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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927634/prenatal-exposure-to-famine-and-the-development-of-hyperglycemia-and-type-2-diabetes-in-adulthood-across-consecutive-generations-a-population-based-cohort-study-of-families-in-suihua-china
#1
Jie Li, Simin Liu, Songtao Li, Rennan Feng, Lixin Na, Xia Chu, Xiaoyan Wu, Yucun Niu, Zongxiang Sun, Tianshu Han, Haoyuan Deng, Xing Meng, Huan Xu, Zhe Zhang, Qiannuo Qu, Qiao Zhang, Ying Li, Changhao Sun
BACKGROUND: There has been increased recognition that prenatal or perinatal nutrition has an effect on the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adulthood, although studies that have directly examined whether the effect could be transmitted to the next generation remain sparse. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of prenatal exposure to the Chinese famine in affecting future T2D risk in adulthood in 2 consecutive generations. DESIGN: A total of 1034 families, including 2068 parents [parental generation (F1)] and 1183 offspring [offspring generation (F2)], were recruited from the Suihua rural area that was affected by the Chinese Famine of 1959-1961...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905931/a-temporal-assessment-of-nematode-community-structure-and-diversity-in-the-rhizosphere-of-cisgenic-phytophthora-infestans-resistant-potatoes
#2
Vilma Ortiz, Sinead Phelan, Ewen Mullins
BACKGROUND: Nematodes play a key role in soil processes with alterations in the nematode community structure having the potential to considerably influence ecosystem functioning. As a result fluctuations in nematode diversity and/or community structure can be gauged as a 'barometer' of a soil's functional biodiversity. However, a deficit exists in regards to baseline knowledge and on the impact of specific GM crops on soil nematode populations and in particular in regard to the impact of GM potatoes on the diversity of nematode populations in the rhizosphere...
December 1, 2016: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894821/schizophrenia-in-mid-adulthood-after-prenatal-exposure-to-the-chinese-famine-of-1959-1961
#3
Cuntong Wang, Yudong Zhang
Analyzing data from a large-scale, nationally representative sample, this study examines the association between prenatal exposure to the Chinese Famine (1959-1961) and schizophrenia risk in mid-adulthood and its urban/rural-specific and gender-specific patterns. The results showed that the cohort conceived and born during the famine had a higher risk of schizophrenia in mid-adulthood than cohorts conceived and born before or after the famine. In addition, schizophrenia risk was higher for urban residents than for rural residents and higher for females than for males...
November 25, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881521/is-famine-exposure-during-developmental-life-in-rural-bangladesh-associated-with-a-metabolic-and-epigenetic-signature-in-young-adulthood-a-historical-cohort-study
#4
S Finer, M S Iqbal, R Lowe, B W Ogunkolade, S Pervin, C Mathews, M Smart, D S Alam, G A Hitman
OBJECTIVES: Famine exposure in utero can 'programme' an individual towards type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. We sought to identify, (1) whether Bangladeshis exposed to famine during developmental life are programmed towards diabetes and obesity, (2) whether this programming was specific to gestational or postnatal exposure windows and (3) whether epigenetic differences were associated with famine exposure. DESIGN: A historical cohort study was performed as part of a wider cross-sectional survey...
November 23, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881174/juvenile-arthritis-caused-by-a-novel-famin-lacc1-mutation-in-two-children-with-systemic-and-extended-oligoarticular-course
#5
Tilmann Kallinich, Anne Thorwarth, Sae-Lim von Stuckrad, Angela Rösen-Wolff, Hella Luksch, Patrick Hundsdoerfer, Kirsten Minden, Peter Krawitz
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiological origin of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is largely unknown. However, individuals with presumably pathogenic mutations in FAMIN have been reported, associating this gene with a rare subtype of this disorder. FAMIN, that is formerly also referred to as LACC1 or C13orf31, has recently been shown to play a crucial role in immune-metabolic functions and is involved in regulation of inflammasome activation and promotion of ROS production. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe two siblings with severe familial forms of juvenile arthritis in which whole-exome-sequencing revealed a novel homozygous frameshift mutation (NM_153218...
November 24, 2016: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871718/aza%C3%A3-%C3%A3-n-s-disease-a-19th-century-epidemic-of-neurolathyrism-in-spain
#6
REVIEW
S Giménez-Roldán, P S Spencer
The cultivation and consumption of grasspea (Lathyrus sativus) in Spain probably dates back centuries, especially during times of famine when the neurotoxic potential of this legume was expressed in the form of a spastic paraparesis known as neurolathyrism. Little known outside the country, the epidemic of neurolathyrism in the years following the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) came to affect more than a thousand people. In late 1872, during the Six Years Revolutionary Term, young Alejandro San Martín Satrústegui (1847-1908), then editor of the popular weekly El Siglo Médico, travelled to Azañón, a remote village in the province of Guadalajara, to clarify a so-far unknown disease...
December 2016: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819136/low-humic-acids-promote-in-vitro-lily-bulblet-enlargement-by-enhancing-roots-growth-and-carbohydrate-metabolism
#7
Yun Wu, Yi-Ping Xia, Jia-Ping Zhang, Fang Du, Lin Zhang, Yi-di Ma, Hong Zhou
Bulblet development is a problem in global lily bulb production and carbohydrate metabolism is a crucial factor. Micropropagation acts as an efficient substitute for faster propagation and can provide a controllable condition to explore bulb growth. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of humic acid (HA) on bulblet swelling and the carbohydrate metabolic pathway in Lilium Oriental Hybrids 'Sorbonne' under in vitro conditions. HA greatly promoted bulblet growth at 0.2, 2.0, and 20.0 mg/L, and pronounced increases in bulblet sucrose, total soluble sugar, and starch content were observed for higher HA concentrations (≥2...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807599/exposure-to-severe-famine-in-the-prenatal-or-postnatal-period-and-the-development-of-diabetes-in-adulthood-an-observational-study
#8
Ningjian Wang, Jing Cheng, Bing Han, Qin Li, Yi Chen, Fangzhen Xia, Boren Jiang, Michael D Jensen, Yingli Lu
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Limited studies have compared the effect of prenatal or postnatal exposure to different severities of famine on the risk of developing diabetes. We aimed to measure the association between diabetes in adulthood and the exposure to different degrees of famine early in life (during the prenatal or postnatal period) during China's Great Famine (1959-1962). METHODS: Data from 3967 individuals were included (a total of 2115 individuals from areas severely affected by famine, 1858 from moderately affected areas, 6 excluded due to missing data)...
November 2, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795293/famine-and-disease-in-nigerian-refugee-camps-for-internally-displaced-peoples-a-sad-reflection-of-our-times
#9
S D Taylor-Robinson, O Oleribe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793692/strategies-for-efficiently-selecting-pha-producing-mixed-microbial-cultures-using-complex-feedstocks-feast-and-famine-regime-and-uncoupled-carbon-and-nitrogen-availabilities
#10
Catarina S S Oliveira, Carlos E Silva, Gilda Carvalho, Maria A Reis
Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by open mixed microbial cultures (MMCs) has been attracting increasing interest as an alternative technology to PHA production by pure cultures, due to the potential for lower costs associated with the use of open systems (eliminating the requirement for sterile conditions) and the utilisation of cheap feedstock (industrial and agricultural wastes). Such technology relies on the efficient selection of an MMC enriched in PHA-accumulating organisms. Fermented cheese whey, a protein-rich complex feedstock, has been used previously to produce PHA using the feast and famine regime for selection of PHA accumulating cultures...
October 25, 2016: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778325/a-possible-link-between-famine-exposure-in-early-life-and-future-risk-of-gastrointestinal-cancers-implications-from-age-period-cohort-analysis
#11
Shao-Hua Xie, Jesper Lagergren
The Chinese famine in 1958-1962 was one of the worst in human history, but its potential influence on cancer risks is uncertain. Using cancer incidence data in Shanghai, China, during 1983-2007, we calculated age-specific incidence rates of gastrointestinal cancers in birth cohorts exposed to the Chinese famine in different periods of life and a non-exposed reference cohort. Age-period-cohort regressions estimated the overall relative risks of gastrointestinal cancers in each birth cohort. A total of 212,098 new cases of gastrointestinal cancer were identified during the study period (129,233 males and 82,865 females), among whom 18,146 had esophageal cancer, 71,011 gastric cancer, 55,864 colorectal cancer, 42,751 liver cancer, 9,382 gallbladder cancer, and 14,944 had pancreatic cancer...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733399/leukocyte-telomere-length-pattern-in-a-chuvash-population-that-experienced-mass-famine-in-1922-1923-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#12
Eugene Kobyliansky, Dmitry Torchinsky, Leonid Kalichman, David Karasik
BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, there are no experimental studies that have addressed the effects of starvation on the maintenance of telomere length. Two epidemiologic studies that have addressed this topic gave controversial results. OBJECTIVE: We characterized leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in a Chuvash population that was comprised of survivors of the mass famine of 1922-1923 and in these survivors' descendants. DESIGN: The tested cohort consisted of native Chuvash men (n = 687) and women (n = 647) who were born between 1909 and 1980 and who resided in small villages in the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721020/enhanced-growth-inhibition-of-prostate-cancer-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-by-a-recombinant-adenovirus-mediated-dual-aptamer-modified-drug-delivery-system
#13
Pei Jing, Shousong Cao, Shuangli Xiao, Xiaoqin Zhang, Siyun Ke, Famin Ke, Xin Yu, Li Wang, Shurong Wang, Yuling Luo, Zhirong Zhong
The peptide aptamer DUP-1 targets prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-negative cells, while the RNA aptamer A10-3.2 targets PSMA-positive prostate cancer cells. Moreover, the tumor-suppressor gene phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DOX) effectively inhibit prostate cancer, and a recombinant adenovirus (Ad5) mediates high gene transfer efficiency. Here, we design a dual-aptamer modified tumor targeting gene and DOX delivery system mediated by recombinant adenovirus (A10-3...
October 6, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697682/polyhydroxyalkanoate-synthesis-by-mixed-microbial-consortia-cultured-on-fermented-dairy-manure-effect-of-aeration-on-process-rates-yields-and-the-associated-microbial-ecology
#14
Erik R Coats, Benjamin S Watson, Cynthia K Brinkman
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable polymers that can substitute for petroleum-based plastics in a variety of applications. One avenue to commercial PHA production involves coupling waste-based synthesis with the use of mixed microbial consortia (MMC). In this regard, production requires maximizing the enrichment of a MMC capable of feast-famine PHA synthesis, with the metabolic response induced through imposition of aerobic-dynamic feeding (ADF) conditions. However, the concept of PHA production in complex matrices remains unrefined; process operational improvements are needed, along with an enhanced understanding of the MMC...
December 1, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696082/the-association-between-china-s-great-famine-and-risk-of-breast-cancer-according-to-hormone-receptor-status-a-hospital-based-study
#15
Aliya Alimujiang, Miao Mo, Ying Liu, Nai-Si Huang, Guangyu Liu, Wanghong Xu, Jiong Wu, Zhen-Zhou Shen, Zhimin Shao, Graham A Colditz
PURPOSE: The Great Chinese Famine afflicted almost all Chinese people between 1959 and 1961. No study has explicitly assessed the association between an exposure to Chinese Famine and risk of overall breast cancer and tumor subtype. We evaluated the unique historical environmental influences of famine exposure on breast cancer subtypes. METHODS: 16,469 Chinese women who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC) from 1999 to 2014 were analyzed...
November 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670368/immunometabolism-feast-or-famine-to-combat-infection
#16
Elisabeth Kugelberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667669/analysis-of-positive-selection-at-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-associated-with-body-mass-index-does-not-support-the-thrifty-gene-hypothesis
#17
Guanlin Wang, John R Speakman
The "thrifty gene hypothesis" suggests genetic susceptibility to obesity arises because of positive selection for alleles that favored fat deposition and survival during famines. We used public domain data to locate signatures of positive selection based on derived allele frequency, genetic diversity, long haplotypes, and differences between populations at SNPs identified in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for BMI. We used SNPs near the lactase (LCT), SLC24A5, and SLC45A2 genes as positive controls and 120 randomly selected SNPs as negative controls...
October 11, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664543/beyond-feast-and-famine-selecting-a-pha-accumulating-photosynthetic-mixed-culture-in-a-permanent-feast-regime
#18
J C Fradinho, M A M Reis, A Oehmen
Currently, the feast and famine (FF) regime is the most widely applied strategy to select for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulating organisms in PHA production systems with mixed microbial cultures. As an alternative to the FF regime, this work studied the possibility of utilizing a permanent feast regime as a new operational strategy to select for PHA accumulating photosynthetic mixed cultures (PMCs). The PMC was selected in an illuminated environment and acetate was constantly present in the mixed liquor to guarantee a feast regime...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648246/local-adaptation-to-temperature-in-populations-and-clonal-lineages-of-the-irish-potato-famine-pathogen-phytophthora-infestans
#19
Nicolas Mariette, Annabelle Androdias, Romain Mabon, Roselyne Corbière, Bruno Marquer, Josselin Montarry, Didier Andrivon
Environmental factors such as temperature strongly impact microbial communities. In the current context of global warming, it is therefore crucial to understand the effects of these factors on human, animal, or plant pathogens. Here, we used a common-garden experiment to analyze the thermal responses of three life-history traits (latent period, lesion growth, spore number) in isolates of the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans from different climatic zones. We also used a fitness index (FI) aggregating these traits into a single parameter...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639046/-the-establishment-of-medical-school-in-zagreb-in-world-war-i
#20
REVIEW
Vlatka Dugački, Krešimir Regan
World War I irrevocably changed the face of the world, including Croatia and its capital Zagreb. While between 1880 and 1910 Zagreb became a modern European city, World War I (1914-1918) was marked by new municipal regulations that overturned the everyday life of the city. Social conditions reached catastrophic proportions, especially in the later years of the war. Soldiers and refugees swarmed the city, and famine and the Spanish flu epidemic hit it hard. In such harsh social and economic circumstances Milan Rojc, head of the Theology and Education Department and three doctors from the Sisters of Mercy Hospital, namely, Theodor Wikerhauser, Miroslav Čačković pl...
November 2015: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
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