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fetal origins of adult disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220744/burden-genotype-and-phenotype-profiles-of-adult-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease-in-cape-town-south-africa
#1
G D Pule, K Mnica, M Joubert, S Mowla, N Novitsky, A Wonkam
BACKGROUND: An exponential increase in the number of sickle cell disease (SCD) patients in paediatric services in Cape Town, South Africa, has been reported. The trend in adult/adolescent services has not been investigated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate epidemiological trends of SCD and the profile of patients affected by SCD attending the Haematology Clinic at Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH), Cape Town. METHODS: (i) A retrospective review of the number of SCD patients over the past 20 years; (ii) a cross-sectional analysis of clinical and haematological characteristics of SCD patients; and (iii) molecular analysis of the haemoglobin S mutation, the haplotype in the β-globin-like genes cluster, the 3...
January 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212315/developmental-programming-of-adult-disease-reprogramming-by-melatonin
#2
REVIEW
You-Lin Tain, Li-Tung Huang, Chien-Ning Hsu
Adult-onset chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) can originate from early life through so-called the "developmental origins of health and disease" (DOHaD) or "developmental programming". The DOHaD concept offers the "reprogramming" strategy to shift the treatment from adulthood to early life, before clinical disease is apparent. Melatonin, an endogenous indoleamine produced by the pineal gland, has pleiotropic bioactivities those are beneficial in a variety of human diseases. Emerging evidence support that melatonin is closely inter-related to other proposed mechanisms contributing to the developmental programming of a variety of chronic NCDs...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208659/developmental-origins-of-chronic-kidney-disease-should-we-focus-on-early-life
#3
REVIEW
You-Lin Tain, Chien-Ning Hsu
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming a global burden, despite recent advances in management. CKD can begin in early life by so-called "developmental programming" or "developmental origins of health and disease" (DOHaD). Early-life insults cause structural and functional changes in the developing kidney, which is called renal programming. Epidemiological and experimental evidence supports the proposition that early-life adverse events lead to renal programming and make subjects vulnerable to developing CKD and its comorbidities in later life...
February 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186000/monitoring-fetal-maturation-objectives-techniques-and-indices-of-autonomic-function
#4
Dirk Hoyer, Jan Zebrowski, Dirk Cysarz, Hernani Goncalves, Adelina Pytlik, Celia Amorim-Costa, Joao Bernardes, Diogo Ayres-de-Campos, Otto Witte, Ekkehard Schleussner, Lisa Stroux, Christopher Redman, Antoniya Georgieva, Stephen Payne, Gari Clifford, Maria Signorini, Giovanni Magenes, Fernando Andreotti, Hagen Malberg, Sebastian Zaunseder, Igor Lakhno, Uwe Schneider
Monitoring the fetal behavior does not only have implications for acute care but also for identifying developmental disturbances that burden the entire later life. The concept, of "fetal programming", also known as "developmental origins of adult disease hypothesis", e.g. applies for cardiovascular, metabolic, hyperkinetic, cognitive disorders. Since the autonomic nervous system is involved in all of those systems, cardiac autonomic control may provide relevant functional diagnostic and prognostic information...
February 10, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143994/intra-uterine-growth-retardation-and-development-of-hypertension
#5
REVIEW
Haerani Rasyid, Syakib Bakri
Low birth weight (LBW) is defined as a birth weight of a liveborn infant of <2,500 gram. In developed countries, LBW is commonly caused by preterm birth; while in developing countries, it is mostly due to intrauterine growth retardation. The concept of developmental origins of adult diseases, particularly on late-onset diseases such as hypertension and kidney disease, implies that there is a correlation between intrauterine milieu, intrauterine growth retardation, premature birth and infant feeding. The 'fetal origin hypothesis' suggests that metabolic diseases are directly related to poor nutritional status in early life...
October 2016: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101838/renal-consequences-of-preterm-birth
#6
REVIEW
Amelie Stritzke, Sumesh Thomas, Harish Amin, Christoph Fusch, Abhay Lodha
BACKGROUND: The developmental origin of health and disease concept identifies the brain, cardiovascular, liver, and kidney systems as targets of fetal adverse programming with adult consequences. As the limits of viability in premature infants have been pushed to lower gestational ages, the long-term impact of prematurity on kidneys still remains a significant burden during hospital stay and beyond. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to summarize available evidence, mechanisms, and short- and long-term renal consequences of prematurity and identify nephroprotective strategies and areas of uncertainty...
December 2017: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099426/fetal-origins-of-adult-cardiac-disease-a-novel-approach-to-prevent-fetal-growth-restriction-induced-cardiac-dysfunction-using-insulin-like-growth-factor
#7
Tarek Alsaied, Khaled Omar, Jeanne F James, Robert B Hinton, Timothy M Crombleholme, Mounira Habli
BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction is a risk factor for adult cardiovascular disease. Intra-placental gene transfer of human insulin-like growth factor-1 corrects birth weight in our mouse model of fetal growth restriction. This study addresses long term effects of fetal growth restriction on cardiac function and the potential preventive effect of insulin-like growth factor-1. STUDY DESIGN: Laparotomy was performed on pregnant C57BL/6J mice at embryonic day 18 and pups were divided into 3 groups: Sham operated; fetal growth restriction (induced by mesenteric uterine artery ligation); treatment (intra-placental injection of insulin-like growth factor-1 after uterine artery ligation)...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979377/review-sexual-dimorphism-in-the-formation-function-and-adaptation-of-the-placenta
#8
REVIEW
J I Kalisch-Smith, D G Simmons, H Dickinson, K M Moritz
Exposure of the embryo or fetus to perturbations in utero can result in intrauterine growth restriction, a primary risk factor for the development of adult disease. However, despite similar exposures, males and females often have altered disease susceptibility or progression from different stages of life. Fetal growth is largely mediated by the placenta, which, like the fetus is genetically XX or XY. The placenta and its associated trophoblast lineages originate from the trophectoderm (TE) of the early embryo...
December 8, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959272/fetal-syndrome-of-endocannabinoid-deficiency-fsecd-in-maternal-obesity
#9
Natalia Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Nadezhda German, Gary Ventolini, Eneko Larumbe, Jacques Samson
The theory of a fetal origin of adult diseases links many pathological conditions to very early life events and is known as a "developmental programming" phenomenon. The mechanisms of this phenomenon are not quite understood and have been explained by inflammation, stress, etc. In particular the epidemic of obesity, with more than 64% of women being overweight or obese, has been associated with conditions in later life such as mental disorders, diabetes, asthma, and irritable bowel syndrome. Interestingly, these diseases were classified a decade ago as Clinical Syndrome of Endocannabinoid Deficiency (CECD), which was first described by Russo in 2004...
November 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903733/development-of-activity-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#10
Jing Shen, Matthew T Colonnese
A comprehensive developmental timeline of activity in the mouse cortex in vivo is lacking. Understanding the activity changes that accompany synapse and circuit formation is important to understand the mechanisms by which activity molds circuits and would help to identify critical checkpoints for normal development. To identify key principles of cortical activity maturation, we systematically tracked spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity with extracellular recordings of primary visual cortex (V1) in nonanesthetized mice...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886132/the-future-is-the-past-methylation-qtls-in-schizophrenia
#11
REVIEW
Anke Hoffmann, Michael Ziller, Dietmar Spengler
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have remarkably advanced insight into the genetic basis of schizophrenia (SCZ). Still, most of the functional variance in disease risk remains unexplained. Hence, there is a growing need to map genetic variability-to-genes-to-functions for understanding the pathophysiology of SCZ and the development of better treatments. Genetic variation can regulate various cellular functions including DNA methylation, an epigenetic mark with important roles in transcription and the mediation of environmental influences...
November 24, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882215/epigenetic-changes-in-peripheral-leucocytes-as-biomarkers-in-intrauterine-growth-retardation-rat
#12
Xue-Feng Xu, Shan-Shan Xu, Lin-Cheng Fu, Qiong-Yao Hu, Ying Lv, Li-Zhong Du
Epigenetics plays an important role in the fetal origins of adult disease. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) can cause increased histone acetylation of the endothelin-1 (ET-1) gene from pulmonary vascular endothelial cells or the whole lung tissue and persist into later life, likely resulting in increased risk of pulmonary hypertension or asthma later in life. However, little is known regarding the correlation of epigenetic changes between specific tissue and peripheral leucocytes. In the present study, an IUGR rat model was established by maternal nutrient restriction...
November 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817870/biological-features-of-placental-programming
#13
Kent L Thornburg, Kevin Kolahi, Melinda Pierce, Amy Valent, Rachel Drake, Samantha Louey
The placenta is a key organ in programming the fetus for later disease. This review outlines nine of many structural and physiological features of the placenta which are associated with adult onset chronic disease. 1) Placental efficiency relates the placental mass to the fetal mass. Ratios at the extremes are related to cardiovascular disease risk later in life. 2) Placental shape predicts a large number of disease outcomes in adults but the regulators of placental shape are not known. 3) Non-human primate studies suggest that at about mid-gestation, the placenta becomes less plastic and less able to compensate for pathological stresses...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801895/prenatal-maternal-depression-is-associated-with-offspring-inflammation-at-25-years-a-prospective-longitudinal-cohort-study
#14
D T Plant, S Pawlby, D Sharp, P A Zunszain, C M Pariante
Animal studies and a handful of prospective human studies have demonstrated that young offspring exposed to maternal prenatal stress show abnormalities in immune parameters and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. No study has examined the effect of maternal prenatal depression on offspring inflammation and HPA axis activity in adulthood, nor the putative role of child maltreatment in inducing these abnormalities. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and awakening cortisol were measured at age 25 in 103 young-adult offspring of the South London Child Development Study (SLCDS), a prospective longitudinal birth cohort of mother-offspring dyads recruited in pregnancy in 1986...
November 1, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780972/developmental-origins-of-nafld-a-womb-with-a-clue
#15
REVIEW
Stephanie R Wesolowski, Karim C El Kasmi, Karen R Jonscher, Jacob E Friedman
Changes in the maternal environment leading to an altered intrauterine milieu can result in subtle insults to the fetus, promoting increased lifetime disease risk and/or disease acceleration in childhood and later in life. Particularly worrisome is that the prevalence of NAFLD is rapidly increasing among children and adults, and is being diagnosed at increasingly younger ages, pointing towards an early-life origin. A wealth of evidence, in humans and non-human primates, suggests that maternal nutrition affects the placenta and fetal tissues, leading to persistent changes in hepatic metabolism, mitochondrial function, the intestinal microbiota, liver macrophage activation and susceptibility to NASH postnatally...
February 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763252/myeloid-cell-origins-differentiation-and-clinical-implications
#16
Kipp Weiskopf, Peter J Schnorr, Wendy W Pang, Mark P Chao, Akanksha Chhabra, Jun Seita, Mingye Feng, Irving L Weissman
The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is a multipotent stem cell that resides in the bone marrow and has the ability to form all of the cells of the blood and immune system. Since its first purification in 1988, additional studies have refined the phenotype and functionality of HSCs and characterized all of their downstream progeny. The hematopoietic lineage is divided into two main branches: the myeloid and lymphoid arms. The myeloid arm is characterized by the common myeloid progenitor and all of its resulting cell types...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752049/tissue-resident-macrophages-how-to-humanize-our-knowledge
#17
Andreas Schlitzer, Joachim L Schultze
Tissue macrophages of fetal and adult origin have pivotal roles in tissue homeostasis and organ inflammation. Recently several functional and transcriptomic studies have revealed their unique module-like transcriptomic organization leading to enormous tissue-dependent functional plasticity. In this review, we discuss the development, tissue adaption and function of resident murine and human macrophages. Finally, we discuss our limited knowledge on human tissue macrophages and provide our opinion on their relevance during disease and for clinical application...
October 18, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734997/gamete-and-embryo-fetal-origins-of-adult-diseases
#18
Manuela Monti
By putting together the most advanced evidences supporting the 'gamete and embryo-fetal origins of adult diseases' the two editors, Prof. He-Feng Huang and Prof. Jian-Zhong Sheng (Hangzhou, People's Republic of China) did a great workk.....
August 10, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680963/prenatal-food-restriction-induces-poor-quality-articular-cartilage-in-female-rat-offspring-fed-a-post-weaning-high-fat-diet-and-its-intra-uterine-programming-mechanisms
#19
Yang Tan, Yunpeng Wu, Qubo Ni, Yu Deng, Jing Li, Linlong Wang, Lang Shen, Yansong Liu, Jacques Magdalou, Hui Wang, Liaobin Chen
Epidemiological data show that osteoarthritis (OA) is significantly associated with lower birth weight, and that OA may be a type of fetal-originated adult disease. The present study aimed to investigate the prenatal food-restriction (PFR) effect on the quality of articular cartilage in female offspring to explore the underlying mechanisms of fetal-originated OA. Maternal rats were fed a restricted diet from gestational day (GD) 11 to 20 to induce intra-uterine growth retardation. Female fetuses and female adult offspring fed a post-weaning high-fat diet were killed at GD20 and postnatal week 24, respectively...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666010/a-transient-developmental-hematopoietic-stem-cell-gives-rise-to-innate-like-b-and-t-cells
#20
Anna E Beaudin, Scott W Boyer, Jessica Perez-Cunningham, Gloria E Hernandez, S Christopher Derderian, Chethan Jujjavarapu, Eric Aaserude, Tippi MacKenzie, E Camilla Forsberg
The generation of distinct hematopoietic cell types, including tissue-resident immune cells, distinguishes fetal from adult hematopoiesis. However, the mechanisms underlying differential cell production to generate a layered immune system during hematopoietic development are unclear. Using an irreversible lineage-tracing model, we identify a definitive hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) that supports long-term multilineage reconstitution upon transplantation into adult recipients but does not persist into adulthood in situ...
December 1, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
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