Odenwald, D M Ndetei, A H Osman, M Hautzinger, S Wolf, M Othman, J I Kizilhan, O Pogarell, T G Schulze
Violence, flight, famine, and natural disasters as well as the absence of a psychosocial healthcare system are major psychological burdens for refugees. The level of provision of mental healthcare is particularly low in developing countries. Internally displaced people and refugees place high demands on the healthcare system because they often suffer from psychiatric disorders, such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders. We present first initiatives to improve psychiatric care in refugee camps in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Sudan...
June 23, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631815/expansion-of-sesquiterpene-biosynthetic-gene-clusters-in-pepper-confers-nonhost-resistance-to-the-irish-potato-famine-pathogen
#17
Hyun-Ah Lee, Sejun Kim, Seungill Kim, Doil Choi
Chemical barriers contribute to nonhost resistance, which is defined as the resistance of an entire plant species to nonadapted pathogen species. However, the molecular basis of metabolic defense in nonhost resistance remains elusive. Here, we report genetic evidence for the essential role of phytoalexin capsidiol in nonhost resistance of pepper (Capsicum spp.) to potato late blight Phytophthora infestans using transcriptome and genome analyses. Two different genes for capsidiol biosynthesis, 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (EAS) and 5-epi-aristolochene-1,3-dihydroxylase (EAH), belong to multigene families...
June 20, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610568/fetal-and-infant-exposure-to-severe-chinese-famine-increases-the-risk-of-adult-dyslipidemia-results-from-the-china-health-and-retirement-longitudinal-study
#18
Zhenghe Wang, Changwei Li, Zhongping Yang, Jun Ma, Zhiyong Zou
BACKGROUND: To explore the associations between the Chinese famine exposure in early life and the dyslipidemia in adulthood. METHODS: We selected 2752 participants from the baseline survey of China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) 2011-2012 to evaluate the associations of early life the Chinese famine exposure with risk of dyslipidemia in adulthood. Dyslipidemia was defined as TC (Total Cholesterol): HDL-C (High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol) ratio ≥ 5...
June 14, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594232/revisiting-the-aids-epidemic-in-pakistan-where-we-stand-and-what-we-must-aim-for
#19
Hamza Arshad Dar, Areeba Mubashir, Manal Adil, Aiman Farzeen, Hasaan Naseer, Gohar Ayub, Sajid Mansoor, Aneela Javed
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the major cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans, where the immune system totally succumbs to the virus. A large proportion of the AIDS infected belong to developing countries and AIDS prevalence is intensified by severe poverty, malnutrition, and famine; fatal illnesses with a scorn shortage of medical amenities complemented with the lack of education and development. Current Pakistani health system setting is in a dire need of improvement...
July 11, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586274/famine-exposure-during-early-life-and-risk-of-hypertension-in-adulthood-a-meta-analysis
#20
Xueling Xin, Jie Yao, Feng Yang, Dongfeng Zhang
Background Many epidemiologic studies have explored the association between famine exposure and the risk of hypertension, but the results remain controversial. Objective A meta-analysis was performed to determine the association between early life famine exposure, fetal famine exposure, and childhood famine exposure and risk of hypertension. Methods A literature search was performed in PubMed, Web of science, Embase and China National Knowledge Infrastructure for relevant articles published up to October 2016...
June 6, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
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